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HDM-4 VERSION 1.3 (December 2001)


=================================
Please read this document carefully before using this version of
HDM-4, as it contains the latest information on the status of the
software.
The contents of this file are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Windows NT Users - Important Information


Contents of the HDM-4 CD
Minimum Platform Requirements
Installation
Troubleshooting / Hints & Tips
On-Going Development
Known Bugs / Problems
Feedback / Technical Support
Changes in Version 1.1
Changes in Version 1.2
Changes in Version 1.3

===========================================
1. WINDOWS NT USERS - IMPORTANT INFORMATION
===========================================
During Beta testing several users experienced serious problems
after installing HDM-4 on their Windows NT PCs. This problem
was due to a bug in NT which has since been fixed by Microsoft.
The fix is contained in NT Service Pack 6. HDM-4 SHOULD ONLY BE
USED WITH WINDOWS NT IF SERVICE PACK 6 HAS BEEN INSTALLED. For
further details on this problem, please refer to the following
technical article on the Microsoft web-site:
Article number Q223275 - "Computer Stops or Hangs Due to Large
System Environment Variable Values". Go to
http://support.microsoft.com/support and search on "Q223275".
Please contact HDM-4 technical support if you have any questions
about using HDM-4 with Windows NT. See section 8 (Feedback /
Technical Support) for contact details.
===========================
2. CONTENTS OF THE HDM-4 CD
===========================
This CD contains the following products:
1) The HDM-4 Version 1.3 software for Windows (for Windows NT see
section 1 above)
2) The example case study database (English and French editions)
3) Volumes 1 to 5 and Index of the English edition of the HDM-4
documentation (in PDF format)
4) Volume 1, 3 and Index of the French editions of the documentation
5) Volume 1, and Index of the Spanish and Russian editions of the
documentation
6) Adobe Acrobat Reader - the tool for reading the documentation
Please note the following files and folders:
SETUP.EXE
-----------

This program installs the HDM-4 Version 1.3 software and PDF
documentation. Please see 'Installation' below for more details.
\ACROREAD5
---------Contains the installation program for Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0.5
(English language version). For localised versions of Adobe
Acrobat Reader please visit the web site www.adobe.com.
\DOCUMENTATION
-------------Contains a separate, non-compressed copy of the HDM-4 PDF
documentation. This copy is included for those who do not wish
to install the documentation on the PC, but prefer instead to
use it from the CD. Please open the file HOME.PDF to start
viewing the documentation.
================================
3. MINIMUM PLATFORM REQUIREMENTS
================================
The recommended minimum platform requirements for running HDM-4
are as follows:
-

Pentium
32MB of
30MB of
50MB of
Windows
above)

P100 processor (or equivalent)


RAM
free hard disk space (for program and documentation)
free hard disk space (for storage of run-data)
95 or greater (NT 4.0 with Service Pack 6 installed - see 1

HDM-4 is a sophisticated modelling tool which involves many


processor intensive operations. As such, execution speed is
significantly affected by the specification of the PC on which
it is run. The above platform requirements are the minimum
recommended. The performance of HDM-4 will improve in relation
to the specification of your PC. Please see section 11.3 of the
Software User Guide (Volume 3 of the HDM-4 Documentation Series)
for advice on improving run-time performance.
===============
4. INSTALLATION
===============
1) Insert the HDM-4 CD in your CD Drive. After a few seconds the
HDM-4 autorun screen should appear. If it does not, select Run
from the Windows Start menu and enter 'D:\RUN.EXE" (where D: is
the drive letter assigned to your CD drive). If the autorun
screen does not appear but instead an error message is displayed
(regarding the file "OLEAUT32.DLL"), then bypass the autorun
screen by running 'SETUP.EXE' from the CD. Then goto step 3.
2) If the autorun screen does appear, first select the language
you wish to use by clicking on the appropriate icon at the bottom
of the autorun screen. Then select 'Install HDM-4'
from the list of options shown on the right of the screen.
3) Once in the installation program, follow the on-screen
instructions. When you get to the user registration screen, make
sure that the name you enter in the 'Registered Name' slot is the

one supplied by your HDM-4 distributor.


