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Unit 4 Eartho[uakee

Unit 4 Earth(\uakee

JLJRead the passage carefully and join the correct parts of the
sentences
The chickens didnt eat because meM md
A expressims
the army came to help them
B
quakeofhappened
while they
were sleeping. C
12 Find
the correct
word
or expression fortheeach
the following
meanings.
The people
didnt worry
because
they
I______________of no use
2 were nervous.
_
all the people in a country
3 Such a great number of people died
a lot of
AD
_____________matter
is not clean
dams and wells were that
useless.
because finished
6_____________very great in degree
E they didnt know what the strange events meant.
4 Water was needed
because
immediately
gas that hot water gives out
make
surprised
5 _______
The people
didsomeone
not lose feel
hopevery
because
metal bars that a train moves along
save something or somebody from danger
JtjRead the passage again and make a timeline
the part of a building left after the rest has been destroyed
1

2^ Try to find asTIME


many words you have earned in
the reading passage as
EVENTS
^
possible
For three to
days
describe any earthquake you know about.
_
O
^

At about 3:00 am on July 28, 1976

^vents^

feelings
Writing

Earthquake
) looking for the main idea of each part
a summary of a passage
means

and putting it down in


a sentence.
Look at each paragraph
of the reading
damage
J
rescue
passage and write^ down its main idea.

work

13

Complete the passage with words from the text.


It was
2 a frightening night. The dam cracked and then
under the weight of the quite a few

water.
villages along the river.
3 The water went all over the fields and
Some buildings were in ___________ and some farmers were at the top of their
4
houses. The water filled the canals and the
Dead bodies
and___ animals were seen everywhere. People were
,but they had to
thedead
4 Explain
yourreasons.
own words
the
writer means by the title A night the earth
bodies forinhealth
It was a what
very sad
time.

didnt
sleepIn
pairs,
suggest
another
title for the
4 Work
in groups.
Read
some of
the sentences
andtext.
complete the others. Then
choose the best to read to the class.
jChoose
paragraph
and
actasout
anworld
interview
between
a reporter and a survivor
When theaearthquake
came,
it was
if the
was at an
end.
from
Tangshan
earthquake.
When the
the houses
fell down,
it sounded as if

EXAMPLE:
When the dam broke, it looked as if the sea had arrived suddenly on our doorstep.
Paragraph
When the bricks
1 covered the ground, it was as if
When the coal mines fell, the ground above looked as if it would crack.
REPORTER: Did you notice anything strange before the earthquake?
When the cows ran down the road, they looked as if
SURVIVOR:
There
were
strange
.... to die.
When the shock
hit us,
wesome
felt as
if we things
were going
When the nation turned to help us in our need, it seemed as if

28

.
.

Unit 4 Earthoiuakee

1 An attributive clause gives more information about someone or something


referred to in the main clause. Look at the example below:
Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.

An attributive clause may begin with a relative pronoun such as thatwho, which,
whose. Find the sentences with attributive clauses from the reading passage.

Complete each sentence using that which, who or ivftose.Translate the

sentences into Chinese and compare them.


Here are my neighbours

home
destroyed by the earthquake.

The terrible shaking of the building woke up all the people

were

The next day people put up shelters in the open air made with anything

they

could find.
Several days later most of the buildings

had beendamaged

were

repaired.
This frightened boy

mother
was lost in the disaster is looking for her now.

6 We went to see our teacher

husband

lost

in

the

life
Is this the young man

saved
several people trapped under buildings? she asked.

A number of children
were

parents had died in

the

sent tolive with

families in other cities.

Play a game- Get into a group of four and each group makes up a short
sentence. Then take turns to complete the sentence using the attributive
clauses with that which, who or whose.

EXAMPLE: The boy bought a bicycle.


S The boy bought a bicycle that was stolen from his neighbour.
:The boy bought a bicycle which was newly repaired.
S.: The boy who is wearing a red jacket bought a bicycle.
SThe boy whose glasses were broken bought a bicycle.

Repeat the game using the sentences:


29

Unit 4 Eartho\uakee

Reading and speaking


1 Here is a letter of invitation. Read it carefully and imagine that you are the
student who has been invited to give a speech.
Office of the City Government
Tan^ehan, Hebei
China
July5, 200
Dear
Congratulationel We are pleaeed to tell you th^tyou have won the high echool epeaking
competition about new Tanqehan. Your epeech wae heard by a group office judges, all of
whom agreed that it wae the beet one thie year. Your parente and your echool ehould be
very proud of you!
Next month the city will open a new park to honour thoee ivho died in the terrible dieaeter.
The park will aleo honour thoee who helped the eurvivore. Our office would like to have you
epeak to the park vieitore on July 23 at 11:00
Ae you know, thie ie the day the c^uake
happened thirty------------yeare a^o.
We invite you to bring your family and friende on that special day.

5ha

2 Now in pairs prepare a short speech, in which you should:

thank those who worked hard to rescue survivors and list some of the things the workers did to help
them;
thank those who worked hard to build a new city; (For example: they built new homes and offices
in only seven years. The UN honoured them for their quick work.)
thank the visitors for listening to your speech.
I would like to express my thanks to ... who ....
Here, I wish to expreee my thanks for the great efforte ....
Id a\eo lika to thank ....
No worde are strong enough to expreee our ....
It \Nae terrible when ....
It eeemed ae if ....
I remember ....
I felt ....
Not long after that....
Luckily,...

* 3 Look at the stamps of new Tangshan and discuss


done
to rebuild a city after an earthquake.

in

Unit 4 Earth(\uakee

Listening

How would you feel if your home was suddenly destroyed without warning?
In pairs make a list of useful adjectives to express your feelings.

Listen to an interview of a survivor of the great San Francisco earthquake of


1906.

Read the following statements and mark whether they are true or false. Give a
reason.
True False
1
2
3
4
5

The man was sleeping downstairs when the earthquake happened.


Many huge buildings were shaking - bricks were falling.
A lot of people were buried under the ruins.
Some cows were killed in the fires.
He felt safer because he got away easily.

Listen to the tape again and in groups discuss these questions. Write down
your answers and compare with another group.

1
2
3
4
5
6

When did the earthquake begin?


What did the speaker do after he woke up?
What did he see and hear outside?
What happened to the man next to him?
How did he get away from the city?
Which of your adjectives describe the mans feelings most closely?

Read the sentences below and pay attention to liaison and incomplete
explosion.
rj

I askeda man standing nex(t) to me wha(t) happened.

Somej)f them ha(d) broken their legs andotherswere climbing uponeachj)ther to get^out.

Reading and writing


You are going to write an article for a newspaper about a special event that
happened in your hometown. Before you start, you should write an outline- It will
help you organize your ideas. A newspaper outline usually includes: a headline, a
list of main ideas and a list of important details.
1 Read this example of a newspaper story. Find the headline, main ideas and
details of each paragraph.
From July 5 to 2<3, a taam of cycWete

he cycWete come from China, the US,

known ae S>ikere for Dieaeter-Hit Areae will


rida their blkee 1,S>65 km from Lijiang,
Yunnan Province, to Vc\aeat Tibet. he
team hae a big meeting in Beijing on June
3 to talk about their plan. he cyclists
hope to ra\ee money to help tana of
thousands of children in d\eaeter-h\t
areae in China.

Europe and other places. Both man and

woman will nde. Their agee are from 25 to


65. Qefore their trip this summer, the
group hopee to collect 1 mWWon yu^nto
give to the schools which help the children
in thoee natural dleaeter-hit areae.
Email: info@bikingford-ha.com

31

Unit 4 Earthoiuakee

Cyclists Ready to Go on the Road for Disaster-Hit Areas


Paragraph 1
Main idea:

Cyclists plan to get money for disaster-hit areas

Detail 1: Detail Their trip will be made in July in Yunnan and Tibet.
An important meeting will be held in Beijing in early June.
2: Detail 3:
Paragraph 2

The cyclists hope to raise money to help children in disaster-hit areas.

Main idea:
the cyclists
and their
Detail 1: Detail More information
What about
adjectives
below would
youproject
use to describe a great person? And what
The
team
of
cyclists
come
from
many
places
in
world.with your partner and make a list.
2: Detail 3:
qualities does a great person have?the
Discuss
The team has men and women, young and old.
The team hopes to collect 1 million yuan for the schools in disaster-hit areas.
hard-working lazy friendly cruel warm-hearted mean determined

wise

2 active
Nowgenerous
write your
outline.
Before
you
write
it, ask
yourself
these
questions:
easy-going
reliable
unkind
brave
selfish
stubborn
selfless
devoted
What happened? When did it happen?
Where?
took part? Why?
handsome
nice honest
famousWho
calm lovely
3

Write your article based on the outline.


Most great people are also famous people, but famous people may not be
great people. A great person is someone who devotes his/her life to helping
others. Read the information about these six men. Discuss if they were/are
rite

great men. Give reasons.


douun uuhat you have learned about earthquakes.

PEOPLE ALSO GREBI PEOPLE?

from this unit you have also learned useful verbs: useful
nouns other expressions a neuu grammar item

William Tyndale (1494 -1536), Britain Norman Bethune (1890 -1939), Canada

Sun Yat-sen (1866 -1925), China

He wrote the Bible in English so all


He fought against the German Nazis
He founded the first Republic in
n)(R run
could read it. He died for his ideas
and Japanese invaders during World
China
in
1911
after
many
years
::*,7/* *- r. * W;: - ^
but his work is still used in the
War II. He worked selflessly in China fighting. He strongly believed in the
Listening
totoday.
English is a very important
official
Bible
as skill
a doctor and saved many Chinese
three principles: nationalism;
A proverb
because it is only when we understandsoldiers.
what is said
peoples rights; peoples livelihood.
A man who f ea rs suffering is
to us that we can have a conversation with
already suffering from what he fears.

somebody. So listen to the English news on the radio


or watch the news on CCTV International. You will

A quote

get a lot of information about what is happening

Neither a wise man nor a brave man

around the world. You will be able to improve your

lies down on the tracks of history to

listening and learn more English words and


Mohandas Gandhi (1869 -1948), India Nelson Mandela (1918 - ), South Africa

wait for the train of J


the future to run
Neil Armstrong (1930 -

), USA

expressions. At the same time you will improve your


over them, Dwight D Eisenhower
Hepronunciation
gave up a richand
lifeintonation.
for his ideas
He fought for black people and was in He was the first man to land on the
moon in July 1969. He said, Thats
prison for almost thirty years. He
and fought for his country to be free
one small step for (a) man, one giant
helped black people get the same
from the UK in a peaceful way.
leap for mankind.
rights as white people.

32
33

Unit 5 Neleon Mandela -a modern hero

ELiMS9 STORY
l My name is Elias. I am a poor black worker in South Africa.
The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very
difficult period of my life. I was twelve years old. It was in
1952 and Mandela was the black lawyer 5 to whom I went for
advice. He offered guidance to poor black people on their

legal problems. He was generous with his time, for which I


was grateful.
I needed his help because I had very little education.
I began school at six. The school where I studied for 10 only
two years was three kilometres away. I had to leave
because my family could not continue to pay the school fees and the bus fare. I could not read
or write well. After trying hard, I got a job in a gold mine. However, this was a time when one had
got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg. Sadly I did not have one because I was not bom
there, and I worried about whether I would become out of work. 15 The day when Nelson Mandela
helped me was one of my happiest. He told me how to get the correct papers so I could stay in
Johannesburg. I became more hopeful about my future. I never forgot how kind Mandela was.
When he organized the ANC Youth League, I joined it as soon as I could. He said:
The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and 20
progressuntil today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.
It was the truth. Black people could not vote or choose their leaders. They could not get the
jobs they wanted. The parts of town in which they had to live were decided by white people.
The places outside the towns where they were sent to live were the poorest parts of South
Africa. No one could grow food there. In fact as Nelson Mandela said:
25
we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important
or fight the government. We chose to attack the laws. We first broke the law in a way which was
peaceful; when this was not allowed... only then did we decide to answer violence with
violence.
As a matter of fact, I do not like violence ... but in 1963 I helped him blow up some 30
government buildings. It was very dangerous because if I was caught I could be put in prison. But I
was happy to help because I knew it would help us achieve our dream of making black and white
people equal.

34

1 The mines

where we voted

was the 5 th of August.

2 The reason

where I worked

was because of my hard work.

3 The time

why I got a job

were 9 km from my home.

building
5 The date

! when I joined the ANC

was late at night.

j Youth League
when I arrived

was very tall.

Unit 5 Nebon Mandela-a modern hero


Unit
Unit55Nebon
NebonMandela
Mandela-a-amodern
modernhero
hero

Comprehending
useful structures
1

Look at the reading passage again. Find sentences with attributive clauses
which use where, when, or preposition + which/whom.
1 Read the passage carefully
and then
lookmid
at mpfssshr^s
these statements, Decide whether
M$wem
EXAMPLE: The time when
I first metusefui
Nelsonw^rd$
Mandela
....
arethe
true
or false
give
reason.
1they
] Find
words
thatand
mean
thea same
from the text.
(where)
True
1 Elias went to see Nelson Mandela when he was in trouble.

4 The government

(when)
group
peoplewas
organized
for a his
special
purpose
Elias left school because
theofschool
too far from
home.
helphim
andkeep
advice
+ which)
3 (prep
Nelson
Mandela helped
his given
job. to someone
2

not having
a job
+ whom)
4 (prep
Elias
trusted Nelson Mandela
and
he joined the ANC Youth League.
showing
great
love for
someone or something
5 Elias was willing to blow up government
buildings.

