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UMTS Network Systems

Overview

Day 1

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Introductory Session

Introductory Session

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Introductory Session

Introductions

Hello
I am Richard Edge, your course presenter

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Introductory Session

Contents and Session Aims


Introduction to AIRCOM

This session is a get to know you


session

It aims to answer the following


Target Students
Course Prerequisites
Aims of the Course

questions:


Who are AIRCOM and why are


they here training us?

Should I be here?

Why am I here?

It also aims to cover the logistics of


the course

Course Schedule and


Organisation

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Whens the lunch/coffee/cigarette


break?
What are we going to learn about
and when?

Introductory Session

Target Students

This course is aimed at:




Engineers and technical specialists familiar with telecommunications and


looking for an introduction to UMTS
Technically orientated managers looking to understand the technology
behind UMTS

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Introductory Session

Prerequisites

An understanding of the basic concepts of:




Telecommunications

Cellular communications

Wireless communications

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Introductory Session

Aims of Course

To teach the student about




The background to UMTS

The basics of CDMA cellular technology

The elements and architecture of a UMTS network

Techniques specific to UMTS

The UMTS air interface

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Introductory Session

Course Schedule
9:3010:15

10:4511:30
12:0012:45
13:4514:30
15:0015:45
16:1517:00
17:0017:30

Day 1

Day 2

Introductory Session
1 st/2 nd Generation
Cellular Systems
Overview

UTRAN

Drinks Break

Drinks Break

3 Generation Drivers
and Standards

UTRAN (cont.)

Drinks Break

Drinks Break

CDMA Mobile
Technology Overview

UMTS Core Network

Lunch

Lunch

UMTS Architecture
Overview

UMTS Fixed Network


Interfaces

Drinks Break

Drinks Break

UTRA Air Interface

UMTS Mobiles

Drinks Break

Drinks Break

UTRA Air Interface


(cont.)

UMTS Services

Day 1 Roundup

Course Roundup

rd

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Introductory Session

How the Sessions are Organised

Locator Slide


To remind you where you are when you wake up!

Theres also a section title at the top left of the slide...

Contents and Aims


New Material for the Session
Questions (please ask anytime!)


Questions to You (to make sure youve been listening and understand)

Questions to Me (if you dont understand or want to know more)

Section Summary

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Introductory Session

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UTRA Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

10

Introductory Session

Questions

Any questions?

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

11

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UTRA Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

12

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems


Overview

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

13

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

Contents and Session Aims


What is Cellular?

This is a background session to set


the scene for UMTS, essentially a
cellular history lesson

Firstly we will examine what we


mean by cellular communications

Cellular Generations
1st Generation
2nd Generation
2.5G

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

We will look at different


generations of cellular and briefly
at major standards

This will allow us to see why 3G


has moved forward in the way that
it has

14

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

What is Cellular?
There are three major types of

Cellular

terrestrial mobile communications


technologies

Cellular


Users are provided wide area


mobility from multiple base stations
with handover permitted

MSC

Cordless Communication


Paging
Control
Centre

Users are provided limited mobility


from a dedicated base station

Paging

Cordless

Brief numeric, alphanumeric or voice


messages are sent to the subscriber
typically using simulcasting

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

PSTN

Paging

15

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

Cellular Generations
Data
rate
technology in terms of generations

People talk about mobile




1st Generation or 1G

2nd Generation or 2G

2.5G

3rd Generation or 3G

But what do these mean?

Progress of data rates with


time and generation

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

time

16

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

1st Generation
1976+, though really the
technology of the 1980s

Analogue modulation
Frequency Division Multiple
Access

Voice traffic only


No inter-network roaming possible
Insecure air interface
The 1st Generation of
Cellular Technology makes
use of analog modulation
techniques such as FM

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

1st Generation Standards

AMPS (Analogue Mobile Telephony System)




TACS (Total Access Communications System)




Scandinavian Standard in 450MHz and 900MHz bands

C-450


UK originated Standard based on AMPS in 900MHz band

NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony System)




North American Standard in cellular band (800MHz)

German Standard in 450MHz band

JTACS (Japanese Total Access Communications System)




Japanese Standard in 900MHz band

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

1st Generation Planning


Macrocellular


High sites for coverage driven


planning
Antennas above roof height

Frequency planning required


Large cell size


Order 30km

Hard handover


Only ever connected to a single


cell

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Cellular Networks are commonly


represented as hexagon grids.
The above diagram shows how
different frequencies are used in
different cells in a cellular network
(different frequencies represented
by different colours).
For networks with more cells than
frequencies these must be
planned

19

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

2nd Generation
1990s
Digital modulation
Variety of Multiple Access
strategies

Voice and low rate circuit switched


data

Same technology roaming


Secure air interface
The 2nd Generation of
Cellular Technology is the
first to use digital modulation

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

20

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

GSM
First networks in 1992
European developed standard, but
with worldwide subscriber base

GSM phones from 1999/2000

Different frequency bands




GSM450, GSM900, GSM1800,


GSM1900

Largest 2nd Generation subscriber


base

Frequency/Time Division Multiple


Access

Open/Standardised Interfaces

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

GSM Planning

Macrocells and microcells




Capacity driven planning

Frequency planning required


Optional parameters requiring
planning


Hierarchical Cell Structures

Frequency Hopping

Discontinuous Transmission

Power Control

Simple subscriber/traffic analysis




GSM networks use microcells


to provide additional capacity.
As with 1st generation
networks frequency planning
is required

Capacity limited by number of


TRXs

Hard Handover

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

22

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

D-AMPS/PDC
TDMA (D-AMPS)


PDC

North American TDMA/FDMA


based standard based upon AMPS
Predominantly used in North and
South America

ANSI-41 Core Network

Planning Similar to GSM

Japanese TDMA/FDMA based


standard

Predominantly used in Asia

Planning Similar to GSM

TDMA and PDC phones from


1999/2000

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

23

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

cdmaOne
First networks in 1996
Derived from Qualcomm IS-95 air

cdmaOne
1999/2000

phones

from

interface

Largely American subscriber base


with some Asian networks

Code Division Multiple Access




This is in many ways the closest


2nd generation standard to many
of the 3rd generation standards

ANSI-41 core network


Chip rate of 1.2288Mcps

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

24

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

cdmaOne Planning
Macrocells and microcells
Single Frequency


multiple frequencies for hotspots

Soft Handover (multiple


connections between mobile and
network)

Code Planning
Capacity Interference Limited

Unlike GSM there is no


frequency
planning
required for cdmaOne
However soft handover
means that there are
zones where there are
two/three connections to
the network

1 Connection
2 Connections
3 Connections

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

25

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

Worldwide Mobile Communications in the


1990s

Year

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

01
20

99
19

97
19

95
19

93
19

19

91

Million Subscribers

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

Second Generation
D-AMPS
Second Generation
PDC
Second Generation
GSM
Second Generation
cdmaOne
First Generation Analogue

Source:Wideband CDMA for 3rd


Generation Mobile Communications, Artech
House, 1998

26

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

Worldwide Mobile Subscribers


Million Subscribers

2000
European Union
Countries
North America

1500
1000

Asia Pacific
500
Rest of World

0
1995

2000

Year

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

2005

2010
Source:Third Generation Mobile
Communications, Artech House, 2000

27

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

2.5G
Now...
Digital modulation
Voice and intermediate rate
circuit/packet switched data

Same technology roaming


Secure air interface
Based upon existing dominant

2.5G technologies are


based upon existing 2G
technologies
but
are
focussed at increasing
the maximum data rates
that the technologies can
deliver

standards such as GSM or


cdmaOne

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

28

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

HSCSD
High Speed Circuit Switched Data
Enhancement to the GSM standard
Utilises:


Multiple channel coding schemes


(4.8kbps, 9.6kbps, 14.4kbps per
timeslot)
Multiple timeslots

Circuit Switched Data rates to


57.6kbps (4 slots with 14.4kbps
channel coding per slot)
Nokia Cardphone

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

29

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

GPRS
General Packet Radio Service
Enhancement to the GSM standard
Utlilises


Multiple Channel Coding Schemes


(9.05kbps, 13.4kbps, 15.6kbps,
21.4kbps)

Multiple Timeslots

Packet Switching

Packet Switched Data typically to


rates of 115kbps


Ericsson R520
(available 1Q 2001)

Sagem MC850

Alcatel One Touch 700


(available October 2000)

Theoretically 171.2kbps for 8


timeslots

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

30

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

IS--95B
IS
Enhancement to cdmaOne
standard

Utilises


High rate coding scheme

Combined code channels

packet switching

Packet Switched Data to rates of


114kbps

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Qualcomm PDQ
Smartphone

31

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

2G and 2.5G Standards Compared


Multiple
Access
Modulation
Carrier
Spacing
Frame Length
Slots per
Frame
Frequency
Band
Max Data
Rate
Frequency
Hopping
Handover

GSM

TDMA

cdmaOne

PDC

TDMA

TDMA

CDMA

TDMA

GMSK

/4-DQPSK

QPSK

/4-DQPSK

200kHz

30kHz

1.25MHz

25kHz

4.615ms

40ms

20ms

20ms

3/6

450/ 900/ 1800/


1900
HSCSD:
115kbps
GPRS: 115
172kbps
Yes

800/ 1900

800/ 1900

850/ 1500

IS-136+:
43.2kbps

28.8kbps

No

IS-95A:
14.4kbps
IS-95B:
115.2kbps
N/A

Hard

Hard

Soft

Hard

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

No

32

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

Questions

What defines a 1st generation technology and a 2nd generation


technology?

What is are the main differences between GSM and cdmaOne?


How do 2.5G standards relate to 2G standards?

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

33

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview

Session Summary

Weve now set the scene - we can start talking about where
people want to go from here now

The generations of cellular technology may be summarised:

1G is analog voice

2G is digital voice

2.5G is digital intermediate rate data

You also know its the coffee break nowand to come back at
10:45!

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

34

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UTRA Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

35

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

36

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Introduction and Session Aims


IMT-2000
IMT-2000 spectrum

This session is focussed at looking


at how and why the 3rd Generation
standards have evolved

Firstly we will look at the goals and


Drivers from Europe,
America and Asia
Regulatory bodies
Standardisation bodies
Industry associations

the focus of the ITU in IMT-2000

We will then examine what drivers


from the regions and the various
industry bodies who have an
interest in 3rd Generation

Finally we will round up by looking


at the IMT-2000 cellular standards

3rd Generation Cellular


Standards

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

37

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

IMT--2000
IMT

IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications 2000) is a


program focussed at providing a single global standard for
mobile communications

Development started in 1985 as FPLMTS




Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System

Proposed by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

38

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Who does IMTIMT-2000 serve?

Integrating all the following users




fixed

cellular

cordless

professional mobile radio

paging

satellite

specialised (aeroplane, etc)


IMT-2000 terminal
and services

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

39

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Aspects of IMTIMT-2000 Networks

Different aspects of
IMT-2000 access
networks

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

What are the IMTIMT-2000 goals?

Data Rates


Local area - 2 Mbps


 In office, stationary

Limited mobility - 384 kbps


 Urban pedestrian

Full mobility - 144 kbps


 Rural in car

High spectrum efficiency compared to existing systems


High flexibility to introduce new services

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

41

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

IMT--2000 Spectrum
IMT
1885

ITU

1880 1900 1920

GSM 1800

DECT

Japan

1980

2110

2010 2025
UMTS

SAT

Unpaired

2110

Korea

2110

USA

PCS

1910

UL

1850

1930

PCS

1980

2110

1950

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

2200

UMTS
SAT

IMT-2000 2170

IMT-2000 2170

Land Mobile DL
1990

2200

2110

Reserved

DL

1900

2170

Land Mobile DL

Land Mobile UL
1850

UMTS

2200

MSS

Paired DL

IMT-2000 1980

IMT-2000

2170

Land Mobile

Land Mobile UL
1920

IMT-2000

IMT-2000
Land Mobile

UMTS

Paired UL

Unpaired

1920

1800

UMTS

UMTS

2010 2025

MSS

Land Mobile

(WARC-92)

Europe

1980

IMT-2000

2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

42

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

IMT--2000 Future Spectrum


IMT
ITU

806

(WRC-2000)

1710

960

New IMT-2000

New IMT-2000

890 960

Europe

2500

1710

GSM 900

2690

New IMT-2000
1880

GSM 1800

Japan

Korea

USA

PCS

Cellular

600

1000

1400

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

1800

2200

2400

3000

43

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

IMT--2000 Candidate Technology Evaluation


IMT

The ITU issued a request for proposals for the Radio


Transmission Technology (RTT) for IMT-2000 to be submitted
in June 1998

Following this a self evaluation of the RTT submitted was


required by September 1998

Candidate technologies were then evaluated according to their


compliance with the goals for IMT-2000

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

44

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

IMT--2000 Candidate Harmonisation


IMT

A number of technologies were submitted many of which had


distinct similarities

Of course operators were generally keen on a single standard


to allow global roaming and economies of scale


Operators Harmonisation Group (OHG)

This led to two partnership projects being set up:




3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)


 Dealing with UMTS FDD/TDD and related candidate technologies a

3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2)


 Dealing with cdma2000 and related candidate technologies

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

45

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

3G Standardization Environment

Key Players and


their relationships
in the IMT-2000
standardisation
environment

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

IMT--2000 Selected Air Interface Standards


IMT
Five candidate technologies were
eventually selected:


IMT-DS (Direct Spread)


UMTS FDD

IMT-MC (Multi Carrier)


cdma2000

IMT-TC (Time Code)


UMTS TDD

IMT-SC (Single Carrier)


EDGE/UWC-136

IMT-FT (Frequency Time)


DECT

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

47

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

IMT--2000 Selected Core Network Standards


IMT
Three candidate technologies will
be used:


GSM MAP Evolved

ANSI-41 Evolved

IP Based
Driven forward by 3GIP

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

48

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

IMT--2000 Standards
IMT

The
IMT-2000
family of standards

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

49

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

North America Drivers

North America and US influenced countries




Dominated by 2G TDMA/cdmaOne

USA has slower growth because recipient party pays

Mess of digital systems at 800 and 1900 MHz

US manufacturers have pushed forward growing cdmaOne standard

PCS spectrum overlaps IMT-2000 band

Major Drivers
 Spectrum sharing and compatibility with 2G standard
 National/International roaming

EDGE (TDMA operators)


cdma2000 (cdmaOne operators)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

50

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

European Drivers

Europe and European Influenced Countries




GSM provided 2nd generation roaming across Europe

Plenty of Capacity at 1800MHz

IMT2000 band compatible with current spectrum usage leads to no


spectrum sharing issues
EU enforced standardisation means UMTS for at least 1 operator per
country
Major Drivers
 Higher Data Rates
 Continued global dominance of European based standard

UMTS

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

51

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Japan/Korean Drivers

Japan and Korea





PHS and PDC left Japanese manufacturers isolated


IMT2000 band compatible with current spectrum usage leads to no
spectrum sharing issues

Political US relationships...