4) You may prefer not to install the documentation on your PC,
and use it directly from the CD instead. If this is the case,
select the Custom installation option and de-select the
'Documents' option. Conversely, if you wish to install only the
documentation, select the Custom installation and select only the
'Documents' option.
For more information on installing HDM-4, please refer to section
1 of the Software User Guide which can be viewed from the HDM-4
CD.
=================================
5. TROUBLESHOOTING / HINTS & TIPS
=================================
For up-to-date trouble-shooting information, hints & tips, and
frequently asked questions, please refer to the ISOHDM web-sites
listed in section 5 below.
=======================
6. ON-GOING DEVELOPMENT
=======================
The development of the HDM-4 software is continual. This section
lists a number of major developments which will appear in
forthcoming releases.
- MODEL ENHANCEMENTS: Major and minor enhancements to the HDM-4
models will occur from time to time. Enhancements planned for the
near future include a work-zone delay model, improved tyre wear
model, traffic noise model, etc.
- ON-LINE HELP: This version does not have context sensitive
help. This will follow in a forthcoming version.
- STAND-ALONE REPORT MODULE: version 1.3 of HDM-4 allows the user
to produce and manage multiple sets of run-data. A forthcoming
tool will allow HDM-4 run data to be viewed outside of the HDM-4
environment. This will allow unlicenced users to view the data.
- RD CALIBRATION TOOL: a stand-alone tool for the calibration of
the HDM-4 Road Deterioration models is currently in beta-testing.
For details on availability please contact the ISOHDM secretariat
using the contact details given below.
- RUE TOOL: a stand-alone tool for the calibration of the HDM-4
Road User Effects models is currently under development. More
details can be obtained from the ISOHDM web sites listed in
section 5 below.
- USER-DEFINABLE MODELS: a forthcoming release will allow users
to specify their own models. These relationships will then be
executed dynamically at run-time.
- SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS: to study the effects of changes in key
parameters (such as Road Agency Costs, Traffic growth rates,
etc.), on the results of the economic analysis.

- RISK ANALYSIS: to assign probabilities to the parameter ranges


used in Sensitivity Analysis.
- FIRST YEAR BENEFIT (FYB): At present, the economic analysis
model always returns a dummy value of -9999.99 for FYB. It is
hoped that a fix for FYB will be included in a forthcoming
update.
- ENERGY ANALYSIS: the calculation of net energy benefits is not
yet included. Like FYB, this will be fixed in a forthcoming
update / version.
Please check the ISOHDM websites on a regular basis for software
updates, and for latest news on new developments (see below for
contact details).
========================
7. KNOWN BUGS / PROBLEMS
========================
The following bugs/problems are known to exist in this version of
HDM-4:
- DATA CONSISTENCY: changes to Road Network and Vehicle Fleet
data are not immediately reflected in any open Projects /
Programmes / Strategies in which they are used. To get around
this problem, you should close then re-open the various analyses.
- REPORT WINDOWS: when an analysis is closed any associated
reports/charts windows are left open. For the time being you
should close these windows manually.
- DIVERTED TRAFFIC - shortly before release, a bug was found
in the calculation of diverted traffic for non-motorised
vehicles. As insufficient time was available before the release
of v1.3, the handling of diverted traffic for NMT has been removed.
This omission will be fixed in a subsequent release.
PLEASE REPORT ANY BUGS THAT YOU DISCOVER TO THE ISOHDM
Secretariat (see FEEDBACK below). Bugs cannot be fixed unless
they are reported. All bug reports are gratefully received by
the development team, and are investigated as a matter of
priority.
===============================
8. FEEDBACK / TECHNICAL SUPPORT
===============================
The ISOHDM Secretariat always welcomes any comments/suggestions
from users of HDM-4. Comments should be sent to the project
secretariat at the following e-mail address:
email: piarc.hdm4@attglobal.net
fax: +33 (0)1 49 00 02 02
For problems with passwords, installation, bugs, etc., please
contact your distributor:
Presses de l'ENPC, France:
Web: http://presses.enpc.fr/