26

unkind;
ungenerous
Elias Mandela
had some
messages
hisway
friends.
Please
help him complete the
Nelson
thought
violence
wasfor
a good
to help black
people.
sentences.
a time or state that something reaches as it grows
money paid for going to school

2
1

basic general truth

Answer these questions in pairs after reading. Write down your answers
the human race
and report to the class.
period of being young
Why did Elias visit Nelson Mandela?

2 2Scan
through
the vocabulary
list
of this book and the words you have learned.
What
did Mandela
do to help black
people?
thewas
correct
endings
to form
new words.
3UseWhat
Elias attitude
towards
the unfair
situation black people faced? How do you know?
4
kind

Why did Nelson Mandela turn to violence to make black and white people equal?
kindness
care
careful

carefully

hope

Now make a timeline of Elias life. Scan the reading passage to help you.
selfish
peace
Not all years will have information to be added.
lonely
194

19

3; Complete
the passage with words and
0
48 the phrase from the box below. You may
change
194the form if necessary,
19 5
2
eo[ua\
194
republic

official

worry about

quality

violence

50 2mankind
5
1 eg

My name is Robert Sobukwe. Like Nelson Mandela I was a

lawyer

attack

hopeful

vote

act\ve

who believed that all

is created
.
I hate
and
4 Listen to the tape
and read the quotes
from Nelson Mandela
on page 34, paying
to
waysso
attention to pauses
in the longuse
sentences.
Discuss in pairs and explain the
quotes
in people
your own
that black
could words.
for their government. As I live in South Africa, the
1

The last thirty


years
have
seen the greatest number
laws
stopping
and progress,
of the
South
African
didofnot
agree
with our
me.rights
They

me

today wethe
have
reached
a stage
where
have almost
all. Nobody was allowed
for until
encouraging
blacks
to fight
against
the we
government
andno
putrights
me inatprison.
2to talk
towe
put into
position
which
had to
either
acceptI we
were
less important,
mewere
for five
longayears
andin
I lost
thewe
ability
talk.toBefore
went
to prison,
I had or fight

the government. We chose to attack the laws. We first broke the law in a way which was peaceful;
been ___________ that things would change. After I was released I found the
of
when this was not allowed ... only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.
_______________life
for black people had got worse. I was

my future, and soon I fell ill. Although I was

not as successful as Nelson Mandela, many people remember me as one of the first

36

Mandela started a school in the prison.

He was beaten.

Unit
Unit55Neleon
Nebon Mandela-a
Mande\a -amodern
modernhero
hero

1 Read the passage carefully and make notes about what happened to Elias in prison.

1 Discuss the question in pairs before listening: What things do you think were
unfair in South Africa?
2 Listen to the tape and write down the main idea.
3 Listen again and compare the life and work of white and black people at that
time. Fill in the chart below.
Differences

While people

Black people

The jobs they did Where the


workers lived How much land
they owned Their hospitals
and schools

4 Discuss these questions in pairs.


1 Do you think Elias was right to join the ANC Youth League?
2 Imagine you are Elias. What would you do? Why?

md discussing
3

Complete the following sentences using attributive clauses.

The person with whom THE REST OF ELIMS^


was a STORY
You cannot imagine how the name of Robben Island made us afraid. It was a prison from which no
friend
of mine.
one escaped. There I spent the hardest time of my life. But when I got there Nelson Mandela was also
The house in which
was far away from my work.
there and he helped me. Mr Mandela began a school for those of us who had little learning. He taught
The company for which
was
us during the lunch breaks and the evenings when we should have been asleep. We read books under
five
yearsto see the words. I became a good
our
blankets and used anything we could find to make candles
The address
to which
South to
Africa.
student.
I wanted
to study for my degree but I waswas
not in
allowed
do that. Later, Mr Mandela allowed
The
teamguards
for which
thebe
best
in China.
the
prison
to join us. He said they shouldisnot
stopped
from studying for their degrees. They
Thenot
scientist
from
whom
were
cleverer
than
me, but they did pass their exams. So I knew I could get a degree too. never
That
made me feel good about myself.
lost heart when he was in trouble.
When I finished the four years in prison, I went to find a job. Since I was better educated, I got a
an office.Get
However,
police found
out andThe
told my
bossperson
that I hadbegins
been in prison
4job working
Play ain game.
intothe
groups
of four.
first
withfora
blowing
up government
buildings.
So I in
lostthe
my group
job. I didadd
not work
twenty years
until Mr
sentence
and other
people
extraagain
andfordifferent
information
Mandela
and
the
ANC
came
to
power
in
1994.
All
that
time
my
wife
and
children
had
to
beg for
using attributive clauses with when, why, prep + which or prep + whom.
food and help from relatives or friends. Luckily Mr Mandela remembered me and gave me a job
EXAMPLE:
: The school was vety large.
taking tourists around my old prison on Robben Island. I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. All
:Theofschool
in which
learned
judo
was very large.
the terror and fear
that time
came Iback
to me.
I remembered
the beatings and the cruelty of the
:The
school
to
which
I
was
sent
was
very
large.
guards and my friends who had died. I felt I would not be able to do it, but my family encouraged me.
:The
which
I studied
verygovernment
large.
They said that the
jobschool
and theatpay
from
the newFrench
South was
African
were my reward after
working
my life
for equal
for the Blacks.
So nowpossible
I am proudsentences
to show visitors
You
can all
make
your
ownrights
sentences,
but other
are:over the prison,
for I helped to make our people free in their own land.
The person was willing to help.
The room was dusty.

37

Unit 5 Heleon Mandela-a modern hero

2 Use the timeline on page 39 to write a summary of Nelson Mandelas life or a


short paragraph about your ideas on Nelson Mandela.
With your partner put your ideas into any order which seems good to you.
Add the adjectives that describe his qualities into your article.

2JNow discuss the questions inIIP


pairs. Compare your ideas with another pair.
1
2

What would you have done if you were Elias?


How do you think his wife and family felt when he was in prison?
rite douun uuhat you have learned about Nelson Mandelo.

Speaking and writing

1 jLook at the life of Nelson Mandela and find out what happened to him in 1999.
In pairs discuss what qualities make Mandela a great man.
From this unit you hove also learned useful verbs:

18/7/1918
1937
1940
1944
1952

Life of Nelson Mandela

useful nouns

born near Transkei (South Africa)


entered university but did not complete degree
useful expressions
completed law degree at the university
formed ANC Youth League
set upf o
law
officegrammor
to help poor
black
ncuu
item
people in

Johannesburg, later

this year, law office closed by government because he attacked


anti-black laws
1961
1962

government by and for white people set up in South Africa


sentenced to five years hard labour for encouraging violence against

1963
1964

anti-black laws
ANC began to blow up buildings
sentenced to prison for life on Robben Island for being one of the

ANC leaders
1982 moved to a prison in Cape Town
1990 released from prison
1991 became President of the ANC
1993 won the Nobel Peace Prize
Choose
andoftry
to find
1994 a famous
became person
President
South
Africa
1999
________________________________
out as much
as you can about his or her

Quotes
Freedom rings where opinions clash.
Adlai E Stevenson

life. Read what the person did and what


people
remember about
him or her. Find
The
following
expressions
may help you
some people who like the person and

I disagree with what you say, but Ill


defend to the death your right to say it.

someASKING
who do not.FOR
Try toOPINIONS
find out for what

GIVING OPINIONS

reason
theydo
likeyou
this think
personofor...?
not. While
What

Voltaire

What man wants


independent
I thinkis/ simply
I dont think
....

6 your
you What
are doing
this, opinion?
you will be teaching
J

choice,
whatever
that
independence
I balieve
/ I dont
beWeve

What ar<5 your ideas?


yourself a useful way of learning.
Do you have any thoughts on that?
How do you about that?
Why do you think 60?

may(that)
cost and
wherever
In my
opinion it
....may lead.
Dostoevsky
To my understanding,....

Im with you.
I feel that... / dont feel

that

39
40

Before you listen, discuss these questions with your partner.


Do you think it is a good idea to make friends with people from other countries?
What are the advantages of this friendship?

Listen to the tape and write down in one sentence what Leslie does in China.

Listen to Part 1 again and tick the things done by Leslie.

going to watch Peking Opera

going out for delicious dinners

seeing the Great Wall

visiting a mountain

going to peoples homes

staying in a good hotel

swimming in the sea

going shopping

What does Leslie say about the friends she made in China? Listen to Part 2
again and write your answers in one or two sentences.

In pairs discuss these questions.


1 Do you agree with Leslie? Give your reasons.
Do you think foreigners and Chinese people have the same idea about friendship?
What misunderstandings do you think might occur between Chinese people and foreigners?

Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and expressions in
brackets.
add up)
ca]mdown)

3 recover)
4 (settle; get along with)
packup)
suffer; set

down)

41

Unit 1 Friendehip

? j Look at these phrases and make sure you understand them. Then use them correctly
in the following sentences. Add any more ^/-phrases you know.
get into get tired of get back qet along/on with gat off get ueed to
1

Dick__________his new toy after playing with it for a week and tried to swap it for another one.

John___________George very

Amy was excited when she____________the lift to

When the CCTV team_____________after crossing Africa on the Transafrica Highway, they

well as a teenager and they decided to go to the same university.


go to her new flat.

became very famous in China.


5

Mary was grateful when she was told where to______________the

Daniel hurried home with his suitcase so he______________in time


Zhao disliked his new school until he______________the timetable

busat the theatre.


for dinner.
and

made some new

friends.
8 If you dont want to

trouble, then make

(IN4 ITRUCTUREI
1! Here is another page of Annes diary. Read it through and then use indirect speech to
retell the story. You may begin like this:
Anne said that they went quickly upstairs and into the hiding place when they arrived at
Prinsengracht (

Friday, 10 July1942
When we arrived at Prineengracht, we went
quickly upetaire and into the hiding p\ace. We
closed the door behind ue and \Ne were a\one.
Marmot had come faeter on her bicycle and \Nae
already waiting for ue. All the roome were full of
boxee. They \ay on the floor and the bede. The
bedcbthee.
We had
etart c\earing up at onceif
little
room vs/ae
filledtowith
we wiehed to e\eep in comfortable bede that night.
Mummy and Marmot ^/eve not ab\e to help. They
were
tired and lay down on their bede. 5ut Daddy and Ithe two ^helpere" of the family, etarted
The whole day we unpacked the boxee, filled the cupboarde and tidieduntil we were
at once.
extremely tired. We did eleep in c\ean bede that night. We hadnt had any warm food to eat
a\\ days but we didnt care. Mummy and Marmot were too tired and worried to eat s and
Daddy and I were too buey.

42

Anne and her friend

her friend and her father

Anne and her father

2 Listen to the story again to find out what happened.


. '
What Annes father sai
d

....

-r w:r:

What Ann thought

about being friends with Peter


l

about talking to him every night


about following her fathers ideas
Unit 1 Friendehip

2 Now play the game What did he/she say? Form groups of three and carry on
conversations like this. Remember to change roles.
A: What did they do when they arrived at the hiding place ?
B: What did he/she say?
C: He/She asked you what they did when they arrived at the hiding place.

Questions for Student A:


1 Who was waiting for them there?

Why did Margot get there earlier than Anne?

3 Were the rooms empty?

What was the little room filled with?

5 Did they clear up the room that night?


7 Why didnt Annes mother and sister help?
9 Did they have any warm food to eat?

6 Who tidied the room?


What did Anne and her father do?
lOWhy didnt they care?

1 Anne made a friend in the hiding place. He was the son of another family hiding with
them. Listen to the story and tick the pair who are disagreeing about the friendship.

Do you think Anne should follow her fathers ideas? Give a reason.
3 Anne needs some advice to help her with this problem. Perhaps you can help her.
Work in pairs and make a list of things she might say to her father to make him
change his mind. Think of as many as you can.

Now be ready to tell the class your ideas.

43

Unit 1 Friendehip

1 j In pairs read
the following dialogue and discuss what you would do.
r, r/ rrr

FRIENDSHIP IN MMWMil
Every culture has its own ways to show friendship. On the islands
MARTIN: Hello, Liu Ming. Er... Ah ... Ive been offered a ticket to the Backstreet Boys
of Hawaii, friendship is part of the aloha spirit. In the language
concert
of the Hawaiians who first settled the islands long ago, aloha had
LIU:
Wow! Thats great!
is meaning.
it?
a veryWhen
special
That is to be with happiness.
MARTIN: Its tomorrow and Im
so sorry believe
but theres
ticket. loves the land, they
Hawaiians
thatonly
onceone
somebody
LIU:

Ohy I see. Did


try to
to love
get atheir
ticketpeople
for me?
areyou
ready
or community ( This is the

second most
important
of but
friendship.
It isnone
called
lokahi in the Hawaiian language, which
MARTIN:
Yes,sign
I did,
there were
left,
means oneness
land
you
not be
LIU: with all
So people.
you wantTo
to enjoy
changetheour
plan
forshould
Saturday,
doselfish.
you? The land is for everyone
who lives on it. Today many different peoples call Hawaii their home. Indeed, Hawaii is a place
MARTIN: Yesy I do. Im so sorry about that!
where people make one big community from many smaller communities. Each person gives kokua
LIU:
Well, I suppose we can have our picnic next week.
(help) to other people so that all feel stronger. It is believed that the islands can be a paradise (
MARTIN: Thatd be lovely. Thank you so much.
when people live in peace. People are told that their actions should be as gentle as the wind that
LIU:
See you next week then.
blows from the sea. When problems happen, people are asked to solve them with understanding. So
when the people of Hawaii talk about ohana (family), they are really talking about all those who live
on the islands.
Do you think Martin behaved fairly to his friend? Give your reasons.
Living in peace, Hawaiians have developed a third sign of
friendship. This personal friendship is shown by giving leis to
one another. The lei, a string of flowers, is put over a friends
neck. Then the friend is given a kiss on the cheek. Visitors to the
How do you think Martins friend felt?
islands are also given leis. When they hear aloha, visitors begin to
feel at home. Aloha also means goodbyeso visitors will hear it ii
again when
theyyou
leave.
can also
mean
ouryou
hearts
singing
together.
Perhaps this is how most visitors
Imagine
are ItMartin,
what
would
do when
you
see Liu Ming?
will remember their new friendship.

