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Objectives Overview

Discovering Computers
Technology in a World of Computers,
Mobile Devices, and the Internet

Chapter 10
Communications
and Networks

Objectives Overview
Describe various
types of
communications
lines

See Page 416


for Detailed Objectives

Differentiate among LANs,


MANs, WANs, and PANs

Differentiate between
client/server and peer-topeer networks

Differentiate among a star


network, bus network, and
ring network

Describe the various


network communications
standards and protocols

Explain the purpose of


communications software

See Page 416


for Detailed Objectives

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Communications

Describe
commonly used
communications
devices

Differentiate
among physical
transmission
media

Discuss the purpose of the


components required for
successful communications
and identify various sending
and receiving devices

Discuss different
ways to set up and
configure a home
network

Digital communications describes a process in


which two or more computers or devices transfer
data, instructions, and information

Differentiate
among wireless
transmission
media

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Sending device

Page 416

Communications
channel

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Receiving device

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Communications

Networks
A network is a collection of computers and
devices connected together via communications
devices and transmission media
Advantages of a network include:
Facilitating
communications

Sharing
hardware

Sharing
software
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Figure 10-1

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Networks

Pages 418 - 419

Sharing data
and information

Transferring
funds

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Networks
A local area network
(LAN) is a network
that connects
computers and
devices in a limited
geographical area
A wireless LAN
(WLAN) is a LAN that
uses no physical
wires
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Networks

Networks

A metropolitan area
network (MAN) connects
LANs in a metropolitan
area
A wide area network
(WAN)
is a network that covers a
large geographic area
A personal area network
(PAN) is a network that
connects computers and
devices in an individuals
workspace with wired and
wireless technology

The configuration of computers, devices, and media on a


network is sometimes called the network architecture
Client/server network

One or more
computers act as a
server, and the
other computers on
the network
request services
from the server. A
server, sometimes
called a host
computer, controls
access to the
hardware, software,
and other resources
on the network and
provides a
centralized storage
area for programs,
data, and
information.

Peer-to-peer network

P2P network is
simple, inexpensive
network
architecture that
typically connects
fewer than 10
computers. Each
computer or mobile
device, called a
peer, has equal
responsibilities and
capabilities, sharing
hardware (such as a
printer), data or
information with
other computers
and mobile devices
on the p2p network.

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Networks

Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

A network topology refers to the layout of the computers


and devices in a communications network

STAR Topology in this type of topology all the computers are connected to a single hub
through a cable. This hub is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the
central node.

Star network

Pages 423 424


Figures 10-8 10-10

Bus network

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Ring network

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Features of Star Topology


1. Every node has its own dedicated connection to the hub.
2. Hub acts as a repeater for data flow.
3. Can be used with twisted pair, Optical Fiber or coaxial cable.
Advantages of Star Topology
1. Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic.
2. Hub can be upgraded easily.
3. Easy to troubleshoot.
4. Easy to setup and modify.
5. Only that node is affected which has failed, rest of the nodes can work smoothly.
Disadvantages of Star Topology
1. Cost of installation is high.
2. Expensive to use.
3. If the hub fails then the whole network is stopped because all the nodes depend on the hub.
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4. Performance is based on the hub that is it depends on its capacity

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Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

BUS Topology is a network type in which every computer and network device is connected
to single cable. When it has exactly two endpoints, then it is called Linear Bus topology.

RING Topology it is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is
connected to another computer, with the last one connected to the first. Exactly two
neighbors for each device.

Features of Bus Topology


1.It transmits data only in one direction.
2.Every device is connected to a single cable
Advantages of Bus Topology
1.It is cost effective.
2.Cable required is least compared to other network topology.
3.Used in small networks.
4.It is easy to understand.
5.Easy to expand joining two cables together.
Disadvantages of Bus Topology
1.Cables fails then whole network fails.
2.If network traffic is heavy or nodes are more the performance of the network
decreases.
3.Cable has a limited length.
4.It is slower than the ring topology.