Email: presses.ponts@mail.enpc.fr
Telephone: +33 (0)1 44 58 27 40
FAX: +33 (0)1 44 58 27 44
McTrans:
Web:
Email:
Telephone:
FAX:

http://mctrans.ce.ufl.edu
mctrans@ce.ufl.edu
+1 (352) 392 0378
+1 (352) 392 3224

The following web-sites are maintained to support users of HDM-4:


http://hdm4.piarc.org
http://www.bham.ac.uk/isohdm
These sites provide latest news on the development of HDM-4, as
well as training opportunities, user contacts, user discussion,
tips and trouble-shooting, HDM-4 publications and newsletters,
and facilities for downloading local data sets and calibrations,
fixes and service releases.
=========================
9. CHANGES IN VERSION 1.1
=========================
ENHANCEMENTS IN VERSION 1.1
--------------------------1) ANALYSIS PERFORMANCE: optimisation of the analysis loop has
resulted in shorter analysis times. It has also eradicated the
previous exponential relationship between the number of section
alternatives and total analysis time. Typically, an improvement
of 300% will be observed, but in general this will be dependent
upon the PCs configuration.
2) PROGRESS BAR WHEN IMPORTING DATA: when interfacing HDM-4 to
external systems such as PMS and RMMS, the amount of data to be
imported into HDM-4 can be very large. Consequently, the time
required to import the data can be significant (e.g. twenty
minutes). In version 1.0, the user interface 'hangs' during the
import procedure and no feedback is given. In version 1.1, a
progress bar is displayed whilst data is being imported. The
progress bar lets the user know that something is happening
(that the PC has not crashed), and gives an approximate
indication of how much longer the operation will take).
3) GENERATED TRAFFIC GROWTH TYPES: it was felt that the generated
traffic growth types defined in version 1.0 were not intuitive.
As a result these have been redefined for version 1.1. It is
hoped that the new growth types are more easily understood.
4) PREPARATORY WORKS UNIT COSTS: when a new work item or
improvement standard is defined the unit costs for the
preparatory works are set to the appropriate default defined by
the user.
BUGS FIXED IN VERSION 1.1
------------------------1) DOUBLE-COUNTING OF TRAVEL TIME COSTS: an error in the calculation of vehicle operating costs meant that travel time costs

were being double-counted in version 1.0. This error meant that


all road user costs, net benefits, NPVs and IRR were greater than
they should have been. Users may want to re-run any analyses to
determine the effect of this change on their results.
2) INSTALLATION PROGRAM HANGS: an error in the version 1.0
installation program caused it to hang. This occurred when the
user attempted to edit the registered username AFTER entering the
licence key. This error has now been fixed.
3) SALVAGE VALUE: this is now included in economic analysis. In
version 1.0, although the user could specify the percentage of
the total cost which is salvageable (PCTSAV), this was not
included in the economic analysis. In version 1.1, the salvage
(or residual value) is included in the road agency cost stream as
a benefit in the last year of analysis.
4) MT & NMT AADT REPORTS: there was an error in these two reports
which resulting in incorrect values being displayed for new
sections. This error is now fixed.
5) BENEFIT COST RATIO (BCR) REPORT: in version 1.0 this report
sometimes hung during generation, requiring HDM-4 to be
restarted. This was caused by a divide-by-zero error in the NPV/C
indicator whenever the 'Increase in Agency Costs' (C) was zero.
This has now been fixed.
6) ANNUAL DISCOUNTED NET BENEFIT STREAMS REPORT: the calculation
of total net benefits for this report was incorrect in version
1.0. The increase in capital, recurrent and special road agency
costs was being added to the total net benefit rather than being
subtracted. This has now been fixed.
7) ROAD USER SAVINGS: the method of calculating road user savings
in version 1.0 did not match the definition given in Volume 4
("Analytical Framework and Model Description"). This discrepancy
has been corrected.
8) RUNDATA ROUNDING ERROR: in version 1.0, the AADTs calculated
in the traffic module are stored to 2 decimal places. These AADTs
are later imported into economic analysis for the calculation of
road user savings. It was discovered that the lost of accuracy
resulting from the rounding had a small effect on the final net
benefits. To counter this, the number of decimal places now used
for AADT values in the run data is four.
9) NMT SPEED MODELS - the default values of the 'a_grd' gradient
dependent speed model coefficient for non-motorised vehicles have
been updated. This can have a small effect on the predicted
speeds for non-motorised vehicles. In addition, limits have been
set for the VGRAD and VROUGH models to ensure that the predicted
value cannot fall below 0.14 m/s (or 0.5 km/h).
10) EDGE BREAK: in version 1.0, the conversion between edge break
volume and edge break area was performed using the section's ESTEP
value, rather than the standard value of 100mm. This error is now
fixed.
11) VALIDATION OF TRAFFIC COMPOSITIONS: the inability of floating
point variables to represent some numbers exactly, meant that in