Work the
in pairs.
Each
pair
should
choose
onefollowing
of the following
situations and make a
12 Skim
passage
and
write
down
what the
words mean,
dialogue.
aloha

lokahi
lei
kokua
ohana
Your best friend tells you that he/she has stolen something small from a shop. He/She thinks it is
funny that he/she got away with it. What will you say to him/her?

Read the passage carefully and discuss the following questions.


What
theirbest
friendship?
You are
hatethe
to ways
be lateHawaiians
for schoolshow
but your
friend is so slow that you often arrive at school after
Why
do many
peoples
callnot
Hawaii
their
the first
classdifferent
has started.
You are
pleased
buthome?
your friend finds it fun. How can you persuade

How
do people
gettime?
on with one another?
him/her
to get in
to Hawaii
school on
Can you find similar things in your hometown? How do you show friendship to visitors?
You have been getting on well with your friend for years, but now you dont like him as much as
3 The
a/oha
been
made
intoand
a he
smokes.
aw for the
of Hawaii.
idea
before.
He isspirit
crazyhas
about
Internet
games
You islands
tried to stop
him doingWhich
these things,

orbut
action
would
you
likeshould
to make
intoShould
a lawyou
to improve
the friendliness of people
he wont
listen.
What
you do?
end the friendship?
towards each other?
44
45

-----------------------------------------

.Tl11 -

Unit 1 Friendship

jkk
Here you see some proverbs about friends and friendship. Read them carefully and think
of some Chinese proverbs that have similar meanings. Choose one and write a short
story or explanation about it.
Whan you meet your friend, your face ehmee you have found gold.
A friend in naad ie a friend \Y\deed.

wine;thaoiaar,thabatt.r.
W. ol vno i/-

lite :

1 he ba6t mirr

or is an old friend.

A friend to all ie a friend to none

he friendehip that can and r L

frte am worse

36 than

pen enemiee.

Walking with a frian^ in tha dark i6 better than walking alona in the ht.

With doth the new ara baet; with friendet tha old ara baet.

The following sample story may help you:


1

Friends are like wine; the older, the


better.
Everyone at work said they liked my new
dress so I wore it for a TV show. When I
arrived the producer gave me a strange look
but said nothing.
Later that week I watched the show on my
TV. As I sat there looking at myself on the TV
screen, the telephone rang. It was my old
friend Susan. Next time let me tell you what
to wear. That dress makes you look old and
boring. It was true. For a moment I felt
ashamed but then I felt better.
Next time I will ask Susan and she will
tell me the truth. Truly old friends are like
wine; the older, the better.

Analyzing the structure

J Text type: etoty (fiction)


| Context: who, where, when, what
>

|
Development:
#

not happy whan I watched myself on

>
5

'T>

TV

my friand^ phone call

;
r
-

Conclusion: (using tha proverb)

s I realized she was right because sha told me the


. truth - 60 old friende ave the bast.
i


Country name

Hints

Unit 1 Friendship

Collect materials like proverbs, poems, stories, etc and prepare for an English party or
an English paper on friendship. The following poem is provided as an example.
r-rrTTiRTm # M
1 im AMD fmmmp

Before you listen, look at


the map on the right. It

by Emily Dronte
Love ie like the wild roee-brian Friendship

shows some of the places like the holly-tree.


in the world where English The holly ie dark when the roee-briar bloorm
is spoken as an official

S>ut which will bloom moet conetar\t\y?

language. Guess what this The wild roee-bnar \e e^/eet in epring


listening is about. Listen to \te eummer b\oeeome ecent the air;
the tape and see if you are Yet wait till winter comee aqa\r\,
And who wi\\ ca\\ the wild-briar fair?

right.
2

Then,out
ecorn
eilly of
roee-wreath
now, country and find the hints that
Listen to the tape again. Work
thethe
name
each students
And deck thee with hollye eheen,
help you identify them.
That, when December blighte thy brow,
He et\W may leave ih^g^irl^Mgreen.

_ w _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ t

CHECKING YOURSELF

1 Are you interested in the topic of this unit? Why or why not?
2 Which reading in this unit most interests you?
3

What new ideas have you learned about friendship from this unit?
1

How can you be a better friend?

What new vocabulary have you learned from this unit? Have you used it in your

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

listening, speaking, reading and writing activities? How well can you use it?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

%
mm\

6 What problems did you have? How did you solve them?

|
K Si I W

Unit 2 English around the world

JJ Work with a partner to complete the word puzzle. Use the clues to help you.
agreed, said or done by the government like a line or road that goes in one
direction national, local way of pronouncing words
a polite way of asking for something
the way that the words are used in a language
of the large central part of the USA
someones name or a strong feeling of being part
of a group, race, etc
a powerful flash of light in the sky
the way in which a word is spelled
truck

Play the game Find the odd one out. Pick out the one that does not fit each
group.
actor elevator visitor doctor director eastern western northern modern
Midwestern windy lorry lucky sandy cloudy imagine important impolite
improve immediately fluently July gradually frequently actually unhappy
unfriendly untidy unless unnecessary afraid alone awake aloud alive natural
capital national official traditional

TA

Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and expressions in

r |

In groups choose one of the situations to role-play. Decide whether you need to use
commands or requests. Remember to use the expressions you have already practised
brackets.
on page 15.
request)

A foreigner meets you on the street. He is so worried and excited that he speaks very quickly.

play a part; economy)

However, you finally understand that he is trying to find his Chinese friends, but you are not

base)
sure where he plans to meet them.
(recognize)

You go abroad to the USA for a trip with your parents. Theblock)
first day your parents go to a

restaurant and look around for a toilet. When


they use
ask of)
the waitress, she indicates a sign to the

make
restroom. But your parents do not
want to rest. You ask for the WC but the girl says they do

straight)
not have one. You are confused.
When finally she understands what you want, she tells you it is

frequent)
on the second floor. You and your parents go up two floors but only find empty rooms. Where is
the toilet?

49
48

Notes on James Murrays life |

.'

Country
Education
Job
Most important task
Who worked on it

Its difficulties:
Qualities needed:

Date of completion
Other information

Unit 2 English around the world


Unit 2 English around the world

THE OXFORD ENQLISH DiCTIONMRY


smc STRip|M
You may think that English dictionaries have been used for many, many
centuries. The spelling of English has always been a problem but it was more
1ofj aInproblem
groupsinof
think aofdictionary.
at least Then
threepeople
commands
or requests
thethree,
days before
could spell
words in you and your
different
waysusually
which you
might
find
interesting.
But it made
reading English
teachers
give.
You
may
follow these
steps.
much more difficult. So dictionaries were invented to encourage everybody

One student gives the first command or request.


to spell the same. In fact, an English dictionary like the kind you use today

Another
student
asksofwhat
he/she
said.
wasnt
made until
the time
the late
Qing
Dynasty. Three men did most of
the important
early
workchanges
on dictionaries:
Samuel
Noah
Webster,
The third
student
the command
or Johnson,
request into
indirect
speech.
and
Murray.
men
spentgets
nearly
all of their lives trying to collect
James
Change
rolesThese
so each
student
a chance.
words for their dictionaries. For them, it wasnt only a job; it was a wonderful
EXAMPLES:
journey of discovery. The largest dictionary in the world is the Oxford English Dictionary, or OED for
(asidea
a teacher):
Stop talking
now.from
2 S :an
Would
you please
answer
the question?
short. The
for this dictionary
came
important
meeting
in Britain
in 1857. Twenty-two
years later,
University
asked James MurrayS
to be the
editor
its new
dictionary.
S2 Oxford
What did
he/she say?
What
didofhe/she
say?
Murray
had never
to college.
:He/She
told usbeen
to stop
talking.At the age of fourteen, he left his village school in Scotland and
S,:
taught himself while working in a bank. Later he became a great teacher. After Oxford gave him the job,
He/She asked you to answer the question.
Murray had a place built in the garden behind his house to do his work. Part of it was one metre
underground.
In winter
it feltEach
like a one
bam,contains
he had to wear
a heavy coat
put his feetorinaa request.
box to keep
Look at the
pictures.
an example
of aand
command
warm. Every morning, Murray got out of bed at five oclock and worked several hours before breakfast.
Work out what is happening and retell the situation in indirect speech.
Often he would work by candle light into the evening. Murray hoped to finish the new dictionary in ten
years. But after five years, he was still adding words for the letter A! Then others went to work with
Murray, including his two daughters. He worked on the dictionary until he was very old. Forty-four years
later, in 1928, other editors finished it. It included more than 15,000 words in twelve books. And you
thought your English dictionary was big!

Read the passage and make notes about Murrays life.

50

Unit 2 Englieh round the world

2 Listen to what Wang Ting and Chen Peng have to say and find out how they
improve their English. Write down the main idea.

Listen again and answer the following questions.


What is Wang Ting going to do this weekend?

2 What does Wang Ting think about listening to English songs?


Did Chen Peng often watch English films? Does he watch them now?
4 What does Chen Peng like watching on CCTV 9?
What does Wang Ting ask Chen Peng to do?
What does Chen Pengs teacher say about learning English? What does she mean?

Write down the three ways Wang Ting suggests to improve English skills.
Listening to ......................................... is aneasy way to______________________some idiomatic
Watching __________________________is

a good___________________________way to

_________________________________your
of English.
Listening to

_ can improve your

-___________________

Imagine that the leaders of your hometown have asked your school to help beginners to
learn English. They have suggested these three methods.

Get into pairs and discuss the pictures. What are the advantages and disadvantages?
Make a list of your ideas and fill in the chart.
Listening to English
programmes
on the
radio
r.rr7nrrr^
TMfl
Watching English films
Reading English newspapers |

1 Do you also practise your English outside class? What do you usually do to
yourrecommendation.
listening? Discuss
with your
partner.
Nowimprove
make your
Compare
your
idea with another pair and make a final
decision, Tell your teacher your idea and your reason for choosing it.
51
52

Unit 2 English around the world

What problems do you have in learning English?


m

Make a note about your problems or difficulties.


Share your problems with your friends and discuss how you can solve them. m
List your solutions to two of your problems.

Decide a title and draft your composition.

2j Read the sample writing and study how the text is organized. Then write about your
problems in your English study.
Ways of improving listening
Of the four skills, I think listening is the
hardest. I like watching English films but I
cant understand them without the Chinese
subtitles.
I am not satisfied with this situation, so
recently I had a talk with my friend Wang
Ting. She told me some good ways of
improving listening. She suggested using CDs
to listen to English songs and learn English
expressions, watching the news and
interviews on CCTV 9, and trying to listen to
native speakers.
I will do as she advised. Im sure I will
gradually make progress.

Studying the text


J Text type: pereonal recount
Paragraph 1: the main problem

^ Paragraph 2:
euqqeet\or\e on how to
eolve the prob\em
^ lieten to CDe
watch CCTV 9

listgn to

native speakers

.li Read the passage and discuss the questions on page 54 with a partner.
Language is sometimes written as a code so that people can communicate secrets. During the Second
World War, the German Navy ( used a code to send messages. The British broke the code and
learned about many German plans. The Japanese also used a code to talk to their ships at sea. It was
called the Purple Code. Although the Americans soon broke this code, the Japanese didnt know it had
been broken. In 1942, the Americans began to use their own code to send secrets. A few Navajo (
Indians made this code, which was based on their language, which only some American
Indians spoke. The code described a few things the American army did. Only they could understand
this code, so they went with the army from island to island as it fought against the Japanese. These
Navajo soldiers promised to keep this code a secret, even though this could cause their deaths. The
Japanese never broke the code because they knew nothing about the Navajo language. And the code,
which connected two languages, helped win the war in the Pacific.

53

Unit 2 English around the world

According to the reading passage, what is the use of a code?


2 What other uses can a code have? List one or two here.
3 Describe a situation where codes may not help the people who use them.

2 Codes are not always used to send secrets. A code can also save time. It lets you
say a lot in a few words, letters or symbols. Work with your partner and make a code
to use to take notes when your English teacher talks to the class.
c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

Example 1:
1

c/o = care of

eg for example

asap = as soon as possible

mes = message

w/u = with you

cccccc

at

After you have finished making your code, share it with your classmates. See if they
can guess what each part of the code means.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

CHECKINC YOURSELF
1 What new information have you learned about the English language?
2 Give two examples of where you can find first American and then British English.
3 Why will there never be a standard form of the English language?
4 Give an example of when you should use a command and another when you should use a
request.
5 What writing task have you done? How did you do it?

