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UMTS

Universal Mobile
Telecommunication System

Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI

The Hague, 2006


Presentation Outline
Radio Interface
 Multiple access schemes versus CDMA

 W-CDMA technology (Spreading Spectrum)

 Mechanisms to optimize performances

 Limits

 Code planning versus Frequency planning


Multiple Access Schemes
FDMA (analog)
Power TDMA (digital)
Power

30 KHz
Time 200 KHz
User 4
User 3
User 2 Frequency
Time User 1

Frequency
User 4
User 5 User 3
User 2
User 4 User 1
User 3
User 2 A channel is identified by a carrier frequency and
User 1 a Time Slot assignment.
A channel is identified by a carrier frequency The channel is the set of TS intervalls used
by the communication
FTDMA (GSM) CDMA (IS95, 3G)
Power Power

Time Frequency
Time
Frequency

User 1 & 2 & 3 & ...

A channel is identified by a carrier frequency and


a code per user
Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access
Key Notions
Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access
technology
to provide
Speech, LCD and UDD services
implementing
FDD or TDD modes
On
Physical Channels
Performances
 Soft and softer Handover to improve quality
 A mobile is listened by several BTS simultaneously
 User traffic is taken in charge instantaneously by the new
BTS (data is then encoded with another code)
 Power Control
 Fast power control to optimize capacity (number of users)
  Power   Interferences   Capacity
 Limits
 DL limits: UMTS cell capacity constrained by the number of
active users and the maximum power available at the BTS
• Key mechanism to optimize cell capacity = Power control
algoritm
 UL limits: trade-off between coverage (cell radius) and
guaranteed data service in the cell
– CDMA link budget expertise and receiver performances
Code Planning (UMTS) Versus
Frequency Planning (GSM)
 Northern Telecom - Confidential Information - may not be copied or disclosed without permission

• W-CDMA distinguishes users UMTS:


UMTS:N=1
N=1Means
Means
1
by codes, the same channel Minimal Frequency
Minimal Frequency 1 1
can be deployed in adjacent Planning
PlanningisisRequired
Required
1 1
4
cells.
1 1 1
 Prefered configuration for
1 1
initial deployments
1 1
• Every UMTS cell site can use
the same 5 MHz band . 5

 N = 1 Reuse 6 4
CELL
• Channel reuse problem 1
encountered in GSM is 7 3
eliminated. 5 2

• Greatly simplifies frequency 6 4


planning in a fully W-CDMA CELL
GSM
1 4 GSM N=7N=7
environment. Reuse Pattern
Reuse Pattern
7 3

2
Multiple Access
Multiple Access
Simultaneous Private Use Of An Unique Radio Channel By Multiple
Independent Users
Channel #i = [FMS(UL), FBTS(DL=UL+duplex spacing)] (Paired Spectrum)
Or
Channel #i = [FMS(UL), FBTS(= FMS)] (Unpaired Spectrum)

Channel #i

Channel #i Channel #i
Multiple Access
Near Far Problem

• The User 1 is an interferer for the User 2


• The User 2 is an interferer for the User 1
• The two signals are not synchronised and the codes are
not completely orthogonal
 without power control the base station cannot
discriminate the two signals

Channel #i
User 2
Channel #i

User 1
Multiple Access
IMT-2000 Spectrum

Unpaired Spectrum

1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250


1885 MHz 2010 MHz 2110 MHz 2170 MHz

ITU IMT 2000 MSS IMT 2000 MSS

2025 MHz

1920 MHz

Europe GSM 1800 DECT TDD UMTS MSS TDD UMTS MSS
FDD FDD

1805 MHz 1880 MHz 1980 MHz

1990 MHz 2160 MHz


PCS
USA A D B E F C A D B EF C
MSS Broadcast auxiliary Reserve

1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250

Paired Spectrum
Code Division
Code Division
User distinguishes By Codes
Cscramb : Scrambling Code (distinguishes Cells and Mobile Users)
Cch : Channelization Code (distinguishes one Communication Channel direction)

Cscramb
Cscramb Cscramb
Cch Channel #i
Sector 2
Cscramb
Cch
Sector 1 Sector 3

Channel #i Cscramb Channel #i


Cch Cscramb
Code Division
Uplink And Downlink Are Different !