Major Drivers
 Capacity for Voice
 Global market for cellular infrastructure

UMTS

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

52

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Cordless Drivers

You cant get 2Mbps out of the cellular standards


Hence a requirement for cordless style standards


UMTS TDD Mode

DECT

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

53

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Industry Bodies - Radio Regulatory


ITU (International)


http://www.itu.int/

ERO (EU)


European Radio Office

http://www.ero.dk/

RA (UK)


Radiocommunications Agency

http://www.radio.gov.uk/

FCC (USA)


Federal Communications
Commission
http://www.fcc.gov/

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

54

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Industry Bodies - Trade Associations


UMTS Forum


http://www.umts-forum.org/

GSM Association


http://www.gsmworld.com/index1.html

CDMA Development Group




http://www.cdg.org/

GSM Suppliers Association




http://www.gsacom.com/home.html

Universal Wireless Communications Consortium




http://www.uwcc.org/

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

55

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Industry Bodies - Standards Groups


3GPP


UMTS FDD and TDD

Standards Development

http://www.3gpp.org/

3GPP2


cdma2000

Standards Development

http://www.3gpp2.org/

3GIP


IP Core Network

http://www.3gip.org/

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

56

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Partnership Projects and Standards


Organisations

Relationships
between
standards
organisations

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

the

57

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

3GPP Member Organisations


ETSI (EU)


http://www.etsi.org/

ARIB (Japan)


http://www.arib.or.jp/arib/english/

T1 (USA)


http://www.t1.org/

TTC (Japan)


http://www.ttc.or.jp/e/

TTA (Korea)


http://www.tta.or.kr/

CWTS (China)


http://www.cwts.org/cwts/index_eng.html

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

3GPP2 Member Organisations


TIA (USA)


http://www.tiaonline.org/

TTA (Korea)


http://www.tta.or.kr/

TTC (Japan)


http://www.ttc.or.jp/e/

ARIB (Japan)


http://www.arib.or.jp/arib/english/

CWTS (China)


http://www.cwts.org/cwts/index_eng.html

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

59

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

The Road to 3G

HSCSD

Possible Evolution
Paths to 3G

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

60

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

3rd Generation Cellular

2002+
Digital modulation
Voice and high rate data
Multi technology roaming
Secure air interface
Standards


UMTS FDD (CDMA based)

UMTS TDD (CDMA based)

cdma2000 (CDMA based)

EDGE (TDMA based)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

UMTS FDD

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Frequency


Division Duplexing Mode

Built onto enhanced GSM core network

Utilises:


QPSK modulation

Multiple channel coding and bearer rates

Variable spreading factors and multi-code transmission

CDMA

FDD

Asynchronous operation

Data up to rates of 2Mbps (typically less)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

UMTS Compared to GSM


Carrier Spacing
Frequency Reuse
Factor
Power Control
Frequency
Quality Control
Frequency Diversity
Packet Data
Transmit Diversity

UMTS

GSM

5MHz

200kHz

1-18

1500Hz

2Hz or lower

Radio Resource
Management
algorithms
5MHz bandwidth gives
multipath diversity with
rake reciever
Load Based Packet
Scheduling

Frequency Planning
and Network
Optimisation
Frequency Hopping

Supported to improve
downlink capacity

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Time Slot based


Scheduling with GPRS
Not supported by
standard but may be
applied

63

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

UMTS Compared to IS95


Carrier Spacing
Chip Rate
Power Control
Frequency
Base Station
Synchronisation
Frequency Inter
Frequency
Handovers
Packet Data
Radio Resource
Management
Transmit Diversity

UMTS

IS-95

5MHz

1.25MHz

3.84Mcps
1500Hz

1.2288Mcps
Uplink 800Hz,
Downlink slow

No

Yes via GPS

Yes, slotted mode


measurements

Possible but
measurements not
specified

Load Based Packet


Scheduling
Efficient algorithms to
provide QoS
Supported to improve
downlink capacity

Packets as short CS
calls
Not required for
speech only
Not supported by
standard

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3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

UMTS TDD

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Frequency


Division Duplexing Mode

Built onto enhanced GSM core network

Utilises:


QPSK modulation

Multiple channel coding and bearer rates

CDMA

TDD

Asynchronous operation

Data up to rates of 2Mbps (typically less)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

cdma2000

Built onto ANSI-41 core network


Utilises:


QPSK modulation

Multiple channel coding and bearer rates

CDMA

FDD

Multiple carriers on the downlink to allow compatibility with cdmaOne

Synchronous operation

Data up to rates of 2Mbps (typically less)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

EDGE

Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution




Sometimes called E-GPRS (Enhanced GPRS)

Enhancement to the GSM and TDMA standards


Utlilises:


8PSK Modulation

Possible 1.6MHz carrier under IS-136

8 Channel Coding Schemes

Multiple Timeslots

TDMA

Data up to rates of 384kbps (typically less)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

3rd Generation Standards Compared


Multiple
Access
Modulation
Carrier
Spacing
Frame Length
Slots per
Frame
Multiple
Rates
Chip Rate
Max Data
Rate
Synchronous
Handover

UMTS FDD

UMTS TDD

cdma2000

EDGE

CDMA

CDMA

CDMA

TDMA

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK

8-PSK

5MHz (200kHz
raster)

5MHz (200kHz
raster)

3.75MHz
UL/1.25MHz DL

200kHz/1.6MHz

10ms

10ms

20ms

4.615ms

15

15

16

8/16/64

Multi-code,
Variable
Spreading Factor
3.84Mcps

Multi-code, multislot

Multiple channel
code, multi-slot

3.84Mcps

Supplemental
Channels, Multiple
spreading Factors
3.6868Mcps

2Mbps

2Mbps

2Mbps

521/4750kbps

No

No

Yes

Yes

Soft

Hard

Soft

Hard

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

68

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

4th Generation...
Probably 2005-2007
Broadband data rates in excess of
1Mbps

Probably 10MHz+ carriers


...

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

69

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Questions

What is IMT-2000 and why is it related to UMTS?


Why do the American operators want cdma2000 and EDGE?
What is the major difference between UMTS and cdma2000?

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

70

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards

Session Summary

In this session we have discussed:




The key goals of IMT-2000

The drivers for 3rd generation from the regions

The key industry bodies and their relationships

The four cellular air interfaces for IMT-2000 are:


 UMTS FDD
 UMTS TDD
 cdma2000
 EDGE

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

71

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

72

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

73

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Contents and Session Aims


Multiple Access
Strategies Explained
CDMA for Cellular

This session aims to cover some


basic CDMA terminology and
technology before dealing with
UMTS in more detail

Key generic areas of CDMA


Codes in CDMA

include


Soft Handover

The Pilot Channel

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

How CDMA works and relates to


other multiple access schemes
How the codes are generated and
what their properties are

Soft Handover - what and how?

The pilot channel

74

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Multiple Access Explained

Imagine you are in a cocktail party


Now imagine you are trying to talk to somebody


(rather than fighting your way to the punch bowl again...)

If you are trying to listen to somebody you need to be able to


pick out their speech from everybody elses speech.

Everybody is using the same medium to talk - the air in the


room

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

75

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Clich Explanation

This is Multiple Access




Many conversations/channels share the same medium

There are a number of different Multiple Access (MA) strategies


you can try:


Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

76

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

TDMA at the Cocktail Party


We divide time into a number of timeslots
Everybody takes turns to speak within a timeslot
Once everybody has spoken we go back to the start of the list and begin
again - this is a frame

This ensures that two conversations/channels dont get confused.


Conversation/Channel separation is provided in time.
Bit of problem if people speak late or early


We may need guard periods between timeslots when nobody speaks

People need to know when to speak




We need signaling to tell people their timeslot

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

77

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

TDMA
Timeslot Period

Frame Period

frequency

Available
Frequency
Band

time
User 1

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

User 1

Idealised
(with no
periods)

TDMA
guard

78

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

FDMA at the cocktail party


We divide the available frequency band into a number of frequency
channels of the same channel bandwidth

People speak continuously at different frequencies/pitches, and use


earpieces to filter out frequencies theyre not interested in.

Again this ensures that two conversations dont get confused.


Conversation/Channel separation provided in frequency.
Bit of a problem as the filters arent perfect


We may need guard bands between timeslots when nobody speaks

People need to know the frequency of the conversation




We need signaling to tell people their frequency channel

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

79

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

FDMA
frequency

Frame Period (we may still need


frames/timeslots for signaling)
Channel
Bandwidth

User 1
Idealised
(with no
bands)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

FDMA
guard

time

80

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

FDMA/TDMA

Of course we could also be clever and use a combination of


TDMA and FDMAlike in GSM

This is commonly referred to as simply TDMA

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

81

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

FDMA/TDMA
frequency
User 1

Timeslot Period

Frame Period

Channel
Bandwidth

User 1

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Idealised
FDMA/TDMA (with
no guard bands or
guard periods)

time

82

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

FH at the Cocktail Party


If we combine TDMA and FDMA and change the frequency of transmission
every frame we have Frequency Hopping

Frequency hopping improves the received quality of the


conversation/channel


We can tolerate the occasional collision of words:


 The next word is almost certain to get through
 We can always repeat the odd word
 This generally wont have too great an impact on the meaning of the conversation.

This is sometimes called frequency hopping spread spectrum




This is because the total bandwidth used for an individual conversation is greater
than that strictly required for the individual conversation
 i.e. the spectrum has been spread

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

83

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum


frequency
User 1

Timeslot Period

Frame Period

Channel
Bandwidth

User 1

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

time
Idealised FH (with
no guard bands or
guard periods)

84

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Frequency Hopping Power Spectrum


Power

Frequency
Power

Power

Frequency

Frequency

Time Averaged
Power Spectrum

Power

Frequency

Instantaneous Power
Spectra for a channel in
different frames

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

85

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA at the Cocktail Party


We can actually be more sophisticated than this.
If we know the characteristics of the persons voice we can tune in to what
they are saying and ignore what other people are saying

This is like CDMA where the conversation/channel separation is provided by


the characteristics of the channel


i.e. the code

The only problem is that we do pick up some of the noise from the other
channels


This limits the number of conversations/channels that can use the same medium

We also need to know the code in use




We need signaling to tell people their code

This is sometimes called Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

86

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA - Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

frequency

code

Frame Period (we may still need


frames/timeslots for signaling)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

time

87

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA Power Spectrum


Power

Frequency

Power Spectrum for the


equivalent unspread
channel

Power

Frequency

Power Spectrum post


spreading

Note: The power spectrum


has been spread similar to
that in a Frequency
Hopping system

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

88

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

More CDMA permutations

Of course we can start getting a bit clever again...

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

89

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA/FDMA
frequency
code
CDMA/FDMA can be used to
provide multiple carriers OR to
provide
Frequency
Division
Duplexing - separate carriers for
the uplink and downlink

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Idealised
CDMA/FDMA (with
no guard bands)

time

90

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA/TDMA/FDMA...
frequency
code

Combining CDMA and TDMA can be used


to provide Time Division Duplexing

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Idealised
CDMA/TDMA/FDMA
(with no guard bands or
guard periods)

time

91

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA Spreading
Essentially Spreading involves changing the symbol rate on the air interface

Spreading

Despreading

Channel
f

P
Tx Bit Stream

f
f

Air Interface
Chip Stream

Identical
codes
Code Chip Stream

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Rx Bit Stream

P
f

Code Chip Stream

92

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Spreading and Despreading


1

Tx Bit Stream

Spreading

-1

Code Chip Stream


Air Interface
Chip Stream

Despreading

Code Chip Stream


Rx Bit Stream

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

93

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Spreading

If the Bit Rate is Rb , the Chip Rate is Rc, the energy per bit Eb
and the energy per chip Ec then

Rc
Eb = Ec .
Rb

We say the Processing Gain Gp is equal to:

Rc
Gp =
Rb

Commonly the processing gain is refereed to as the Spreading


Factor

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

94

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Spreading in noise
Rx Signal (= Tx Signal + Noise)

Tx Signal
P

P
f

Channel
f

Signal

Spreading Code

Spreading Code

Signal

P
f

Wideband Noise/Interference

The gain due to despreading of the signal over wideband noise


is the Processing Gain

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

95

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Types of Codes
There are essentially two types of
codes used in CDMA networks:


S2
C1 C2 C3

Channelization Codes
Are used to separate channels from
a single cell or terminal

Scrambling Codes
Are used to separate cells and
terminals from each other rather than
purely channels

S1
C1 C2 C3

Channelization/scrambling codes
may be either:


short (the length of the code is equal


to the bit period)
long (longer than the bit period)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

S3
C1 C2 C3

96

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Channelisation Codes

Channelisation codes are orthogonal and hence provide


channel separation

Number of codes available is dependant on length of code


Channelisation codes require an equal number of 1s and -1s
to be orthogonal


This is because we use integration to demodulate the signal

Typically channelisation codes are used to spread the signal

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

97

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Channelisation Code Generation

Channelisation codes can be generated from a Hadamard


matrix

A Hadamard matrix is:

x x
x x

 Where x is a Hadamard matrix of the previous level

For example 4 chip codes are:




1,1,1,1

1,-1,1,-1

1,1,-1,-1

1,-1,-1,1

Note: These two codes


correlate if they are time
shifted

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

98

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Scrambling Code Generation

Scrambling codes are not orthogonal since they are not


synchronised to each other at the receiver

Hence it is sufficient to use Pseudo Random sequences


Maximal length sequences used which repeat after 2R-1 bits


R relates to the number of taps in the generator

Scrambles signals but can also be used to de-scramble


Sequences with different offsets do not correlate


Generate a single code

Plan the offsets on the downlink

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

99

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Scrambling Code Generation

1
Start value
for offset

R-1

OUTPUT

1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0

1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0

0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1

1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0

1
0
1
0
1
1
0

Output sequence: 1,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,...

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

100

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Orthogonality of Codes

If orthogonal mean interference power over a bit is zero


Bit Period

Chip Period

Code
X
Signal Chip Stream

-1
0.25

-0.25
0.25

Bit Value
-0.25

Sum = 0

Sum = 1

Sum = -0.75

=> Orthogonal

=> Correlated

=> Non-orthogonal

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

101

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Multi Channel Spreading and Despreading


P

P
f

P
f

c1
P
f

P
f

P
f

c2

c1

Channel

P
f

c2

Since the channels are orthogonal the resulting interference is


entirely removed by the despreading process

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

102

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA in Cellular

Cellular systems have multipath channels with a delay spread




Channels from the same transmitter are no longer perfectly orthogonal


 Channelisation codes are no longer perfectly synchronised

Downlink Channels on the same cell interfere with each other


 Worst case scenario can be treated as white noise
 Otherwise use orthogonality factor (0.6 in urban macrocells typically)
The orthogonality factor gives the percentage of interference that is rejected

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

103

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA in Cellular
P

P
f

P
f

c1

P
f

c2

c1

Channel

P
f

P
f

P
f

c2

Multipath reduces the orthogonality of the downlink codes


resulting in interference between channels from the same
transmitter

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

104

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Visualising the Processing Gain


W/Hz

W/Hz

W/Hz
Ec

Before
Spreading

After
Spreading

Io

With Noise

f
W/Hz

W/Hz
After
Despreading/
Correlation

Post
Filtering
Orthog = 0

Eb

dBW/Hz
Eb

Io

Eb/Io
Io

Signal
Intra-cell Noise
Inter-cell Noise

W/Hz
Post
Filtering
Orthog > 0

dBW/Hz

Eb

Eb

No

No
f

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Eb/No

105

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

A Channelised Transmitter
Channel 1
Bit Stream
Channel 2
Bit Stream
Channel 3
Bit Stream

Pulse Shaping and


Modulation

c1

c2

s1
Typically in a multi-channel transmitter,
channels are first spread and channelised
using the channelisation codes, then
combined and finally scrambled together.

c3

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

106

Rake Receiver
Phase Rotator

Correlator

Code Generators
(S & C)

Channel
Estimator

Matched Filter

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Delay Equalizer

A typical rake receiver with three


fingers

107

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA Noise Calculation

We can say (approximately - assuming perfect power control)


that the Eb/No is equal to:

1 1 1
Eb
1
=
Gp

N 0 (M 1) 1 + v 1 O

Where:
 Eb/No = Energy per bit/Noise Power Spectral Density
 M = Number of Users or Codes Used
 = Loading
 Gp = Processing Gain
 = Sectorisation Gain
 v = Voice activity factor
 O = Orthogonality Factor

