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3054E, 3056E

Electronically Controlled Engines

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3054E AND 3056E ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED ENGINES


The 3054E and 3056E were the first applications of electronic controls on the
3000 Series engines. Electronic controls allow the engines to run cleaner,
produce more power and better fuel economy than was previously possible
with mechanical systems. Engine problems are easier to diagnose and
troubleshoot when they occur. Electronics are now filtering down from the
larger heavy duty engines to the smaller light and medium duty engines that
Caterpillar produces.
Power range 3054E, N.A.
Power = 64kW (86 hp) @ 2400rpm.
Torque = 302Nm (223 lb ft) @ 1400rpm.
3056E, Turbo, ATAAC
Power = 129.5kw (174 hp) @ 2300rpm.
Torque = 695Nm (513 lb ft) @ 1400rpm

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3054/6E Versions
"C" and "E" versions are Tier 2 emissions compliant
"C" version represents mechanically governed
"E" version represents electronic controls
3054E is a 3054C but with an electronically controlled injection system
3056E is basically a 3056 type 2 with an electronically controlled
injection system

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"C" AND "E" VERSIONS


Meet Tier 2 regulations
C Mechanically governed
E Electronically controlled
3054E is a 3054C but with an electronically controlled injection system.
3056E is basically a 3056 type 2 with an electronically controlled injection
system.

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Electronic Engine Benefits


z

Electronic engine management provides the following benefits:


- Improved fuel consumption through precise control of
injection timing.
- Machine protection under extreme operating conditions.
- Easy servicing and fault diagnostics.

Additional benefits of electronics provides:


- Improved reliability and engine monitoring.
- Further cost savings through increased fuel efficiency and
integration into machine design.

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ELECTRONIC ENGINE BENEFITS


Electronic engine management provides the following benefits:
-

Improved fuel consumption through precise control of injection


timing.

Machine protection under extreme operating conditions.

Easy servicing and fault diagnostics.

Additional benefits of electronics provides:


-

Improved reliability and engine monitoring.

Further cost savings through increased fuel efficiency and integration


into machine design.

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Engine Wiring Harness

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ENGINE WIRING HARNESS


The illustration shows a standard 3054/3056E engine wiring harness.
-

The harness is protected by either plastic tubing or a braided sleeve.

The harness is mechanically fixed to the engine via clips to keep the
it secure and away from potential damage.

All connectors are keyed' to ensure correct orientation.

The connectors are produced by Deutsch and Ampliversal.

Traditionally wiring and connectors are the highest cause of reliability


problems.
-

Majority of faults are connections.

Shorts can be caused by corrosion / abrasion / burning.

Blanking plugs must be fitted on unused pins.

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Electronic Components
VP30 Electronic
Distributor
Pump

Machine Interface
Connector

Voltage Load
Protection Module

Diagnostic
Connector

A4 E1
36-1
Tooth
Crank Gear

Speed/
Position
Sensor
Intake Manifold
Pressure
Sensor
Engine Oil
Pressure
Sensor

Electroni
c Service
Tool

Intake Manifold
Temperature Sensor
Engine Coolant
Temperature Sensor

BASIC ENGINE SCHEMATICS


The illustration is a basic overview of the individual components of the
electronically controlled 3054E/3056E engines.
Power Connections
Important point that affect the power supply;
-

The Fuel Injection Pump and ECM should have independent


supplies.

All Battery positive and negative connections should be properly


connected to prevent Voltage drop.

Return cables should be insulated and connected directly to battery


negative - Not via the chassis.

Correct cable sizes should be used.

Here are a few Power Connection tips.


-

Always use high quality connectors. (Gold Plated)

Keep connections to a minimum.

Make sure all rubber seals are correctly installed.

RememberBAD CONNECTIONS CAUSE RESISTANCE!


RESISTANCE CAUSES VOLTAGE DROP!

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Bosch VP30 Injection Pump

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BOSCH VP30 INJECTION PUMP


The VP30 is powered independently from the ECM. There are two types of
pumps, one for a 12V system and one for a 24V system.
-

For a 12V system 10V 16V is expected. (24V for a maximum of 2


minutes)

For a 24V system 20V 32V is expected. (32V is the maximum)

For early pumps without 12v or 24V identification, the following numbers
stamped on the side of the pump body can be used
12V = 2644P502, T/TA 2644N204, NA 2644N205
24V= 2644P501, T/TA 2644N401

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VP30 Timing Procedures


z

4 Cylinder Timed at
TDC
- Pin Crankshaft
- Pin Pump

6 Cylinder Timed at
4 degrees after TDC
- Use special tool to
locate 4 degrees
- Pin Pump

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The VP30 pump needs to be pin timed to lock it in the correct position before
fitting it to the engine.
The engine must also be set to the correct position. This set position is
different between the 3054E and 3056E.
The 3054E should be set at TDC, compression number one using pin 2306283. (Same as 3054C/C4.4).
The 3056E should be set at 4 degrees after TDC compression number one
using tool 226-2270 in number two injector hole.

