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List of Equipment


Thermal Overload
Relay (TOR)
Squirrel Cage
Induction Motor
Three Phase Circuit
Magnetic Contactor
Miniature Circuit
Breaker (MCB)
Digital Multimeter
Clamp On Digital
Digital Tachometer







DGM 5020
















Figure 1 - Before Turning On The START Button

Figure 2 - After Turning On The START Button


In this laboratory experiment, there were a few things that can be

discussed about. The first thing is when the motor was turned on, the
speed of the motor when it is running was recorded at 1498rpm. Although
in the specification of the motor describes that the motor can run at
1500rpm, during the experiment it didnt reach the specified number. This
is probably due to the loss of power of the motor. Inside a motor there are
two types of losses which are the copper losses and the iron losses.
Copper losses are made out of two things which are Armature copper loss,
Pca and Field copper loss, Pcf. However, iron losses occur due to these four
reasons which is friction, stray, windage and mechanical losses. All of
these losses that occurs is the motor causes it to lose some of its power
Next is regarding the results of the line voltage and phase voltage.
In the voltage supplied to a three-phase distribution system in Malaysia
was 415V.As for the voltage supplied to a single phase distribution system
is 240V. However, once again the results recorded during the experiment
do not show that value. The reason for the given results are probably
because of the actual voltage supplied was not exactly the given number
but somewhere between 5-6% tolerance of the given voltage stated by
Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). So from this tolerance level given, the
voltage supplied can be from as low as 394.25V and as high as 435.75V
for a three phase distribution system and for a single phase distribution
system is between 228V to 232V. So, looking at the results once again the
results were actually fall into the stated tolerance voltage.
Finally is referring to current flowing through the cables during the
laboratory experiment. From the results recorded it was stated all three
wires have 1.5A of current flowing through it. This means that if by any
chances that one of the wires was damaged and exposed, and touches an
unprotected body part of any personnel in the laboratory it will surely
causes a serious accident or even death. The minimal values of current
that can kill a person is as low as 0.1A. It is surely will kill a person if 1.5A
of current flows into their body. In order to avoid this from ever happening,

the students needed to make sure that every wire they use are in a safe
to operate function.

1. Explain the operation of Direct On Line (DOL) Starter base on
exercise 1 and exercise 2.
When the MCB were closed, the current will flow from the supply
and flows through the TOR. It then flow through the normally closed
STOP push button and stop as the normally open OPEN push button.
When the OPEN button was pushed, it will cause the current to flow
through the relay and the L1 indicator lamp. This will turn on the
indicator lamp. The current that flows through the Relay will be
energized and causes the contactor to close and allow the current
flowing from STOP button flows through it when the START button
were released. When connection is made with the main circuit, the all
the contactors will closes simultaneously when the Relay are charged.
The current will also flows through the TORs that are connected to the
motor and the moto will start running.
The current will continuously flow through the circuit until the
normally close STOP button were pushed and cut off all of the
currents from flowing through it. When the current stops from flowing,
the Relay becomes de-energized and the contactors will open once
more. The indicator lamp will also turns off due to the current not
flowing through it. If there are a case of current overloading or
overheating during the motor was running the sensor inside the TOR
will detect it and changes it switch to the trip circuit to protect all
devices from getting damaged. When the current starts flowing
through the TRIP circuit it will turns on the indictor lamp L2.
2. Explain the results of the experiments. Give the speed and the
voltage readings as measured in exercise 2.

Firstly, when the switch was turned on we use a digital tachometer

to measure the speed of the motor when it was rotating. The result
was 1498rpm.
Next, we use the digital multimeter to check the Line Voltage. The
voltage between the red wire and the yellow wire was 418.4V. The
voltage between the yellow wire and the blue wire was 420.6V. The
voltage between the blue wire and the red wire was 420.6V.
After that, using the same multimeter we obtain the results for the
Phase Voltage. The voltage between the red wire and the neutral wire
was 241.1V. The voltage between the yellow wire and the neutral wire
was 242.2V. The voltage between the blue wire and the neutral wire
was 243.6V.
Finally using the digital clamp-on ammeter, we checked the current
flow through each wire. The current that flows through the red wire,
yellow wire and blue wire were all 1.5A.

3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this DOL


Advantages of DOL Starter:

i. Most Economical and Cheapest Starter
Simple to establish, operate and maintain
Simple Control Circuitry
Easy to understand and troubleshoot.
v. It provides 100% torque at the time of starting.
Only one set of cable is required from starter to motor.
Motor is connected in delta at motor terminals

Disadvantages of DOL Starter:


It does not reduce the starting current of the motor.


High Starting Current: Very High Starting Current (Typically 6 to 8

times the FLC of the motor).


Mechanically Harsh: Thermal Stress on the motor, thereby

reducing its life.


Voltage Dip: There is a big voltage dip in the electrical installation

because of high in-rush current affecting other customers connected
to the same lines and therefore not suitable for higher size squirrel
cage motors


High starting Torque: Unnecessary high starting torque, even

when not required by the load, thereby increased mechanical stress
on the mechanical systems such as rotor shaft, bearings, gearbox,
coupling, chain drive, connected equipments etc. leading to
premature failure and plant downtimes


As conclusion my group and I can confidently say that this

experiment was a success as all of us manage to achieve all of the
objectives given for this laboratory experiment. The objectives were to
study about control circuit and main circuit for D.O.L Starter, to study the
operation of AC Motor starting with D.O.L Starter and to study about the
control equipment for Electrical Motor Control. All the objectives for this
laboratory experiment were achieved during the lab session or during
completing this laboratory report. All the knowledge gained from this
laboratory experiment will surely can be applied during occupational days.
This is because any person who works with electrical equipment have to
know and apply all the basics skills and knowledge that they gained from
this laboratory session to complete their works. As example, electricians
have to know the color codes of the wires they are working with because if
not, it will probably cause a huge damage to the equipment or devices
they are working with if the wiring were connected wrongly. In other case,
the work done by the unskilled worker may causes trouble to other worker
due to their wiring connections that did not follow the color codes. To sum

of the points above, the objectives were achieved and the skills and
knowledge gained will be useful for the future.

Comments and Suggestion

1. The spaces between the stations for each group could be separate a
little bit further to allow the students to move freely during lab sessions.
2. The components can be labelled to show its serial number, model and
brand to help the students collect the data at a much easier method.
3. The components that are unused during the particular lab session can
be put away to avoid from being improperly used by irresponsible

2) Senty, Steve. (2013). Motor control fundamentals. Australia: Delmar
Cengage Learning