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Q .What environment issues are at stake for India?

India is a resource rich country with

vast land and mineral resources? Why should INDIA bother about environmental
degradation? Comment?

Environment issues are at stake for INDIA

Recent years and months have seen increasing attention being paid to the issue of energy
security. There are a number of concerns and fears such as (though not limited to):

• Oil and other fossil fuel depletion (peak oil, etc)

• Reliance on foreign sources of energy
• Geopolitics (such as supporting dictatorships, rising terrorism, “stability” of nations that
supply energy)
• Energy needs of poorer countries, and demands from advancing developing countries
such as China and India
• Economic efficiency versus population growth debate
• Environmental issues, in particular climate change
• Renewable and other alternative energy sources

India is a resource rich country with Vast Land and Mineral Resources.

Amongst various mineral resources, the most important mineral resources in India are coal,
manganese ore, limonite, monazite, mica, iron ore and salt. There are also others, which are not
found in sufficient amount, like petroleum, chromate, gypsum, tin, mercury, copper, nickel, lead
and zinc.

India is predominantly rich in iron resources. Iron, along with coal, forms the foundation of the
machine age. According to an estimate, India possesses virtually world`s 1/4th of iron ore
resources. Its capital is rich not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. A further important
mineral required for ferrous industries is manganese, and India is pretty lucky even in this field.
It is used to manufacture steel alloys. The country`s coal reserves are substantial. But regrettably
the quality coal required for raising coke as an indispensable input in steel industry is somewhat
insufficient. However, the proximity of coal and iron deposits has recompensed this shortcoming
to some extent. Limestone, another input in steel industry, is also abundant and prevalent.

The total recoverable reserves of iron ore in India are about 9,602 million tones of hematite and
3,408 million tones of magnetite. Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Orissa, Goa, Maharashtra,
Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu are the principal Indian producers of iron
ore. Limestone is calcareous sedimentary rock composed of the mineral calcite, which upon
calcinations yields lime (CaO) for commercial use. In its broadest interpretation the term
includes any calcareous material such as marble, chalk, travertine, tufa, limeshell, coral and marl
each possessing different and distinct physical properties..

Why should INDIA bother about environmental Degradation? Comment?

The rapidly growing population and economic development are leading to the environmental
degradation in India through the uncontrolled growth of urbanization and industrialization,
expansion and massive intensification of agriculture, and the destruction of forests.

Major environmental issues are Forest and Agricultural land degradation, Resource depletion
(water, mineral, forest, sand, rocks etc.,), Environmental degradation, Public Health, Loss of
Biodiversity, Loss of resilience in ecosystems, Livelihood Security for the Poor[1].

It is estimated that the country’s population will increase to about 1.26 billion by the year 2016.
The projected population indicates that India will be the first most populous country in the world
and China will be ranking second in the year 2050[2]. India having 18% of the world's population
on 2.4% of world's total area has greatly increased the pressure on its natural resources. Water
shortages, soil exhaustion and erosion, deforestation, air and water pollution afflicts many areas.

One of the primary causes of environmental degradation in a country could be attributed to rapid
growth of population, which adversely affects the natural resources and environment. The
uprising population and the environmental deterioration face the challenge of sustainable
development. The existence or the absence of favorable natural resources can facilitate or retard
the process of socio-economic development. The three basic demographic factors of births
(natality),deaths (mortality) and human migration (migration) and immigration (population
moving into a country produces higher population) produce changes in population size,
composition, distribution and these changes raise a number of important questions of cause and

2) Define National Environment? Identify the components of environment.


The environment corresponding to the national territory, including the surrounding sea area
covered in an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) agreement and the airspace over the country.

The components of the environment are:

1. Abiotic components
2. Biotic components
3. Physical environment


It has three parts:

a) Atmosphere b) hydrosphere c) lithosphere d) biosphere


It has three parts:

a) producer b) consumer c) de-composer

3) List Governmental Policies related to environment protection in INDIA?