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

108

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA Capacity Calculations

The Eb/No required to achieve a desired BER can be


calculated/simulated for a given receiver

We can say that the number of users we can support is


approximately equal to:

1 1 1
1
M
Gp

1
+

v
1

O
Eb

N 0 required

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

109

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

CDMA Capacity Calculations

However imperfect power control will create a 30-40%


reduction in the capacity on the uplink (downlink channels will
always be ideally weighted)

Soft handover also impacts the capacity on the downlink approximately 20-40% of channels will be required for
handover

Control and pilot channels require transmitted power - again


impacting the downlink

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

110

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Pilot Channels

Pilot channels are effectively channels used in the cell selection


process

Pilots contain no baseband information - no bits


The pilot is spread by the all 1s channelisation code


Effectively the pilot is the scrambling code

The required pilot channel SNR is referred to in Ec/Io


Pilots allow channel estimation
In cdmaOne the pilot also gives the mobile phase and timing
information

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

111

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Soft Handover

Soft Handover is where more then one cell is in communication


with a terminal

The cells in communication with the terminal are known as an


active set

The best serving cell is known as the primary cell - and


maintains the primary channel

Other channels are known as handover channels


The gain associated with soft handover is known as the
macrodiversity gain


This occurs due to the uncorrelated nature of fast fading between cells
and the variation in slow fading between cells
Note that slow fading is not entirely uncorrelated for different cells

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

112

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Hard Handover (e.g.GSM)


Direction of Travel
RX_Lev

Cell A
A hard
handover
between cells A and B
in GSM
In a hard handover
the mobile is only
ever instantaneously
connected to a single
cell

Cell B

Handover
Hysteresis
Margin

Distance

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

113

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Soft Handover (e.g. in cdmaOne)


Active set = 1
Pilot Ec/Io

Cell A

A
soft
handover
between cells A and B
in cdmaOne

=2

=1

Cell A and Cell B

Cell B

Direction of Travel

In a soft handover the


mobile is may be
instantaneously
connected to more
than one cell

T_ADD
T_DROP

Distance
Add Time Delay

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Drop Time Delay

114

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Why Soft Handover is Good in CDMA


Why Soft Handover is Good in
CDMA


Near- Far Effect


Hard Handover can lead to
relatively deep penetration into
neighbour cells
Soft Handover allows Power
Control from all Active Set cells

Why Soft Handover is Bad in


CDMA



Transmission overhead in backhaul


Addition of downlink noise into the
system
Engineering of handover zones
becomes highly critical

Probability of dropped call reduced


due to link redundancy in handover
region
Macrodiversity gain

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

115

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

More CDMA at the Cocktail Party - Cell


Breathing
The more noise the louder you have to speak to hear the same amount of
the conversation

You get to a point where you cant shout louder and cant have a
conversation where you are standing

The further away you are the louder you have to speak
If it is noisy only people standing close together can have a conversation
As it gets noisy the area that can be covered by a conversation decreases
If it is quiet then the area covered by a conversation can be larger
This is called Cell Breathing and occurs in mobile CDMA networks

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

116

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Cell Breathing

An increase in traffic results in an increase in interference

This effect may occur over the course of 24 hours due to


changes in traffic demand over peak hours

Mobiles at the extremities of cells may be pushed out of the


cells effective coverage area due to decreased Eb/No

6am

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Noon

9pm

117

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

More CDMA at the Cocktail Party - Power


Control

If somebody is shouting louder than they need it increases the


overall noise

This is inefficient as it reduces the number of people who can


have conversations

We need to speak as quietly as possible to maximise the


number of simultaneous

This is called Power Control in mobile networks


In CDMA networks it is very important that this power control is
efficient


We use fast power control with a much quicker feedback loop than in
TDMA networks

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

118

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Power Control
MSb

The Near-Far Effect


If equal transmit powers


Received Signal Strength from


MSa higher than required

Path Loss = 150dB


MSa

MSb Eb/No significantly reduced

Near mobiles dominate on the


uplink

Path Loss = 100dB

Cell area and capacity reduced


Solution


Fast power control

Large Dynamic Range for mobiles

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

119

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Questions

What is a pilot channel?


How does soft handover differ from hard handover?
How do scrambling codes differ from channelisation codes?
Why is multipath fading bad from a CDMA point of view?

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

120

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview

Session Summary

In this session we have discussed:




CDMA and how it relates to and differs from other multiple access
technologies

What channelisation and scrambling codes are and what they do

What we mean by a pilot channel

How soft handover works

What we mean by cell breathing and the near far effect

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

121

UMTS Architecture Overview

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

122

UMTS Architecture Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

123

UMTS Architecture Overview

Contents and Session Aims


UMTS High Level
Architecture
The Core Network
UTRAN
The User Equipment

This session aims to give the user


a first pass overview of the
architecture behind UMTS


Interfaces

To explain the major architectural


blocks
To give a first introduction to the
major network elements and
interfaces
To talk about how UMTS will
interface with existing technologies

Access Modes
UMTS and GSM

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

124

UMTS Architecture Overview

Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN)


A Public Land Mobile Network is
defined in the specifications as
consisting of:


One or more switches with a


common numbering plan and
routing plan
Switches act as the interfaces to
external networks

A PLMN can be regarded as an

Core Network

PLMN

independent telecommunications
entity

The PLMN can be separated into




Core Network

Access Network

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Access Network

125

UMTS Architecture Overview

UMTS High Level Architecture

To this definition, the 3GPP standards add an additional


architectural block, the User Equipment

UMTS
Terrestrial Radio
Access Network

User Equipment

UE

Core Network

UTRAN
UU

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

CN
IU

126

UMTS Architecture Overview

Major Network Elements in UMTS


Node B
Radio Network
Controller

UMTS SIM

USIM

Node B

Iu-cs

RNC

Mobile
Switching
Centre

Gateway
MSC

GMSC

MSC/VLR

IUb

CU

IUr

PLMN,
PSTN,
ISDN

Home Location
Register

HLR

Mobile
Equipment

IUb

ME
Node B

Radio Network
Controller

Node B

UE
UU

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

RNC

UTRAN

Serving GSN

Iu-ps

SGSN

Gateway
GSN

GGSN

Internet,
X25
Packet
Network

CN

IU

127

UMTS Architecture Overview

Functions of the CN

Switching

Mobility Management

Service Provision
Transmission of user traffic between UTRAN(s) and/or fixed
network
Operations, Administration and Maintenance

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

128

UMTS Architecture Overview

Major Elements of the Core Network

Home Location Register (HLR)




Visitor Location Registor (VLR)




Switch for Circuit Switched Services

Gateway MSC
Serving GPRS Support Node


The database holding a copy of a visiting users profile

Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)




The database storing the master copy of a users profile

Router for Packet Switched Services

Gateway GSN

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

129

UMTS Architecture Overview

General Core Network Architecture


Other MSC

F
UTRAN

Iu-cs

Mobile
Switching
Centre

F
Gateway
MSC

GMSC

MSC/VLR

D
Gs

External Circuit
Switched
Networks

D
Home Location
Register

HLR

Gr
UTRAN

Iu-ps

Gc
Gateway
GSN

Serving GSN

SGSN

Gn

IU

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Gn

GGSN

CN

G
i
External
Packet
Switched
Networks

Other SGSN

130

UMTS Architecture Overview

Functions of UTRAN

Provision of Radio Coverage


System access control
Security and privacy
Handover
Radio resource management and control

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

131

UMTS Architecture Overview

Elements of UTRAN

Radio Network Controller




Owns and controls radio resources in its domain

Service Access point for all services that UTRAN provides the CN

Node B


Acts as the radio basestation

Converts the data flow bewteen the Iub and Uu interfaces

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

132

UMTS Architecture Overview

General UTRAN Architecture


Node B

Iu-cs

Radio Network
Controller

Node B

CN (MSC)

RNC

IUb
IUr

UE

IUb
Node B
Radio Network
Controller

Node B

UU

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

CN (SGSN)

RNC

Iu-ps

UTRAN
IU

133

UMTS Architecture Overview

Functions of the UE

Display and user interface


To hold the authentication algorithms and keys
User end termination of the air interface
Application platform

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

134

UMTS Architecture Overview

Elements of the UE

Mobile Equipment


UMTS Subscriber Identity Module




The radio terminal used for radio communication over the Uu interface
The smartcard that holds the subscriber identity, authentication and
encryption keys etc

Additionally one can define a Terminal Equipment item that sits


with the UE


This carries the application specific user interface

The interface for the TE may be provided by Bluetooth for example

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

135

UMTS Architecture Overview

General UE Architecture
UMTS SIM

USIM

CU
Terminal
Equipment

Mobile
Equipment

UTRAN

ME

UE
UU

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

136

UMTS Architecture Overview

Major Interfaces in UMTS


There are four major new

CN

interfaces defined in UMTS




Iu
The interface between UTRAN
and the CN

RNC

Iur
The Interface between different
RNCs

Iub
The interface between the Node B
and the RNC

Iu

Uu
The air interface

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Iur

RNC

Iub
NodeB
Uu
UE

137

UMTS Architecture Overview

Iu - the Core Network to UTRAN Interface


There are two parts to the Iu

CN

interface


Iu-ps connecting UTRAN to the PS


Domain of the CN
Iu-cs connecting UTRAN to the CS
Domain of the CN

Iu
RNC

Iur

RNC

No radio resource signalling travels


over this interface


The Iu interface divides the UMTS


network into the radio specific
UTRAN and the CN responsible for
switching routing and service
provision

Iub
NodeB
Uu
UE

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

138

UMTS Architecture Overview

Iur - the InterInter-RNC Interface


The Iur interface allows soft

handovers between Node-Bs


attached to different RNCs

It is an open interface to allow the


use of RNCs from different
manufacturers

Its functions may be summarised:





Support of basic inter-RNC mobility


Support of Dedicated and Common
Channel Traffic
Support of Global Resource
Management

CN
Iu
RNC

Iur

RNC

Iub
NodeB
Uu
UE

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

139

UMTS Architecture Overview

Iub - the RNC to NodeNode-B Interface


The Iub is an open interface to allow
the support of different
manufacturers supplying RNCs
and Node-Bs

CN
Iu

Its major functions are:




Carries dedicated and common


channel traffic between the RNC
and the Node-B
Supports the control of the Node-B
by the RNC

RNC

Iur

RNC

Iub
NodeB
Uu
UE

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

140

UMTS Architecture Overview

Uu - the Air Interface


Clearly the Uu must be

standardised to allow multiple UE


vendors to be supported by a
network

The major functions of the Uu are


to:

Carry dedicated and common


channel traffic across the air
interface
Provide signaling and control traffic
to the mobile from the RNC and the
Node-B

CN
Iu
RNC

Iur

RNC

Iub
NodeB
Uu
UE

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

141

UMTS Architecture Overview

UMTS Interface Implementation


SGSN
Node B
ATM/IP Network

MSC

RNC
Iub
Iu_cs
Iu_ps
Iur

Node B
Node B

Node B

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

RNC

142

UMTS Architecture Overview

Access Modes for UMTS

In this course we will concentrate on the UMTS FDD air


interface

However we should bear in mind that a number of other access


modes are possible


Within UTRAN

Outside of UTRAN

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

143

UMTS Architecture Overview

Access Modes within UTRAN

There are four access modes that will be contained within


release 2000 of the 3GPP standards


Direct Sequence FDD Mode 1


 Based on UMTS FDD air interface

Multi Carrier FDD Mode 2


 Based on cdma2000

TDD Mode
 Based on UMTS TDD air interface

ODMA
 Supplement to UMTS TDD mode based on using a second UE as a radio
relay

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

144

UMTS Architecture Overview

Additional Access Networks


The UMTS CN is being
designed with the possibility of
interfacing to additional Access
Networks other than UTRAN


UMTS-CN

GRAN - GSM/GPRS Radio


Access Network
ERAN - EDGE Radio Access
Network
BRAN - Broadband Radio
Access Network (HIPERLAN2)
DECT - Digital Enhanced
Cordless Telephony

ERAN

DECT
BRAN

GRAN

UTRAN

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

145

UMTS Architecture Overview

UMTS and GSM


Internet

PSTN

Core
Network

GGSN

GMSC

SGSN

MSC

Iu-ps
Iu-cs

A
Iu-ps

UTRAN

Iu-cs

Gb

BSS/

Iur

RNC

RNC

Iub

Node-B

Iub

Node-B

BSC

Iub

Node-B
A-bis

RBS

RBS

RBS

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

RBS

BTS

146

UMTS Architecture Overview

Architecture of a UMTS bearer service


TE

UE

UTRAN

CN

CN

edge node

gateway

TE

End-to-End Service
TE/UE Local
Bearer Service

External Bearer
Service

UMTS Bearer Service


Radio Access Bearer Service

Radio Bearer
Service

Iu Bearer Service

UTRA FDD/TDD
Service

Physical Bearer
Service

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

CN Bearer
Service

Backbone Network
Service

147

UMTS Protocol Stratums


In order to provide separation

Access Stratum
Encompasses layers 1 and 2
of the OSI 7 layer model, and
the lower part of layer 3

Non-access Stratum
Encompasses layers 4 to 7
of the OSI 7 layer model, and
the upper part of layer 3

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Access Stratum

Non Access Stratum

between radio access


functionality and service quality
provision, protocols in UMTS
are divided into two stratums

L7

L7

L6

L6

L5

L5

L4

L4

L3 upper

L3 upper

L3 lower

L3 lower

L3 lower

L3 lower

L2

L2

L2

L2

L1

L1

L1

L1

UE

Uu

UTRAN

Iu

CN

148

UMTS Architecture Overview

Questions

What elements does UTRAN consist of?


What is the primary role of UTRAN?
What additional access modes does UMTS support over UMTS
FDD?

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

149

UMTS Architecture Overview

Session Summary

In this session we have discussed the major elements of the


UMTS network architecture

In following sessions we will discuss each element in more


detail

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

150

UMTS Air Interface

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

151

UMTS Air Interface

UMTS Air Interface

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

152

UMTS Air Interface

Contents and Session Aims


Overview of the Air
Interface

This session aims to explain the


protocols and operation of the air
interface


Logical, Transport and


Physical Channels on the
Air Interface




To give an overview of the UMTS


specific operation of the air
interface
To look at the protocol structure
To investigate the Frame and
Timeslot structure of the major air
interface channels

The Dedicated Channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

153

UMTS Air Interface

Role of the Air Interface

To provide a number of bearer or physical channels to support


data transfer over the radio path.

To provide control channels to manage the cell

To provide signalling channels for call set up, etc.

To provide a number of traffic channels at an acceptable error


performance and at various rates
In providing all of this to also:


Ensure an efficient use of the available spectrum

Minimise interference to other cells and services

Minimise the use of power, particularly from the mobile

Provide synchronisation

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

154

UMTS Air Interface

UMTS FDD Air Interface Overview


Parameter

Value

Multiple Access Scheme


Duplexing Method
Chip Rate
Carrier Spacing
Carrier Spacing Raster
Frame Length
Slots per Frame
Inter-cell Synchronisation
Spreading factor
User Data Rate

Direct Sequence CDMA


FDD
3.84 Mcps
5 MHz
200 kHz
10 ms
15
None
Variable (4-512)
8->384 kbps

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

155

UMTS Air Interface

Multiple Access Scheme

UMTS FDD mode makes use of a CDMA style multiple access


scheme

In the case of UMTS this is commonly referred to as Wideband


CDMA

However there are elements of FDMA and TDMA in UMTS




Common channels for paging and packet access share codes between
UEs (TDMA)
Multiple carriers are used per operator (FDMA)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

156

UMTS Air Interface

Duplexing Method
UMTS FDD mode makes use of

190MHz

Frequency Division Duplexing




The Uplink and Downlink


Channels are carried on
separate carriers

In the case of UMTS in Europe:




UMTS Uplink

UMTS Downlink

The Uplink band is between 1.92


and 1.98GHz
The Downlink band is between
2.11 and 2.17GHz
The Uplink/Downlink Separation
is 190MHz

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

157

UMTS Air Interface

Chip Rate
The chiprate used in UMTS FDD mode is 3.84Mcps
This leads to a carrier bandwidth of approximately 5MHz
This chip rate was chosen because it:



Could be generated simply from existing GSM clock rates


Provided a similar bandwidth to cdma2000 to allow shared use of filters etc in
UEs

Note: Initially UMTS was specified as having a chip rate of 4.096Mcps.