version 1.0, vehicle traffic compositions did not always sum to


100% when they should. This error has been fixed in version 1.1.
12) COPING WITH ALREADY OPEN FILES: when exporting rundata in
version 1.0, HDM-4 would crash if one of the files which it was
attempting to write to was in use by another application. For
example, if an existing version of a rundata file was being
viewed in MS Excel. In addition, HDM-4 did not give
an explanation for the crash. The crash also occurred when
attempting to generate a report using a template which was in use
in another application. In both cases, HDM-4 will no longer crash
but instead will inform the user that the file in question is
already in use.
13) HANDLING TRAILING WHITE SPACE: in version 1.0, the use of
trailing white space in object names (e.g. vehicle fleets, speed
flow types, programmes, etc.) caused problems. For example,
trailing space at the end of a project name could cause HDM-4 to
fail to recognise the existence of rundata for that project, and
would cause problems with the import/export process. This problem
has been fixed in version 1.1. Now, any trailing white spaces
supplied by the user when defining the name of a new section,
vehicle type, project, etc., are removed before the object is
stored in the HDM-4 database.
14) VALIDATION OF DIVERTED TRAFFIC GROWTH PERIODS: a bug in
version 1.0 meant that if you edited a diverted traffic growth
period, changed the growth type, but did not change the start
year, and then clicked on OK, HDM-4 would report an error. HDM-4
would report that a growth period with this start year already
existed, because when checking against the existing growth
periods to see if the start year was valid, it would also check
against itself. This error has now been fixed.
15) RECREATE LOOKUP TABLES FIRST TIME UPDATE IS RUN: a change in
the allowable unit costs for improvement standards requires that
the internal lookup tables be recreated. This action is
performed automatically the first time a database is opened in
version 1.1.
16) AFTER WORKS SURFACE MATERIAL FOR IMPROVEMENTS: a bug in
version 1.0 meant that the after works surface material was
not being set to that specified by the user in the improvement
standard. This has now been fixed.
17) SAVING OF IMPROVEMENTS UNIT COSTS: a bug in version 1.0
resulted in an incorrect unit cost being selected for an
improvement standard. This effected reconstruction improvement
standards. This has now been fixed.
18) REPORT CHANGES TO CORRECT MINOR DISPLAY ERRORS: the
following reports have undergone minor changes to correct
formatting errors. The results displayed remain unchanged:
Timing of works (by Section)
Timing of works (by Year)
MT Vehicle Operating Speeds
Undiscounted Comparison of Cost Streams
Cost Streams by Section
NMT Annual Average Speed and Costs Summary

Annual Drainage Condition


NMT Traffic Volume
MT Traffic Volume and Loading
19) VIEWING VEHICLE TYPES WITH NO CURRENCY DEFINED: a bug in
version 1.0 resulted in a crash if a vehicle type was viewed when
the fleet had no currency defined. Typically this would happen
after importing a fleet into a database that did not have the
required currency defined, or deleting an existing currency. This
has now been fixed.
20) CREATING A NEW SECTION FROM AGGREGATE DATA USING NEWLY
DEFINED TRAFFIC VOLUME: if a new traffic volume was added to the
road network aggregate parameters without correctly initialising
the related Pavement Strength table, HDM-4 crashed when this
traffic volume was used. This error has been but users should
ensure that all related table entries are initialised after
adding a new aggregate parameter.
21) AFTER WORK EFFECTS OF PATCHING: an error in the application
of work items gives the result that the roughness after patching
remains unchanged. Under certain circumstances the documented
relationship results in negative after works roughness values.
To correct this, Volume 4 Part D2 Equation 3.21 & 3.22 has been
replaced by:
dRIt = 0.378*dAPOTw
where dAPOTw = dNPTw*STDAPOT/10*CW and STDAPOT = 0.1
22) VEHICLE TYPES WORKING HOURS LIMITS: the upper limit has been
increased from 4000 to 8760 to enable continuously used vehicles
to be modelled.
23) TRIGGERING OF DRAINAGE WORKS: due to an error drainage works
could not be combined with works other than patching, crack
sealing, and edge break repair. This has now been fixed.
24) SAVING OF BUDGET PERIODS IN PROGRAMME & STRATEGY ANALYSIS:
modifications to the budget periods were not being saved
correctly. This has now been fixed.
25) SECTION LENGTH LIMIT: the upper limit on a sections length
has been increased from 10000 to 100000. This enables a
representative section of a greater length to be defined for a
strategy analysis.
26) MT CAPITAL COST PER 1000 VEH-KM REPORT: improved explanatory
text in key to differentiate from the similar depreciation report
27) MT DEPRECIATION & INTEREST PER 1000 VEH-KM REPORT: improved
explanatory text in key to differentiate from the similar capital
cost report.
28) ANALYSIS OF STUDIES: during the analysis of large studies
HDM-4 would sometimes crash while reading/writing the rundata.
This was due to memory leaks that caused memory allocation
problems. This error has now been fixed.
29) EMISSIONS CALCULATIONS: an error in the calculations of
emissions has been corrected.