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VP30 Fuel Pump

Fuel Quantity
control valve
Speed/timing
sensor

Cam plate &


roller cage
Axial fuel
pumping plunger

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VP30 FUEL PUMP


This illustration shows a cutaway of Bosch VP30 pump components. The
internal components and their functions are briefly described below.
-

Speed timing sensor: Supplies a secondary speed and timing signal


to the engine control module.

Cam plate and roller cage: Provides the plunger motion needed to
produce high pressure fuel.

Pumping plunger: Plunger and barrel unit where the fuel is


pressurized.

Fuel quantity control valve: Opens and closes fuel passages and
controls the injected fuel quantity.

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VP30 Components
Pump ECM

Fuel Temp
Sensor

Fuel Control
Solenoid

Timing
advance unit

Timing control
solenoid

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VP30 COMPONENTS
Other individual components of the Bosch VP30 fuel injection pump are shown in
this illustration. The components and their functions are briefly described below:
-

Fuel temperature sensor: Provides fuel temperature information to the


engine control module.

Timing advance unit: Changes the mechanical position of the roller cage to
alter the injection timing.

Timing control solenoid: Controls pressure to the timing advance unit to


alter the injection timing.

Fuel control solenoid: Converts electrical signals from the pump control
module into mechanical motion.

Pump ECM: The electronic brain of the VP30 pump that interfaces with the
Caterpillar ADEM4 control unit.

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Pumping Chamber Fill


Fuel Return
Fuel Quantity
Solenoid deenergized
(valve open).

Plunger rotating
& moving
backwards.

Electronic
supply to
Solenoid Coil
from ECM (Off)

0v (off)
Time

Pressurization
Chamber filling
with fuel.
Output to Injectors.

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PUMPING CHAMBER FILL


The illustration shows filling of the high pressure pumping chamber in the VP30
pump. The pumping plunger is moving to the left as the pump driveshaft
rotates at half engine speed. The fuel quantity solenoid is a simple ON/OFF
solenoid. When de-energized by the electronic control module it allows the fuel
quantity control valve to open and fuel to be drawn into the pumping chamber.

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Pump Injecting
Fuel Return
Plunger rotating
& moving
forwards

Fuel Quantity
Solenoid
energized
(valve closed)

Electronic
supply to
Solenoid Coil
from ECM (On)

Time

Output to Injectors,
injecting fuel

Pressurization
Chamber filled
with fuel

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PUMP INJECTING
As the pump driveshaft continues to rotate, the cam plate rolls up over the
rollers in the roller cage, causing the pumping plunger to move to the right. The
electronic control module energizes the fuel quantity solenoid, which then
closes the fuel quantity control valve. Fuel is now trapped inside the pumping
chamber and as the pumping plunger continues to move to the right, the fuel
pressure begins to increase.
Pressurized fuel is routed to the proper injector through passages inside the
pump and high pressure fuel is sprayed out of the injector nozzle into the
combustion chamber. When the electronic control module has determined that
enough fuel has been injected, the fuel quantity solenoid is de-energized. Deenergizing the solenoid opens the fuel quantity control valve causing the fuel
pressure inside the pumping chamber to drop and the injection to end.

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Advanced Timing
Fuel In (Fed from
Lift Pump).

Speed & Position


Sensor.

Toothed wheel.

Pressure Relief
Valve.

Transfer Pump.
(Fuel Pressure
inside pump up
to 12 Bar)

Spring return
mechanism.
RET

ADV

PWM signal to
Solenoid from ECM

Advance & Retard


Solenoid closing

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ADVANCED TIMING
A PWM solenoid is used to control the timing advance unit of the VP30
injection pump. The interior of the VP30 pump is pressurized by the internal
transfer pump that is located in the base of the VP30 housing. Interior pressure
is directly proportional to the injection pump rotational speed. Housing
pressure is routed to the timing piston and forces the piston to move against
spring pressure.
Pressure to the timing piston is controlled via the PWM solenoid actuated valve
located on the timing piston housing. By constantly varying the pressure to the
timing piston, the electronic control module can vary the fuel injection timing.
The inset on this illustration depicts a PWM signal with a low ON time (10%)
which results in increased pressure on the timing piston and an advance in
timing.

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Retarded Timing
Fuel In (Fed from
Lift Pump)

Speed & Position


Sensor

Toothed wheel

Pressure Relief
Valve

Transfer Pump
(Fuel Pressure
inside pump up
to 12 Bar)

Spring return
mechanism
RET

ADV

PWM signal to
Solenoid from ECM

Advance & Retard


Solenoid opening

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RETARDED TIMING
Increasing the ON time to the timing control solenoid results in an increase in
effective voltage and allows the solenoid to reduce the pressure to the timing
piston. When the pressure on the timing piston is reduced, the spring then
moves the timing piston to the retard position.

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V.L.P.M.

