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UNIT 2

BOILERS
Boilers are pressure vessels designed to heat water or produce steam, which can then be
used to provide space heating and/or service water heating to a building. In most commercial
building heating applications, the heating source in the boiler is a natural gas fired burner. Oil
fired burners and electric resistance heaters can be used as well. Steam is preferred over hot
water in some applications, including absorption cooling, kitchens, laundries, sterilizers, and
steam driven equipment.
Boilers have several strengths that have made them a common feature of buildings. They
have a long life, can achieve efficiencies up to 95% or greater provide an effective method of
heating a building, and in the case of steam systems, require little or no pumping energy.
However, fuel costs can be considerable, regular maintenance is required, and if maintenance is
delayed, repair can be costly.
Boilers are often one of the largest energy users in a building. For every year a boiler
system goes unattended, boiler costs can increase approximately 10% . Boiler operation and
maintenance is therefore a good place to start when looking for ways to reduce energy use and
save money.
How Boilers Work
Both gas and oil fired boilers use controlled combustion of the fuel to heat water. The key
boiler components involved in this process are the burner, combustion chamber, heat exchanger,
and controls. The burner mixes the fuel and oxygen together and, with the assistance of an
ignition device, provides a platform for combustion. This combustion takes place in the
combustion chamber, and the heat that it generates is transferred to the water through the heat
exchanger. Controls regulate the ignition, burner firing rate, fuel supply, air supply, exhaust draft,
water temperature, steam pressure, and boiler pressure.
Hot water produced by a boiler is pumped through pipes and delivered to equipment
throughout the building, which can include hot water coils in air handling units, service hot
water heating equipment, and terminal units. Steam boilers produce steam that flows through
pipes from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, unaided by an external energy source
such as a pump. Steam utilized for heating can be directly utilized by steam
using equipment or can provide heat through a heat exchanger that supplies hot water to the
equipment.

Task 1.

Combustion
Burner

common
supplies

applications
energy

1. In most commercial building heating


, the heating source in the boiler is a
natural gas fired burner.
2. Boilers have several strengths that have made them a
feature of buildings.
3. Boilers are often one of the largest
users in a building.
4. The key boiler components involved in this process are the
, combustion
chamber, heat exchanger, and controls.
5. This combustion takes place in the
chamber, and the heat that it generates is
transferred to the water through the heat exchanger.
6. using equipment or can provide heat through a heat exchanger that
hot
water to the equipment.

Task 2.
1. Boilers are pressure vessels designed
2. Boilers have several strengths that
have made them a
3. Boilers are often one of the largest
4. gas and oil fired boilers use
controlled combustion of
5. Steam boilers produce steam that
flows through pipes from areas of

a. high pressure to areas of low pressure


b. energy users in a building
c. to heat water or produce steam
d. common feature of buildings
e. the fuel to heat water

Task 3.
1. Boilers are pressure vessels designed to heat . . . . or produce steam
a. Water
c. fire
b. Oil
d. air
2. Steam boilers is preferred over hot water in some applications
a. Prefer
c. Preferred
b. Preference
d. likes
3. . . . . have several strengths that have made them a common feature of buildings
a. Steam turbine
c. Travo
b. Boilers
d.Generator
4. Boilers are often one of the. . . . .energy users in a building
a. Largest
c. Large
b. Smallest
d. small
5. Steam boilers produce steam that flows through pipes from areas of high pressure to areas
of low pressure
a. Create
c. Produced
b. Produce
d. Makes

Task 4 : re-arrange the sentences above into a correct sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Are boilers pressure vessels designed water or produce steam to heat


Can be used oil fired burners as well and electric resistance heaters
Several have boilers strengths have made that a common feature buildings of
A building energy users are often boilers in one of the largest
Controlled use combustion heat water to of the fuel both gas and oil fired boilers

UNIT 3

COAL HANDLING SYSTEM


Ducon supplies complete coal handling systems for coal fired boilers. Coal handling at
utilities requires specialized technology and equipment from unloading to crushing and dust
control to fire protection.
Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded by Tipplers in the coal handling plant. This coal is
transported up to the coal storage bunkers through conveyor belts. Coal is then transported to the
Crush house by conveyor belts where it is crushed to small pieces and light dust is separated. The
crushed coal is then transported to the bowl mill by coal feeders.
In the bowl mill, coal is grounded to a powder form. The mill consists of a round metallic
table on which coal particles fall. The crushed coal is then taken to the Boiler through coal pipes
with the help of hot and cold air mixture.
Ducon systems are custom engineered solutions, utilizing its advanced equipment
components, that provide low maintenance and operating costs.