Scrambling Code
Physical (Short PN Code) cos (ω t)
I
Data/Control
Channels
S/P Cch,i ∑ Cscramb
p(t)
Channelization Code I+jQ
(OVSF)
p(t)
Q
∑ *j
sin (ωt)
Downlink (BSMS)
•Downlink: two bits are transformed into 1 complex symbol  SF = Chip Rate/ (2 symbol rate)
Physical Data Scrambling Code
Channels (Long PN Code) cos (ω t)
I
∑ Cscramb
Cch,i p(t)
Channelization Code I+jQ
(OVSF)
Physical Control p(t)
Channel Q
∑ *j
sin (ωt)
Uplink (MSBS) Cch,i

• Uplink: one bit is mapped on the I part of the modulation  SF = Chip Rate/(symbol rate)
Code Division
Scrambling And Channelization Codes

 Channelization codes (Orthogonal Variable Spreading


Factor)
 In DL and UL, one Cch assigned by user (handset).
 To spread (Spreading Factor SF) user data rate to the
system chip rate.
 To preserve the orthogonality between user ’s different
physical channels
 OVSF codes defined using a code tree.
Where each level in the tree defines a channelization code of
length SF.
A code can be assigned if and only if no other code on the path
from specific code to the root of the tree or in sub-tree below
the specific code is already used by an another user.
 Scrambling codes (Gold & Very Large Kasami Codes)
 In DL, one Cscramb assigned by cell (BTS sector).
 In UL, one Cscramb assigned per mobile user.
 To reduce interference between different physical channels
and users.
Code Division
Multipath RAKE Receiver

[αD(t-τ0).C(t-τ0)+βD(t-τ1).C(t-τ1)] .C(t-τ0) =
α D(t-τ0)

RX Delay (τ0)
α D(t-ττ0).C(t-ττ0)
C(t-τ0)
D(t) [α D(t-τ0).C(t-τ0)+ β D(t-τ1).C(t-τ1)] .C(t-τ1) =
TX β D(t-τ1)

β D(t-ττ1).C(t-ττ1) RX Delay (τ1)


Σ α +β
(α β) D(t)

C(t) C(t-τ1)

RX Delay (τn)

C(t-τn)
Code Division
Transmission Chain For One User
Multipleing data
Voice
Sampling with Channel Coding 1st Interleaving Rate Matching
calls same QoS

Multipleing data Multipleing data


Data
with Channel Coding 1st Interleaving Rate Matching with
calls same QoS different QoS

Multipleing data
Signalling with Channel Coding 1st Interleaving Rate Matching
same QoS Physical Channel
Bit Segmentation
Rate
8.8 (voice)
64 to 2048 kbps (data) Baseband Processing 2dInterleaving
Interleaving
2d

PhysicalChannel
Physical Channel
Mapping
Mapping

Chip Rate
3.84 Mcps
Symbol Rate
64 to 1024 scps
Channelization
Channelization
(OVSF)
(OVSF) I
Modulation
Power Scrambling S/P
Amplification
&
(Short PN code) ∑ Channelization
S/P
Transmission Channelization
(OVSF)
(OVSF)
Q

Radio Digital Radio


Mechanisms To Optimize
Performances
UMTS Performances
Soft And Softer Handover To Improve Quality

RNC

Best Frame Selection

Node B ATM Node B Node B


Concentrator Better
Better Equalizer Equalizer
Throughput Throughput
Radio Site Radio Site Radio Site Radio Site (Bits
Power gain combination)
(dB)

Diversity (TX/RX) Softer Handover Soft Handover Soft Handover Softer Handover

Mechanisms
Mechanisms to
to recover
recover transmit
transmit data
data from
from mobile
mobile user
user
UMTS Performances
Power control
Open Loop Power Control
Access channel
(the mobile is not connected)

Outer Loop Power Control


(communication quality target)
RNC

Inner Loop Power Control


(radio transmission quality)
Limits
BS Power Amplifier
50W

UMTS Performances
DownLink Limits

0W

MS1 MS2 MS3 MSi


BS Receiver
UMTS Lowest
Despread Signal
Performances
Maximum Noise Floor
Eb/No Eb/No
UpLink Limits
(KTBdB+NFdB)
Processing Processing
Gain Gain
(x kbps) (y kbps)
(x<y)
Receiver sensitivity (y kbps)

Receiver sensitivity (x kbps)

MS1 MS2 MS3 MSi


x kbps x kbps x kbps

Cell Breathing
y kbps
UMTS Performances
Limits UPLINK DOWNLINK
MACRO-CELL The capacity is tuned by the power control:
Vehicular 120 Km/h PBTS= Σ pi
where pi is the power given to user i at time t
and PBTS the maximum available power at the BTS
by multipath interferences

Capacity is constrained by the number of active


users in a cell and the power allocation policy.