In the Constitution of India it is clearly stated that it is the duty of the state to ‘protect and
improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country’. It imposes a
duty on every citizen ‘to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes,
rivers, and wildlife’. Reference to the environment has also been made in the Directive Principles
of State Policy as well as the Fundamental Rights. The Department of Environment was
established in India in 1980 to ensure a healthy environment for the country. This later became
the Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1985.

The constitutional provisions are backed by a number of laws – acts, rules, and notifications. The
EPA (Environment Protection Act), 1986 came into force soon after the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and
is considered an umbrella legislation as it fills many gaps in the existing laws. Thereafter a large
number of laws came into existence as the problems began arising, for example, Handling and
Management of Hazardous Waste Rules in 1989.

Following is a list of the environmental legislations that have come into effect:
Forest and wildlife


1986 - The Environment (Protection) Act authorizes the central government to protect and
improve environmental quality, control and reduce pollution from all sources, and prohibit or
restrict the setting and /or operation of any industrial facility on environmental grounds.

1986 - The Environment (Protection) Rules lay down procedures for setting standards of
emission or discharge of environmental pollutants.

1989 - The objective of Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules is to control
the generation, collection, treatment, import, storage, and handling of hazardous waste.

1989 - The Manufacture, Storage, and Import of Hazardous Rules define the terms used in
this context, and sets up an authority to inspect, once a year, the industrial activity connected
with hazardous chemicals and isolated storage facilities.

1989 - The Manufacture, Use, Import, Export, and Storage of hazardous Micro-organisms/
Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells Rules were introduced with a view to protect the
environment, nature, and health, in connection with the application of gene technology and

1991 - The Public Liability Insurance Act and Rules and Amendment, 1992 was drawn up to
provide for public liability insurance for the purpose of providing immediate relief to the persons
affected by accident while handling any hazardous substance.
1995 - The National Environmental Tribunal Act has been created to award compensation for
damages to persons, property, and the environment arising from any activity involving hazardous

1997 - The National Environment Appellate Authority Act has been created to hear appeals
with respect to restrictions of areas in which classes of industries etc. are carried out or
prescribed subject to certain safeguards under the EPA.

1998 - The Biomedical waste (Management and Handling) Rules is a legal binding on the
health care institutions to streamline the process of proper handling of hospital waste such as
segregation, disposal, collection, and treatment.

1999 - The Environment (Sitting for Industrial Projects) Rules, 1999 lay down detailed
provisions relating to areas to be avoided for sitting of industries, precautionary measures to be
taken for site selecting as also the aspects of environmental protection which should have been
incorporated during the implementation of the industrial development projects.

2000 - The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 apply to every
municipal authority responsible for the collection, segregation, storage, transportation,
processing, and disposal of municipal solid wastes.

2000 - The Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules have been laid down
for the regulation of production and consumption of ozone depleting substances.

2001 - The Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001 rules shall apply to every
manufacturer, importer, re-conditioner, assembler, dealer, auctioneer, consumer, and bulk
consumer involved in the manufacture, processing, sale, purchase, and use of batteries or
components so as to regulate and ensure the environmentally safe disposal of used batteries.

2002 - The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) (Amendment) Rules lay down
such terms and conditions as are necessary to reduce noise pollution, permit use of loud speakers
or public address systems during night hours (between 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 midnight) on or
during any cultural or religious festive occasion

2002 - The Biological Diversity Act is an act to provide for the conservation of biological
diversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising
out of the use of biological resources and knowledge associated with it

Forest and wildlife

1927 - The Indian Forest Act and Amendment, 1984, is one of the many surviving colonial
statutes. It was enacted to ‘consolidate the law related to forest, the transit of forest produce, and
the duty livable on timber and other forest produce’.

1972 - The Wildlife Protection Act, Rules 1973 and Amendment 1991 provides for the
protection of birds and animals and for all matters that are connected to it whether it be their
habitat or the waterhole or the forests that sustain them.

1980 - The Forest (Conservation) Act and Rules, 1981, provides for the protection of and the
conservation of the forests.