You may find some old texts and papers referring to this chip rate

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

158

UMTS Air Interface

Carrier Spacing and Carrier Spacing Raster


5MHz

The nominal carrier spacing for


UMTS is 5Hz

This was chosen to comply with


the American market, where
spectrum has been awarded in
5MHz blocks

It is possible to move the centre


frequency of the carrier on a
200kHz raster


200kHz

We can have carrier spacings


between 4.4MHz and 5.6MHz
This may be set within the license
conditions, or to the operators
discretion

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

159

UMTS Air Interface

Adjacent Channel Interference

Adjacent channel interference may have a significant impact on


UMTS capacity

Required attenuation (by standards)




adjacent carrier 33dB

2nd adjacent carrier 43dB

Since only have 2 or 3 carriers typically at least one adjacent


carrier will be transmitted by a third party

This can partially be negated by a flexible carrier spacing based


upon a 200kHz raster

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

160

UMTS Air Interface

Adjacent Operator Interference

Interference
50dB path loss

Signal
150dB path loss

Close Interferring
Microcell

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Distant Serving
Macrocell

161

UMTS Air Interface

UK Spectrum Allocations Example


D

14.6MHz

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

10MHz

Orange
BT Cellnet

One2One

0.3MHz

Vodafone

Hutchison

20MHz

14.8MHz

10MHz

10MHz

0.3MHz

162

UMTS Air Interface

Radio Frame Structure

Radio Frame Period = Tf = 10ms


Frames are used for channel format control
15 slots, #0#14
Slots are use for power control
38400 chips
Tslot = 2560 chips = 666.7s
Tslot = 666.7s = 2560 chips
#0

#1

#2

#i

#14

Tf = 10ms = 38400 chips

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

163

UMTS Air Interface

Superframe Structure

72 Radio Frames make a Superframe


Superframes are used for
Superframe Period Tsf = 720ms

#0

#1

#2

#i

#71

Tsf = 720ms

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

164

UMTS Air Interface

Inter Cell Synchronisation

Cells in a UMTS network are not synchronised in time with


each other.

This removes the need for tight synchronisation between the


base stations

There is no need for GPS receivers at sites




This makes implementation of picocells and their integration with the


network more simple as satellite LoS is not required

3rd Party Transmission requirement are less stringent

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

165

UMTS Air Interface

Spreading Factor and User Data Rates

UMTS has been designed to provide flexibility to allow the user


to use multiple services, some of which we cannot foresee at
the moment

Rather than having a fixed bit rate and spreading factor, each
of the channels on the user interface has a range of bit rates
that can be used

This makes the channels more complicated than for GSMbut


certainly more flexible

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

166

UMTS Air Interface

Air Interface Access Stratum


L3

Radio Resource
Control RRC

Control Plane
Signalling

User Plane
Information

Radio Link
Control RLC

L2

Logical Channels
Medium Access
Control MAC
Transport
Channels

L1

Physcial Layer

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Physical
Channels

167

UMTS Air Interface

Radio Resource Control Layer


The RRC layer forms the lower
part of the OSI layer 3

It is responsible for:


Bearer Control

Monitoring

Power Control

Measurement Reporting

Paging

Broadcast Control

L3

Radio Resource
Control RRC

Control Plane
Signalling

User Plane
Information

Radio Link
Control RLC

L2

Logical Channels
Medium Access
Control MAC
Transport
Channels

L1

Physical Layer
Physical
Channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

168

UMTS Air Interface

Radio Resource Control Layer Functional


Entities

The RRC layer resides at the RNC serving a cell or UE


The RRC Layer can be split into 3 functional entities


Dedicated Control Functional Entity (DCFE)


 One per UE in connection
 All functions and signalling specific to a single UE

Paging and Notification control Functional Entity (PNFE)


 One per cell
 Paging of idle mode UEs

Broadcast Control Functional Entities (BCFE)


 One per cell
 Broadcasting of system information

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

169

UMTS Air Interface

Radio Link Control Layer


The RLC layer forms the upper
part of the OSI layer 2

It is responsible for:



L3

Radio Resource
Control RRC

Control Plane
Signalling

User Plane
Information

Logical Link Control


Acknowledged and
unacknowledged data transfer

Radio Link
Control RLC

L2

Logical Channels
Medium Access
Control MAC
Transport
Channels

L1

Physical Layer

Physical
Channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

170

UMTS Air Interface

The Medium Access Control Layer


The MAC Layer forms the lower
part of layer 2

It is responsible for:


Random Access

Physical Link Control

Ciphering

L3

Radio Resource
Control RRC

Control Plane
Signalling

User Plane
Information

Radio Link
Control RLC

L2

Logical Channels
Medium Access
Control MAC

Multiplexing and Channel Mapping


to the Physical Layer

Transport
Channels

L1

Physical Layer
Physical
Channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

171

UMTS Air Interface

Medium Access Control Layer Functional


Entities

MAC-b


MAC-c/sh


Handles the broadcast channel (BCH) and is located in the Node-B in


the UTRAN

Handles the common and shared channels and is located in the RNC in
the UTRAN

MAC-d


Handles the dedicated channels and is located in the RNC

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

172

UMTS Air Interface

The Physical Layer


The Physical Layer forms layer 1 of
the OSI protocol stack

It is responsible for:


L3

Carrying traffic and signalling


across the air interface

Radio Resource
Control RRC

Control Plane
Signalling

User Plane
Information

Radio Link
Control RLC

L2

Logical Channels
Medium Access
Control MAC
Transport
Channels

L1

Physical Layer
Physical
Channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

173

UMTS Air Interface

Protocol Termination in the Access Stratum


RRC

RRC

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC

Physical
User Equipment

Physical
Node-B

Radio Network Controller

Note: Some Layer 2 functionality regarding the broadcast


functionality resides in the Node-B

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

174

UMTS Air Interface

UMTS Channel Types and Functions

There are three types of channel across the air interface and
access stratum that we are interested in:


Logical Channels
 Between the RLC and MAC layers

Transport Channels
 Between the MAC and Physical layers

Physical Channels
 Between Physical Layers at the Node-B and UE

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

175

UMTS Air Interface

Major Logical Channels in UMTS

Control Channels


BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

PCCH

Paging Control Channel

CCCH

Common Control Channel

DCCH

Dedicated Control Channel

Traffic Channels


DTCH

Dedicated Traffic Channel

CTCH

Common Traffic Channel

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

176

UMTS Air Interface

Logical Control Channels

The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) is a downlink channel


for broadcasting system control information

The Paging Control Channel (PCH) is a downlink channel that


transfers paging information

The Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) is a point-to-point bidirectional channel transmitting control information between a
specific UE and the UTRAN

The Common Control Channel (CCCH) is a bi-directional


channel transmitting control information between Ues and the
UTRAN

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

177

UMTS Air Interface

Logical Traffic Channels

The Dedicated Traffic Channel (DCH) is a point-to-point


channel dedicated to a single UE for the transfer of user
information

The Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) is a point-to-point


unidirectional channel for transfer of user information to a group
of UEs

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

178

UMTS Air Interface

Major Transport Channels for UMTS

Common Control Channels




BCH

Broadcast Channel

FACH

Forward Access Channel

PCH

Paging Channel

RACH

Random Access Channel

CPCH

Common Packet Channel

Dedicated Channels


DCH

Dedicated Channel

DSCH

Downlink Shared Channel

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

179

UMTS Air Interface

Common Transport Channels


The Broadcast Channel (BCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to
broadcast system and cell-specific information. The BCH is always
transmitted over the entire cell with a low fixed bit rate.

The Paging Channel (PCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to carry


control information to a UE when the system does not know the location cell
of the UE

The Forward Access Channel (FACH) is a downlink channel that is used to


carry control information to a UE when the system knows the location cell of
the UE. May also carry short user packets.

The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink control channel from the
UE. May also carry short user packets

The Common Packet Channel (CPCH) is a contention based uplink channel


used for transmission of bursty data traffic.

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

180

UMTS Air Interface

Dedicated Transport Channels

The Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) is a downlink channel


shared by several UEs carrying dedicated control or traffic data.

The Dedicated Channel (DCH) is a channel dedicated to one


UE used in uplink or downlink.

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

181

UMTS Air Interface

Major Physical Channels for UMTS

Common Control Channels




P-CCPCH

Primary Common Control Physical Channels (DL)

S-CCPCH

Secondary Common Control Physical Channels (DL)

P-SCH

Primary Synchronisation Channel (DL)

S-SCH

Secondary Synchronisation Channel (DL)

CPICH

Common Pilot Channel (DL)

AICH

Acquisition Indicator Channel (DL)

PICH

Paging Indicator Channel (DL)

PDSCH

Physical Downlink Shared Channel (DL)

PRACH

Physical Random Access Channel (UL)

PCPCH

Physical Common Packet Channel (UL)

AP-AICH

Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (DL)

CD/CA-ICH

Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel (DL)

Dedicated Channels


DPDCH

Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DL & UL)

DPCCH

Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DL & UL)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

182

UMTS Air Interface

Common Physical Channels for UMTS

The Primary-Common Control Physical Channels (P-CCPCH) is used to carry broadcast


information across the cell

The Secondary-Common Control Physical Channels (S-CCPCH) is used to carry paging and
forward access information across the cell

The Primary-Synchronisation Channel (P-SCH) is used during cell search to provide timing
information

The Secondary-Synchronisation Channel (S-SCH) is used during cell search to provide


information about the primary scrambling codes in use in the cell

The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) is used to provide the phase reference for downlink
channels

The Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) is used to acknowledge random access requests

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

183

UMTS Air Interface

Common Physical Channels for UMTS

The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) is used to enable discontinuous reception of the SCPCCH

The Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) carries traffic to one or more users

The Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) is an extension to the RACH used to carry
larger packets of information on the uplink

The Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (AP-AICH) is used to indicate the reception
of a preamble signature for Random Access

The Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel (CD/CA-ICH) is used to indicate


collisions and channel assignment for packet access

The Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is a contention based channel used for
random access and to transmit small packets of information

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

184

UMTS Air Interface

Dedicated Channels

The Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) is used to


carry user information

The Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) is used to


carry dedicated control information regarding its associated
DCHs

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

185

UMTS Air Interface

Mapping of Logical Channels to Transport


Channels
Logical
Channels
BCCH

BCH

PCCH

PCH

CPCH

DCCH

RACH

CCCH

CTCH

FACH

DTCH

DSCH

DCH

Transport
Channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

186

UMTS Air Interface

Mapping of Transport Channels to Physical


Channels
Transport Channels
RACH

CPCH

BCH

PCH

Spreading/Modulation

FACH

DSCH

DCH
PICH
AICH
DPCCH
DPDCH
PDSCH
S-CCPCH
P-CCPCH
PCPCH
PRACH
P-SCH
S-SCH
CPICH
AP-AICH
CD/CA-ICH

Physical Channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

187

UMTS Air Interface

UMTS Air Interface Physical Resource


Code Plane


Separation within cell by channelisation codes

Separation between cell by scrambling codes

Frequency Plane


Multiple carriers available

Phase Plane


IQ multiplexing of channels on the UL

Space Plane


Adaptive antennas

Time Plane


Time multiplexing of channels on DL

Packet Access

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

188

UMTS Air Interface

Codes in UMTS

We have already talked generically about codes in CDMA


In UMTS there are a number of different types of codes:


Synchronisation Codes
 To enable an unsynchronised UE to synchronise and determine the
scrambling code of the cell

Channelisation Codes
 To spread and channelise within a UE or cell

Scrambling Codes
 To separate the UEs and cells

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

189

UMTS Air Interface

Synchronisation Codes

These are short duration Gold codes


They have length 256 chips and duration 66.67s
There is 1 primary code and 64 secondary codes

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

190

UMTS Air Interface

Channelisation Codes

These are short Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF)


codes

They are of length 4 - 512 chips long (1.04-133.34s)


dependant upon the channel and required bit rate of the service

There are between 4 and 512 codes dependant on the length


of the code

OVSF codes are orthogonal

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

191

UMTS Air Interface

OVSF codes

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Codes can be defined by


a code tree:
Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)
Cch,2,0 = (1,1)
Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)
Cch,1,0 = (1)
Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
Cch,2,1 = (1,-1)
Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4

Where


SF = Spreading Factor of code (maximum 512 for UMTS)

k = code number (0 k SF-1)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

192

UMTS Air Interface

Code Usage Efficiency


Any codes further down the trunk
of a branch in use cannot be used

Any codes further out from the


branch in use cannot be reused

By filling up branches of the code


tree before starting new branches
a greater capacity can be achieved

Multiple code trees can be used


from a cell but at an increased
level of interference between
channels

C ch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)
C ch,2,0 = (1,1)

Cch,2,0 = (1,1)

C ch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)
C ch,1,0 = (1)

Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)

IN USE

Cch,1,0 = (1)
C ch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
C ch,2,1 = (1,1)

Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
Cch,2,1 = (1,1)

C ch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)

IN USE

SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

IN USE

Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)

IN USE

SF = 1

SF = 2

Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 4

193

UMTS Air Interface

Multiple Code Trees

We can actually use multiple code trees if we run out of OVSF


codes on the downlink

This is achieved by introducing a second scrambling code

This reduces interference rejection

However codes on the two code trees will only be separated by


the scrambling codes, which are not orthogonal

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

194

UMTS Air Interface

Scrambling Codes

Downlink Scrambling codes are complex valued Gold codes




They are a 38400 chip segment from a 218 chip code, duration 10ms (1
frame)
There are 512 primary codes and 15 secondary codes associated with
each primary code

Uplink Scrambling codes can be long or short codes


 Long codes are complex valued Gold codes and are a 38400 chip
segment from a 225 chip code, duration 10ms (1 frame)
There are 16,777,216 codes

 Short codes are complex valued S(2) codes and 256 chips long, duration
66.67s
There are again 16,777,216 codes

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

195

UMTS Air Interface

The Primary Synchronisation Channel

P-SCH

The P-SCH transmits the Primary Synchronisation Code


This is a 256 chip sequence and is the same in all cells in the network
The channel is transmitted at the start of a timeslot, for the first 66.67s
There is only ever one P-SCH per cell

P-SCH

P-SCH

P-SCH

256 chips
66.67s

2560 chips
666.7s

Timeslot # 0

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Timeslot # 1

Timeslot # 2

196

UMTS Air Interface

The Secondary Synchronisation Channel

The S-SCH transmits the Secondary Synchronisation Code

The SSC indicates which group of downlink scrambling codes is in use at the cell

This is a 256 chip sequence and is one of 64 possible SSCs


The channel is transmitted at the start of a timeslot, for the first 66.67s, at the same
time as the P-SCH
There is only ever one S-SCH per cell

P-SCH

PSC

PSC

PSC

SSC

SSC

256 chips
66.67s

S-SCH

SSC

2560 chips
666.7s

Timeslot # 0

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Timeslot # 1

Timeslot # 2

197

UMTS Air Interface

The Primary Common Control Physical


Channel

Primary CCPCH is transmitted continuously at constant power


from each cell

Uses one of the 512 Primary Scrambling Codes


Channelisation code is same for all Primary CCPCHs
There is only one P-CCPCH per cell