(Voltage Load Protection Module)

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VOLTAGE LOAD PROTECTION MODULE (V.L.P.M.)


The Voltage Load Protection Module (VLPM) protects the electronic control
module of the VP30 pump from constant over voltage and destructive voltage
spikes. The maximum voltage ratings for 12 and 24 volt systems are:
22V maximum operating voltage for 12V system.
32V maximum operating voltage for 24V system.
Reverse polarity voltage caused by incorrect connection of the battery is
protected by a fuse in the system supply and not by the VLPM.

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System Connection Diagram


+BAT Machine
(Pin 48 MIC)

+BAT Pump
(Pin 7 Pump)

Voltage Load Protection Unit


2
1

Suppressor &
Filter Circuit

VLPM
Connector

Load
Dump

4
3

-BAT Machine
(Pin 58 MIC)

-BAT Pump
(Pin 6 Pump)

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SYSTEM CONNECTION DIAGRAM


The VLPM contains no serviceable components and functions as a surge
suppressor.

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Electronic Control Module

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ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE


The Advance Diesel Engine Management 4 (ADEM4) or ECM control unit is
used on the 3054E and 3056E. There is only one piece of ECM hardware
available. The ECM software determines if the unit functions as a 12 or 24 volt
unit and as a four or six cylinder controller.

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Basic System - Interactions


INPUTS
Sensors:
Pressure,Temp,
Speed/Position

CONTROL

OUTPUTS

ECM
Indicator lights
Cables/
Connectors

Switches &
Pushbuttons
Cables/
Connectors

Power Supply,
12 v or 24 v

Computer
Hardware
+
Software
Sensor Power
Supply

Cables/
Connectors

Actuators/
Solenoids
Cables/
Connectors

Relays

Cat
Data
Link

Controller
Area
Network

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BASIC SYSTEM
The ADEM4 ECM receives inputs from various switches, sensors and power
supplies via the wiring harness. Inside the ECM, software programs
calculate the required output to relays, solenoid actuators, and indicator
lights to achieve the desired engine response.

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Basic System - Interactions


INPUTS

CONTROL

Digital

PROCESSOR

Analog
PWM
(Pulse Width
Modulated)

Cables/
Connectors

Cables/
Connectors

Power Supply,
12 v or 24 v

MEMORY
(Engine
Program)
Power Supply
for 5 volt
8 volts and
12 volts

CDL

CAN

Electronic
Service
Tool

Fuel
Pump

OUTPUTS
Digital Voltage
Cables/
Connectors

Cables/
Connectors

PWM
(Pulse Width
Modulation)

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BASIC SYSTEM
The ADEM4 ECM is designed using a Motorola MPC555 32 bit
microprocessor running at 40 MHz with 22K bytes of read only memory
(RAM) and 448K bytes of flash memory. Voltage outputs of the ADEM4
ECM are:
-

5V dc Sensor Reference Voltage. +/- 0.25V

8V dc Sensor Reference Voltage. +/- 0.5V

12V dc Internal Voltage.

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ECM Voltages
z Nominal
z

battery supply voltage 9-32 volts.

Expected voltage range


z 9-16

volts for 12V system.

z 18-32

volts for 24V system.

Note these voltage ranges only apply to the ECM not the VP30 fuel pump

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ECM VOLTAGES
The same ADEM4 ECM hardware is used for both 12 and 24 volt systems and
has a maximum voltage limit of 48 volts for 2 minutes at 25 degrees C (77
degrees F). Typical current draw of the ADEM4 is 4 amps which does not
include the power supply to the electronic fuel pump. The maximum operating
temperature of the ADEM4 is 110 degrees C (230 degrees F) and the minimum
operating temperature is -40 degrees C (-40 degrees F). When the ignition is
OFF and the ECM is in sleep mode, the maximum current draw is 8mA for a 12
volt ECM and 10mA for a 24 volt ECM.

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ECM Grounding
z

Grounding
Always ensure the ground strap on the ECM is
connected to the engine block to prevent
Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI).

WARNING!
When carrying out welding or
electrostatic paint spraying, special
precautions should always be
followed.
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ECM GROUNDING
If welding is to be performed on the machine, special precautions need to be
taken to protect the ECM. Always turn off the engine and disconnect the
negative cable from the battery terminal. Place the welding ground cable close
to the welding point. If welding is to be performed on the engine, disconnect
and remove the ECM entirely.
If the machine or engine is to have electrostatic paint applied, remove the ECM
from the engine. If the ECM cannot be removed, connect all 70 pins of the
machine interface connector (MIC) directly to the spray booth ground and
connect two points on the engine block to the same ground. Jump starting the
engine can cause higher voltages (example: jump starting a 12 volt engine with
a 24 volt battery) so care must be taken that voltages do not exceed the ECM
maximum.

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ECM: Essential Messages


z
z

z
z

High reliability.
External connectors most vulnerable: Bent Pins, over tightened plug
etc.
No serviceable parts.
Never replace an ECM without first connecting ET and carrying out
basic diagnostic checks.
The ECM is the LAST component you should suspect.