30) ANNUAL EMISSIONS (BY VEHICLE) REPORT: there was an error in


the report that resulted in the data being shown under the
incorrect columns. This error has been corrected.
31) EXOGENOUS BENEFITS & COSTS NOT INCLUDED IN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS:
Exogenous benefits and costs were not being included in economic
analysis if they were greater than 10000.00. This error has now
been corrected.
32) INCREASE IN WIDTH FOR UPGRADING IMPROVEMENTS: The limit for
the increase in width for upgrading improvements was set to 3m.
This limit has been removed.
=========================
10. CHANGES IN VERSION 1.2
=========================
ENHANCEMENTS IN VERSION 1.2
--------------------------1) ROAD NETWORK EDITABLE GRID: The user can now edit the section
parameters in the main grid view of the road network.
2) IMPORTING OF ROAD NETWORKS: The time taken to import a large
network has been reduced significantly.
3) IMPORTING OF PROJECT/PROGRAMME/STRATEGY DATA: The time taken
to import a study has been reduced significantly.
4) ASSIGNMENT OF STANDARDS: When assigning standards to
alternatives the selection list is now sorted alphabetically to
aid selection.
5) WORK ITEMS: the width of the name slot has been increased to
make better use of the available space. [CR202]
6) OVERLAY EFFECTS: The model for the roughness improvement
effects of asphaltic concrete overlays has been revised and the
user now has a choice of three model forms; Linear, Bilinear,
and Generalised Bilinear (in terms of the reduction in roughness
as a function of roughness before overlay and overlay thickness).
The first form closely approximates the model in HDM-4 v1.1 but
with increased roughness reduction for a given prior roughness
(ie a shift towards the y axis). The second model closely
approximates the HDM-III model for pavers with automatic
levelling, and the third model allows the user to define his own
linear or bilinear response. These model changes are documented
in the Erratum notes released with Version 1.2 [CR ]
7) RISE AND FALL LIMITS: The maximum value of the Rise + Fall
parameter has been increased to 500m/km. Experience has shown
that road sections may have a R+F greater than the previous limit
of 250m/km in mountainous or very hilly regions. [CR162]
8) PROGRAMME ANALYSIS INITIALISATION: Lifecycle analysis is now
selected as the default analysis mode for Programme Analysis.
9) WORK PROGRAMME OPTIMISATION: The optimisation of a
constrained work programme now uses a coding of the Ahmed Method,

as used by the EBM32 model. [CR171]


10) VEHICLE FLEET FINANCIAL COSTS: As financial costs for
vehicles are not currently used during an analysis they have been
removed. [CR184]
11) SECTION DATA INITIALISATION: The Plastic Deformation
calibration factor is set to zero by default for newly created
sections. The prediction of rut depth progression in HDM-4 is
much higher than HDM-III due to the ability added to HDM-4 to
model plastic deformation within the pavement structure.
Therefore a zero value more closely replicates the rut depth
progression in sound pavement materials. The user can modify the
Plastic Deformation Calibration Coefficient if there is a known
plastic behaviour in the pavement.
12) REPORTS MANAGEMENT: HDM-4 no longer requires the report
definition files (report.dbf/.cdx & category.dbf/.cdx) to be
writable. On a shared or network installation of HDM-4 it is
desirable to prevent users from changing the reports structure by
setting these files to be read-only. This previously caused HDM-4
to crash when running under Windows NT.
13) REPORTS MANAGEMENT: A default name for a new report is
derived from its filename when adding the report to HDM-4.
Commonly the reports filename is the same as the desired display
name. [CR193]
14) REPORTS MANAGEMENT: The width of the filename slot on the add
reports dialog has been increased to make better use of the space
and to allow longer filenames to be viewed. [CR191]
15) REPORTS: The title of the reports are now initialised to be
the same as those displayed in the reports selection tree control
to ensure consistency. Previously the report title was defined in
the report and could differ from that displayed in the dialog.
[CR193]
16) REPORTS: The reports in version 1.1 displayed continuous data
without any logical breaks between sections which made the data
harder to navigate. Page breaks have been added to better
organise the data. [CR210]
17) NEW REPORTS: HDM-4 includes a number
the vehicle fleet and road section input
analysis data. A template report is also
programme or strategy analysis data in a
with the EBM-32 program for optimisation