1 Discuss what you know about Laos and go over the exercises below before listening.
Listen and tick the words you hear on the tape.

Laos

Tibet

Vientiane

Vietnam

plains

border

village

candles

lights

truck

ducks

chickens

Listen again and answer these questions in pairs.


Which border of Laos is made by the Mekong River?
What did Wang Kun and his sister see when they cycled across the plains?
Which is the best season to travel to Laos? Why?
What did the river sound like?
How did they go to Vientiane ( after lunch?

In groups make a list of adjectives to describe the countryside in Laos.

77' 6 I

Imagine that you are preparing for your own trip down the Mekong. What would you take?

Circle five that you think are the most


useful.
Compare your list with your partner.
Give your reasons why you choose
them.
:I think a map is the most useful
Without it you'd never find the
right road.
B: Wait a minute! Isn t a compass
more useful? You yd never get lost
with a compass. Then you 7/
always know that youre going in
the right direction.
A Yes, youre right. Lets put a

flashlight

blanket

compass
can and bottle
openers

tent

55

Unit 3 Travel journal

' Some words can be used as a noun and a verb, for example:

view bend flow traneport forecaet pace

Look at the sentences below and find the correct word to fill in the blanks, Then
decide whether each word is being used as a verb or a noun.
1

Picking up something heavy, you should


A

in the river makes the water slow its speed.

I love this house with its wonderful


It is too late to

across this valley.

this house today. Lets go tomorrow.

The Mekong River

into the South China Sea.

Many people like to see the


4

your knees.

You can

of ice near the Antarctic.

goods to other countries by sea or by air.

The quickest method of in London is by Underground.


5

It is difficult to be correct when you

the future.

The weather is not always accurate either.


6

The tortoise moves at a very slow


If you

yourself, you will be able to work efficiently.

j Use the following words or expressions in the correct form to fill in the passage.
Then try to translate it into Chinese.

as usual graduate parcel forecaet schedule \neurar\ce attitude


Ever since I

from university, Ive

regretted

that

didntwork harder. I seldom


followed my own work
my father

. My_________then was not serious enough even though


trouble for me.

he was right. I tried to get a job in an

company, but I failed. Now I work in a post office checking

every day. Although I

still smile, I am not that happy.

; Translate the following sentences into English, using the words in brackets.

I midnight; cave)
2 3,000 temple; altitude)
3 flame; boil)
4 wool; pillow; quilt)
: butterfly)
6 reliable)
7 castle; beneath)

I,.

Unit 3 Travel journal

Complete each dialogue with the verbs given, using the present continuous
tense and
other tenses as necessary.

HARRY:

Sarah______

(come)

oil the trip tomorrow?

CINDY: Yes. She (leave) tomorrow morning.


HARRY: Do you know what time?
CINDY: She_____________(leave) the
2

house at seven oclock and will catch the train at eight.

MATTHEW: How____________you__________ (get) to school?


JOE:

(cycle)

to school and leaving my

clothes behind. My mum


(bring) my clothes to school tomorrow morning.
MATTHEW: Lucky you! That seems a good idea.
3

PETER: Where

_ we____________(go)?

JAMES: To the sea.


PETER: How

we___________(get) there?

JAMES: By car.

: Work with your partner to plan a trip based


on the map. In your plan, discuss the
following questions.

Where are you going for your holiday?

Who are you going with?

How are you getting there?

What are you doing there?

Where are you staying?

When are you returning?

In pairs make up a dialogue about the


future
plans of your group members.
Remember
to use the present continuous tense in
your
dialogue. Report to the class what
your
group members are going to do in ...
_e)'

Harbin J

Beijing,

'.I

.r Changchun^

/*

o ^Tianjin Taiyuan
?Jinan

' Chengdu yyuhan/ oShanghai

'O \

Lhasa

\.

Chongqing Fuzhou

^Kur?m.ng Guang0zhou

Wi

> 7

EXAMPLE:
A: What are you doing this afternoon?
B: /m meeting Lucy and weyre going to see a film. We're meeting outside the cinema in two hours

57

Topic

Laos

Cambodia

Population

warn i

Weather
Learning
Farming

Unit 3 Travel journal

j Before you listen to the tape, look at the


picture
on
the right and discuss the questions with your
partner.

Is the photo a modem one or was it taken many years

ago? How do you know?


What information can you get from the picture?

Listen and write the main idea in one


sentence.

3j Listen again and fill in the information on the chart.


Life along the river in the past

Life along the river now

4 j Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups.


1

How did Wang Kun and Wang Wei greet the old man when they met him on the river bank?

What did they talk about?

Do people like the change of lifestyle? What about the old mans attitude?

Why does the man prefer the old way of life?

* 5 Can you think of anything similar in China?

Read Part 6 of Wang Kuns Journal on the next page. Find out the similarities and
differences among Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam and fill in the form.

Unit 3 Travel journal

J O U R N EY DOWN T H E M E K O N Q
fhtr 6 THE im OF out JOURMEy
Cambodia was in many ways similar to Laos, although it has twice
the population. At another inn, we talked with a teacher who told
us that half of the people in her country couldnt read or write.
Her village couldnt even afford to build a school, so she had to
teach outside under a large tent. When we said goodbye, we all
felt very lucky to have studied in college. Back on the road, we
passed between many hills and forests. Then we came to the
Phnom Penh
plains and entered Phnom Penh ( ),the capital of Cambodia. In many ways it looked like
Vientiane and Ho Chi Minh City; it also had wide streets with trees in
rows and old French houses. Unlike Vientiane, ships could travel the
Mekong River here. In the centre of the city we visited the palace and
saw a beautiful white elephant. It can only be seen outside the palace on
special days. We ate an early supper and went to see a great temple with
floors made of silver.
The next morning our group slept late. We were very tired from the
long bike ride the day before. Cycling in the hills had been difficult. Now
our cousins had the chance to make jokes about Wang Wei and me.
Perhaps, they said, they were the strong ones! We had lunch at a nice
outdoor cafe, then rode out of the city.
Two days later we crossed the border into Vietnam. We began to see many more people, but I wasnt
Ho Chi Minh City
surprised. I read in an atlas before our trip that Vietnam has almost seven times the population of
Cambodia. We met a farmer who gave us directions and told us that he grows a new rice crop four times
every year so he can feed more people. He also told us that the northern part of his country has many
mountains and it is much cooler than here in the south, where it is flat. Although the flat delta made it
easier for us to cycle, we got warm very quickly. So we drank lots of water and ate lots of bananas. Soon
the delta separated into nine smaller rivers. Two days later, after we had passed thousands of rice fields, we
came to the sea. We were tired but also in high spirits: our dream to cycle along the Mekong River had
finally come true.

r/.rrr I

Imagine that you and three of your classmates run a travel business that gives tours of
famous places in or near your hometown. You want to make a poster advertising a tour
so that your travel agency can get more business.
Think of a name for your travel agency.
Choose a famous place near your hometown and list its attractions.
In your group discuss what you need to put into your poster, including the pictures and words.

58

Unit 3 Trave\journal
Unit 3 Travel journal

1 j Now you are going to use your ideas to make the poster. Be sure to include all the
To make
their business
successful,
companies
that offer
tours and
oftenthe
use
travelofbrochures.
information
that visitors
may need,
for example,
the price
details
the tour,
This contact
kind of number,
brochureetc.
is a guide to what tourists can expect to see and do on a tour, It
usually gives information about all of the following:
21what
Plan your
poster. Use the model below to help you.kinds
p\acee they will visit and whan
of transport that will be

ueed
how they will get to thoee p\acee
what they will eee when they get there
Tver^Rmdy

where thay will 6tay at night


Ti
where
mrs and what they will aat
Context:

get together with the same classmates with whom you made a poster;
name of travef
Who can show you Yunnan?
describe in detail the places your group listed in its advertisement; each member of the group writes
agency
Ever-Ready Tours Can!
the description for the place he or she suggested;
dcstinaXion oftfie
HEAR
find a faet-movin^
photo from a magazine,
newspaper
or
the
Internet
to
put
in
your
brochure;
water oraeh on tha rocke
try to make a brochure that looks as if both business people and artists made it;
below ^
Devefopment:

share
your
brochure
with
other
classmates
and
decide
which
is
the
best
one;
give your reasons.
TASTE the delicious cold Dal food
jpfaces of

SEE colourful birds, f\owere and butterflies


interest
_ _ _ _ _ _
#BE a part of nature now and forever!
sightseeing

CHECKING YOURSELF

This
tripyou
includes
useful? Which part do you dislike?
Which part
of six-day
this unit do
find most

activities

all travel + 4-star hotel room

enjoya^fe

Have
you learned
anything about organizing a trip from this unit? What kind of
oil trips
+ meals
preparation do you think is needed before you start the trip?

Cost: 1500 RMB per person


3 What
words
have you learned to describe the environment?
Dates:
Every
Thursday

Contact number: 010-66679xxx

More information:

cost

days

What expressions have you learned to describe a journey?

What else do you want to know about travelling? Where could you find thenwmGer

amtract

information you need?

Readdid
the
of your
6 3 i What
youfirst
finddraft
difficult
in thisposter
unit? and check to see if:
H1 _________________________________________________________________
I the printing is large enough to be read from the other side of the room;
7

How
you solve
theredid
is enough
butthe
notproblems?
too much information;

1_________________________________________________________________________________________

everything important has been included;


_

_ 1_

you use words and pictures that make your tour sound exciting;

your use of English and your spelling is correct.

4 Show your poster to another group. Ask them to give you some advice on
improving it. Revise it and put it on the wall for others to see and evaluate.
60
61

find out

an outline

hand out
try out

potatoes
a fire

keep out

homework

put out
take out

the cold
ideas

work out

the rubbish

Unit 4 Earthoiuakee

Choose the words and expressions from the box to complete the passage below.
Change the form if necessary.
deetroy trap disaster a great number of ae usual pipe (\uake

March 27, 1964 was a holiday in Alaska, so most people were at home, and everything was going on
. Suddenly, there was a sound like thunder. Next, peoples houses began to
shake. Buildings cracked and water

burst. In the town of Anchorage, the main

street went up into the air ten feet, holes opened up in the ground, and buildings fell down. People

1 Read
the by
statements
and then listen to the whole
text.ran
Decide
were
shocked
the unexpected
. Some
up andwhether
down the the
street while
statements
are true orinfalse.
Give your
others
who
the buildings,
werereasons.
looking out of their windows for help.
True False
The earthquake that hit Alaska was one of the strongest
in North America.
The
It is believed that on the surface of the earth are a number of plates.
earthquake
many towns and
people were killed.
The plates are always moving.

If the plates stop moving, there is an earthquake.

Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and the phrase in
brackets.

If the plates move, there is an earthquake.

Wherever you live, you are in an earthquake area.


China has two plates pushing on her and they make mountains
andcongratulation;
earthquakes. cyclist)

judge;

j Listen

1:

(title; bury; bottom)

to the text and answer these questions. Part

mine; miner; rescue)

Why do earthquakes happen?

reporter; frightened)
Why do California, China and Japan have a lot of earthquakes?

destroy; block)

Part 2:

burst; shock)

Do not build

express)

Make sure you build

suffering; disaster)
You must

wake ones
up; headline)
buildings will fall clown and
may

Discuss this question in small groups: Why do some earthquakes kill more people than
3 Match the phrases on the left to the words on the right. Then use them to make
others? sentences.

For most of human history, people could only imagine what caused earthquakes to
happen. So stories were told to explain this natural disaster. A story from India says that
four very big elephants hold up the earth. The elephants stand on the back of a bigger
turtle. The turtle stands on an even bigger snake. When any of these huge magical
animals move, the earth begins to shake!
In pairs make up a story to explain how an earthquake happens.
Describe what happens in an interesting way like the story from India. Keep your story short.
Share your story with your classmates. Decide which one is the most interesting. Give a reason.

62

dig out

the answer

Unit 4 Earthoiuakee

IINC ITRUCTUREI
This is advice on how to protect your home from an earthquake. Read the passage
through and complete the sentences below, using i/yho_which, that or whose.
fi HOM
It is sad but true that people die in earthquakes from falling furniture ( and bricks. Earthquake
safety is very important and there is more to it than just keeping buildings from falling down. So if
your home is in an earthquake area, you should prepare carefully before the earthquake comes.
First, make sure you buy a house which is earthquake safe. All pipes should be fixed to the wall
and all walls should be especially thick and strong. You also have to make sure that there are bolts
underneath your house. They are one of the most important ways of protecting a house. Make sure the
building has no broken windows and is well repaired.
Second, look at the objects in your house. Those in the living room, which are the most likely to
hurt us, are computers, televisions and lamps. They can be tied to tables or stuck to them so they wont
easily move around. The kitchen, which is also very dangerous, must have strong doors on all the
cupboards. This is the place where many small things are stored that might fall down. The water heater
(should have a case round it too. Windows are a special problem. When they break, glass can
cause many accidents. It is better to use safety glass if you can, especially for pictures.
Always remember: It is better to be safe than sorry.
Its necessary for people

to prepare carefully before an earthquake

comes.