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ECM: ESSENTIAL MESSAGES


The majority of failures in modern electronic systems are hardware related and
include items such as broken wires and corroded connections. ECM failures
do occur but they are rare. A software fault does not necessarily mean that
there is a physical problem with the ECM and reprogramming an ECM with a
new flash file may cure the problem.

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ECM Pin Connections

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ECM PIN CONNECTIONS


The illustration shows the 70 pin connector used on the ADEM4 ECM.

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Engine Mounted Sensors

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ENGINE MOUNTED SENSORS


3054E, 3056E Engine Sensors include:
- Engine Oil Pressure
- Intake Manifold Pressure
- Engine Coolant Temperature
- Intake Manifold Temperature
- Engine crankshaft Speed and Position
- VP 30 Pump. Speed and position/Fuel temperature

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Engine Sensor Wiring


J201 P201

ENGINE OIL PRESSURE


SENSOR

SENSOR VREF +5V

ENGINE OIL PRESSURE

SENSOR COMMON

P1 J1

INTAKE MANIFOLD
PRESSURE SENSOR

SENSOR VREF +5V

INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE

SENSOR COMMON

ECM

L730 (OR)

26

SENSOR VREF +5 VOLTS E

994 (GY)
X731 (BU)

24
14

ENGINE OIL PRESSURE

995 (BU)

15

ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE

32
34

SENSOR COMMON O VOLTS E

J200 P200

INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE

J100 P100

ENGINE COOLANT
TEMPERATURE SENSOR

ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE


SENSOR COMMON

1
2

J103 P103

INTAKE MANIFOLD
TEMPERATURE SENSOR

INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR TEMPERATURE

C967 (BU)

SENSOR COMMON

L731 (BR)

INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR TEMP

J401 P401

SPEED AND TIMING SENSOR


NO.1

CRANKSHAFT POSITION +

CRANKSHAFT POSITION -

E966 (YL)
E965 (BU)

41
49

CRANKSHAFT POSITION +
CRANKSHAFT POSITION -

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ENGINE SENSOR WIRING


Question: If both temperature sensors and both pressure sensors failed, what
would be the most likely cause for this problem?

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Temperature Sensors
z

Coolant Temperature Sensor


- Used for engine protection
- Provides signal for temp gauge

Intake Temperature Sensor


- Used to determine mass air flow.
- Enables the system to calculate the correct air / fuel
ratio
- Used for smoke limiting strategy.

BOTH SENSORS ARE USED TO ENABLE THE COLD START STRATEGY

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TEMPERATURE SENSORS
The cold start strategies for the 3054E and 3056E engines are the same.
When either the coolant temperature or inlet manifold temperature is measured
at a value of -5 deg. C (23 deg F) or below for more than 0.5 seconds, the glow
plugs will operate when the ignition is turned to the ON position. With the glow
plugs on, a "Wait to Start" lamp will be activated by the ECM for a period of 20
seconds. Once the 20 second period has elapsed the lamp will turn OFF. The
glow plugs will continue to be active however until the engine speed reaches 60
RPM for 2 seconds or more.
Once engine speed reaches 60 RPM for 2 seconds or more, the glow plugs will
turn OFF and the ECM will set minimum engine speed to 1200 RPM for 50
seconds. When the 50 second period has elapsed, engine speed will return to
the low idle value specified within the service tool configuration screen. During
the preheat period if the coolant AND inlet manifold air temperature exceeds -5
deg. C (23 deg F) for more than 0.5 seconds, the "Wait to Start" lamp will turn
off as will the glow plugs.

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Temperature Sensors
z Thermistor

Ground
Pin No 2

Signal
Pin No 1

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TEMPERATURE SENSORS
Temperature sensors are two wire, passive sensors.

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Temperature Sensors

z
z
z

Thermistor sensing devices


Resistance varies with temperature
The Sensor has a Negative Temperature
Coefficient (NTC). As temperature increases
its resistance decreases
Passive Sensor. (Needs no external power
supply)

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TEMPERATURE SENSORS
The illustration shows a passive sensor that has been cut-away to show the
internal components.