of new reports to view


data, and graph the
included to format the
format suitable for use
outside of HDM-4.

18) HDM-4 LANGUAGE SELECTION/OPTIONS TOOL: To aid file management


of HDM-4 related items, you can now define default directories to
be used for import/export, and workspace operations. Previously
the default directory was based on Windows settings.
19) REPORTS: when the reports are opened the window is now
maximised and the report scaled to fit within the width of the
window. [CR271]
BUGS FIXED IN VERSION 1.2
-------------------------

1) ROAD NETWORK, VEHICLE FLEET & WORKSPACE VIEWS: These views


can now be maximised. Previously the button to maximise the
views was disabled.
2) USER INTERFACE ACCELERATOR KEYS: in several places two items
with the same accelerator key have been found on the dialog. The
accelerator keys have been redefined to avoid this clash. [CR209]
3) PERCENTAGE OF STUDDED TYRES: The limit has been increased from
50% to 100%. [CR185]
4) SECTION PAVEMENT PARAMETERS: the wet/dry season selection was
not being correctly updated after using the Calculate SNP button.
This has now been corrected. [CR183]
5) ROAD NETWORK GRID: The shoulder width parameter was being
displayed as an integer. This has now been changed to display to
2 decimal places. [CR182]
6) ROAD NETWORK GRID DISPLAY: The Structural Number was being
displayed for bituminous pavements, but this may not have been
defined by the user if they defined SNP using FWD, Benkelman Beam
or Layer coefficients. The display has been changed to display
the calculated SNP value. [CR176]
7) INITIALISATION OF NMT PARAMETER: The a_grd parameter was not
being correctly initialised with the values stated in the
documentation. This has now been corrected. [CR196]
8) VEHICLE TYPE KPEA PARAMETER: The Kpea vehicle type parameter
has been added to the user-interface. Previously a value of 1.0
was assumed in the models. [CR195]
9) CLIMATE ZONES: The temperature range parameter had an
ambiguous description. This has been changed to make it clear
that this parameter is the mean monthly ambient temperature
range. The default values have been recalculated accordingly.
[CR199]
10) STRATEGY ANALYSIS: The strategy analysis network matrix
window did not resize correctly. This has been corrected.
11) STRATEGY ANALYSIS: Incorrect prompt strings were being shown
on "Select Section" dialog. This has been corrected.
12) PROGRAMME ANALYSIS: The number of selected sections
displayed was not updated after a section was added or removed
from the analysis. This has now been corrected. [CR236]
13) ACCIDENT COST UNITS: The cost units for accidents were not
clearly displayed. The cost units for accidents have now been
changed from the works currency to the output currency and the
user-interface changed to make the units clear. [CR173]
14) STANDARDS DIALOG: The text 'Edit Default Works Costs' does
not display correctly on the button. The dialog and buttons have
been resized to correctly display the text.
15) SECTION ALTERNATIVES: When a new section alternative was