2 Never buy a house

Make sure that all pipes are fixed to walls


.
4 It is important to have a house
.
Televisions, computers and lamps
could
cause
accident
during an earthquake.
Anyone
will be hurt in an earthquake if the window glass breaks.
Those for ______________________ should read it carefully.

2j Work in groups of four and play a game. Each student chooses a word from the unit
and gives a clue. The other students take turns to ask questions to find out more
information. EXAMPLES:
A: The word I have chosen rhymes with

The word I have chosen is a person.

cake B: Is it something that is frightening?

Is it a person who works in the office?

A: Yes, it is.

No, it isnt.

C: Is it a disaster that happened in Tangshan?

Is it a person who works in the city?

D: Its earthquake, isnt it?

No, I dont think so.

A: Youre right. Now its your turn.

64

Unit 4 Eartho[uakee

3 Imagine you are going to make a dramatic introduction of a person you know in a
formal
situation. Remember to use the attributive clauses with iv/7ose\o list his/her strong
points, and end with the persons name. Heres an example:
Ladies and gentlemen, I would like to introduce a man whose jokes have brought us fun whose
help has warmed our heartswhose face is the friendliest of all. Ladies and gentlemenhere is
my best friendJeff Wilkins.

THE STORY OF MK EYEWITmSS


by Jack London
Never before in history has a city been so completely destroyed. San
Francisco is gone. Nothing is left of it but memories and some houses far
from the centre of the city. Its businesses are gone. The factories, hotels and
palaces are all gone too. Within an hour after the earthquake, the smoke of
San Franciscos fires could be seen 160 kilometres away. The sun was red in
the dark sky. There was no stopping the fires. There was no way to organize
or communicate. The steel railway tracks were now useless. And the great
pipes for carrying water under the streets had burst. All of the ways man had
made to keep the city safe were gone in the thirty seconds the earth moved.
Out at sea it was calm. No wind came up. Yet from every direction - east, west, north, and south,
strong winds blew upon the unlucky city. Man himself had to make ruins of some of the citys best
buildings so that they would not be a danger to those in the streets. A list of buildings undestroyed was now
only a few addresses. A list of the brave men and women would fill a library. A list of all those killed will
never be made.
Amazing as it may seem, Wednesday night was a quiet night. There were no crowds. The policemen
said nothing; even their horses were quiet. There were no shouts or people doing crazy things. In all those
terrible hours I saw not one woman who cried, not one man who was excited. Before the fires, through the
night, thousands and thousands of people who had lost their homes left for safety. Some were covered in
blankets () Sometimes whole families put everything they owned and could save into wagons ()
They helped one another climb the high hills around the city. Never in all San Franciscos history were her
people so kind as on that terrible night.

1 Find the authors point of view after reading the story.


1

Write an adjective to describe how the author felt about the earthquake and what it did.
Why did you choose this word?

Write an adjective to describe how the author felt about the people during the earthquake.
Why did you choose this word?

65

candles
bottle of water
\
bowls and chopsticks important papers
., . ' . , . \
umbrella
book to read

Possible items for the personal earthquake bag

money
food and chocolate
bars
torch (

identity card
I personal washing things
clothes

fruit
scissors

pen and paper


radio

shoes
blanket

knife
mobile phone

map

computer

pictures of family

medicine

Unit 4 Earthoiuakee
Unit 4 Earthc\uakee

Read the first paragraph in this passage. Then go back and read again the first
paragraph
of the passage on page 26. Compare the ways both writers give you details about
the

In pairsearthquakes.
you are to choose eight things from the list below to put into your personal
earthquake
bag.believe
Remember
these description?
may be the only
you have, so make sure that
3 Do you
the writers
Givethings
your reasons.
you only take essential things with you. They must last you five days.
4 Listen to the tape and practise reading the third paragraph with feeling.
1 i Ever since the San Francisco earthquake, all children in California have been taught
what to do during an earthquake. Look at the pictures and discuss what they might
have learned.

You are going to listen to a dialogue between a teacher and her students. Write
down the three key words that they mentioned.

1___________________________2___________________________ 3_________________________

Listen to Part 1 again. Write down the three things to do to keep safe if there is
an

earthquake.
My earthquake plan

) 1 s t thing I must do is__________________________________________________________


2nd thing I must do is___________________________________________________________

J 3rd thing I must do is__________________________________________________________

4 Listen to Part 2 again. Write down any other advice that you think is useful.
My earthquake advice
)If you are outside, you should______________________________________________
J If you are in the living room, you should____________________________________
J

If you are in the house alone, you should

66

Unit 4 Eartho[uakee

^^71

By now you know that earthquakes are terrible natural disasters and that China is
unlucky
enough to have a lot of them. Howeverpeople can find hope for a brighter future even
after
a bad earthquake. An example you were given is the city of Tangshan.
Talk with three classmates and consider what you have learned about quakes.
Now imagine that your group lives in a city that has been hit by an earthquake. Your group is
given the job to build a new city.
Make a list of what will need to be done. Decide what things must be done first and what things
can be done later. As you make a list, be sure to plan for each of the following things:
what to do with the buildings that survived the earthquake;
#

how to take care of the survivors;

where to find people to help build a new city;

Sheltec

Now
another
pair and
discuss your choices. Make another list of items. Put all
join
howwith
to honour
the rescue
workers;
the things
on disasters;
into a final list. Discuss the other items explaining your reasons
how toyou
planagree
for future
and trying
agree
which
theruins;
most suitable.
how totorescue
those
still ones
trappedare
in the
where to get money to build again;
My
personal
bag
will contain:
how
to repairearthquake
buildings that
survived
the earthquake;
1_________________ 2
3

how to make new buildings safer;


5_________________ 6
7

how to organize shelters for survivors;


_______________________________________

_______________________________________

what to do with the ruins;

Now be prepared to present your list to the class and give your reasons for each choice.

how to honour those killed in the earthquake;

how to teach children about earthquake safety;


#

where to put information for survivorsand their families.


ai
___

CHECKINC YOURSELF

Prepare a poster to be put up around schools or hospitals to explain to people what they1
1 Have
you ever
earthquake?bag and why. Give a list of the items chosen and
should
collect
in aexperienced
personal an
earthquake
give reasons for the choice. You must also explain why other things should not be
2 What words and expressions can you use to describe an earthquake?
chosen.
EXAMPLE Do not put fresh fruit in the bag as it will go bad quickly and cause problems.

3 What do you know about the cause of an earthquake?

Remember to divide your poster into three parts:


Part41:What
Whatnew
the information
poster is about
andearthquakes
why.
about
have you learned now?
Part 2: The items and why they are chosen.
you have
using attributive clauses?
Part53:What
Whatproblems
should bedoavoided
andinwhy.

When it is completed, display your poster in the classroom.

68

r-rrrnr^l

li

Read the statements below and then listen to the whole text. Decide whether they
are
true or false. Correct the wrong information.
True False
William Tyndale wrote the first Bible.
He was bom in the fifth century.
Many years ago the Bible was written in the Greek and Hebrew languages.
William Tyndale later moved to Belgium to complete his work.
Everybody in Europe loved the Bible written by William Tyndale.

Listen to Part 1 again and complete the passage.


William Tyndale was bom in

in

thecentury. He

to

from
.He was only
written in

years

lived

old when he died. At that time the Bible was not

, somost people in

couldntreadit

at

all.

and

today.

William Tyndale
wrote the first

. People

still use his

Listen to Part 2 again and answer these questions.


Why was the king not happy with William Tyndale?

In groups talk about your heroes. The following questions can help you. In your
discussion, please use the expressions on page 39.
Who \e your hero?
Why do you like him eo much?

Abraham Lincoln
(1809-1865)

Did he do anything for others?

What are/were h\e bast quaiitiae?

Confucius
(551BC-479BC)

69

Albert Einstein

Qian Xuesen

(1879-1955)

(1911-)

So

Unit 5 Nebon Mandela a modern hero

Jj Choose the words or expressions from the brackets to complete the passage
below.
Then read the story about Charles Babbage.
Charles Babbage was bom in 1791 in Britain. He was in poor health in his
(young / youth) so he had to

(brought / be educated) at home. His

mother (worried for / worried about) his health and she was
(advised / begged) that he should not be

(taught / educating) too

much.
However, the boy showed an early interest in mathematics and worked hard at it.
Later he was
by

(received

Cambridge University.
Babbage began to work on a small difference engine (in 1819,

which in a very short

(period

/while) of

time

could work out


mathematical tables by itself. He_____________(released / completed) it in 1822. In 1827 he became a
professor of mathematics and began his lifelong work on computing machines. He worked
(generously / selflessly)___________(At first/As a matter of fact), he often spent his own money on his
invention. In 1834 he invented the Analytical Machine which is the prototype (of a computer. This
was
a great achievement. He __________(devoted / gave in) a lot of his wealth and energy to his invention, but
he never produced a real computer. Finally in 1871 he died

(peaceful / peacefully). However,

his
principles are still those on which modern computers are built. As a result, he is remembered as the
grandfather of computing.

2] Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and expressions in
brackets,
1 as a matter of fact; in trouble)
2 come to power; president;
unfair) 3 be sentenced to; release)
4 beg; set up)
5 out of work; turn to; relative)
6 reward; wallet)
7 lose heart)
8 attack; terror)

.3] Look at the words that describe peoples character and put them in two groups.
Consult
a dictionary if necessary.
intelligent bright emart bra\r\\eee eoc\a\?\e c[uarre\eome eimple-minded
kind-hearted out-going qer\eroue
cruel sincere stubborn frank devoted

INFORMATION ON A CAR ACCIDENT

i
I

Where did it happen?


How many people in the accident? BEFORE THE
ACCIDENT Where was the boy?
Where was the car?

:
f

What happened?
Who caused it?

INFORMATION ON A CAR ACCIDENT

:::.

r1
I

Where did it happen?


How many people in the accident? BEFORE THE

Unit 5 Neleon Mandela - a modern hero


Unit 5 Nebon Mande\a a modern hero

ACCIDENT Where was the boy?


Where was the car?
What happened?
Who caused it?

!1
HRUCTUWS
1 j Complete
these
sentences using attributive clauses.
r.r7nrrr^ 7/ rrr | 2

1 My mother was seriously ill. That was the reason

Read these sentences and listen to the tape. Choose the one that describes the
main idea. Explain why the other two are wrong.

Sarah Martin moved to a place


It is about an accident and two peoples ideas of what happened.

,so

she

could go
It swimming
explains what
a point
every
day. of view is and gives an example of describing an accident.
It This
explains
a point of view is and asks you to explain an accident.
was what
the time
and everyone was cold and hungry.
Mother had a blanket ______________________________________________________.

Listenhave
to Part
1 and
answer
the questions.
There
been no
successful
escapes
from the

prison_______________________________.

He will
forget
guidance_____________________________________________________.
What
doesnever
a point
of the
view
mean?
Confucius
was
a great
teacher________________________________________________________.
The
singer
showed
love
for those
In there after an accident?
Why
do
the police
nothisjust
askand
onecare
person
who was
my opinion,
notstories
go to aafter
city an accident?
Why
do peopleyou
tellshould
different

2 ; Combine these pairs of sentences by using wh/chwho,whose, ivhen, where or prep +


ivh/c/i/ivto
hom.
Then
putcomplete
them in the
order
to make
story.
3 Listen
Part
2 and
the correct
following
tables.
Thenagive
your opinion and your reason.
Dr Bethune was bom in Gravenhurst, Ontario, Canada. His
grandfather was also a well-known doctor, (whose)
Bethune was shocked by the terrible life of the poor children.
He created a free art school for children in Montreal.
(for whom)
After graduation Bethune moved to Montreal. He gave free
medical care to poor people there, (where)
4 Dr Bethune died from blood poisoning in 1939 and was buried
in Shijiazhuang. It is a long way from his homeland, (which)
Bethune left for China in 1938. At that time the war between
China and Japan was under way. (when)
After Norman Bethune died Chairman Mao Zedong wrote an article. Chairman Mao praised
Bethunes excellent qualities in this article, (in which)
7 Henry Norman Bethune was a Canadian doctor. He is known as Bai Qiu-en in China, (who)

.3 ] Make sentences using attributive clauses to talk about yourself.


EXAMPLE: where you were born Nanjing is the city where I was born.
1

the date when you were born

the reason why you dont like a certain kind of food

a place which you want to go to

a reason why you like/dislike sports

the time when you went back home

71

INFORMATION ABOUT BILL GATES


Job

1I

Achievements
What did he give up for his beliefs?
Generosity

Why does he have enemies?


Why attacked by the government?

Unit
5 Neleon
Mandela
- a amodern
Unit
5 Neleon
Mandela
modernhero
hero

1 | Fill in the information sheet based on the passages on page 73.

Now you are going to look at a famous man, Bill Gates. Use the skills you have learned
about expressing points of view and decide whether you think he is a great man. If you
have an opinion about that already, please finish this sentence.
I think Bill Gates is / is not a great man because

Remember that i s p o i n t of view. Now read through the passages and fill in the
research note on page 74.

I have been a friend of Bill Gates for a long time. I knew him when
he was a student at Harvard University. We were surprised when he
left University to set up his own company Microsoft and make his
own software. But he was the clever one! He is very good at writing
computer languages and almost all computers now use Microsoft
software. The program Word is used from Britain to China! Of
course he has made a lot of money and that makes people very jealous
() They want to stop his success. Even the government is
against him and has tried to break his company into two parts. They
say that he is unfair to other people who want to sell similar software.
Because he fits his new software free in every new computer, the
government says he is stopping other companies from selling their programs. This is not fair. Everyone
should be able to do what they can to make their company bigger. Bill Gates has only done what he can to
stop other competitors () He is very rich, but he is generous. He has given millions of dollars to
help the education and health of many children around the world. You could not meet a better man than
Bill Gates.