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Temp Sensor Operation


+5 VOLTS REFERENCE
SUPPLY

TEMPERATURE
SENSOR

ECM

R1

ANALOGUE TO

Signal

DIGITAL

PROCESSOR

CONVERTER

R2
0 VOLTS

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TEMPERATURE SENSORS OPERATION


The illustration depicts a typical circuit that is very common in most electronic devices. The configuration of
two resistors in series is called a "Potential Divider" circuit. The 5V supply at the top of the circuit is always
used up across the two resistors, but depending what value the two resistors are, depends on how much
voltage is split between them.
Example 1: If the two resistors are of equal value (R1 = 50 ohms, R2 = 50 ohms) then equal voltage will be
dropped across each resistor (2.5 volts across each). This statement means that the voltage measured across
R2 is 2.5 volts, and the voltage seen at the ECM will also be 2.5 volts.
Example 2: If R1 is four times bigger than R2 (R1 = 40 ohms, R2 = 10 ohms) then more voltage will be
dropped across R1 than will be dropped across R2 (4 volts across R1 & 1 volt across R2). This statement
means that the voltage measured across R2 is only 1 volt, so the ECM will only see 1 volt.
By altering the ratio of resistance between R1 & R2 the voltage can be varied across R2, thus altering the
signal voltage that the ECM receives. In this circuit, the ratio of resistance is altered by the Temperature
Sensors (Thermistor), giving the ECM a voltage signal that relates to temperature.
For self-diagnostics, if the sensor is removed or goes open circuit, no current can flow, therefore the resistors
stop working and become like straight pieces of wire. The ECM will now see 5 volts and generate a fault code
(signal shorted high FMI 03) and illuminate a warning lamp. If the sensor goes short circuit the ECM will now
see 0 volts and again generate a fault code (signal shorted low FMI 04) and bring on a warning lamp.

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Pressure Sensors
A (5 Volts)
C (Signal)

INTAKE MANIFOLD
PRESSURE SENSOR

B (Sensor Common 0 Volts)


OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

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TEMPERATURE SENSORS
Pressure sensors are active sensors. An active sensor has three wires while a
passive sensor has two wires.
Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor:
-

Used to determine mass air flow.

Enables the calculation of the correct air / fuel ratio.

Used for smoke limiting strategy.

Measures atmospheric pressure on "key-on."

Oil Pressure Sensor:


-

Used for engine protection.

Provides signal for pressure gauge.

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Pressure Sensors
z

Integrated circuit.

Capacitive sensor.

Voltage output varies with pressure.

Sensor conditions the voltage output to the ECM.

Active Sensor. (Needs a external power supply)

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TEMPERATURE SENSORS
Three wire active sensors are more complex internally than two wire passive
sensors.

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Pressure Sensor Operation


ECM
ECM
VOLTS REFERENCE
+5+5Volts
Reference
SUPPLY
Supply

+12V
+12V

Analogue
to
ANALOGUE TO
DIGITAL
Digital
CONVERTER
Converter

Processor

MICROPROCESSOR

0 Volts
0 VOLTS

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PRESSURE SENSOR OPERATION


Pressure sensors are active sensors that use a power supply to operate a built
in circuit and develop a signal that is sent back to the ECM. The normal
operating range of a 5 Volt active sensor is 0.2 Volts to 4.8 Volts. In the event
the supply or signal lines short to the 0 volt line or a ground point, the voltage
input to the ECM will drop below 0.2 volts and a fault will be detected by the
ECM. The ECM will then generate a fault code (signal shorted low FMI 04) and
turn on a warning lamp.
Unlike a passive sensor, an open circuit on either the supply (+5V) line or the
sensor signal line results in the ECM seeing 0 volts.
In order to differentiate between a low voltage fault or a high voltage fault, an
additional circuit has been put in. The additional circuit is in the form of a pullup resistor. The pull-up resistor is connected between the signal input line of
the sensor and +12 volts. The resistor value (22 k) is such that, even with a
very small current flow through it (less than 0.5mA), the voltage drop across it
is approximately 12 volts so it does not affect the signal voltage of the sensor.
If the signal voltage line were to go open circuit, there would be no current path
to allow a current flow through the resistor. The volt drop across the resistor is
0 volts and the 12 volts is sensed at the ECM. The ECM then generates a fault
code (signal shorted high FMI 03) and turns on a warning lamp.

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Speed/Position Sensors
z

Two speed sensors on 3054E and


3056E
- Crank Shaft Primary
- Injection Pump Secondary

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SPEED/POSITION SENSORS
There are two speed sensors on 3054E and 3056E.
-

Crank Shaft Primary

Injection Pump Secondary

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Crankshaft Sensor
z
z
z
z

Primary speed sensor.


Passive Sensor, Magnetic pickup type.
Produces a sign-wave signal.
ECM uses this sensor after it is
producing a signal of more than 0.4v
Peak-Peak. (About 300-400 rpm)

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CRANKSHAFT SENSOR
Key points on the crankshaft sensor:
-

Primary speed sensor.

Passive Sensor, Magnetic pickup type.

Produces a sign-wave signal.

ECM uses this sensor after it is producing a signal of more than 0.4v
Peak-Peak. (About 300-400 rpm)

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Crankshaft Sensor
z

The 3054E and


3056E use a 36-1
tooth ring. The
timing ring has
space for 36 teeth,
and one is missing.
The missing tooth
allows the ECM to
determine what
position the engine
is in.