Maximum
Coverage
Circuit 384 Kbps: 3,5 km

Packet 384 Kbps: 4,25 km

Speech 8 Kbps 5,5 km Basic Set of Assumptions (ETSI):


(equivalent to Data 20-30 Kbps
possibly more with high-power mobile) Tri-Sector Macro-Cell
Data Rate (Kbps)
Max Outdoor Vehicular 120 km/h environment
MS-Power: 21 dBm for voice and 27 dBm for Data
Min MS Gain: 2 dB for Data Terminal:
Antenna Height: 40 m
Distance from BTS 50% load
UMTS Physical Channels
UMTS Physical Channels
FDD And TDD Channel
Power
Time
Code Multiplex
Cch76 UMTS USER 2

DS-CDMA Cch31 Cch15

FDD UMTS USER 1


Cch15

Frequency
1920 MHz
5 MHz 1980 MHz 2110 MHz
5 MHz 2170 MHz
Uplink Spectrum Downlink Spectrum
Duplex Spacing : 190MHz

Cch91
Power Cch25
Time
Cch38 DL Code Multiplex
Cch61
UL &
DL Time Division
TD-CDMA DL UMTS USER 2
TDD UL
UMTS USER 1
625 µs Frequency
5 MHz
1900 MHz 1920 MHz
or or
2010 MHz 2025 MHz
Services
Services
LCD And UDD Services For FDD Bearers
Time
Power
User 3
UDD service
C74
C100

W-CDMA C32 User 2


UDD service C15
FDD
C100
User 1
LCD service Frequency
C11 UL DL
C25

LCD: Long Constrained Delay


Circuit connection emulation (for Speech service also)
Code(s) allocated to the unique use of one user communication
Fixed services: LCD64, LCD144, LCD384 and LCD2048

UDD: Unconstrained Delay Data


Packet connection (shared codes as GPRS has shared channels)
Code(s) can be re-allocated to an another user during a communication
Flexible data services (UDD64, UDD144, UDD384 and UDD2048 exist)
Spreading Spectrum
Spreading Spectrum
Code 1 (Ksps)
Notion
User 1
Symbol Rate (ksps)
Fixed
Chip Rate (kcps)
3.84 Mcps

Spreading
User 2 Factor
Symbol Rate (ksps) (>User 1) (SF)

Code 2 (length < code 1 length)


Chip rate = Symbol rate * SF
Spreading Spectrum
Principle And Advantage (DS-CDMA)
GSM

Bursted
Mode

270 Kbit 200 KHz

W-CDMA
Processing
Gain

CW
X Code (OVSF) Mode

3.84 Mcps 5 MHz


Spreading Spectrum
Properties

OVSF code
• A Narrow Band signal spread
with a code is a spread signal.
• A spread signal is despread
with the same spreading code. NB WB
The processing gain = WB/NB

OVSF code
• A spread signal despread
with the wrong code
remains spread

OVSF code
• Narrow Band signal
despread is a spread signal
SPREADING SPECTRUM
Code Tree For Channelization Codes (OVSF)
(1,1,1,1)

(1,1)
Unusable
(1,1,-1,-1)

(1)

(1,-1,1,-1)
Unusable
(1,-1)

(1,-1,-1,1)
No Spreading Factor
Unusable
SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 16 SF = 32 SF = 64 SF = 128 SF = 256
Spreading Spectrum
Mapping Of Bearers On Physical Channels
LCD64 UDD64 Speech Speech
UDD64
LCD64 UDD144 UDD64 Speech Speech

LCD144
LCD64 UDD64 Speech Speech
UDD144 UDD64
UDD384 UDD64 Speech Speech
UDD144
UDD384
LCD384
LCD384 LCD64 UDD64 Speech Speech
LCD144 UDD64
LCD64 UDD144 UDD64 Speech Speech