Task 1.
Handling

metallic

maintenance

conveyor

separated

Bunkers

1. Ducon supplies complete coal


systems for coal fired boilers.
2. This coal is transported up to the coal storage
through conveyor
belts.
3. Coal is then transported to the Crush house by
belts where it is
crushed to small pieces and light dust is ______________
4. The mill consists of a round
table on which coal particles fall.
5. Ducon systems are custom engineered solutions, utilizing its advanced equipment
components, that provide low _____________ and operating costs.

Task 2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ducon supplies complete coal handling


Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded
Coal is then transported to the Crush
The crushed coal is then taken to the
Ducon systems are custom

a. by Tipplers in the coal handling plant


b. house by conveyor belts
c. Boiler through coal pipes
d. engineered solutions
e. systems for coal fired boilers

Task 3.
1. Ducon supplies complete . . . . for coal fired boilers
a. Boiler
c. Coal handling systems
b. Generator
d. Flue gas system
2. . . . . . at utilities requires specialized technology and equipment
a. Coal handling
c. Ash handling system
b. Flue gas system
d. Generator
3. . . . . . from the coal wagons is unloaded by Tipplers in the coal handling plant
a. Fuel
c. Coal
b. Oil
d. Gas
4. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall
a. Metallic
c. Iron
b. Metal
d. Copper
5. . . . . . systems are custom engineered solutions
a. Ducan
c. Coal
b. Travo
d. Gas

Task 4 : re-arrange the sentences above into correct sentences


1. Complete coal fired boilers supplies Ducon coal handling system for.

2. The coal wagons from is unloaded coal Tipplers by in the coal handling

plant.
3. Through this coal to the coal storage bunkers conveyor belts is transported
up.
4. Coal feeders by the crushed coal to the bowl mill is then transported.
5. Coal in the bowl mill to a powder form is grounded.

UNIT 4
ASH HANDLING SYSTEM
Ducon supplies both wet and dry type ash systems for power plants.
Wet ash system is can be utilized for Bottom Ash handling with water impounded hopper
and jet pumps for intermittent removal. Ash collected in economiser, primary air heater and

secondary air heater hoppers drops continuously through suitable vertical pipe connections to the
flushing connections provided beneath each of the hoppers. The flushing equipment serves to
mix the ash with the water and discharge the ash in the form of slurry. The Dry fly ash system
consists of a two stage ESP and duct hopper ash removal conveying system. The first stage
includes extraction of dry fly ash from under the various ESP / duct hoppers to intermediate
hoppers located near the ESPs. In the second stage, fly ash is conveyed from under these hoppers
to the storage silos located near the plant boundary.
A dilute phase system is provided for extraction of dry fly ash in the first stage, and for
second stage, a dense phase conveying system is provided for transportation of dry fly ash to the
main storage silos. Ducon provides complete key systems that are custom engineered based on
plant layout, capcities and site conditions
Task 1.
supplies

extraction

provided

equipment

storage

transportation

1. Ducon
both wet and dry type ash systems for power plants
2. The flushing
serves to mix the ash with the water and discharge the
ash in the form of slurry.
3. The first stage includes
of dry fly ash from under the various ESP /
duct hoppers to intermediate hoppers located near the ESP
4. stage, a dense phase conveying system is provided for
of dry fly ash
to the main storage silos.
5. A dilute phase system is
for extraction of dry fly ash in the first
stage, and for second stage, a dense phase conveying system is provided for
transportation of dry fly ash to the main
silos.
Task 2.
1. Ducon supplies both wet and dry type ash systems
2. Wet ash system is can be utilized for

Bottom Ash handling with


3. The Dry fly ash system consists of a two stage
4. A dilute phase system is provided for extraction of
dry fly ash in the first stage
5. Ducon provides complete key systems
that are custom engineered based on

a. water impounded hopper


b. dry fly ash in the first stage
c. for power plants.
d. ESP and duct hopper
e. plant layout, capcities and
site conditions

Task 3.