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CRANKSHAFT SENSOR
The primary engine position information is sensed using a passive speed
sensor (crank shaft speed/position sensor) picking up teeth on a toothed wheel
located on the crankshaft.
The crankshaft mounted toothed wheel has 36 equally spaced teeth, one of
which has been removed. The missing tooth is orientated such that it is read
40 degrees after TDC on the six cylinder engine and 70 degrees after TDC on
the four cylinder engine. The signal generated by this sensor is converted into
speed and engine position information in the ECM, allowing accurate timing
control.
During cranking, the ECM uses the signal from the fuel pump speed sensor to
read engine speed and position. After the engine has started, the ECM uses
the signal from the crankshaft speed/position sensor as the primary source of
engine position.
There are 10 degrees, between each tooth, and 20 degrees where there is no
tooth.

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Crankshaft Sensor
Slower Speed
Amplitude
(Voltage)

Frequency / Time

Higher Speed
Amplitude
(Voltage)

Frequency / Time

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CRANKSHAFT SENSOR
The illustration shows the signal which is produced from the crankshaft speed
and position sensor. This type of signal is called a Sine Wave and alternates
between a positive and negative voltage. In the case of crankshaft speed
sensor, the amplitude or voltage increases and the frequency increases as the
speed of the engine rises.

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Crankshaft Sensor

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CRANKSHAFT SENSOR
The toothed wheel for the primary speed/timing sensor is housed within the
crankcase where it is protected from damage.

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Crankshaft Sensor
Speed and timing
sensor Sensor
Braided Harness
Harness Clamp

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CRANKSHAFT SENSOR
The only visible external component of the primary speed/timing sensor is the
wiring harness connection.

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Fuel Pump Sensor


z
z
z

Secondary speed sensor.


Active Sensor, Hall Effect type.
Produces a conditioned square-wave
signal.
ECM uses this sensor at all speeds.

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FUEL PUMP SENSOR


The secondary speed/timing sensor is a more sophisticated Hall Effect-type of
sensor.

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Fuel Pump Sensor


On
Off

Slower Speed

Frequency / Time

On
Off

Higher Speed

Frequency / Time

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FUEL PUMP SENSOR


The fuel pump speed sensor (Hall Effect) produces a Square Wave signal. The
square wave signal has a fixed On/Off voltage with the frequency of the signal
increasing as the speed of the engine rises. A fixed voltage signal is preferred
since the electronics in the ECM do not have to condition this type of signal as
much as a Sine Wave signal.

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Fuel Pump Sensor


Pump Speed /
Position sensor

Toothed Pickup Wheel


120-4 Teeth for 4 Cyl
120-6 Teeth for 6 Cyl

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FUEL PUMP SENSOR


The 3054E uses a 120 tooth (minus 4) wheel. The 3056E uses a 120 tooth
(minus 6) wheel.

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Fuel Pump Sensor Faults


z

Fault Conditions
-

If the primary sensors fails the


engine will still run but only to a
maximum of 1200 rpm. (Limp
home mode)

If the secondary sensor fails the


engine will shut down.

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FUEL PUMP SENSOR


If the primary sensor has failed, the engine will still start but will operate in Limp
Home Mode. If the secondary sensor fails, the engine will shut off immediately
and will not restart.

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Application Wiring

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APPLICATION WIRING

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Application Wiring Diagram


Pump Power Relay
3A

42

Fuel Injection Pump


Power Control

25A

48

Pump Power

5A

3A

56

+ ECM Supply

57

+ ECM Supply

70

Ignition

58

Ground

69

Ground

68

Ground

Ignition Switch

Starter Power Relay

Start Switch

STARTER
MOTOR

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APPLICATION WIRING DIAGRAM


The illustration is the basic wiring schematic that is required to start and run a
3054E or 3056E engine. This wiring diagram is designed to aid in system
troubleshooting by providing the basics required to start the engine.
When troubleshooting a no-start condition on an engine, the diagram in this
illustration can be used to test for the required powers and grounds.

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Machine Interface Connector


(MIC) Pin Connections

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MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

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System Outputs

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SYSTEM OUTPUTS
System outputs are defined as signals that the ECM supplies based on the
inputs it receives.

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Output Devices
Relays
- Fuel Pump power control
- Start aids
- Electric lift pump (1104 only)
z Lamps
- Engine stop
- Warning / Cold start
z Gauges (PWM)
- Coolant temperature
- Oil pressure
z

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OUTPUT DEVICES
Output devices that receive signals from the ECM perform a multitude of
functions. Relays can be energized to control items such as glow plugs and
electric lift pumps. Warning lamps can alert the operator to dangerous engine
conditions. Gauges keep the operator informed about the status of assorted
engine parameters such as oil pressure and coolant temperature.

