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Definition: Limited strength, alertness, or vitality due to chronic or acute health problems
that adversely affects academic performance.
Health concerns include:
Heart conditions
Lead poisoning
Rheumatic fever
Sickle cell anemia
Tourette syndrome
Characteristics of OHI include: (too many)
Academic deficits
Frequently absent or tardy
Quiet in classes, but demanding in other ways
Behavioral/ Social:
Socially immature and/or hesitant with peers
Socially withdrawn (or socially ignored)
Overly dependent on parents/caretakers (learned helplessness)
Avoid being singled out/resist drawing attention to themselves
Tired chronic pain, irritability, loss of appetite, sleepiness, abdominal pain, vomiting,
Physical weaknesses pale, withdrawn appearance, weight loss/gain, sluggishness
Visible physical attributes walk different, curled hand, bent over, oxygen tank, walker
Smaller stature.
FYI: ADHD qualifies under OHI
Educational Approaches for OHI
Making adaptations and modifications as called for by the particular disorder,
varies by Health Impairment and IEP.
May include nurse/ medical techs to assist in classrooms, or a service animal.
Language Impairment/Communication Disorders
Definition: Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as
stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that
adversely affects a child's educational performance.

A speech or language disorder occurs when there is an impairment in the ability to

receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal and graphic
symbols systems.
Form of Language:
Phonology- sound production
Morphology- word structure
Syntax- sentence structure
Content of Language:
Semantics- meaning of words and sentences
Function of Language:
Pragmatics- social appropriateness
Characteristics of CD:
Problem following verbal directions
Difficulty with pre-academic skills
Phonics problems
Poor word attack skills
Difficulties with structural analysis
Problems learning new materials
Word substitutions
Deficits in reading comprehension
Inability to understand abstract concepts
Difficulty connecting old learning to new learning
Educational Approaches:
Provide a warm, safe, inviting environment
Pre-teach situations
Engage in conversations
PLAN for success:
* Ask questions you know the student has the answers to
* Teach student to ask for help/clarifications
* Schedule role-playing activities
* Encourage questions:
* Place items out of reach
* Make items difficult to find
* Situations that need assistance
Strategies for listening
Strategies for note taking
Specialized vocabulary

Appropriate behavior (pragmatics)

Self-regulatory skills
How to ask questions
Providing Effective Instructional Strategies:
Language Models
Practice in following directions
Opportunities to interact with peers/adults
Sufficient time to process information
Organizational tools
Wait-time (extended)
Positive Reinforcement
Visual Supports written & gestures