P-SCH

PSC

PSC

PSC

256 chips
66.67s

S-SCH
P-CCPCH

SSC

SSC

2560 chips
666.7s
Data (10 bits)

Pilot (8 bits)

Timeslot # 0

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

SSC

2304 chips
600s
Data (10 bits)

Pilot (8 bits)

Timeslot # 1

Data (10 bits)

Pilot (8 bits)

30 kbps,
SF=256

Timeslot # 2

198

UMTS Air Interface

The Secondary Common Control Physical


Channel

The cell communicates with UEs through the PCH and FACH


The SF is variable, set in the BCH, indicated on the P-CCPCH and is between 4 and 256
Fixed power


These are carried on the Secondary-CCPCH

This is why the channels are multiplexed to avoid simultaneous transmission

TFCI, Transport Format Combination Indicator, is optional but must be supported by all UEs
Similarly Pilot bits are optional
There may be more than one S-CCPCH per cell, and frames may be offset in time by multiples
of 256 chips


S-CCPCH

E.g.one may be used to carry the FACH and one to carry the PCH

TFCI (0 - 8 bits per


slot)

Data (10 - 1272 bits


per slot)

Pilot (0 - 16 bits per


slot)

30-1920 kbps,
SF=4-256

1 timeslot 2560 chips, 666.7s

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

199

UMTS Air Interface

The Physical Random Access Channel

The PRACH consists of two parts




A preamble
 To initiate access

A message
 Which can contain a request for a dedicated channel or a small packet of
user data
2 frames = 20 ms

Message

PRACH
1 PRACH preamble = 4096 chips

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

1 PRACH slot = 2 normal timeslots

200

UMTS Air Interface

The PRACH Preamble

Selected from one of 16 preambles available on the cell

It then randomly selects a slot from 15 over 2 Frames (slotted


ALOHA)

In no acknowledge then reselects signature and increases


power by 1dB and tries again

The preamble is 1ms in length


Power of transmitted preamble is based on an estimate of
downlink loss from CPICH received signal strength

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

201

UMTS Air Interface

The PRACH Message


The message is either 15 or 30 slots in length


Determined by which slot the preamble was sent in

Power as successful preamble


Data and control are code multiplexed

Data

15 - 120 kbps,
SF=32-256

Data (10 - 80 bits per


slot)

PRACH message
Control

Pilot (8 bits per slot)

TFCI (2 bits per slot)

15 kbps,
SF=256

1 timeslot 2560 chips, 666.7s

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

202

UMTS Air Interface

AICH
The AICH indicates whether the PRACH preamble has been received
If the Node-B receives the preamble it mirrors the preamble signature
back on the AICH
2 frames = 20 ms
Message

PRACH
1 PRACH preamble = 4096 chips

1 PRACH slot = 1.25ms

AICH
1 PRACH preamble = 4096 chips

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

203

UMTS Air Interface

PCPCH

Similar to the the PRACH


Additionally a collision detection preamble is sent
The AI-ICH responds to the PCPCH access preamble
The CD/CA-ICH responds to the collision detection preamble
The message part has the same structure as an uplink DPCH

P1

Pj

Pj

Message Part

P0

4096 chips

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

0 or 8 slots

N*10 msec

Access Preamble

Control Part

Collision Detection
Preamble

Data part

204

UMTS Air Interface

PICH
The PICH is the Paging Indication Channel, used to inform the UE that it
should listen to the PCH

Fixed rate (SF=256)


N Paging Indicators {PI0, , PIN-1} are transmitted in each PICH frame,
where N=18, 36, 72, or 144.

These are mapped to 300 transmitted bits


288 bits for paging indication
b0 b1

12 bits (undefined)
b287 b288

b299

One radio frame (10 ms)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

205

UMTS Air Interface

Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)

Consists of two parts:




DPDCH (Dedicated Physical Data Channel)


 Carries the user data

DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel)


 Carries control information (pilot bits, power control and optional rate
information)

It is different on uplink and downlink




Uplink
 Data and control code multiplexed to avoid DTX based EMC problems

Downlink
 Data and control time multiplexed DTX based EMC not a problem

UE

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

206

UMTS Air Interface

DCH Control Fields

Pilot


This is an optional field


Used where different formats (multiplexing or spreading factor) are used on a
frame by frame basis (0 or 2 bits per slot)

TPC - Transmit Power Control




Also used for coherent demodulation of the remaining data on the DCH

TFCI - Transport Format Combination Indicator




A predetermined bit pattern utilised by the rake receiver to estimate channel


conditions (5,6,7or 8 bits per slot)

2 bits per slot indicating an increase or decrease power

FBI - Feedback Indicator




Used for diversity working (0,1,2 bits per slot)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

207

UMTS Air Interface

Downlink-Dedicated Physical
DownlinkChannel..Frame/Slot Structure
The dedicated transport channel (DCH), is transmitted in time-multiplex with control
information generated at Layer 1 (known pilot bits, TPC commands, and an optional
TFCI)

Spreading Factor, SF = 512/2k

k = 0..7
Bits per Slot, Ndata = 10*2k bits


Channel Bit Rate, Rb = 15*2k kbps

Ndata = 10 - 1280 bits

DPCCH

DPDCH
Data1
N data1 bits

TPC
N TPC bits

TFCI
N TFCI bits

T slot = 2560 chips, 10*2

Slot #0

SF = 512 - 4

Slot #1

Rb = 15 - 1920kbps

DPDCH

DPCCH

Data2
N data2 bits

Pilot
N pilot bits

bits (k=0 ..7)

Slot #i

Slot #14

One radio frame, T f = 10 ms

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

208

UMTS Air Interface

Downlink Spreading and Modulation


cos(
t)

15*2K kbps
cscramb
DPDCH/DPCCH

Serial Parallel

Pulse
Shaping

sin(
t)

cch
Q

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Pulse
Shaping

209

UMTS Air Interface

Downlink Variable Rate (DTX based)


10 ms

R = 60kbps
Pilot+TPC+TFCI

R = 0kbps

R = 30kbps

R = 60kbps

Data

Note: that this diagram does not reflect the true


multiplexing on the downlink

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

210

UMTS Air Interface

Uplink Dedicated Physical Data


Channel..Frame/Slot Structure

Used to carry the DCH transport channel.


Spreading Factor, SF = 256/2k
k = 0..6
SF = 256 - 4
Bits per Slot, Ndata = 10*2k bits
Channel Bit Rate, Rb = 15*2k kbps
Ndata = 10 - 640 bits


Rb = 15 - 960kbps

Data
N data bits

DPDCH
T slot = 2560 chips, N

Slot #0

Slot #1

data

= 10*2 k bits (k=0 ..6)

Slot # i

Slot #14

1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

211

UMTS Air Interface

UL--DPCCH(3)..Slot/Frame Structure
UL
Used to carry control information generated at Layer 1.
Channel Bit Rate
The Layer 1 control information
consists of:






known pilot bits

Rb = 15 kbps

Spreading Factor

transmit power-control (TPC)


commands
feedback information (FBI)

SF = 256

Bits per slot = 10

optional transport-format
combination indicator (TFCI).
Pilot
N pilot bits

DPCCH

TFCI
N TFCI bits

FBI
N FBI bits

TPC
N TPC bits

T slot = 2560 chips, 10 bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot # i

Slot #14

1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

212

UMTS Air Interface

Uplink Spreading and Modulation


cos(
t)

cDPDCH
Real

DPDCH

cscramb
cDPCCH

Pulse
Shaping

I+jQ

DPCCH

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

sin(
t)
Imag

Pulse
Shaping

213

UMTS Air Interface

Uplink Dedicated Channel Multiplexing

One DPCCH and up to 6 DPDCH are spread by real valued


sequences

DPCCH is spread by channelisation code cc

Only one DPCCH allowed per link

DPDCH is spread by channelisation code cd,n where 1<=n<=6


After channelisation real valued signals are weighted by c and
d, at least one of which has amplitude 1

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

214

UMTS Air Interface

Uplink Dedicated Channel Multiplexing


cd,1

cd,3

DPDCH1

DPDCH3
cd,5

DPDCH5

Sdpch,n
I+jQ
cd,2

cd,4

cd,6

cc

DPDCH2

DPDCH4

DPDCH6

DPCCH

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

215

UMTS Air Interface

Uplink Variable Rate (VSF based)


10 ms

R = 60kbps
Pilot+TPC+TFCI+FBI

R = 30kbps

R = 0kbps

R = 0kbps

R = 30kbps

Data

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

216

UMTS Air Interface

Why does UMTS need the CPICH?

UMTS already has the SCHs and pilot bits...


Why does it need a pilot channel?


Handover measurements and cell selection/reselection

To aid channel estimation for dedicated channels

To provide channel estimation reference for common channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

217

UMTS Air Interface

A MultiMulti-Rate Channelised Transmitter


Power Control

60kbps Bit
Stream

Pulse Shaping and


Modulation

x4

c1

s1

x2

30kbps Bit
Stream

c2

x1

All the channels are spread to the same chip


rate and then added together.
Note: to achieve the same Eb/No we must
modify the power per chip before combining
the chip streams

15kbps Bit
Stream

c3

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

218

UMTS Air Interface

Questions

Which other physical channels are similar to the AICH?


What are the two parts of the PRACH channel?
Which layers do the Transport channels connect?
Where is the MAC layer terminated?

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

219

Day 1 Roundup

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

220

Day 1 Roundup

Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

221

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

222

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

223

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

224

UMTS Network Systems


Overview

Day 2

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

225

Day 2 Introductory Session

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

226

Day 2 Introductory Session

Day 2 Introductory Session

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

227

Day 2 Introductory Session

Summary of Yesterday

Yesterday we looked at


1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems

Drivers for 3rd Generation Cellular

CDMA and Mobile Technology

An Overview of UMTS Architecture

The UMTS Air Interface

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

228

Day 2 Introductory Session

Today

Today we are going to look at:




UTRAN

The UMTS Core Network

The UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

UMTS Mobiles

UMTS Services

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

229

UTRAN

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

230

UTRAN

UTRAN

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

231

UTRAN

Contents and Session Aims


UTRAN
RNS, RNC and Node-B
Handover in UMTS

This session aims to explain the


roles and procedures behind
UTRAN


Admission Control
Load Control
Radio Resource
Management
Transmit Diversity
Cell Search and
Synchronisation
Power Control

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

To describe in detail the entities


comprising the UTRAN
To examine the role of UTRAN in
Soft Handover
To look at Call Admission,
Congestion control and Radio
Resource Management Algorithms
To look at how the air interface is
affected by power control
algorithms

232

UTRAN

UTRAN

UTRAN is the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network


For any network UTRAN consists of:


One or more RNSs with their associated RNCs, Node Bs and Cells

The functions of UTRAN (as described above) are:




System access control

Security and privacy

Handover

Radio resource management and control

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

233

UTRAN

Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)


A Radio Network Subsystem

Iu

consists of:


A single RNC

One or more Node Bs

Cells belonging to Node Bs

The UMTS equivalent of the GSM


BSS

Iur

RNC

Node B

Node B

Cell

Cell

Cell

Cell

Cell

Cell

Uu

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

234

UTRAN

Radio Network Controller (RNC)


Responsible for the use and
Iu

integrity of the radio resources


within the RNS

Responsible for the handover

Iur

RNC

decisions that require signalling to


the UE

Provides a combining/splitting
function to support macro diversity
between different Node Bs
Cell

Node
B

Node
B

Cell

Cell
Cell

Cell

Cell

Uu

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

235

UTRAN

Node B
Logical node responsible for radio
Iu

transmission / reception in one or


more cells to/from the UE

Dual mode Node B can support

Iur

RNC

FDD and TDD mode

Not necessarily a single site


according to the standards


Most current implementations use


a single site
Cell

Node
B

Node
B

Cell

Cell
Cell

Cell

Cell

Uu

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

236

UTRAN

Cell
A cell is an area of radio coverage
Iu

serviced by one or more carriers

Iur

RNC

Cell

Node
B

Node
B

Cell

Cell
Cell

Cell

Cell

Uu

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

237

UTRAN

UTRAN Security and privacy

Use of temporary identifier


Encryption for radio channel
Decryption for radio channel

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

238

UTRAN

Use of Tempory Identifier

There are a number of different types of equipment and user


identifiers used by UMTS

They have been taken directly from GSM to provide some


backwards compatibility


International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

Temporary Logical Link Identity (TLLI)

Mobile Station ISDN (MSISDN)

International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

239

UTRAN

IMSI and TMSI


IMSI is a unique 15 digit identifier
for each user and serves as the
primary identifier

It consists of:


Mobile Country Code (MCC), 3


digits

The TMSI is used to add a level of


security to the Subscriber Identity

The TMSI is 32 bits long


It may be allocated by either an
MSC/VLR or an SGSN


Mobile Network Code (MNC), 2/3


digits


Mobile Subscriber Identity Number


(MSIN), 9/10 digits

MCC

MNC

MSIN

3 bits

2/3 bits

9/10 bits

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

If it is allocated by an SGSN it is
known as a P-TMSI
It is only valid within the network
domain that it has been awarded
by and both types may be
simultaneously allocated

240

UTRAN

UTRAN Handover

Radio environment survey


Handover decision
Macro diversity control
Handover control
Handover execution
Handover completion
SRNS relocation
Inter-system handover

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

241

UTRAN

Handover in UMTS

There are three basic types of handover




Intra frequency handovers


 Handovers between 2 UMTS carriers at the same frequency
 These can be soft handovers

Inter frequency handovers


 Handovers between 2 UMTS carriers at different frequencies
 These are hard handovers

Inter system handovers


 Handovers between UMTS and GSM carriers
 These are hard handovers

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

242

UTRAN

Handover Sets in UMTS

Active Set


Candidate Set


Cells forming a soft handover connection to the mobile

Cells not presently used in soft handover but who qualify for soft
handover

Neighbour Set


Those cells which are continuously monitored but do not yet qualify for
the Candidate Set

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

243

UTRAN

Handover Decisions in UMTS


=2

=2

Cell A and Cell B

Cell A and Cell C

Active set = 1
Pilot Ec/Io

Cell A

Window_DROP

Window_ADD

Window_REPLACE
Direction of Travel

Add Time Delay

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Replace Time Delay

Drop Time Delay

244

UTRAN

Macrodiversity between Cells on the Same


Node B
Iu

If an active set consists of two

connections to cells parented to


the same Node B then the
combining of the two channels
occurs at the Node B

This is known as a softer


handover

Iur

RNC

Node B

Node B

Cell

Cell

This has no transmission


implication if cells are collocated.
Cell

Cell

Cell

Cell

Uu

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

245

UTRAN

Macrodiversity between Node


Bs
I
u

If an active set consists of two


connections to cells parented
to different Node Bs then the
combining of the two channels
occurs at the RNC

This is known as a soft

Iur

RNC

Node B

Node B

Cell

Cell

handover

This doubles the transmission


cost of the call
Cell

Cell

Cell

Cell

Uu

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

246

UTRAN

Macrodiversity between RNSs


Iu

Iu

Iur

Serving RNS
RNC

Node B

RNC

Node B

Node B

Drift RNS
Node B

Uu

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

247

UTRAN

Macrodiversity between RNSs

SRNS provides link between the Core Network and the UE

DRNS relays frames to SRNS through Iur

When the DRNS has more paths than the SRNS the two can
exchange function

SRNS also provides the selection function for the different


channels
As the UE moves then some diversity paths may be dropped
and others established

Reduces traffic on Iur

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

248

UTRAN

Site Selection Diversity Transmit Power


Control

Site selection diversity transmit power control (SSDT) is an


optional macro diversity method in soft handover mode.