M mMPEJITOR OF Bill QMTES


Bill Gates has been very successful and become very rich. He is very generous but how has he got his
money? He has done this by making sure that no one else will be able to compete with (his
software. His software is not the best but it is used most widely in the world. When he sees what is needed,
he makes a program and produces it quicker than anybody else. That way he gets a large part of the
software market. Then he works on improving the software later. He tries hard to stop others making better
Who do you think caused the accident? Write down your reason(s). I
software. In 1995 the government tried to make things fairer for people like me. The government wanted
to think
make Microsoft into two companies so that neither of them was so strong nor so rich. This meant that
they could not stop somebody else making new software. I always wonder how he could get so rich so
quickly. Has he done it by fair means? Or has he done it by being a computer bully (

73
72

Now you have to decide what you think of Bill Gates. He is a successful and rich
man but is he a great man? Has he given up anything (not money) in his life to
help other people and made things fairer in the world? Look at the facts again.

j Have you changed your mind about Bill Gates? Give a reason.

4Read the underlined sentences and pay attention to the pauses.

1 | Work in pairs. Think of a person you both agree is a great man. Here are some
possibilities you can consider.

Wang Xuan

Tolstoy

Strauss

Freud

Li Shizhen

(1937-2006)

(1828-1910)

(1825-1899)

(1856-1939)

(1518-1593)

2 j Then consider whether a great man has to be perfect? Do bad qualities make a
person less great? Give a reason.
3 | With your partner prepare to give a talk to the class about your great man. Tell them
his good (and not so good) qualities and explain why you both chose him as a great
man.

rT i: Unit 5

Neleon Mande\a a modern hero

Appendteiii
RITIHC
TASK
Now use your talk to write an article for a newspaper. You need to organise your
information into four sections (or paragraphs).

Mot^s

Paragraph 1: Personal information


When and where he \Nae bom Whara

Some useful
words and expressions:
thetm

__________wae bom in__________..

he lived and about his family

hen

mu

Paragraph
i 2: Hard work and success
1.

Aft erwarde

Soon aftar

later Finally

Your friend
comes to school
very to
upset*
Tha difficulties
he had
\-\e/5he was alwaye

upset overcome

friend

Ha/5hayour
went
through
Ha went
to bed cold and hungry.
His eucceee

At tlmee
Long How
and untidy,
hie hair
played in the breeze.
Somatimas

he helped
othere

often

Now
and aqam
2. You will tell your friend that youve got to go to class.

Paragraph 3: His good (and not so good)


have got to
I think.
because .
qualities
Have you qot to qo now?

qot to
00 to a meeting.
ParagraphWe
4: Your
opinion
P have got to havgoi :
jgg2$^7i3.

He \e coneidered to ba .

mmm

You will tell your friend that you are concerned about him/her and you will meet after class and talk then.

A great person
need not
be
famous.
So your task is to look around your hometown and
be concerned
about

see if you can


find anyone who has given up something (like time or money) to help
The family arc all concerned about har eafety.

others. Then
write a short report about your research and read it to the class.
Why \e ehe eo concerned about his attitude to her work?

CHECKINC YOURSELF
4. Annes Best Friend
1 What kind
of person
doyou
willyou
Anne's
Diary
want
tobe?
How
1929
achieve
this?
1933
1940 5

% Are
become
person
Nelson
you
going
to

a great

like

Mandela?
How?

i
1

1944
Do you think a rich and successful person is a great person? Why or why not?
1945 3
you learned from Nelson Mandela? For what quality do you admire (
4 What
have
5.
Her family was Jewish so they had to hide or they would be caught by the German Nazis.
him most?

have
you
done
6
vocabulary

11 63
How well
inthe
exercises?
450 550

6
7
f

How
exercises
on the
attributive

well
have
you
done
in
the

1947
11 clause?
29 1948
5 14

Did you have any problems in understanding this unit? How did you solve them?

mm\

\mm\

76
75

Appendices

German Nazis 1920 9 30


1921 6 29


1946 9 30

6.

She said I dont want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do, but I
want this diary itself to be my friend, and I shall call my friend Kitty.

set down
H<5 entered the houee, eet down his heavy and aeked for eome water to drink. i

The police aeked him to s>et down what he had eeen in a report.

a series of
My 0umme '/ cation was completely spoiled by a eenee of wet daye.

He wae tired but et\\\ had a eenee of meeting to go to.

itself it diary
We wont buy naw tyres when the car itself \e eo old.
The houee \tee\f \e worth the money, without the furniture. Hi
I dont want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do.

7,

I wonder if its because I havent been able to be outdoors for so long that Ive grown so
crazy about everything to do with nature.

it is because since as
A: Why was ha punished by his teacher?
B: It wae because he behaved eo badly.
A: Why hasnt Jane epoken to me for days?

:It wae becauee you epoke about her behind her back.

grow/be crazy about ;


She is crazy about painting Xheee daye. She etaye in her studio all day long.

Young ^ir\e and boys are crazy about rock music.

something/anything/everything to do with
Henrys job \e something to do with publishing.

nothing to do with
What he \e doing \e nothing to do with his work.

Appendlcee

8.

For example, one evening when it was so warm, I stayed awake on purpose until half
past eleven in order to have a good look at the moon by myself.
11

stay
he weather stayed co\d all week.

They stayed friende foryeare.


on purpose
Everybody can eee that ehe did it on purpose.
in order to ..........
He waited at the

in order to meet her when ehe came out.

9.

But as the moon gave far too much lightI didnt dare open a window.

far too
here \e very little room in the houee becauee it \\ae far too much furniture.

It wae far more expenelve than I expected.


dare to

I didnt dare to 00 .
He wont dare to break his promiee.
dare to
I darent tell her the newe.
to

Dont you dare tall her what I said!


I didnt dave look at him.

10. Another time five months ago, I happened to be upstairs at dusk when the window was
open.
happen to do :
As I wa6 about to 00 out and saarch for him, he happened to come in.

Kohl happened to notice her while ehe wae etru^lin^ in the water.

11. The darkrainy evening, the wind, the thundering clouds held me entirely in their
power; it was the first time in a year and a half that Id seen the night face to face.

Its the first time ... that...


Its the eecond time that John hae held an art exhibition.

It was the third time that ehe had come to this mountain village to eee the children.

12. I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very dusty

::-^1 Appendices

13. Its no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really
must be experienced
looking through. it
It \e no uee talking to him. lt5 nice eeemq you ao^am.

14. Mother asked her i^whether she was very hot with so many clothes on.

with

he

young mother came downetalre with her baby boy in her arms. What a lovely

picture!
With Tim away, we will have more room.

UNIT 2
1.

Today, more people speak English as their firstsecond or a foreign language than ever
before.


53

35

than ever before

Jane looke much prettier than ever before.


The stars wera shining brightly in the dark eky, and the night wae more beautiful than ever
before.

2.

Native English speakers can understand each other even if they dont speak the same
kind of English.

even if
Even if I have to walk all the way Ill gat there.

Even if I had enough money, I wouldnt buy it.
If I had enough money, I would buy it.

3.

Actually all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate with
each other.
communicate with

With the Internet, he can communicate directly with Hong Kong and Deijing.
Hes a shy boy who cant communicate with other peop\e very

well.

79

Append icee

4It was based more on German than the English we speak at present.
be based on
This eon^ is bae>ed on an old folk eoncj.
The film \e \?aeed on a novel written by Robert Jamee Waller caWed The drid^ee of M^di^on County.

5.

So by the 1600s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider vocabulary than ever before.

17
William Shakespeare (15641616) 37
154
16 17

6.

At that time two big changes in English spelling happened: first Samuel Johnson wrote his dictionary and
later Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of the English Language.The latter gave a separate
identity to American English spelling.

Samuel Johnson .(17091784) 0 18

Noah Webster 1758 1843)



1828
7.

English now is also spoken as a foreign or second language in South Asia.

South Asia

8*India has a very large number of fluent English speakers.


India New Delhi)
17571947 1947
9. Believe it or notthere is no such thing as standard English.()
believe it or not
3e\\eve it or not, John cheated in the exame. deWeve it
or not, the examination tomorrow \e cancelled.

UNIT J
1.

Ever since middle school my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip.

dream of/about doing sth


We a small town. You would never dream of shopping there after 5 oclock in the evening.
j

The 0 ir\ dreams of becoming a teacher like her mother.

80

Appendices

2.

t h e n she persuaded me to buy one.

persuade sb to do sth
Finally we pereuaded them to come with ue.

He pereuaded me to buy the houee and now Im very <^\ad he did.



3.

They are Dai and grew up in western Yunnan Province near the Lancang River, the Chinese part of the
river that is called the Mekong River in other countries.

Dai (Dai nationality)


the Lancang River


2,354
16.5
4.

It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to
where it ends.

It was ... who/that...


My sister first had the idea

Although she didnt know the best way of getting to placesshe insisted that she organize the trip properly.

insist
should should

I insist that he (should) study medicine \netead of law.

Jack \ne\eted that we (should) put up our tent.:


determineorderrequest, suggest 0

i::

(} She gave me a determined look - the kind that said she would not change her mind.

determined
His mother \e a determined woman who a\waye her own way.

They were determined to drive the anemy from their land.
7. Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it.
once

Once you ehowfear, he will attack you.


Once you make a promiee, you should keep it.
make up ones mind
I haven't made up my mind yet.
Y\e has made up W\e mind to qo into business when he \eavee college, T^yv^N A ^ ik

81

Appendicee

8.

It makes wide bends or meanders through low valleys to the plains where rice grows.

9.

At last, the river delta enters the South China Sea.

South China Sea


350 1212 5,559

10. The very first time that Joe saw the film ET directed by Steven Spielberg, he made up his mind to
become a director too.ET

Steven Spielberg 1 9 4 7 )
ET
994 1998

11. At this point we had to change our caps coats, gloves and trousers for T-shirts and shorts.
T
change ... for ...)
Im thinking of moving and changing my houee for a \arqer one.

12. There was almost no wind - only the flames of our fire for company.(

for company
The old woman livee on her own and hae a do^ for company.
.

13. We can hardly wait to see them!


cant wait/can hardly wait to do sth
Stella couldnt wait to qet home after such a long and tiring journey.

VHIT 4
1.

Earthquake

1906 1923 1976


2008



2. It seemed as if the world was at an end!

as if
She was sitting there ae if nothing had happened.

Appendices

3.

One-third of the nation felt it.


one-third

1) (onetwo, ...) (first


second,...), 1 s
If an app\e \e cut into eix ec\ua\ eWcee, &ac\\ e\\ce \e called one-eixth. If you eat two eWcee, you
aat two- sixths or one-third. V6;
2
/6 1/3
2) Your
bag \e 21/2 timas the weight of mine. 2.5
Two and a quarter inches of rain fall over tha weekend. 21/4
4. The number of people who were killed or seriously injured reached more than 400,000.
40
the number of a number of

he number of competitors \e limited.

Do you know the number of milu deev living in China?


He worked there for a number of yea re.
the number of a number of
^ ^
5. Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed.

everywhere

Everywhere he qoee3 his doq follows him.


Everywhere they appeared, they were m<st with strong proteete.

6.

No wind, howevercould blow them away.

however ( Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves


however however
\Ne have already qot a epoken agreement from them; howevar, we have to wait for something in
writing.

He hae made soma spelling mi stakes in hie paper; however, they are not eerloue.

7. Sand now filled the wells instead of water


instead of
Why did they chooee Tom metead of David? I think David \e more suitable for the job.

They decided to hold the barbecue in a nearby park instead of a small back garden becauee the
weather vvassobmutiM
8. People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.
last
The hot weather \aeted for a whole week, which made everybody tired and e\eepy.

They were very c\oee friende for a while, but their friendship didnt last long.

Appendicee

[ last last
The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead .

the dead the


The old and the eick on a more comfortable bue. For
the blind, l i f e \e difficult. We should care for them whanevar we can.

UNIT 5
1. William Tyndale 14941536)

2. Norman Bethune 1890 1939)


1916

1938 3 1939 11 12

3. Sun Yat-sen 1866 1925) 1866 11


12 1894 1905
1911

1925 3 12

4. Mohandas Gandhi .1869 1 8)


1948 1 30
79

5. Ndl Armstrong 1930)16


1962 1969 11

6.

The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life.

Nelson Mandela
1918 7 8 20
40

1990 2 11 1993 1994


1994 5 10

Appendicee

The school where I studied for only two years was three kilometres away.

be ...away
Tha new houee he haejuet bought \e about three mi las away.

The exame still three weeke away.


After trying hardI got a job in a gold mine.
after doing
After qettmq up, he alwaye drinks a (^\ae>e> of water, which he beWevee \e qood for hie health.

After packing all his things into his travelling bag, he sat on the e o f a and waited for the taxi.

He told me how to get the correct papers so I could stay in Johannesburg.

Johannesburg
1886

When he organized the ANC Youth League, I joined it as soon as I could.