1. Ducon supplies both . . . . . type ash systems for power plants.


a. Wet
c. wet and dry

2.

3.

4.

5.

b. Dry
d. cold and warm
. . . . ash system is can be utilized for Bottom Ash handling with water impounded hopper
a. Wet
c. Cold
b. Dry
d. Warm
The Dry fly ash system consists of . . . . . ESP and duct hopper
a. Three stage
c. Four stage
b. Two stage
d. Mutual stage
A dilute phase system is provided for extraction of . . . . . in the first stage
a. Wet fly ash
c. Dry fly ash
b. Warm fly ash
d. Dry and wet fly ash
Ducon provides complete key systems that are custom engineered based on plant layout,
capacities and site conditions
a.

Task 4 : re-arrange the sentences above into a correct sentences


1. Supplies Ducon both wet and dry type ash system for power plants.
2. Serves the ash the flushing equipment with the water in the form of slurry and
discharge the ash to mix.
3. A two stages ESP - duct hopper ash removal conveying system consists of the dry fly
ash system and.

UNIT 5
FLUE GAS SYSTEM
Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel
for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.
Quite often, the flue gas refers to the combustion exhaust gas produced at power plants.
Its composition depends on what is being burned, but it will usually consist of mostly

nitrogen (typically more than two-thirds) derived from the combustion of air, carbon
dioxide (CO2), and water vapor as well as excess oxygen (also derived from the
combustion air). It further contains a small percentage of a number of pollutants, such as
particulate matter (like soot), carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides
Task 1.
Exiting

combustion

percentage

Monoxide

pollutants

burned

Flue gas is the gas (1)________ to the via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for
conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator. Quite
often, the flue gas refers to the (2) _______exhaust gas produced at power plants. Its
composition depends on what is being (3)_________, but it will usually consist of mostly
nitrogen (typically more than two-thirds) derived from the combustion of air, carbon
dioxide (CO2), and water vapor as well as excess oxygen (also derived from the
combustion air). It further contains a small (4)__________of a number of (5)_________ ,
such as particulate matter (like soot), carbon (6)_________, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur
oxides.
Task 2.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Flue gas is the gas exiting to the


the flue gas refers to the combustion
Flue gas composition depends on
Flue gas consist of mostly nitrogen,

5. Flue gas contains a small percentage of


pollutants, such as carbon monoxide,

a. what is being burned


b. nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides
c. carbon dioxide (CO2), and Water
d. exhaust gas produced at power
plants
e. atmosphere via a flue

UNIT 6
TRAVO
A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or
more circuits through electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction produces an
electromotive force within a conductor which is exposed to time varying magnetic fields.
Transformers are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power
applications.
A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in
the transformer core and a varying field impinging on the transformer's secondary winding. This
varying magnetic field at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or
voltage in the secondary winding due to electromagnetic induction. Making use of Faraday's
Law (discovered in 1831) in conjunction with high magnetic permeability core properties,
transformers can be designed to efficiently change AC voltages from one voltage level to another
within power networks.
Since the invention of the first constant potential transformer in 1885, transformers have
become essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of alternating current electrical
energy. A wide range of transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power
applications. Transformers range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic centimeter in
volume to units interconnecting the power grid weighing hundreds of tons.