The UE selects one of the cells from its active set to be


primary, all other cells are classed as non primary.

The main objective is to only transmit data on the downlink from


the primary cell


Reducing the interference caused by multiple transmissions in a soft


handover mode.

A second objective is to achieve fast site selection without


network intervention


Maintaining the advantage of the soft handover.

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

249

UTRAN

SSDT
Non-Primary Cell

Primary Cell

Each cell is assigned a temporary


identification (ID) and UE
periodically informs the primary cell
ID to the connecting cells.

The non-primary cells selected by


UE switch off the transmission
power for the downlink data.

UE

The primary cell ID is delivered by


UE to the active cells via uplink FBI
field
Control

The cell with the highest CPICH


RSCP is the primary cell.

Data
Non-Primary Cell

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

250

UTRAN

Hierarchical Cell structures

Cell Layers in UMTS work on a per carrier basis

Microcell/Macrocell Scenario
Frequency 1

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Hotspot Scenario
Frequency 2

Frequencies 1 & 2

251

UTRAN

Hierarchical Cell Structures


Typically operators will be awarded
2 or 3 carriers

If they are awarded 3 carriers it is

Macro

FDD

Micro

FDD

Picro

TDD

then possible to implement HCS by




Using 2 paired carriers for the


macrocell layer
Using 1 paired carrier for the
microcell layer
Using any unpaired spectrum
allocated for the picocell layer
using TDD mode

Carrier 1
Carrier 2
Carrier 3
Carrier 4

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

252

UTRAN

Inter Frequency Measurements at the UE


GSM: Discontinuous transmission


Room for measurements required for Mobile Assisted Hand Off


TX

Uplink
Downlink

TX
RX

RX

Idle time for measurements

UMTS FDD: Continuous transmission




No idle time for measurements required for MAHO

Uplink

TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX

Downlink

RX RX RX RX RX RX RX RX RX RX RX RX RX RX

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

253

UTRAN

Compressed Mode

In Compressed Mode a Transmission Gap is created


This allows inter-frequency and inter-system measurements
Probably only required for inter-frequency handover and intermode handover to GSM1800


GSM900 dual mode terminals will probably have separate receivers

Spanning
two frames
One Frame,
10ms
Spanning a
single frame

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

254

UTRAN

Compressed Mode
The Transmission Gap is created
by not transmitting for a number of
slots

Other slots in the frame impacted


are then forced to transmit at a
higher bit rate, a lower spreading
factor and a higher power to
maintain the user bit rate

It is possible to have gaps of 3, 4,


7, 10 and 14 slots
12 13 14 0

1 2

4 5

10 11 12 13 14 0

2 3

It is only possible to have gaps of


10 or 14 slots by using two frames
4 slot gap

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

255

UTRAN

Radio Environment Survey

Received Signal Code Power




Received Signal Strength Indicator




The received code power of the pilot

The total in-band signal strength of the carrier

Ec/Io can be derived from these two items

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

256

UTRAN

UTRAN System Access Control

Admission control
Congestion control
System information broadcasting

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

257

UTRAN

Admission Control

If loading is allowed to increase excessively then the coverage


area of the cell reduces below that planned - Admission Control
aims to avoid this

Admission Control functionality is located at the RNC to take


the impact on multiple cells into account

The Admission Control algorithm estimates the impact of


adding an additional bearer on both uplink and downlink


Only if both pass is the call admitted

There are two broad categories of algorithm




Wideband Power Based Admission Control algorithms

Throughput based Admission Control algorithms

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

258

UTRAN

Wideband Power Based Admission Control

Uplink Algorithm:
Itotal_old +Itotal > Ithreshold

Interference
Ithreshold
Max Planned Noise Rise
Itotal_old

Itotal
L

load

Downlink Algorithm:
Ptotal_old +Ptotal > Pthreshold

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

259

UTRAN

Throughput Based Admission Control

Uplink Algorithm

UL+L > UL_threshold

Downlink Algorithm

DL+L > DL_threshold

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

260

UTRAN

Congestion (Load) Control

Admission control should ensure that the system is not


overloaded

If it is then congestion control returns the system back to the


targeted load

Possible actions include




Downlink fast load control (deny downlink power up commands)

Uplink fast load control (reduce uplink Eb/No target)

Reduce packet data traffic throughput

Handover to another WCDMA carrier

Handover to GSM

Decrease bit rates for real time users (e.g. AMR bit rates)

Drop calls in a controlled fashion

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

261

UTRAN

UTRAN Radio Resource Management

Radio bearer set up and release


Reservation and release of physical radio channels
Allocation and release of physical radio channels
Allocation of downlink channelisation codes
Packet data transfer over radio function
Radio channel coding and control
Initial access detection and call handling
Power control

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

262

UTRAN

Packet Data Transfer

Packet Access is controlled in UMTS by a Packet Scheduler


(PS)

The tasks of the PS are to:

Divide the available air interface capacity between packet users

Decide which transport channels to use for each users packet data

Monitor the packet allocations and the system load

The PS is typically located at the RNC

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

263

UTRAN

Common Transport channels for packet


data

The Common Transport channels that


can be used for packet access are:


RACH

FACH

SMS

Text only email

Web Page request

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

User 7

User 6
User 5
User 4

Most Suitable for small individual


packets

User 3

Link level performance worse than that


of dedicated channels due to lack of
closed loop power control and soft
handover

User 2

Low setup time

User 1

Bitrate

Time
Time based packet scheduling is
the mechanism employed when
using the common and shared
channels

264

UTRAN

Dedicated Transport channels for packet


data
Slow setup time
Link level performance better than

Bitrate

that of common channels due to


fast closed loop power control and
ability to use soft handover

User 5
User 4

Most Suitable for medium or large

User 3

amounts of data

User 2
User 1
Time
Code/Transmit based packet
scheduling is the mechanism
employed when using the
dedicated channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

265

UTRAN

Shared Transport channels for packet data

The shared Transport channels that can be used for packet


access are


DSCH

CPCH

Targetted at bursty packet data


Share a code amongst many users
Can use fast power control
Cannot use soft handover
Suitable for medium amounts of data

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

266

UTRAN

Packet scheduling in UMTS


In reality the packet scheduler
users a combination of time and
code based packet scheduling

Bitrate

User 7

User 6

User 5

User 4

User 3

the admission control algorithm to


achieve the target load at a cell

User 2

User 1

The packet scheduler will work with

User E
User D
User C
User B
User A

Load

Time

Target Load

Free
Capacity

Non Controllable Real Time Load

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

267

UTRAN

Downlink Multiplexing and Channel Coding


Chain
CRC Attachment

Insertion of DTX
Indication (fixed
Positions only)

Insertion of DTX
indication (With Flexible
Positions only)

Transport Block
Concatenation/ Code
Block Segmentation

First Interleaving
(20, 40 or 80ms)

Physical Channel
Segmentation

Channel Coding

Radio Frame
Segmentation

Second
Interleaving
(10ms)

Transport Channel
Multiplexing

Physical Channel
Mapping

Other
Transport
Channels
Rate Matching

DPDCH DPDCH
#1
#2

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

DPDCH
#n

268

UTRAN

Uplink Multiplexing and Channel Coding


Chain
CRC Attachment

First Interleaving
(20, 40 or 80ms)

Transport Block
Concatenation/ Code
Block Segmentation

Radio Frame
Segmentation

Physical Channel
Segmentation

Channel Coding

Rate Matching

Second
Interleaving
(10ms)

Transport Channel
Multiplexing

Physical Channel
Mapping

Radio Frame
Equalisation

Other
Transport
Channels

DPDCH DPDCH
#1
#2

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

DPDCH
#n

269

UTRAN

CRC Attachment

The Cyclic Redundancy Check is used to detect errors in the


transport blocks at the receiving end

There are five lengths of CRC that can be inserted




0, 8, 12, 16 and 24 bits

The more bits the CRC contains the lower the probability of
undetected error

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

270

UTRAN

Code Block Concatenation/Segmentation

The received transport block is either concatenated to other


transport blocks or segmented to allow it to fit into an
appropriate block size for the channel coding scheme chosen

It is typically better to concatenate as:





It reduces the encoder tail bits overhead


It can improve the performance of channel coding to have larger block
sizes

However over a certain limit segmentation is required to limit


complexity

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

271

UTRAN

Channel Coding

In UTRA two channel coding method are used




1/2 and 1/3 rate convolutional coding

1/3 turbo coding


 8 state Parallel Concatenated Convolutional Code

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

272

UTRAN

Interleaving

Two different levels of interleaving are used:




Inter Frame interleaving


 When the delay budget allows more than 10ms of interleaving
 It is possible to have interleaving over 20, 40 and 80ms time periods

Intra Frame Interleaving


 Over a 10ms time period

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

273

UTRAN

DTX Indication for Fixed and Flexible


Positions
The use of fixed positions means
that a given transport channel
always occupies the same
positions when multiplexed with
others


If there is no data DTX indication


symbols are inserted

Fixed Positions: A and


B Full Rate
TFCI

TrCH A

TrCH B

Pilot

Fixed Positions: B Full


Rate and A 1/3 Rate
TFCI

DTX

TPC

TrCH B

Pilot

Flexible Positions
Positions: A Full Rate
and B 1/3 Rate

The use of flexible positions means


that bits unused by one service can
be used by another

TPC

TFCI

TrCH A

TPC

Pilot

Fixed Positions: A 1/3


Rate and B 2/3 Rate
TFCI

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

DTX

TPC

TrCH B

Pilot

274

UTRAN

Downlink Transmit Diversity


UMTS explicitly allow the use of transmit diversity from the base station
However it is not possible to simply transmit simultaneously form two close
antennas as this would cause an interference pattern - the following
methods negate this issue

Transmit Diversity
Method
TSTD
STTD
Closed Loop Mode 1
Closed Loop Mode 2

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Description
Time Switched Transmit antenna
Diversity (open loop)
Space Time block coding Transmit
antenna Diversity (open loop)
Different Orthogonal Pilots
Same Pilot

275

UTRAN

Channels Using Downlink Transmit


Diversity
Physical channel
type
P-CCPCH
SCH
S-CCPCH
DPCH
PICH
PDSCH
AICH
CSICH

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Open loop mode


TSTD

STTD

Closed
loop
Mode

X
X
X
X
X
X

276

UTRAN

Time Switched Transmit antenna Diversity


(TSTD)

Even numbered slots transmitted on Antenna 1, odd numbered slots on Antenna 2

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #14

P-SCH

P-SCH

P-SCH

S-SCH

S-SCH

S-SCH

Antenna 1

Antenna 2

Slot #2

P-SCH
S-SCH

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

277

UTRAN

Space Time block coding Transmit antenna


Diversity (STTD)
STTD encoding is optional in UTRAN. STTD support is mandatory at the UE
Channel coding, rate matching and interleaving is done as in the nondiversity mode.

STTD encoding is applied on blocks of 4 consecutive channel bits


The bit bi is real valued {0} for DTX bits and {1, -1} for all other channel bits.
b0 b1 b2 b3

Antenna 1

b0 b1 b2 b3
-b2 b3 b0 -b1 Antenna 2
Channel bits

STTD encoded channel bits


for antenna 1 and antenna 2.

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

278

UTRAN

Closed Loop Mode

Channel coding, interleaving and spreading are done as in nondiversity mode

The spread complex valued signal is fed to both TX antenna


branches, and weighted with antenna specific weight factors w1
and w2

The weight factors are complex valued signals in general.


The weight factors are determined by the UE, and signalled
using the D-bits of the FBI field of uplink DPCCH.

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

279

UTRAN

Closed Loop Mode


w1

Tx

Spread/scramble

DPCCH

Ant1

CPICH1

DPCH

Ant2

DPDCH
Tx

w2

CPICH2
Rx

w1

w2

Weight Generation

Rx

Determine FBI message


from Uplink DPCCH

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

280

UTRAN

Cell Search and Synchronisation


In UMTS base stations are not tightly synchronised (s-level) to a common
reference, e.g. GPS

Makes for easier deployment, e.g. in indoor environments




All cells transmit different scrambling codes plus common


synchronisation code

UE searches for primary synchronisation code with matched filter




Synchronises to new cell and acquires time slot clock

UE decodes secondary synchronisation code




Identification of new cell

Radio frame synchronisation

Can now find cells scrambling code from the CPICH to decode the Primary
CCPCH

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

281

UTRAN

Power Control

Two Levels of Power Control




Outer Loop
 The RNC sets the target Eb/No based upon the BER of the received data

Inner loop
 Open loop based upon estimating the path loss from the pilot
 Fast closed loop Power control on both the uplink and the downlink
Based upon TPC bits
2 algorithms

Every received bit causes an adjustment in transmit power, either up or down


A set of commands is sent starting with a sequence of 4 0s. Only if all 5 command
the bits indicate up is the power increased, all the bits down is the power decreased.
Otherwise power remains the same

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

282

UTRAN

Power Control in Soft Handover

In Soft Handover multiple power control measurements might


be received

In this case a simple rule is used




If any command says power down, then power down

If all commands say power up, then power up

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

283

UTRAN

Questions

What is the difference between load control and congestion


control?

How does handover for UMTS differ from that in cdmaOne?


If we are continuously receiving data, how do we take
measurements for MAHO?

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

284

UTRAN

Session Summary

In this session we have discussed the major elements and


procedures for UTRAN

In the next session we are going to look at the Core Network

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

285

UMTS Core Network

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

286

UMTS Core Network

UMTS Core Network

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

287

UMTS Core Network

Contents

Core Network Overview

Entities in the Circuit Switched Domain

Entities Shared between the Circuit Switched Domain and the


Packet Switched Domain
Entities in the Packet Switched Domain

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

288

UMTS Core Network

Contents and Session Aims


This session aims to go into more
The CS and PS Domains

detail about the entities in the Core


Network

It contains:
Shared Entities
Entities in the CS Domain
Entities in the PS Domain

A revisit of the core network


overview
Entities in the different core
network domains
Areas in UMTS

UMTS System Areas

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

289

UMTS Core Network

Core Network (CN)

The Core Network consists of:




A Circuit Switched Domain

A Packet Switched Domain

Some CN entities may belong to both domains

CS Entities

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Common
Entities

PS Entities

290

UMTS Core Network

General Core Network Architecture


Other MSC

CS Entities
UTRAN

Iu-cs

Mobile
Switching
Centre

GMSC

MSC/VLR

Common Entities

Equipment
Identity
Register

Gs Home LocationAuthentication
Centre
Register

Gr
Iu-ps

Gc
Gateway
GSN

Serving GSN

UTRAN

AuC

HLR

EIR

PS Entities

External Circuit
Switched
Networks

Gateway
MSC

SGSN

Gn

IU

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Gn

GGSN

CN

Gi

External Packet
Switched
Networks

Other SGSN

291

UMTS Core Network

Why Separate CS domains and PS


domains?
Advantages of separation

Disadvantages of separation

Simple evolution from GSM/GPRS

Low Risk

Early Availability

Service Continuity

Build and manage 2 networks


Separate engineering and
dimensioning

Greater Infrastructure Cost

Duplicated Functions
MM in VLR and SGSN

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

292

UMTS Core Network

Shared Entities in the Core Network

All other entities are shared between the CS and PS domains




Home Location Register

Authentication Centre

Equipment Identity Register

SMS-Service Centre

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

293

UMTS Core Network

Home Location Register

A data base in charge of the management of mobile


subscribers.