ANC AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS


1912
ANC YouthLeague

The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until
today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all 30

seefind
This old houee has eeer\ better days.
National Day eaw people singing and dancing happily in the etreete.

The water finds \te own level.


Morning found Christie knitting by the window.

... we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important, or fight the
government.
less ++ than

In hie life, he Y\ae always triad to help thoee \eee fortunate than himself.

This truck \e running \eee smoothly than it ueed to.

Appendicee

13.... only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.

only
Only yesterday did hie father tell him the truth, which wae a big eurpnee.

Only by shouting wae he a\?\e to make peop\e on the other e\de of the river hear him.

14. You cannot imagine how the name of Robben Island made us afraid .

Robben Island 7

15. Since I was better educatedI got a job working in an office.


86

Appendicee

Grammar

I
(The Verb)

be + v-ing)

be going to will(shall) +

We are going to Mexico next Sunday.


Are you coming to the cinema?
Put on your coat! Im taking you down to the doctor.
He is leaving for London in two hours.
Were spending next winter in Australia.
What are you having for dinner?

go, arrive, come, leave, start, stay, return, play, do,


have, work, wear, spend, see, meet 0

li Q
(Direct Speech and Indirect Speech)


Mr Black said, Im busy.
Mr Black said that he was busy.
1
that (that )

1)
a) He said, I like it very much. :
He said that he liked it very much.
b) He said to me, Ive left my book in your room.

He told me that he had left his book in my room.

.. ... '

_t_
_

:# .

:
.

I dont want to set down a series of

Anne said that she didnt want to set

\ facts in a diary, said Anne.


down a series of facts in a diary.
The boy said,Im using a knife. 1
The boy said that he was using a knife.
i

Celia saidI have not heard from

Celia said that she had not heard from

Jordan since May.


They said,We saw her in the street.

Jordan since May.


They said that they had seen her in
the ;street.

He said,I had finished my


homework before supper.

Appendicee
He said that he had finished his

homework before supper.

Zhou Lan said, Ill do it after ciass.


Zhou Lan said that she would do it after
2)
\ class.

Appendicee

She said, I came here to see the She said that she had gone there to
doctor the day before yesterday. see the doctor two days before/

come go
here there
earlier.
the day before
yesterday
two days

(1)
He said, Light travels much faster than sound.
He said that light travels much faster than sound.
(2) here there come go,yesterday,
tomorrow

to
tell, ask, order not
The hostess said to us, Please sit down.
The hostess asked us to sit down.
Father said to himGo away! !
Father ordered him to go away.
Mother said to me, Come back before 10:00. 10
told me to go back before 10:00. 10
3)Mother

He said, Dont make so much noiseboys.


../:'."m^

.
i.ii

r:/;'f .

He told the boys not


to make so much noise.

The lawyer said, I will come this The lawyer said that she would go
this that

morning.
that morning.
He said, These books are mine. He said that those books were his. say
these1)

those
said She
ask said,
asked
( that
whether)
It is
nine oclock now. i Sheif said
it was
nine oclock then.
then
now

ago before/earlier
Bob saidMy sister was here three ? Bob said that his sister had been days
Do you think a diaryago.
can become your friend? the writer there
says.
days
before/earlier.

three
David said,I havent seen her today. David said
that he hadnt seen her
today that day
The writer asks us if we think a diary can become our friend
.
that
day.

She
said,
I
went
there
yesterday.
j
She
said that she had gone there the
yesterday
day before.
Hebefore
said, Are you interested in English? j

the day
w 9
tomorrow

She
said,
I
11
go
there
tomorrow.
j She said that she would go there the
He asked (me) if I was interested in English.
the next/following
next/following day.
She said, Didday
you see him last night?
the day after tomorrow^ The captain said, They will arrive The captain said that they would in two
She asked (me) whether I had seen him the night before.
days time the day after tomorrow.
arrive in two days time.

88

that

which


who, whom

1) A plane is a machine that can fly.(


2) The noodles (that) I cooked were delicious.(
1) Who is the man that is reading a book over there!(
2) The girl (that) we saw yesterday was Jims sister.(
1) They planted some trees which didnt need much water.(
2) The fish (which) we bought this morning were not fresh.(
1) The foreigner who visited our class yesterday is from Canada.()|
2) The boy who broke the window is called Tom.(
3) The person to whom you just talked is Mr Li.(
4) Mrs Read is the person to whom you should write.(
Appendices

2)

What do you want? he asked me.


He asked me what I wanted.
What do you call your diary? Annes sister asked her.

Annes sister asked her what she called her diary.
When did you go to bed last night? Father said to Anne.


Father asked Anne when she went to bed the night before.

III ,
( he JHirihutive Clause)

The man who lives next to us sells vegetables.


You must do everything that I do.
man everything
who that
that whichwho ( whom whose) where, when why

1 that whichwho

90

Appendicee
Appendicee

2 whose
Wiintowhose
and who
[ 1whose
nyiK

whose

This is the scientist


whose name isAknown
all over the world.

A
I went to see my friends
the Smiths, whose children I used
to look after when they were small. The
room whose window faces south is mine.
He has written a book
name Fve forgotten. in order to .........
Vnit whose
1
=He has written a book the name of which Ive forgotten.
dusk /dAsk/ n. at dusk
A survey
/s3

vei/
n.

add
up

=He has written a book that Ive forgotten the namethunder/0


of.
neb/ v/.; .
upset=He
/Ap'set/a

entire/intaio/a
has written
a book of which Ive forgotten the name.

vt. (upset, upset)

entirely/in'tarali/a<iv

ignore
/ig'no:/
vt
.
3 whenwhere, why power/para/n. face to face
calm /ka:m/ vt. & vi.(
curtain /'k3tn/
calm Ui down (

dusty /'dASti/ adj.

have got to

no longer / not... any longer ...........

concern

" ( = on which) the Peoples Republic of China


when /k^S3 nJ vt.(
October
1, 1949 is the day when

be concerned about

was
founded.

partner/pa:tno/&

settle /setl/ vi. v/.

walk the dog


loose
/lu:s/
adj
.

Ill never forget the time when ( = during


which)
we worked
on
the farm.
suffer
/fSAfo/
vt. & vi.

A vet /vet/ n go Do
through
;
you remember the afternoon when ( = on which) we first met three years agol
suffer from A loneliness /lounlims/
A Amsterdam /.aemsts'daem/ n.
where
n.
met.
highway /haiwei/n.
This is the
place where ( = at/in which
) we first

The
hotel where ( = in which ) we stayed
wasnt
veryvi.
clean.
recover
/n'kAvs/
& vt.
Netherlands /'neSolondz/
n.

recently went
to the town where (
in which
was
born.
get/be
tired )ofI
A Jewish /d3u(:)ij/ adj.I

Id like to live in a country where ( =pack/paek/W.&


in which ) there
plenty
of sunshine.
wis
&
German/d33:m3n/a
why
f
pack (sth) up
n. A Nazi / na:tsi/ n. adj.

I didnt get a pay rise, but this wasnt


the reason
( = for which
) I left.
suitcasewhy
/su:tkeis/
n. A
set down series /'sisriiz/ n.
The reason why ( for which ) he was late was that he missed his train.

Margot /maigsu/n
lj
overcoat /'Quvsksut/ n.
a series of A Kitty /'kiti/
n.) outdoors /aut'doiz/ adv.
teenager Ai:neid3o/n.
Aspellbind /'spelbaind/ vt. (spellbound, spellbound)
get along with

A gossip /'gcsrp/ vi. & n


on purpose
fall in love ;
exactly /ig'zaektli/ adv.
disagree Adis^'gri:/ vi.
grateful /greitfl/ adj.

91
92

Appendicee

dislike /dislaik/ n. & vt.

Noah Webster /'iiquo websto/. (

join in

latter /'laeto/ a ;;

tip/tip/n.;; <

( identity

A secondly /seksndli/ adv.

/ai'dentsti/ n.

swap /swop/ vt. item /'aitsm/

fluent /'fluent/ a
fluently /'fluiontli/ Mv.;

Vnit 2

Singapore /.siq^'po:/ n.() Malaysia


/mQ'leizis/ n.

A subway /?SAbwei/ n. <

elevator/eliveite/ petrol /'petrsl/ /? <

such as

> ?(=< >gasoline) gas/gaes/w.;

frequent /Triikwont/ adj.

official adj.

voyage /Vond3/ n.

frequently /'friikw^ntli/ adv.

conquer /'koqkQ/ vt. because of

usage ,ju:sid3/ n.

native /'neitiv/ adj. &

command /ksmaind/ n. & vt.

request /ri'kwest/ n. & vt.

A Amy /eimi/ n. eome up

apartment /spaitmsnt/ 77. < >

dialect /'daislekt/ n. expression /iksprejn/

n. midwestern /mid'westsn/

adj.

actually /'aektjuoli/ adv. AD

base /beis/ vt.

African /'aefrikon/ adj. _ _^ ;_

& at present

gradual /'gradsosl/ adj.

Spanish /spaeniJV adj.

gradually /'graedsosli/ adv.

^ play a part

Danish /'deimj/ n.

(in) eastern /'iiston/ adj.

adj.

Aenrich/mritJV vocabulary

southeastern /.sauB'iiston/ adj.

/vg'kaebjubn/ n.

AShakespeare /Jeikspis/ (

northwestern /fno:0'westQn/ adj.

make use of ;

spelling /spehq/".;

recognize /'reksgnaiz/ vt.

Z\Samuel Johnson /'saemjuQl 'd3Dnsn/

lorry /lori/ n. < > = < > truck)

Lori/'lori/i
Houston /?hju:st9n/ n.
Texas /teksss/ n.
accent/aekssnt/n. ; Buford /bju:fed/

n. Lester/lesto/"
catfish /kaetfij/ n.

93

Appendicee

Vnit 4

bury /'beri/ vt. mine


Appendicee
/main/ n miner /'maino/

earthquake /3:0kweik/ n. quake /kweik/

n. shelter/Jelts/fi.

n. right away well /wel/ n.


lightning /'laitniq/ n. straight

a (great) number of
journey /d33:m/ n.
titleAartl/n reporter
altitude /'aeltitjuid/
n.

/ri'poits/
n. bar/bci:/
.
make
up ones
mindn.

damage
/'daemid3/
& vt.

/streit/ adv.
Acrack/kraek/"
vt. &
vi.( A
block/bbky&

smelly
/smeli/
adj.cab
A
/kaeb/ n.
farmyard
/'faimjaid/ n.

give in
A
frighten
/'fraitn/ vt.
atlasfrightened
/'aetlQs/ n.
;
A
/'fraitnd/
adj.

pipe/paip/w burst /b3st/ vi.

glacier /'glaesio;
'gleijo/
A
frightening
/fraitmq/
adj.n.

Vnit
(burst,3burst) n;

congratulation
n.
rapids /'raepidz//ksn.graetjuleijn/
n. valley/'vaeli/n.

A waterfall /'woitofoil/ n.

million fmilpn/ n. event /ivent/ n.


journal /'d33nl/ n.
as if at an end
transport
/'traenspoit/
n.
/traen'spoit/ vt.

nation
/'neijn/ n.

/ks'nael/
prefer/prife:/

canal
n.
steam /stiim/

disadvantage
3/
n. dirt /d3t/ n./,disQdVa:ntid

vt.vt.
(bent,
bent)
W.
sincerely /sin'siQli/ adv.
A meander /mi'aends/ n.(
express /ik'spres/ vt. .

outline /'autlain/ n.
A delta /delta/ n. attitude /'aetitjuid/ n.
headline /'hedlain/ n.
A Qomolangma AtJsumg'luqmQ/ n.
cyclist /saiklist/ n.
boil /boil/ vi.(

pace /peis/ vi.

judge
/d3Adbend
3/ n.;

/bend/ n.

n.
ruin
/'ruiin/ n.

vr. in ruins
fare /fes/ n. A route /ru:t/ n.
suffering /SAfenq/ n.
A Mekong Amii'koq/ n.
extreme /ik'striim/ adj.
flow /Aqu/ vi. n.
injure /ind33/ vt. A
ever since
survivor /soVaivs/ n.

persuade /pssweid/ vt.

destroy
/di'stroi/
vt.
cycle /'saikl/
vi.
brick
/bnk/
n.
graduate
/'cjraed
3ueit/ vi.
dam /daem/ n.
/'graed3U9t/ n.

forecast /Toikaist/ n. & vt.


VnitS

parcel /'paisl/ n. insurance

A
Nelson Mandela
maen'dels/
/inJusrsns/
n. /'nelsn
wool /wul/
n.

_
as usual
quality /'kwobti/ ; A warmreliable /ri'laiobl/ a view
hearted /,wo:m'ha:tid/ adj. mean /mi:n/
/vju:/ n.
adj. active /'aektiv/ adj.
A yak /jaek/ n. pillow /'pibu/ n.
generous /(fcenoi^s/ adj.
midnight /'midnait/ n. at
A easy-going Aiizi'g^uiq/ adj.?
midnight flame/fleim/n

self
/self/ n.; selfish /'selfij/ adj.
selfless
beneath/selflis/
/bi'ni:0/ adj.
prep
.
selflessly
/selflisli/
adv. devote
ALaos/laus//i.