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Start Aid Wiring


Start Aid Power Relay
MIC CONNECTOR
43

ECM CONNECTOR
43

START AID CONTROL

FUSE

Start
Aid
12 AND 24 VOLT OPTIONS SHOWN

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Electric Lift Pump, 3054E Only

3A

Electric lift
pump relay
31

20A

FUEL LIFT PUMP


CONTROL

To electric
lift pump

Battery +
MIC CONNECTOR

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ELECTRIC LIFT PUMP, 3054E ONLY


The 3054E has an electric lift pump which is controlled by the ECM via a relay.
The only lift pumps available are 12 volt so a resistor is used on 24 volt
applications to drop the voltage to 12 volts. The control relay has a maximum
current available to the relay coils of 0.3A. All relays should have the coil of the
relay fitted with a diode to protect the output of the ECM.
The lift pump is rated at a continuous 4.5 A with 19A start up current so the
contacts of the Lift pump relay must be rated at 20A. The lift pump power
supply does not pass through the MIC but is directly connected to a Deutsch
DT plug on the pump housing.

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Speed Demand Options

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SPEED DEMAND OPTIONS


All Caterpillar Machine throttles are Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) type
throttles.
Industrial Engines can use either Analogue or PWM.

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Throttle Position Sensor


Analogue
Analog
Require Validation Switch

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Resistive track potentiometer type devices most common.


Hall effect type recommended, (non contact, longer life)
Provide linear voltage output (Approx 0.5v to 4.5v)
Should have a throttle movement detector, or Idle Validation Switch (IVS) on
all mobile applications for throttle failure detection.

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Throttle Position Sensor


Pulse Width Modulated (PWM)
z Three Wire
Power +8 Volts
From ECM
Ground
From ECM
Signal
To ECM
z No

Validation
Switch Needed

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PWM THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR


Throttle incorporates conditioning electronics to provide Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) signal output.
More consistent than an analogue type throttle.
No need for Idle Validation Switch.
Only uses a three wire connection.
Uses sensor 8V reference voltage.
Less susceptible to voltage supply variations.
Less susceptible to outside noise / interference.
The PWM pedal sends a signal to the ECM depending on the pedal position.
This signal varies from 10% duty cycle to 90% duty cycle. The ECM then
interprets this signal into a required engine speed. A comparison between
actual engine speed and desired engine speed is made. The amount of fuel
being delivered to the engine is adjusted to increase or decrease the RPM of
the engine.

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Throttle Characteristics

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THROTTLE CONFIGURATION SCREEN (ET)


This screen capture shows where we can change the type of throttle and
program its characteristics.

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Dia
g

. li

it

Throttle Characteristics
lim
s.
po

its

ne
zo
ad
De

Mechanical limits of pedal

Limits of potentiometer

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Diagnostic Limits.
In an analogue throttle, if a we try to measure values too close to the supply voltage (5V) or to ground (0V) then it
is possible that short circuit, open circuits or noise events will be mistaken for valid signals.
In a PWM throttle, we cannot go as low as 0% or as high as 100% pulse width as both of these would be the same
as no signal, or the full 8 volts.
If the ECM measures values close to 0% or 100% raw signal then it is considered as a sensor fault and a
diagnostic code is sent or logged.
Example; 91-3, (Signal Voltage above normal or shorted to a higher voltage)
Example; 774-4, (Signal Voltage below normal or shorted to a lower voltage)
Position Limits.
A throttle pedal is designed so that when it is in the released position it will give a voltage output of approximately 1
volt. The sensor (potentiometer) used has a tolerance of 1% of full travel. The manufacturing tolerances of the
pedal add a further 2% (of full travel) tolerance.
Pedals will be produced, therefore, which, when in the released position will give a voltage somewhere between
0.7 volts and 1.3 volt
For this pedal the ECM would be configured to give an initial lower position of 15% (equivalent to 1.3V) and a lower
position limit of 10% (equivalent to 0.7V)
If a throttle pedal leaves the production line that gives an output of 1 volt, (when back). Then when the ignition is
turned on the ECM will see that this value is lower than the initial lower limit but greater than the lower position
limit. It will now auto-calibrate to take 1volt to be the lower pedal position.
Dead Zone.
The lower Dead Zone will be a certain amount of throttle movement before the engine speed starts to rise.
The Dead Zone is defined as a percentage of the raw signal. If the throttle auto calibrates then the Dead Zone will
also move.
Upper Diagnostic Limit, Initial Upper Position, Upper Position Limit and Upper Deadzone are defined in exactly the
same way as the lower ones

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Idle Validation Switch


Operation
0%

10

20

Switch
Closed (on)

Min Off
Threshold

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100%

Switch Open (off)

Max On
Threshold

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Why do we need an idle validation switch?