Features of Ring Topology


1. A number of repeaters are used for Ring topology with large number of nodes, because if
someone wants to send some data to the last node in the ring topology with 100 nodes,
then the data will have to pass through 99 nodes to reach the 100th node. Hence to
prevent data loss repeaters are used in the network.
2. The transmission is unidirectional, but it can be made bidirectional by having 2
connections between each Network Node, it is called Dual Ring Topology. In Dual Ring
Topology, two ring networks are formed, and data flow is in opposite direction in them.
Also, if one ring fails, the second ring can act as a backup, to keep the network up.
3. Data is transferred in a sequential manner that is bit by bit. Data transmitted, has to pass
through each node of the network, till the destination node.
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Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

RING Topology it is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is
connected to another computer, with the last one connected to the first. Exactly two
neighbors for each device.

To alleviate the problems of incompatibility and ensure that hardware and software
components can be integrated into any network, various organizations such as ANSI
(American National Standards Institute) and IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers) propose, develop, and approve network standards.

Advantages of Ring Topology


1. Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more nodes, as only the
nodes having tokens can transmit data.
2. Cheap to install and expand

A network standard defines guidelines that specify the way computers access the medium
to which they are connected, the type(s) of medium used, the speeds used on different
types of networks, and the type(s) of physical cable and/or the wireless technology used.
Hardware and software manufacturers design their products to meet the guidelines
specified in a particular standard, so that their devices can communicate with the network.

Disadvantages of Ring Topology


1. Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology.
2. Adding or deleting the computers disturbs the network activity.
3. Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network.

Pages 425 - 426

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

A standard that outlines characteristics of how two devices communicate on a network is


called a protocol. Specifically, a protocol may define data format, coding schemes, error
handling, and the sequence in which data transfers over a network.

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Pages 425 - 426

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Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

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Ethernet

Token
ring

TCP/IP

Wi-Fi

Bluetooth

UWB

IrDA

RFID

NFC

WiMAX

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Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

Ethernet is a network standard that specifies no central


computer or device on the network (nodes) should control
when data can be transmitted

Ethernet is a network standard that specifies no central


computer or device on the network (nodes) should control
when data can be transmitted

The token ring standard specifies that computers and devices


on the network share or pass a special signal (token) in a
unidirectional manner and in a preset order.

The token ring standard specifies that computers and devices


on the network share or pass a special signal (token) in a
unidirectional manner and in a preset order.

TCP/IP is a network protocol that defines how messages (data)


are routed from one end of a network to another

TCP/IP is a network protocol that defines how messages (data)


are routed from one end of a network to another

Pages 425 - 426

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Pages 425 - 426

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

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Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

Ethernet is a network standard that specifies no central


computer or device on the network (nodes) should control
when data can be transmitted
The token ring standard specifies that computers and devices
on the network share or pass a special signal (token) in a
unidirectional manner and in a preset order.
TCP/IP is a network protocol that defines how messages (data)
are routed from one end of a network to another
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Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

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Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

Page 426
Figure 10-11

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

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Network Communications Standards


and Protocols

Wi-Fi identifies any network based on the 802.11 standard that


specifies how two wireless devices communicate over the air with
each other
Bluetooth is a network protocol that defines how two Bluetooth
devices use short-range radio waves to transmit data
UWB (ultra-wideband) is a network standard that specifies how
two UWB devices use short-range radio waves to communicate at
high speeds with each other
IrDA transmits data wirelessly via infrared (IR) light waves
RFID is a protocol that defines how a network uses radio signals to
communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an
animal, or a person
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Network Communications Standards


and Protocols
NFC

WiMAX (802.16)

Protocol based on RFID


Uses close-range radio
signals
Devices or objects
should be placed
within an inch or two
of each other

Developed by IEEE
Towers can cover a 30mile radius
Two types are fixed
wireless and mobile
wireless

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Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Communications Software
Communications software consists of programs
and apps that:
Help users establish a
connection to another
computer, mobile
device, or network

Provide an interface
for users to
communicate with
one another
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Communications Lines
Dedicated
line

Cable

ISDN

FTTP

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Page 431

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

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Communications Lines
A dedicated line is a type of always-on physical connection that is
established between two communications devices. Businesses often use
dedicated lines to connect geographically distant offices.