/di'v^ut/ vt.( to devoted


A Laotian /'laojion/ n.
/di'voutid/ adj. A William
adj.
Tyndale /Viljom 'tindl/
temple
/tempi/ n.
_
cave /keiv/ n.

track/traek/n.
finally /'fainsli/ adv.
useless/juislis/a
schedule /'Jedjuil; sked3ul/ n.

shock /Jok/ vt. & vi.(


vt.
& rescue
fond/fond/. be fond of
/'reskju:/ n. & vt. trap /traep/ vt.
n.
shortcoming
/'Joelectricity
t,kAmii]/ n.

stubborn /stAbsn/

/i.lek'tnssti/
n.adj.

disaster organize
/'oig^naiz/n.vt.

care
;
/di'zaists/

dig
outabout

A detail /'diiteil; diteil/ n. A source


/sdis/ n. determine /di't3min/ vt.

determined /dit3:mmd/ adj.


change ones mind

94

Appendicee

A Bible /'baibl/ n.
Norman Bethune /'no:mon bQ'0u:n/

()

A invader /in'veido/ n. found /faond/ vt.


republic /ri'p blik/ n.
principle/prinsspl/n. A
nationalism /'n^JnslizQm/ n.

livelihood /laivlihud/ n. \
Mohandas Gandhi /msu'haendss 'gasndi/

peaceful/pkfl/#/. A giant
Ad^aiQnt/ adj. A leap /liip/ n.
mankind /.nisen'kaind/ n. .

Elias /l'hiiss/ n. lawyer /loij^/


n. guidance /'gaidsns/ n. # legal

/'liigl/ adj. fee/fih.


Z passbook /fpa:s,buk/n.

Johannesburg /d39o'haemsb3g/ n.
(
out of work
hopeful /'toupfl/ adj. .ANC
(African

National Congress) youth /ju:0/ n.


league/li:g/ Youth League
stage /steid3/ n. vote

/voot/ vt. & vi. .

attack/otask/vr.;
violence /'vaisbns/ n.;

as a matter of fact
blow up equal /'iikwol/ adj.
in trouble
willing /wiliq/ adj.
unfair /.An'fes/ adj. turn to
Z quote /kw^ut/
release /n'liis/ vt. lose heart

Robben Island /'roban 'ailond/

escape A'skeip/ vi.


blanket /'blaeqkit/ n. educate
/'ed^okeit/ vt.
educated /'ed3ukeitid/ adj.;

come to power
beg/beg/W. relative /rel3tiv/w.;
terror /'tero/ n.

cruelty /'krui^lti/ n.
reward /n'woid/ n.
;

Transkei /traens'kai/ n.
(
set up
sentence /'sentsns/ vt.

be sentenced to . ( anti[] anti-black adj. Cape


Town president
Aprezicbnt/n. Nobel
Peace Prize /nsu'belpi:s praiz/
opinion /opmjsn/n

Appendices

bend /bend/ n.

vt. (bent, bent)


a (great) number of

accent/'aekssnt/n.

beneath /bi'ni:0/ prep.

active /aektiv/ adj.

A Bible /fbaibl/ n. blanket /'blaeqkit/


n. block/btok/z.
blow up boil /boil/ vi.(
brick /bnk/ n; A
Buford/bju:fcd/n.(; burst
/b3st/ vi. (burst, burst) n.
bury /beri/ vt.

W.

actually / aektju9li/ adv. 2 AD


f

add up

African /'aefriksn/ adj. ^ g g g

altitude/aeltitjuid/n
3
A Amsterdam Aaemsts'daem/ n.
( 1 A
Amy /'eimi/ n.

AA NC

(African National Congress)(5


anti-[]

cab/kaeb/n.
(2
calm /ka:m/ vt. & vi.(
calm (...) down (

(5

anti-black adj.

apartment /Q'paitmsnt/ n. <>

as a matter of fact

as if

as usual

at an end

at present

A atlas/ tbs/n

attack/staek/

attitude /aetitjuid/ n.

bar/ba:/.
base /beis/ vt.
&
because of
beg /beg/ vi.

(
1
canal /ks'nael/ n. A Cape Town
care about
A catfish /'kaetfij/ n. |
2
cave /keiv/ n.
3
change ones mind
(3
come to power
5
come up
2
command /ks'maind/ n. & vt.
(2 concern /k9n's3n/ (
L
be concerned about
1
congratulation /kon.grsetjo'leijn/ n.
(4)

(4
(2
(2
(5

97

Appendicee
Appendicee

frighten /'fraitn/ vt.

A conquer /'koqks/ vt.


frightened /'fraitnd/ adj.(4)
A crack /kraek/ n.
frightening /fraitmi]/ adj.
vt. & W.(

(2)

cruelty /'kruislti/ n. curtain/'k3:tn/n.

cycle /'saikl/ vi. 2) 1


gas/gaes/n.

cyclist /'saiklist/
n.
generous
/cbensros/
adj.
5) 3
4
German fd^3 mQn/adj.

dam /daein/ n.

&
damage /'daemid3/ n. & vt.
/'deinij/
n.
get Danish
along with

1)
adj.
get/be tired of
1)
A delta /'delta/ n.
A giant/d3ai3nt/
5)
destroy /di'stroi/ vt. A
give in
3)
detail /'diiteil; diteil/ n.
glacier /'glaesis; gleiJW n.
(3)
determine/dit3:min/W.
go through
1)
determined /di't3mmd/ adj.
gossip /'gosip/ vi. & n.
1)
devote /di'vout/ vt.( to )
gradual/graed3U3l/
/ 2)

law

Youth

League

5)

leap /liip/ n.

5)

mm
found /faund/ vt.

1)

frequent /Triikwsnt/ adj.


make up ones mind
3)
frequently /'friikwantli/ adv.
5)
make use of
2)
Malaysia/mileizis/
3)

adj.

southeastern /.sauG'iistsn/ adj.

injure/ind33/w.
4)
northwestern
/.noiG'weston/
adj.

insurance/inJusrsns/n

legal /'liigl/ adj.


5)
face to face fall in love
Lester/leste/"2)
fare /fes/ n
lightning /laitmq/ n.
2)
\ farmyard /'faimjaid/ n. fee/fi:/n.
1)
livelihood/laivlihud/
finally /'fainsli/
5)
adv. flame /fleim/ n.
loneliness /bunlmis/n
1)
flow /fteu/ vi. &
loose/lu:s/a
1)
fluent /'fluent/ a ;
Lori rivnJ n)

fluently /'fluiontli/ adv.;


lorry/lt)n/n. <>=<> truck) (2)
fond/fond/a be
lose heart
5)
fond of forecast /'foikaist/ n. & vt.

Houston/hjuistsn/n.2)

1)

hopeful/hsupfl/fl 5)

ignore /ig'no:/ vt.


in order
to
earthquake
/'30kweik/ n.
in trouble

quake /kweik/
n. eastern /'iistsn/

er

league/li:g/

4)

2)

Askeip/ vi.
event /Ivent/ n.
Kitty/kiti/n

ever since exactly

/ig'zaektli/ adv.
express /ikspres/ vt.
Laos/laus/
3)
.
Laotian /'lauJiQn/ n.
expression /iksprejn/ n.
(/.
extreme /ik'striim/ adj.
latter /'laets/ adj.

1)

identity/aidentsti/

4) Jewish /'d3u(:)ij/ adj.


educate /ed3ukeit/
vf.
Johannesburg
/d33uhaemsb3:g/
educated /'ed3ukeitid/ adj.
&
5)

join in
1)
electricity /ijek'trisoti/ n.
journal /'d33nl/ n.3)
elevator/'eliveito/ Elias A'laiss/
journey /'d33ni/ n.
3)
n. enrich /in'ritj/ vt.
judge/d3Ad3/n.
entire/intais/

vr
entirely /in^aioli/ adv.
4)

n.
3)
dirt /grad
/d33t/u3t/
n.

grateful/greitfl/
disadvantage
/,dis9dVa:ntid3/ n.1)
5)
guidance /gaicbns/n.
gj disagree /disogri:/ vi. disaster

/dAsk//hedlain/
n.;
at dusk
headline
n.
dusty
/'dASti/
adj.
highway
/'haiwei/n

easy-going Aiizi'gauiq/ adj.

equal /i:kwsl/ adj. escape

gradually
/'graed
30Qli/adj.
adv.

devoted
/di'vsotid/

A 2)
graduate
3ueit/v
/.
dialect /graed
/daislekt/
n.
dig out

H /di'zaists/ n. dislike
/dis'laik/
& vt.; dusk
have
got to n.

(4)

99

98

Appendicee

meander /mi'aends/ n.(

pace /peis/ vi.

:Mekong /.mii'koi]/ n.

n.

midnight /'midnait/ n. at

3)

pack /paek/ vi. & vt.

midnight

1)

pack (sth) up

1)

midwestern /mid'westsn/ adj.

million /'miljsn/ n. mine /main/ n.

miner /mains/ n. Mohandas


Gandhi /mQo'haendss 'gaendi/

3)

parcel/'pa:sl//i.

partner/pa:tra/n. 1)
passbook /'pais.bok/ n.

5)

peaceful/piisfl/4
persuade /pg'sweid/ vt.

3)

petrol /'petrol/ n. <


nation/neifn/n.
nationalism /'naejnolizsm/ n.

native /'neitiv/ adj.


& \
Nazi /'naitsi/ n. adj.
Nelson Mandela /'nelsn maen'dels/

Netherlands /'neO^bndz/ n. no
longer / not... any longer .......................
Noah Webster /'n^us websts/

(=< >gasoline)
pillow /'pibu/ n.
pipe/paip/n.

(2)
(3)
4)

play a part (in)


power/paus/"

1)

prefer /prif3:/ vt.


(
president/prezidsnt/n.;

3)

principle/'prmsspl/;;(5)

Nobel Peace Prize /nsu'bel 'pi:s praiz/

quality/kwDbti//!

Norman Bethune /'noimsn bs'Guin/

5)

Qomolangma /.tj^ums'luqms/ n.(3)

quote /kwQut/ "

5)

, r a p i d s /'raepidz/ n.

(3)

official/ofijl/a ; on

recognize/retognaiz/w2)

purpose

recover /ri'kAvs/ vi. & vt.

opinion /spinjon/

1)

organize /bigsnaiz/ vt. | out of work

relative /relstiv/.

5)

A release /rili:s/ vt.

5)

outdoors /autdo:z/ adv.

reliable /ri'laisbl/ adj.

3)

outline/autlain/n; overcoat

reporter /ri'poita/ n. i |

/'oovokQut/ n.

republic /n'pAblik/ n.

5)

request /ri'kwest/ n, & vt.

2)

(4)

Appendicee
Appendicee

II
rescue /'reskju:/ n. & vt.
%#
reward
/n'woid/
n.

unfair/
An'fe3/a

vote /vsut/ vt. & vi.

5)

upset / pset/vr
adj.
5)

A spellbind /'spelbaind/
voyage /voiicfe/ n.
vt. (spellbound, spellbound)

right away
vt. (upset, upset)

4)

spelling /speliq/ n. ; stage/steicfe/

Z Robben Island
/'robon ailond/ 5) 1)
usage
3/
n.
3)

route/'ju:sid
/ru:t/ n.

walk;
the dog steam /stiim/ n.

useless
/'juislis/
adj.
ruin
/'ruun/
n.

in ruins

4)
4)
4)

selfless/selflis/a

/V/V
31\7\)/

Samuel Johnson /'saemjosl d3onsn/


2)
A vet /vet/ n.
schedule /'Jedjuil; sked3ul/n.
view/vju:/M.
vt. \
vr.
3)
secondly /'seksndli/ adv.
(1
violence /'vaiobns/ n.
(5)
self/self/n.
vocabulary /vQ'kaebjubn/
selfish /'selfij/ adj.
(5

valley /vaeli/ n.()

(5
)

1)
2

1)

5
straight
/streit/ adv.
adj.5)
A warm-hearted
/.woim'haitid/
4
(/.
A waterfall /'woitsfoil/
n.
3)
stubborn
well /wel//stAton/
n. adj.

(4)

A William
Tyndalen./wiljsm
'tindl/
subway
/SAbwei/

5)
such
as

willing/'sAfo/
/wiliq/
adj.&

suffer
vt.
vi.
wool/wul/n
suffer from

5)
3)

suffering /'sAforiq/ n.
suitcase /'suitkeis/ n. A
A yak /jaek/ n.
survey /S3:vei/ n.
youth /ju:0/ n. 5
survivor

(3
)
(5

/ss'vaivQ/ n.

selflessly /'selflisli/ cidv.


sentence /'sentons/ vt.

be sentenced to

(5

swap /swop/ vt.

series /'sisriiz/ n. lj

teenager /fti:n,eid39/ n.
a series of set

temple /'tempi/ n. terror /'ter^/

down set up

n.

settle/setl/v/.;;

vr.
Shakespeare /'Jeikspis/ (

shelter/Jelts/n.
shock /Jok/ vt.

& vi.()

shortcoming /'Joit.kAmii]/ n.^ sincerely


/sin'sioli/ adv. Singapore /,sir]Q?
po:/ n. \ smelly /'smeli/
adj. A source /so:s/ n.

Texas /'teksss/ n.)


thunder ,0 ncte/ vi.
tip/tip/n. #
title/taitl/n.

track /traek/ n.
Transkei /traens'kai/ n.
(

transport /'traenspoit/ n.
/traens'poit/ vt. trap /traep/ vt.
& turn to

Spanish f s p x m j / adj.

102
101