1882 - The Easement Act allows private rights to use a resource that is, groundwater, by
viewing it as an attachment to the land. It also states that all surface water belongs to the state
and is a state property.

1897 - The Indian Fisheries Act establishes two sets of penal offences whereby the government
can sue any person who uses dynamite or other explosive substance in any way (whether coastal
or inland) with intent to catch or destroy any fish or poisonous fish in order to kill.

1956 - The River Boards Act enables the states to enroll the central government in setting up an
Advisory River Board to resolve issues in inter-state cooperation.

1970 - The Merchant Shipping Act aims to deal with waste arising from ships along the coastal
areas within a specified radius.

1974 - The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act establishes an institutional
structure for preventing and abating water pollution. It establishes standards for water quality and
effluent. Polluting industries must seek permission to discharge waste into effluent bodies.
The CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) was constituted under this act.

1977 - The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act provides for the levy and
collection of cess or fees on water consuming industries and local authorities.

1978 - The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Rules contains the standard
definitions and indicate the kind of and location of meters that every consumer of water is
required to affix.

1991 - The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification puts regulations on various activities,
including construction, are regulated. It gives some protection to the backwaters and estuaries.


1948 – The Factories Act and Amendment in 1987 was the first to express concern for the
working environment of the workers. The amendment of 1987 has sharpened its environmental
focus and expanded its application to hazardous processes.

1981 - The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act provides for the control and
abatement of air pollution. It entrusts the power of enforcing this act to the CPCB.

1982 - The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules defines the procedures of the
meetings of the Boards and the powers entrusted to them.

1982 - The Atomic Energy Act deals with the radioactive waste.

1987 - The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act empowers the central
and state pollution control boards to meet with grave emergencies of air pollution.

1988 - The Motor Vehicles Act states that all hazardous waste is to be properly packaged,
labeled, and transported.

4) Discuss in brief Wild Life Protection Law in INDIA?

The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 refers to a sweeping package of legislation enacted in 1972
by the Government of India. Before 1972, India only had five designated national parks. Among
other reforms, the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species; hunting or
harvesting these species was largely outlawed.

Definitions under the Act (Section 2)

• "Animal" includes amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles, and their young, and also
includes, in the cases of birds and reptiles, their eggs.
• "Animal article" means an article made from any captive or wild animal, other than
vermin, and includes an article or object in which the whole or any part of such animal
has been used and an article made there from.
• "Hunting" includes

(a) Capturing, killing, poisoning, snaring, or trapping any wild animal, and every attempt
to do so
(b) Driving any wild animal for any of the purposes specified in sub clause

(c) Injuring, destroying or taking any body part of any such animal, or in the case of wild
birds or reptiles, disturbing or damaging the eggs or nests of such birds or reptiles.

• "Taxidermy" means the curing, preparation or preservation of trophies.

• "Trophy" means the whole or any part of any captive or wild animal (other than vermin)
which has been kept or preserved by any means, whether artificial or natural. This

(a) Rugs, skins, and specimens of such animals mounted in whole or in part through a
process of taxidermy
(b) Antler, horn, rhinoceros horn, feather, nail, tooth, musk, eggs, and nests.

• "Uncured trophy" means the whole or any part of any captive animal (other than
vermin) which has not undergone a process of taxidermy. This includes a freshly killed
wild animal, ambergris, musk and other animal products.
• "Vermin" means any wild animal specified in Schedule V.
• "Wildlife" includes any animal, bees, butterflies, crustacean, fish and moths; and aquatic
or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat.

Hunting (Section 9)

This section describes what constitutes hunting and the intent to hunt.

Ownership (Section 40 & 42)

Regarding ownership issues and trade licenses.

Penalties (Section 51)

Penalties are prescribed in section 51. Enforcement can be performed by agencies such as the
Forest Department, the Police, the Customs and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).
Charge sheets can be filed directly by the Forest Department. Other enforcement agencies, often
due to the lack of technical expertise, hand over cases to the Forest Department.