Task 1.
Increase

varying

impinging

Utilization

Electrical

designed

distribution

power

1. A transformer is an electrical device that transfers


more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

energy between two or

2. Transformers are used to


power applications

or decrease the alternating voltages in electric

3. A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a


magnetic flux
in the transformer core and a varying field
on the transformer's secondary
winding.
4. Making use of Faraday's Law (discovered in 1831) in conjunction with high magnetic
permeability core properties, transformers can be
to efficiently change AC
voltages from one voltage level to another within
networks.
5. Since the invention of the first constant potential transformer in 1885, transformers have
become essential for the transmission,
, and
of alternating
current electrical energy
Task 2.
1. A transformer is an electrical device
that transfers electrical energy
2. Electromagnetic induction produces

a. between two or more circuits

3. Transformers are used to increase


or decrease the alternating voltages in
4. A varying current in the transformer's primary
winding creates a varying magnetic flux in
5. A wide range of transformer designs is
encountered in

c. an electromotive force within a


conductor
d. electronic and electric power
applications
e. the transformer core

b. electric power applications

Task 3.
1. A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more
circuits
a.
2. Electromagnetic induction produces an electromotive force within a conductor
3. Transformers are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power
applications
4. A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in
the transformer core
5. A wide range of transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power
applications

Task 4 : re-arrange the sentences above into correct sentences


1. Transfers a transformer that is an electrical device electrical energy through
between two or more circuits electromagnetic induction.
2. To increase or decrease are used transformers in electric power applications the
alternating voltages.

UNIT 7

GENERATOR
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to
electrical energy for use in an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may vary widely
from a hand crank to an internal combustion engine. Generators provide nearly all of the power
for electric power grids.The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is
done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can
be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.
These are several types of generator :
1.

Homopolar generator, is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically


conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static
magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the
rim (or ends of the cylinder), the electrical polarity depending on the direction of
rotation and the orientation of the field.

It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc.
The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration
models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have
multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage. [14] They are unusual in that they
can produce tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the
homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.
2. MHD generator
A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving
hot gases through a magnetic field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic
machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma
MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first
practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded
substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the
Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular
commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest
MHD plant rating in the world at that time. [15] MHD generators operated as a topping
cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined cycle gas turbines.
3. Induction generator
Some AC motors may be used as generators, turning mechanical energy into
electric current. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster

than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor
usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction
generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in
reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy
with relatively simple controls.
To operate, an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is
usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self-excited by
using phase correcting capacitors.
4. Linear electric generator
In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and
forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the
loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This
type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are
used in wave power schemes.
Task 1.
Electric

perpendicular

cylinder

asynchronous

Mechanical

hydrodynamic

rotating

induced

1. In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts


energy
to electrical energy for use in an external circuit.
2. Generators provide nearly all of the power for
power grids.
3. Homopolar generator, is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically
conductive disc or
rotating in a plane
to a uniform
static magnetic field.
4. A magneto
generator directly extracts electric power from
moving hot gases through a magnetic field, without the use of
electromagnetic
machinery
5. A regular AC
motor usually can be used as a generator, without any
internal modifications.
6. An alternating current is
in the loops of wire by induction each time
the magnet slides through

Task 2.

1. generator is a device that converts


mechanical energy to electrical energy
2. Homop olar generator, is a DC
electrical generator comprising
3. A magnetohydrodynamic generator
directly extracts electric power from
4. A regular AC asynchronous motor
usually can be used as a generator,
5. Larger linear electricity generators
are

a. without any internal modifications


b. used in wave power schemes.
c. for use in an external circuit
d. an electrically conductive disc
e. moving hot gases through a
magnetic field

Task 3.

1. . . . . is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy for use in an external
circuit
a. Travo
c. Coal handling system
b. Generator
d. Fuel gas system
2. A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving . . . .
through a magnetic field
a. Hot gases
c. Dry gases
b. Cool gases
d. Cold
3. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in . . . ..
a. 1965
c. 1967
b. 1966
d. 1967
4. AC motors may be used as . . . . , turning mechanical energy into electric current
a. Diesel
c. Generators
b. Machine
d. Boiler
5. Larger linear . . . . generators are used in wave power schemes.
a. Electricity
c. Power
b. Electric
d. Electrical

Task 4 : re-arrange the sentences above into correct sentences


1. Nearly generators all of the power provide for electric power grids
2. To generate electricity and frequently acceptable generators make many motors
can be mechanically driven.