DSL

The cable television (CATV) network provides high-speed Internet


connections, called cable Internet service. The CATV signal enters a
building through a single line, usually a coaxial cable. This cable connects
to a modem, which typically attaches to your computer via an Ethernet
cable. Home and small business users often subscribe to cable Internet
service.

T-Carrier

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) transmits on existing standard copper phone


wiring. Some DSL installations include a dial tone, providing users with
both voice and data communications. DSL is a popular digital line
alternative for the small business or home user.

ATM
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Manage the
transmission of data,
instructions, and
information

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Page 433
Table 10-2

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Communications Lines

Communications Lines
ADSL is a type of DSL that supports faster transfer
rates when receiving data

Page 433
Table 10-2

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Page 433
Figure 10-14

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

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Communications Devices

Communications Devices

A communications device is any type of hardware


capable of transmitting data, instructions, and
information between a sending device and a
receiving device

A broadband modem sends and receives data and


information to and from a digital line

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Cable
modem

DSL
modem

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Communications Devices

Communications Devices
A wireless modem uses a mobile phone providers
network to connect to the Internet wirelessly
from a computer or mobile device

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Figure 10-15

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Communications Devices

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Communications Devices

A wireless access point is a central communications


device that allows computers and devices to transfer data
wirelessly among themselves or to a wired network

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Figure 10-17

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Figure 10-16

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A router connects
multiple computers or
other routers together
and transmits data to its
correct destination on a
network

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Figure 10-18

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Communications Devices

Communications Devices

A network card enables a computer or device that


does not have built-in networking capability to
access a network
Available in a variety of styles

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Figure 10-20

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

A hub or switch is a device that provides a central


point for cables in a network

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Home Networks

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Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

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Transmission Media
Transmission media carries one
or more communications signals
Broadband media transmit
multiple signals simultaneously
The amount of data,
instructions, and information
that can travel over
transmission media sometimes
is called the bandwidth
Latency is the time it takes a
signal to travel from one
location to another on a
network

Many home users connect multiple computers


and devices together in a home network

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Figure 10-21

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Page 442
Figure 10-22

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Physical Transmission Media

Physical Transmission Media


Twisted-pair cable

Fiber-optic cable

Coaxial cable

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Table 10-3

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Wireless Transmission Media

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Figures 10-23 10-25

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Wireless Transmission Media


Broadcast radio is a
wireless transmission
medium that distributes
radio signals through
the air over long
distances
Cellular radio is a form
of broadcast radio that
is used widely for
mobile communications

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Table 10-4

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Pages 445 - 446


Figure 10-26

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Wireless Transmission Media

Wireless Transmission Media


A communications
satellite is a space
station that receives
microwave signals from
an earth-based station,
amplifies it, and
broadcasts the signal
over a wide area

Microwaves are radio waves that provide a highspeed signal transmission

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Figure 10-27

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Wireless Transmission Media

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Figure 10-28

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

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Wireless Transmission Media

A global positioning system (GPS) is a navigation


system that consists of one or more earth-based
receivers that accept and analyze signals sent by
satellites in order to determine the receivers
geographical location

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Page 449
Figure 10-29

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Summary

Discovering Computers
Technology in a World of Computers,
Mobile Devices, and the Internet

Various types of
network architectures,
topologies, and
standards and protocols

Communications
software

How to create a home


network

Page 451

Communications lines
and communications
devices

Chapter 10

Physical transmission
media and wireless
transmission media

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 10

Communications
and Networks
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Chapter 10 Complete

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