LCD144
LCD64 UDD64 Speech Speech
UDD144
UDD64
UDD64 Speech Speech
UDD144

SF=4 SF=8 SF=16 SF=32 SF=64 SF=128 SF=256

32
Spreading OVSF (Example)
Spreading OVSF
Transmited Signal

USER 1 1 -1

Code Cch1 (SF=16)

USER 2 1 -1 1 1 -1 1

Code Cch2 (SF=4)

Transmitted
Signal
(fixed Chip Rate)
Spreading OVSF
Data Extraction (Reception)

Received
Signal

Code Cch2 (SF=4)

2 2 0 0 -2 -2 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 -2 -2 0 0 2 2 0 0
Soft Bits + + + +
=4 = -4 =4 =4 = -4 =4

USER 2 «1» «0» «1» «1» «0» «1»


Spreading OVSF
To (synchronisation)
Orthogonality1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1
Cj

1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1
*
Ck

1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 =0

+
No correlation between codes.
Cj presence does not affect Ck energy.
If To not respected then no orthogonality ==> Interference
Network Interfaces
Network Interfaces
Non Access Stratum
Control User
Plane and Control Planes
User Plane
Non
CM Transport Network User Plane CM
Access
Stratum
MM MM
(OSI 4-7)
Gc Nt Dc Gc Nt Dc

User Data User Data


RANAP RANAP

SCCP SCCP
Access
RRC RRC
Stratum MTP 3 MTP 3
(OSI 1-3)
AAL5 AAL5
MAC
RLC MAC
RLC AAL 2 AAL 2
ATM ATM
MAC MAC ATM ATM

PHY PHY PHY PHY


Uu interface Iu interface

User Equipment Radio Access Network Core Network


Network Interfaces Payload (IP)

Iu GTP U-SGSN PS
UDP
IP Gn C-Plane
GTP
IP
Domain
AAL5 Session
ATM UDP
Management G
IP
G

MM-PS

MM-PS
Any L2
IP Internet

SM

SM
RAN Any L1 S
RANAP RANAP N
SCCP SCCP
MTP3b SIGTRAN
RNC SAAL-NNI IP Mobility
AAL5 or AAL5 Management Intranets
ATM ATM

Standards allow either stack – at least for now.

RNC
DMTAP

MM-CS

U-MSC CS
RANAP Call Control Domain
SCCP

RNC
MTP3b
PSTN PSTNs/
SAAL-NNI Mobility PCM
Q.2630.1
AAL5 Management Interworking ISDNs
MTP3b
ATM
SAAL-NNI
AAL5
ATM
Voice
UMTS AMR
AAL2
Transcoding
ATM


Iu: = Bearer Path (User-Plane or U-Plane)
= Transport Layer Signalling Path (Control-Plane or C-Plane)
= Radio Network Layer Signalling Path
Control Plane User Plane
Network Interfaces
Non Access Stratum
Non Access Stratum
Uu
Access Stratum
Access Stratum Gc Nt Dc

L3
L3 RRC (Radio Resource Control)
Logical Channels SAP AM UM TR AM UM TR
(Service Access Point)

RLC (Radio Link Control) RLC


Common
Common Dedicated Control Dedicated Traffic
L2
L2 Logical Channels Channel
pCH Channel Channel

MAC (Medium Access Control)


Common Shared Dedicated ODMA
Transport Channels CH CH CH CH

Channel coding
Common Shared Dedicated ODMA
Physical Data Channels pCH pCH pCH pCH
L1
L1
Physical Control Spreading
Channel &
Modulation
Physical Channels
Physical Channels
FDD & TDD Frame Structure
1 slot = 0,625 ms

Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #j Slot #16

10 ms Frame = 16 slots = 40960 chips

Frame #0 Frame #1 Frame #i Frame #71

720 ms Super Frame =72 frames*10ms

3.84 Mcps Chip Rate decreases


the number of slots down to 15
Physical Channels
Common Control pCHs
10 ms Frame = 16 slots (FDD)
= 40960 chips

Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #j Slot #16

1 slot = 0,625 ms = 2560 I&Q chips (downlink)


(256 chips)
Primary
SpcCH
(slot sync)
Sync pCH
Secondary
SpcCH
(frame sync)

Primary CCpdCH (1280 chips) Primary CCpcCH (1024 chips)

Primary CCpdCH Primary CCpcCH


Primary CCpCH (BCH Data) (Pilot)