A PLMN may contain one or several HLRs: it depends on the


number of mobile subscribers, on the capacity of the equipment
and on the organisation of the network

Contains:


Subscription information;
Location information enabling the charging and routing of calls towards
the MSC where the MS is registered

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

294

UMTS Core Network

Equipment Identity Register

The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is the logical entity which


is responsible for storing in the network the International Mobile
Equipment Identities (IMEIs)

The equipment is classified as "white listed", "grey listed",


"black listed" or it may be unknown


The white list is composed of all number series of equipment identities


that are permitted for use
The black list contains all equipment identities that belong to equipment
that need to be barred
Equipment on the grey list are not barred, but are tracked by the
network (for evaluation or other purposes)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

295

UMTS Core Network

Authentication Centre

The Authentication Centre (AuC) is associated with an HLR,


and stores an identity key for each mobile subscriber registered
with the associated HLR. This key is used to generate:


data which are used to authenticate the International Mobile Subscriber


Identity (IMSI);
a key used to cipher communication over the radio path between the
mobile station and the network.

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

296

UMTS Core Network

SMS Service Centre

The SMS-SC deals with the transfer of short of short text


messages

This works on a store and forward basis

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

297

UMTS Core Network

Circuit Switched Domain

The CS domain deals with circuit switched type connections


and the associated signalling


i.e. those connections that require a dedicated resource

Entities specific to the CS domain are:




MSC

GMSC

VLR

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

298

UMTS Core Network

Mobile Switching Centre

The Mobile-services Switching Centre (MSC) constitutes the


interface between the radio system and the fixed networks.

The MSC performs all necessary functions in order to handle


the circuit switched services to and from the mobile stations

UMTS MSCs can be expected to be identical in hardware to


latest generation GSM MSCs, although with a different software
version

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

299

UMTS Core Network

Gateway MSC

If a network delivering a call to the PLMN cannot interrogate the


HLR, the call is routed to an MSC.

This MSC will interrogate the appropriate HLR and then route
the call to the MSC where the mobile station is located.

The MSC which performs the routing function to the actual


location of the MS is called the Gateway MSC (GMSC).

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

300

UMTS Core Network

Visitor Location Register

A mobile station roaming in an MSC area is controlled by the


Visitor Location Register in charge of this area.

When a Mobile Station (MS) enters a new location area it starts


a registration procedure.

The MSC in charge of that area notices this registration and


transfers to the Visitor Location Register the identity of the
location area where the MS is situated.

If this MS is no yet registered, the VLR and the HLR exchange


information to allow the proper handling of calls involving the
MS.

A VLR may be in charge of one or several MSC areas.

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

301

UMTS Core Network

Packet Switched Domain

The PS domain deals with packet switched type connections


and associated signalling


i.e. those that are comprised of concatenations of bits formed into


packets, each of which can be routed independantly

Entities specific to the PS domain are:




SGSN

GGSN

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

302

UMTS Core Network

Serving GPRS Support Node

Essentially a router supporting packet data transfer within


UMTS

For packet switched data performs additionally the role of the


VLR and contains:


Subscription information:
 The IMSI;
 One or more temporary identities;
 Zero or more PDP addresses.

Location information:
 Depending on the operating mode of the MS, the cell or the routeing area where the
MS is registered;
 The VLR number of the associated VLR (if the Gs interface is implemented);
 The GGSN address of each GGSN for which an active PDP context exists

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

303

UMTS Core Network

Gateway GPRS Support Node

Acts as a gateway into the packet switched network much as


the GMSC


subscription information:
 the IMSI;
 zero or more PDP addresses.

location information:
 the SGSN address for the SGSN where the MS is registered.

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

304

UMTS Core Network

UMTS System Areas

Location Area


UEs registered on the CS domain report their position in terms of LA

UEs in idle mode monitor Location Area Identities (LAIs) and report changes

Stored in the VLR

Routing Area



UEs registered on the PS domain report their position in terms of RA


UEs in both idle and connected mode monitor Routing Area Identities (RAIs) and support
changes
Stored in the SGSN

UTRAN Registration Area




Used once a signaling/traffic connection is established

A subset of a RA


Only relevant to PS mode of operation

Used by the RNC (not really relevant to the CN)

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

305

UMTS Core Network

Questions

What are the advantages and disadvantages of having


separate CS and PS Domains in the core network?

Which entities are involved in Mobility Management of visiting


users?

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

306

UMTS Core Network

Session Summary

In this session we have looked at the major UMTS CN entities


in:


The CS Domain

The PS Domain

Shared entities

In the next session we shall look at the fixed network interfaces


in UMTS

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

307

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

308

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

309

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Contents and Session Aims


General Protocol Model
IP vs ATM
ATM

This session aims to explore the


Fixed Network Interfaces in UMTS
in more detail


A general model for the interfaces

ATM in UMTS

The Fixed Network Interfaces

Iub
Iur
Iu

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

310

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

General Protocol Model for UTRAN


Terrestrial Interfaces
Radio Network
Layer

Transport
Network Layer

Control Plane

User Plane

Application
Protocol

Data Stream(s)

Transport Network
User Plane

Transport Network
Control Plane

Transport Network
User Plane

ALCAP(s)
Signalling
Bearer(s)

Signalling
Bearer(s)

Data Bearer(s)

Physical Layer

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

311

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Horizontal Layers in the General Protocol


Model

All UTRAN related issues are only visible in the Radio Network
Layer

The Transport Layer simply represents standard transport


technology for use in UTRAN


e.g. ATM and appropriate adaptation layers

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

312

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Vertical Planes in the General Protocol


Model
The Control Plane is for all UMTS specific control signalling including:


Application Protocol

Signalling Bearer

The User Plane is for all data sent and received by the user including:


Data Streams

Data Bearers

Transport Network Control Plane contains all signalling within the Transport
Layer

Transport Network User Plane contains the Signalling and Data Bearers for
the Radio Network Layer Protocols

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

313

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

IP vs. ATM

One of the major uncertainties over the fixed network interfaces


in UMTS is whether IP or ATM will be used

ATM is a mature technology and specified in the release 99 of


the 3GPP standards

IP v6 is required, if IP is to be used by UMTS, due to its QoS


improvements

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

314

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

ATM

ATM is the default transport network layer for a UMTS network


There are two types of ATM interconnections defined


NNI

Network-Network Interfaces

 Interfaces between two ATM switches




UNI

User-Network Interfaces

 Interfaces between a user terminal and an ATM switch

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

315

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

ATM Layer
ATM provides the data link
connection across a network

An ATM cell consists of:




A five octet header containing:


Virtual Path Identifier

OSI
3

Virtual Channel Identifier




A 48 octet payload

Higher Layer
Protocols

ATM Adaptation
Layer

Data Link Layer


ATM Layer

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Physical

Physical Layer

316

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

ATM Service Classes


ATM Adaption Layer

Bit Rate

Example Use

Constant

Digital voice

Variable

AAL 3

Connection
Mode
Connection
Based
Connection
Based
Connection

AAL 4
AAL 5

Connectionless
Connectionless

Variable
Variable

Variable rate
video
X.25, Frame
Relay
TCP/IP, SMDS
TCP/IP

AAL 1
AAL 2

Variable

UMTS uses:


AAL2 to provide a synchronous connection based service

AAL5 to provide an asynchronous connectionless service

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

317

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Major Interfaces in UMTS


There are four major new

CN

interfaces defined in UMTS




Iu
The interface between UTRAN
and the CN

RNC

Iur
The Interface between different
RNCs

Iub
The interface between the Node B
and the RNC

Iu

Uu
The air interface

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Iur

RNC

Iub
NodeB
Uu
UE

318

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iub

The Iub is the interface between the RNC and the Node-B

Thus the Iub needs to carry:

The Node B effectively performs a relay function between the


Iub and the Uu


Layer 2+ signalling between the UE and the UTRAN

Signalling directly to the Node B


 To control radio resource allocation
 General control of the Node-B
 O&M Functionality

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

319

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iub Protocol Stack


In the Iub the Application Protocol is

Service Specific Connection


Orientated Protocol (SSCOP)
AAL5

A dedicated AAL2 connection is

Transport Network
User Plane

PCH FP

Service Specific Co-ordination


Function - UNI (SSCF-UNI)

NBAP

FACH FP

Transport
Network Layer

User Plane
RACH FP

ATM Adaptation Layer UNI (SAALUNI) which itself comprises

Control Plane

DCH FP

This is carried over the Signalling

Radio Network
Layer

DSCH FP

the Node B Application Protocol


(NBAP)

Transport Network
User Plane

SSCF-UNI
SSCOP
AAL5

AAL2
ATM
Physical Layer

reserved for each User Plane


service

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

320

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iub Radio Network Layer User Plane

The DCH Frame Protocol (FP) consists of:




Iub DCH Data Frames


 The Iub interface provides means for transport of uplink and downlink DCH
Iub frames between RNC and Node B.
 The DCH Iub frame header includes uplink quality estimates and
synchronisation information

Iub DCH Control Frames


 These are used to carry control information such as power and timing
control

Iub RACH FP, FACH FP, PCH FP and DSCH FP carry the
equivalent channels

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

321

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iub Radio Network Layer Control Plane


The Iub interface allows the RNC and the Node B to negotiate about radio resources


The protocol used is the Node B Application Part (NBAP)

Main Functions


Radio Channel Management

Radio Resource Management

Radio Network Performance Measurement

Cell Configuration Management

Operations and Maintenance

Iub Link Management

Example NBAP messages are:




measurement request

radio link set-up

cell set-up

cell delete

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

322

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Implementation of the Iub

Transmission sharing between the GSM/GPRS Abis interface


and the Iub interface is allowed

The functional division between RNC and Node B has as few


options as possible

Neither the physical structure nor any internal protocols of the


Node B are visible over Iub and are thus not limiting factors, e.g.


When introducing future technology

In multi vendor networks

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

323

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iur

The Iur is the interface between two RNCs

Thus the Iur needs to support:

It enables the transport of air interface signalling between an


SRNC and a DRNC


Basic Inter RNC Mobility

Dedicated Channel Traffic

Common Channel Traffic

Global Resource Management

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

324

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iur Protocol Stack


In the Iub the Application Protocol is the Radio

Network Subsystem Application Protocol (RNSAP)

This is carried over the Broad Band SS7 (BB SS7)


Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

Message Transfer Part (MTP3-b)




Service Specific Co-ordination Function - NNI


(SSCF-NNI)
SSCOP
AAL5

An alternative IP based signalling protocol can be


used comprising


SS7 MTP3 User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)

Simple Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)

Internet Protocol (IP)

A dedicated AAL2 connection is reserved for each

Transport
Network Layer

Control Plane

User Plane

RNSAP

Transport Network
User Plane

CCH FP

Radio Network
Layer

DCH FP

protocols comprising

Transport Network
User Plane

SCCP
MTP3-B

M3UA

SSCF-NNI

SCTP

SSCOP

IP

AAL5

AAL2
ATM
Physical Layer

User Plane service

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

325

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iur Radio Network Layer User Plane

The DCH Frame Protocol (FP) consists of:




Iur DCH Data Frames


 The Iur interface provides means for transport of uplink and downlink DCH
Iur frames between RNCs.
 The DCH Iur frame header includes uplink quality estimates and
synchronisation information
 Sometimes called Iur/IubDCH Data Frames as they are the same as on the
Iub

Iub DCH Control Frames


 These are used to carry control information such as power and timing
control
 Sometimes called Iur/IubDCH Control Frames as they are the same as on
the Iub

Similarly for CCH FP

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

326

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iur Radio Network Layer Control Plane

The Iur interface allows the RNCs to communicate regarding the




The protocol used is the Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (RNSAP)

Split into 4 parts




Iur1: Basic Inter-RNC Mobility




SRNC Relocation

Inter RNC cell and URA Update

Inter RNC Packet Paging

Reporting of Protocol Errors

Iur2: Dedicated Channel Traffic




Iur3: Common Channel Traffic




Support of DCH transfer across the Iur


Transport of CCH transfer across the Iur

Iur4: Global Resource Management




Transfer of Cell Measurements

Transfer of Node B Timing Information

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

327

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Implementation of the Iur

Some Vendors are suggesting collocated RNCs to rmove the


necessity for high data rate Iurs

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

328

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iu

The Iu is the interface between the Core Network and the


UTRAN

There are two instances of the Iu:




The Iu-ps connecting UTRAN to the Packet Switched Network

The Iu-cs connecting UTRAN to the Circuit Switched Network

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

329

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iu-ps Protocol Stack


In the Iu-ps the Application Protocol is the Radio
Access Network Application Protocol (RANAP)

This is carried over the Broad Band SS7 (BB SS7)


protocols comprising


SCCP

MTP3-b

SSCF-NNI

SSCOP

AAL5

An alternative IP based signalling protocol can be


used comprising


M3UA

SCTP

IP

A User Plane Protocols are carried over




GPRS Tunneling Protocol - User Plane (GTP-U)

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

IP

AAL2

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Radio Network
Layer

Transport
Network Layer

Control Plane

User Plane

RANAP

Iu User Plane
protocol

Transport Network
User Plane

Transport Network
User Plane

SCCP
MTP3-B

M3UA

SSCF-NNI

SCTP

SSCOP

IP

GTP-U
UDP
IP
AAL2

AAL5
ATM

Physical Layer

330

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Iu-cs Protocol Stack


In the Iu-cs the Application Protocol
is the RANAP

This is carried over the BB SS7

Radio Network
Layer

protocols comprising


SCCP

MTP3-b

SSCF-NNI

SSCOP

AAL5

A User Plane Protocols are carried


over AAL2

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Transport
Network Layer

Control Plane

User Plane

RANAP

Iu User Plane
protocol

Transport Network
User Plane

Transport Network
User Plane

SCCP
MTP3b
SSCF-NNI
SSCOP
AAL5

AAL2
ATM
Physical Layer

331

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

RANAP Protocol

The RANAP functions are:




SRNS Relocation and Hard Handover

Radio Access Bearer Management

Reporting Unsuccessfully Transmitted Data

Common ID Management

Paging

Management of Tracing

UE-CN signalling transfer

Security mode control

Management of Tracing

UE-CN Signalling Transfer

Security Mode Control

Management of Overload over the Iu interface

Reset of the Iu interface

Location Reporting

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

332

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Questions

What functions does the Iur have other than transporting data
and control channels to the SRNS?

What are the two horizontal layers of the General Protocol


Model and how do they differ?

Which ATM Adaptation Layers are used in UMTS and what are
their properites?