An Idle Validation Switch provides an extra level of safety. Its a throttle movement
detector. A micro switch is configured to operate when the pedal is in its released position. If
the idle validation switch tells the ECM that the pedal is released, but the voltage signal tells
the ECM that there is a speed demand, then the ECM can detect that there must be a fault
with the throttle sensor or its wiring.
How is the idle validation switch applied
A switch should be set up such that it closed (ON) when the pedal is released. It should open
(OFF) when the pedal is depressed a little.
Like other components, there will be some variation due to manufacturing tolerances and
wear of switches and switch mountings. We define 2 thresholds in the software, Max ON
and Min OFF.
Operating the throttle, forward, Max On Threshold
If the ECM reads a value above this and the switch is still ON
(Closed) then it will register a fault
Releasing the throttle, returning, Min Off Threshold
If the ECM reads a value below this and the switch is still OFF
(Open) then it will register a fault

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Idle Validation Switch


0%

10

20

Switch
Closed (on)

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100%

Switch Open (off)


Max On
Threshold

Min Off
Threshold
z Between

Min OFF and Max ON Thresholds

When the ECM reads a raw signal higher than Min


OFF but lower than Max ON, it does not care what
the switch position is. This zone is to allow for
tolerance of components.
z Typical

Idle Validation Switch (IVS) settings

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Between Min OFF and Max ON Thresholds When the ECM reads a raw
signal higher than Min OFF but lower than Max ON, it does not care what the
switch position is. This zone is to allow for tolerance of components.

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Idle Validation Switch (IVS)


0%

10

20

Switch
Closed (on)

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100%

Switch Open (off)

Min Off
Threshold

Max On
Threshold
Machine Interface Connection
37

37

0 Volts
Not Used

IVS

22

36

0 Volts
12 Volts

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Multi-Position Switch

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MULTI-POSITION SWITCH
The 3054E/3056E electronic control unit may also be configured for a second
throttle. One of the second throttle options can be a multi-position switch to
control engine speed.

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SERQ4108_tier 2 electronics

Example Of Multi Position


Switch Operation
Throttle
Switch Input
4
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed

Throttle
Switch Input
3
Open
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Closed
Closed
Open
Open

Throttle
Switch Input
2
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Open
Open

Throttle
Switch Input
1
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed

Throttle
Switch
Position
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Valid
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Desired
Engine
Speed
idle
1000
1200
1250
1400
1650
1670
2000
2100
2200

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MULTI-POSITION SWITCH
This illustration provides an example of how a multi-position switch might be
used in a real world application. In this example the engine might be used to
drive a stationary pump to provide irrigation water. Changing the engine speed
changes the water flow. Setting the switches in the required position gives the
desired output speed and water flow.

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Variable Set Speed Control


z

Provides simple increment / decrement /


hold function

"Cruise control" / PTO control

Disable input provided for safety and


protection systems

Cannot be used with the multi position


switch option.

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VARIABLE SET SPEED CONTROL


Variable set speed control (cruise control) is available, but may not be used in
certain conditions.

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Indicator Lamps
z

The indicator lamps will flash any active fault codes.

Activation is achieved by cycling the key-switch off and back


on twice within three seconds. The diagnostic lamps will then
remain off for 2 sec before starting to flash the codes.

Each flash will have a duration of 0.5 sec followed by 0.3 sec
off.

The lamp will remain of for 2 sec between each digit of the
code.

The lamp will remain off for 5 sec between each fault code.

The sequence of codes can be restarted at any time by


reactivating the key switch sequence.

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INDICATOR LAMPS
Table Showing the conversion from flash code to Circuit Identifier (CID).

41
91
100
102
105
110
174
247
253
262
320
342
774
1684
1743
1894
1895

8 volt power supply


Throttle position sensor
Engine oil pressure sensor
Intake Manifold pressure sensor
Intake manifold air temperature sensor
Engine coolant temperature sensor
Fuel temperature sensor
J1939 Data link
Personality module
5 volt power supply
Engine speed sensor
Secondary speed sensor
Secondary throttle position sensor
Fuel injection pump
Engine operation mode selector switch
Set Speed control disengage switch
Set Speed control toggle switch

517
154
157
135
133
168
165
514
416
516
141
142
155
158
144
427
428

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Indicator Lamps
(Time shown in Second)
Lamp On

Lamp Off

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INDICATOR LAMPS
The red and yellow indicator lamps are used to display the flash codes. The
indicator lamps may not be present depending on the application, however the
capability to drive them is present within the ADEM4 ECM. If there are no
indicator lamps available, the lamp outputs can be accessed at pins 23 (red
lamp) and 12 (yellow lamp) of the ECM. This illustration shows three different
indicator lamp flash code outputs.

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3054E And 3056E


Lab Assignment
z Using

the correct service literature

- Wiring one of the training engines to enable it to


start and run.
- Connect and enable a throttle control device.
- Note the electrical differences between the machine
engine and the industrial engine.
- Note the functionality differences with ET between
both engines.
- Diagnose and repair and faults you may encounter.
- Answer questions below
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Quiz
1. Between which pins on the Engine ECM would there be continuity for the
two 5 volt reference power supplies?

2. What can result from shutting down the engine by means other that using
the ignition switch?

3. On an analog throttle fitted to a 3054/6E, should the IVS switch be


normally open or closed?

4. How much resistance can be applied to the VP30 pump power supply
before the engine will not start?

5. To correctly pin time the VP30 pump on a 3056E, what position should
number one piston be at ?

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