Secondary CCpcCH
Secondary CCpdCH (2304 chips) (256 chips)

FACH or PCH Data Pilot


Secondary CCpCH
Physical Channels
Random Access pCHs (FDD)
10 ms

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1.25 ms

RACH preamble RACH preamble AICH answer RACH Message Part


(RApcCH) (RApcCH) (AIpcCH) (RApdCH+RApcCH)
I&Q I&Q I&Q I+Q
1 ms

Data (Ndata bits)


Signature i

Signature i
I
Uplink
(UE)
Q

pilot
Rate Information

Signature i
Downlink
(Cell)
Physical Channels
Dedicated pCHs10 ms
(FDD)
Frame = 16 slots = 40960 chips

Slot #1 Slot #2 Slot #j Slot #16

1 slot = 0,625 ms
Nbits=>Nsymbols*SF = 2560 chips

DpcCH DpdCH DpcCH DpdCH DpcCH

TFCI Data1 TPC Data2 Pilot


Downlink I&Q =Ntfci bits Ndata1bits Ntpc bits Ndata2bits Npilot bits

DpdCH

I Data
Ndatabits
Uplink +
Q Pilot TFCI FBI TPC
Npilot bits =Ntfci bits Nfbi bits Ntpc bits

DpcCH
Physical Channels
TDD Frame example
10 ms Frame = 16 slots = 40960 chips

Common Dedicated Dedicated Common Random Dedicated Dedicated


Slot type
(Time Division)
Control
TS#0
pCH
TS#1 ... pCH
TS#6
Control Access
TS#7
pCH
TS#8 TS#9
... pCH
TS#15
u u u u t t t

1 slot = 0,625 ms = 2560 chips

RA
SCH DCH1 DCH4 SCH CH DCH1 DCH4
Channel
assignment BCH DCH2 BCH DCH2
(Code Division) RA
FACH DCH3 FACH CH DCH3
RA
PCH PCH CH
RA
CH

Up to 8 users per slot in uplink


8-10 users per slot in downlink (Code Division)
(Code Division)
Up to 16 simultaneous RACH
(Code Division+Time Division)
Physical Channels
Random Access
10 ms FramepCHs
= 16 slots = (TDD)
40960 chips

Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #15

1/2 slot =0,3125ms= 1280 I&Q chips (uplink) 1/2 slot =0,3125ms= 1280 I&Q chips (uplink)

Data Symbols Data Symbols


(336 chips) (512 chips) (336 chips)

Guard Extended
Access Burst 1 RACH Data Midamble RACH Data
period Guard period
512 chips
96 chips 1280 chips

Data Symbols Data Symbols


(336 chips) (512 chips) (336 chips)

Extended Guard
Access Burst 2 RACH Data Midamble RACH Data
Guard period period
512 chips
1280 chips 96 chips
Physical Channels
Common Control
10 ms pCHs (TDD)
Frame = 16 slots = 40960 chips

Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #8 Slot #15

1 slot = 0,625 ms = 2560 I&Q chips (downlink)

(256 chips) (256 chips)


Primary Secondary
SpcCH SpcCH
Toffset (slot sync) Tgap (frame sync)
Sync pCH

Data Symbols (976 chips) (512 chips) Data Symbols (976 chips)

Guard
CCpCH Midamble BCH/FACH/PCH Data
BCH/FACH/PCH Data period
(over burst 1) 512 chips
96 chips

Data Symbols (1104 chips) (256 chips) Data Symbols (1104 chips)

Guard
CCpCH BCH/FACH/PACH Data Midamble BCH/FACH/PCH Data
period
(over burst 2) 256 chips
96 chips
Physical Channels
Burst structure (TDD)
1 slot = 0,625 ms = 2560 I&Q chips

1/2 slot = 0,315 ms = 1280 I&Q chips


Guard
Data symbols*SF Midamble Data Symbols*SF period
Burst type 1 96
976 chips 512 chips 976 chips
chips

Guard
Data symbols*SF Midamble Data Symbols*SF period
Burst type 2 96
1104 chips 256 chips 1104 chips
chips

Guard
Data*SF Midamble Data*SF
period
336 chips 512 chips 336 chips 96 chips
1/2 Burst
Guard
(pos 1 &2) Data*SF Midamble Data*SF
period
336 chips 512 chips 336 chips 96 chips