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

333

UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces

Session Summary

In this session we have looked at the major UMTS interfaces




Iu

Iub

Iur

We have also seen how these interfaces are split into a general
model and how this applies to specific instances

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

334

UMTS Mobiles

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

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UMTS Mobiles

UMTS Mobiles

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UMTS Mobiles

Contents and Session Aims


This session aims to explore the
UE Service States
Idle Mode Processes
UE Measurements
UTRAN Measurements

functionality of the UE and the


processes that it directs


UE States and Idle Mode


Processes

UE measurements

Mobile Trends

Phones of the Future


Mobile Trends

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UE Power Classes and Modes


Power Class

Maximum output power


TDD

Maximum output power


FDD

[+33] dBm

+33 dBm

[+27] dBm

+27 dBm

[+24] dBm

+24 dBm

[+21] dBm

+21 dBm

[+10] dBm

[ 0 ] dBm

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User Equipment Service States

The UE operates in one of three basic


states


Detached

Detached
Not registered to the network

Idle
Registered to the network and
performing both LA and RA updates

CS-Connected

PS-Connected

Connected
CS-Connected

Does not perform LA updates


CS Signalling/Traffic Link
Established

Idle

PS-Connected

PS Signalling/Traffic Link
Established
RA updates for boundary crossings

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Idle Mode
Idle mode is when the UE has:


Selected a PLMN

Selected a cell

Carried out Location Registration

Once in Idle mode the UE continually reassess its serving cell




Monitoring the serving cells and neighbouring cells radio performance


 The UE should be served by the most reliable cell

Monitoring signalling information


 P-CCPCH for cell and system parameters which could provoke cell reselection
 S-CCPCH for paging or notification resulting in connection establishment

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Synchronisation

In order to select a PLMN or cell the UE must first be


synchronised to the network

As we discussed earlier the procedure for this is:

Derive timing from P-SCH

Derive scrambling code group from S-SCH

Derive scrambling code from CPICH

Once the UE has this information it can then decode the PCCPCH since it already knows it s rate and channelisation
code which are fixed

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Cell Selection

There are two possibilities for cell selection procedures:




Initial Cell Selection


 The UE has no knowledge of which radio channels th ePLMN is using.
 The UE scans all channels within the UMTS band
 Once a carrier belonging to the required PLMN is found the UE will begin
cell selection

Stored Information Cell Selection


 The UE has previously stored information on the carrier frequencies of the
required PLMN

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Cell Selection Criteria

Cell Selection is based upon S where




S = Qmeas - Qmin - Pcompensation


 Q meas is the Signal to Interference Ratio for the candidate cell
 Qmin is the minimum required SIR
 Pcompensation is a correction value for different power classes of mobile

If S>0 then the cell is a valid candidate

The UE will camp on the cell with the highest S

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Cell Reselection

The causes for cell reselection are:




A better cell has been found

S has fallen below 0

Communication with the serving cell has failed

The serving cell has become barred or forbidden

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Cell Reselection Criteria


Cell Reselection is based upon R where:


Rs = Qmaps + Qhysts

Rn = Qmapn - Qoffset - TOn.(1-Ln)


 Rs is the rank for the serving cell
 Rn is the rank for a neighbouring cell
 Qmaps is the quality measurement from the serving cell
 Qmapn is the quality measurement from a neighbouring cell
 Qhysts and Qoffset are broadcast by the serving cell and used to control the traffic
distribution in the system
 TOn is a tempory offset present until a timer expiry to prevent short term reselection
 Ln determines whether TOn is used

The cell with the highest ranking is selcted


If this is a neighbour cell this is only occurs if this status is maintained for a
period in time

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Immediate Cell Evaluation

Just prior to a RACH the UE will perform a search to ensure


that it is using the correct cell

Cell reselection occurs if




Sn > 0

Qmapn > Qmaps + Qoffset

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Measurements at the UE

UTRA carrier RSSI




CPICH RSCP


Received Signal Strength Indicator, wideband received power within the channel bandwidth
CPICH Received Signal Code Power, received power on CPICH after despreading

CPICH Ec/No


CPICH Energy/chip to Noise power spectral density,


 (CPICH Ec/Io) = (CPICH RSCP) / RSSI

CPICH ISCP


CPICH Interference on Signal Code Power, interference on received signal after


despreading

CPICH SIR


CPICH Signal to Interference Ratio,


 (CPICH SIR) = (CPICH RSCP) / (CPICH ISCP)

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Measurements at the UE

SIR


Signal to Interference Ratio,


 SIR = (DPCCH RSCP) / (DPCCH ISCP)

Transport channel BLER




Estimation of transport channel block error rate

UE transmitted power


Total transmitted power of the UE measured at the antenna


connector/indication of TX power reaching threshold

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Measurements at the UTRAN

Transport channel BLER




Physical channel BER




Estimation of transport channel block error rate

Physical channel BER measured on control part after RL combining

Transport channel BER




Transport channel BER measured on data part after RL combining

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Measurements at the UTRAN

RSSI


Transmitted carrier power




Received Signal Strength Indicator, the wideband received power within


the UL channel

The transmitter carrier power is the ratio between the total transmitted
power on one DL carrier and the maximum power to use on that carrier

Transmitted code power




The transmitted power on one carrier, scrambling and channelisation


code combination

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Some UMTS Options


Information
Manager

384 kbits/s data


Phone

Voice + low data

3G
Core
PC Card

2 Mbits/s data

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Phone of the Future: DoCoMo

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Phone of the Future: Ericsson

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Phone of the future: Panasonic

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UMTS Mobiles

Phone of Today: Nokia

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UMTS Mobiles

Phone of Today: Ubinetics

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Handheld Products: Small Runs...

1998 figures:


3 m total PDA sales (US)

62 models in the marketplace!

Average product lifetime ~1 year

A successful GSM phone model might sell 10 m




Quite a difference in volume


 Which will model UMTS follow???

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PA Technology Predictions

Vast range of products by 2005, changing fast





Some will be palmtops, most will not


Diverse range of services, using GSM, GPRS, UMTS, fixed line or a
combination
UMTS needs to accommodate the take up of services which are starting
now over 2G and 2.5G technologies

Most of the UK may never have UMTS coverage




UMTS is just another modem


 Should be product independent
 Must be cheap for consumer products

GSM/GPRS multi-mode is vital

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Terminal Types

Source: UMTS Forum

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Parts Cost: 3G PDA


$ 300.00
$ 250.00
$ 200.00
$ 150.00

Sundry
Keypad
LCD screen
WinCE license
CPU
8 Mbyte ROM
8 Mbyte RAM
Baseband
RF

UMTS Inside becomes a small part of


product parts cost, compared with eg
 B&W LCD screen (~ $80)
 WinCE CPU (eg MIPS, ARM ($5 - 15)
 Pentium II ($500)

Other
Items

$ 100.00

UMTS
Inside

$ 50.00
$ 0.00
GSM

UTRA

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UTRA PDA

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UMTS Mobiles

Questions

What does the UE do before making a random access attempt?


What are the four UE Service States?
What are the major components of cost for a PDA style mobile?

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Session Summary

In this session we have investigated some of the UE processes


an the future evolution of mobiles

In the final session we shall look at some of the services that


can be carried by the UE in UMTS

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UMTS Services

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

363

UMTS Services

UMTS Services

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

364

UMTS Services

Contents and Session Aims


UMTS Services and
Applications

In this session we shall look at


services and QoS issues in UMTS


Architecture of a UMTS
Bearer Service
UMTS Bearer Attributes

UMTS services
QoS Bearer Architecture and
Attributes

Service Classes

Major Service Types

UMTS QoS Classes


Example UMTS Services

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UMTS Services and Applications


Office Information
Information

Virtual Working Groups


Tele-working
Schedule Synchronisation

Intelligent Search and Filtering agents


Internet Surfing
On-line media
Special Services
On-line translation
Security Service
Local information
Hotline
Booking & Reservation
Tele-medecine
News

Communications

Financial Services

Video Telephony
Video Conferencing
Speech
Email
Announcing Services
SMS
Electronic Postcards

On-line banking
Universal SIM & Credit Card
Home Shopping
Stock Quotes

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Telemetric Services
Machine-Machine Services
Location Based Tracking
Navigation Assistance
Education
Travel Information
Virtual School
Fleet Management
On-line Laboratories
Remote Diagnostics
On-line Library
On-line Training
Remote Consultation

Public Services
Public Elections/Voting
Public Information
Help
Broadcast Services
Yellow Pages

Leisure

Virtual Book Store


Music on Demand
Games on Demand
Video-clips
Virtual Sight Seeing
Lottery Services

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Architecture of a UMTS bearer service


TE

UE

UTRAN

CN

CN

edge node

gateway

TE

End-to-End Service
TE/UE Local
Bearer Service

External Bearer
Service

UMTS Bearer Service


Radio Access Bearer Service

Radio Bearer
Service

Iu Bearer Service

UTRA FDD/TDD
Service

Physical Bearer
Service

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CN Bearer
Service

Backbone Network
Service

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QoS Bearer Attributes

Maximum bitrate (kbps)


Guaranteed bitrate (kbps)
Delivery order (y/n)

Transfer delay (ms)


Traffic handling priority
Allocation/Retention Priority

Maximum SDU size (octets)


SDU format information (bits)

SDU error ratio


Residual bit error ratio
Delivery of erroneous SDUs
(y/n/-)

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Maximum bitrate

Maximum bitrate (kbps)




Maximum bitrate can be used to make code reservations in the downlink


of the radio interface
Its purpose is
 to limit the delivered bitrate to applications or external networks with such
limitations
 to allow maximum wanted user bitrate to be defined for applications able
to operate with different rates

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Guaranteed bitrate

Guaranteed number of bits delivered by UMTS within a time


period

Guaranteed bitrate may be used to facilitate

admission control based on available resources and

resource allocation within UMTS.

Quality requirements expressed by e.g. delay and reliability


attributes only apply to incoming traffic up to the guaranteed
bitrate

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Delivery order

Indicates whether the UMTS bearer shall provide in-sequence


SDU delivery or not.

The attribute is derived from the user protocol (PDP type) and
specifies if out-of-sequence SDUs are acceptable or not.

This information cannot be extracted from the traffic class.


Whether out-of-sequence SDUs are dropped or re-ordered
depends on the specified reliability

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Maximum SDU size

The maximum allowed SDU size


The maximum SDU size is used for admission control and
policing.

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SDU format information

List of possible exact sizes of SDUs

Thus, if the application can specify SDU sizes, the bearer is


less expensive

UTRAN needs SDU size information to be able to operate in


transparent RLC protocol mode, which is beneficial to spectral
efficiency and delay when RLC re-transmission is not used.

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SDU error ratio

Indicates the fraction of SDUs lost or detected as erroneous.

Used to configure the protocols, algorithms and error detection


schemes, primarily within UTRAN.

Note that by reserving resources, SDU error ratio performance


is independent of the loading conditions, whereas without
reserved resources, such as in Interactive and Background
classes, SDU error ratio is used as target value.

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Residual bit error ratio

Indicates the undetected bit error ratio in the delivered SDUs.

Used to configure radio interface protocols, algorithms and


error detection coding

If no error detection is requested, Residual bit error ratio


indicates the bit error ratio in the delivered SDUs.

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Delivery of erroneous SDUs

Indicates whether SDUs detected as erroneous shall be


delivered or discarded.

Used to decide whether error detection is needed and whether


frames with detected errors shall be forwarded or not.

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Transfer delay
Indicates maximum delay for 95th percentile of the distribution of delay for
all delivered SDUs during the lifetime of a bearer service

Delay for an SDU is defined as the time from a request to transfer an SDU at
one SAP to its delivery at the other SAP.

Used to specify the delay tolerated by the application.


It allows UTRAN to set transport formats and ARQ parameters
Transfer delay of an arbitrary SDU is not meaningful for a bursty source,
since the last SDUs of a burst may have long delay due to queuing, whereas
the meaningful response delay perceived by the user is the delay of the first
SDU of the burst.

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Traffic handling priority

Specifies the relative importance for handling of all SDUs


belonging to the UMTS bearer compared to the SDUs of other
bearers.

Within the interactive class, there is a definite need to


differentiate between bearer qualities.

This is handled by using the traffic handling priority attribute, to


allow UMTS to schedule traffic accordingly.

By definition, priority is an alternative to absolute guarantees,


and thus these two attribute types cannot be used together for
a single bearer.]

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Allocation/Retention Priority

Specifies the relative importance compared to other UMTS


bearers for allocation and retention of the UMTS bearer. The
Allocation/Retention Priority attribute is a subscription
parameter which is not negotiated from the mobile terminal.

Priority is used for differentiating between bearers when


performing allocation and retention of a bearer.

In situations where resources are scarce, the relevant network


elements can use the Allocation/Retention Priority to prioritise
bearers with a high Allocation/Retention Priority over bearers
with a low Allocation/Retention Priority when performing
admission control

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Asymmetric Bearers

Uni-directional and bi-directional bearer services are supported.


For bi-directional bearer services, the attributes Maximum
bitrate and Guaranteed bitrate can be set separately for
uplink/downlink in order to support asymmetric bearers.

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UMTS QoS Classes

UMTS attempts to fulfil QoS requests from the user


Four traffic classes have been identified


Conversational

Streaming

Interactive

Background

Main distinguishing feature is delay sensitivity

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Conversational Class

Preserve time relation between information entities of the


stream - transmission and reception in the same order

Conversational pattern - symmetric


Real time - low delay required
Typically between peers
Example Applications:


Voice

Videotelephony

Video Games

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Streaming

Preserve time relation between information entities of the


stream - transmission and reception in the same order

Highly asymmetric
Real time - relatively low delay required
Typically between server and client
Example Applications


Web broadcast

Video on demand

Miscellaneous streaming multimedia

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Interactive

Request response pattern


Preserve data integrity
Relatively delay sensitive but not real time
Treated as non-real time packet based
Example applications:


Web browsing

Network games

Location based services

Database retrieval

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Background

Destination is not expecting the data within a certain time


Preserve data integrity
Treated as non-real time packet based
Example Applications


Download of emails

SMS

Reception of measurement records

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UMTS Circuit Switched Bearer Services

Five Circuit switched bearer services have been defined:




Speech
 Adaptive Multi Rate

Transparent Data (Unrestricted Digital Information)


 32kbps, 56kbps, 64kbps

Transparent Data (Audio)


 28.8kbps, 33.6 kbps

Non Transparent Fax


 28.8kbps

Non Transparent Data


 14.4kbps, 28.8kbps, 57.6kbps

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UMTS AMR Speech Codec

Standard codec likely to be the multirate coder developed for


GSM


provides EFR quality for good channel

provides good quality in poor conditions

The multirate codec has 14 combined channel and codec


modes


codec produces 8 source rates (4.75, 5.15, 5.9, 6.7(PDC-EFR), 7.4(IS641), 7.95, 10.2 and 12.2 kbps(GSM-EFR))

employs variable protection coding according to channel

coding rate between 1/2 and 1/5

puncturing used to match bit rate to channel

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UMTS Services

Universal Personal Telecommunications

UPT means a user can be contacted wherever they are through


a single number


User mobility rather than terminal mobility

The number translation capability of IN can be used to route a


call to a convenient and suitably equipped local terminal


A number is associated with a person not a terminal or ID card

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Virtual Home Environment

The VHE means that a roaming user can access the services
that he would have access to on his home network

Ideally the user should not notice he is not in his home network


Again VHE can be implemented in UMTS through the inclusion of IN


functionality

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SIM Application Toolkit


SIM Application Toolkit Features include:


Profile Download
 To verify support of the SIM Application Toolkit by both SIM and ME

Data Download
 To enable SMS to transfer data directly to an application on the SIM

Proactive SIM
 To allow the SIM to operate the call control functions of the ME

Menu Selection
 To enable an application on the SIM to create and operate a menu on the ME

Call Control by SIM


 All dialled digits may be passed to an application on the SIM which may bar, modify
or allow the call

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Location Based Services

In many regions a Location Function is a condition of the


license

Location information may be provided on request from a client


application (in either the UE or CN)

There are three main types of location derivation




Cell Identity Based


 Giving a position within the cells coverage area

Timing Based
 Derived from relative timing measurements made on radio transmissions

Network Assisted GPS


 A UE is equipped with a GPS, whose performance may be improved by
the network

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Questions

What are the four UMTS QoS Classes?

What is the maximum and minimum rate of the AMR speech


codec?

How might location be determined for location based services


in UMTS?

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Session Summary

In this session we have investigated




QoS Architecture in UMTS

Bearer attributes

QoS Classes

Example services such as the AMR

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Course Roundup

Locator Slide
Introductory Session
1st and 2nd Generation Cellular
Systems Overview

3rd Generation Drivers and


Standards

CDMA Mobile Technology


Overview

UMTS Architecture Overview


UMTS Air Interface
Day 1 Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

Day 2 Introductory Session


UTRAN
UMTS Core Network
UMTS Fixed Network Interfaces
UMTS Mobiles
UMTS Services
Course Roundup

394

Course Roundup

Course Roundup

U101U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

395

Intentionally left blank

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