added to a study, both the new alternative and the previously


selected alternative were highlighted. This has been corrected so
that only the newly created alternative is highlighted.
16) CHANGES TO START YEAR OR DURATION ARE NOT SAVED: If you
modified the start year, or duration of an analysis object and
then closed without saving, you were not warned that data had
been modified. This has been corrected.
17) DELETION OF BASE OPTION: In version 1.1 it was possible to
both rename and delete the base alternative when the analysis
mode "analysis by section" was selected. This caused
inconsistencies within the analysis and reporting modules.
Now the base alternative cannot be renamed or deleted.
18) CHANGING OF ROAD NETWORK IN AN ANALYSIS NOT SAVED: When the
road network was changed the new selection was lost when the
analysis was closed. This has been corrected.
19) REMOVAL OF SECTIONS FROM AN ANALYSIS: If the "analysis by
section" mode of analysis was selected, changing the road network
or performing an "Unselect All" operation did not remove all of
the sections from the list of alternatives. This left the
database in an inconsistent state that could not be recovered
from. This error has been corrected.
20) DIVERTED TRAFFIC INITIALISATION: Performing an "Unselect All"
operation, or changing the road network within an analysis did
not remove all of the sections from the diverted traffic
structures. This error has been corrected.
21) WORK ITEM CALIBRATION USER-INTERFACE: The user-interface was
incorrectly showing coefficients a1-a4. The documentation refers
to a0-a2; the user-interface has been changed to be consistent
with the documentation. [CR177]
22) WORK ITEM INITIALISATION: To be consistent with the
initialisation of a section's calibration data, the following
defaults are now assumed for the detailed calibration parameters
for work items;
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Effective number of lanes = 2


Time lapse to patching = "twelve months"
Cracking retardation time = 0
Construction defect indicator CDB = 0

23) IMPROVEMENT STANDARD INITIALISATION: To be consistent with


the initialisation of a section's calibration data the following
defaults are now assumed for the detailed calibration parameters
for improvements;
i) Time lapse to patching = "twelve months"
ii) Cracking retardation time = 0
iii) If the effective number of lanes parameter is specified
as zero, then the section's after works effective number
of lanes parameter is set to the section's new number of
lanes. If a non-zero value is specified for the
effective number of lanes in the detailed calibration
data, then this is used as the after works value
(as described in the documentation).

24) MAINTENANCE STANDARDS: Reconstruction work items defined as


scheduled did not trigger. This error has been corrected.
25) MAINTENANCE STANDARDS: Reconstruction work items always
assumed unit costs were defined in m regardless of which units
the user had selected in the user interface. This has been
corrected.
26) MAINTENANCE STANDARDS: Grading works were not triggered on
unsealed sections with an earth surface material. This has been
corrected.
27) ANALYSIS RESULTS: The salvage cost was being deducted twice
from the total capital costs in the final year whenever a new
section was defined. This has been corrected.
28) CONCRETE ROAD DETERIORATION AND WORKS EFFECTS: The analysis
of Concrete sections was found to be producing incorrect
results. Detailed testing has taken place and a number of errors
have been resolved. The Chilean Concrete RDWE team have confirmed
that HDM-4 now produces the expected results. [CR224, CR223,
CR222, CR220, CR217, CR212, CR189, CR188, CR179, CR178, CR169]
29) EXOGENEOUS BENEFITS AND COSTS: The calculation of exogeneous
benefits and costs has been changed to prevent them falling below
zero. [CR180]
30) HOURGLASS DOES NOT DISAPPEAR WHEN ANALYSIS COMPLETE: In some
circumstances the hourglass cursor, indicating that HDM-4 is
busy, did not disappear when an evaluation was complete. This
has been corrected.
31) HOUR-GLASS CUSROR DISPLAY DURING IMPORT/EXPORT OPERATIONS:
The hour-glass cursor was not being displayed during the
initialisation phase of import/export operations. For large
networks and studies this period could be significant. Because
the user was receiving no feedback, the impression was
that the operation had stopped. This has been corrected.
32) ROAD NETWORK IMPORT: importing of condition data failed when
overwriting existing sections. This has now been corrected.
[CR174]
33) PROGRAMME/STRATEGY ANALYSIS EXPORT: The discount rate
indicators were being exported incorrectly. This has been
corrected.
34) IMPORT/EXPORT OF PROJECT/PROGRAMME/STRATEGY ANALYSIS: In some
circumstances the output currency multipliers were not being
imported/exported correctly. This was occurring if the
multipliers were less than 0.01. The precision of the data has
been changed to allow values up to four decimal places to be
imported/exported correctly.
35) IMPORT-EXPORT OF PROJECT/PROGRAMME/STRATEGY ANALYSIS: the
definition of the export files limited the number of selected
sections to 1000. This has been changed to allow a maximum of
1000000 selected sections within an analysis.

36) IMPORTING OF PROJECT/PROGRAMME/STRATEGY ANALYSIS: The vehicle


growth periods were not being imported correctly in version 1.1.
This error has been corrected.
37) RUN DATA EXPORT: The workprogramme results table export
procedure has been amended to include LINK_ID and ALT_ID to aid
linking with other export tables.
38) RUN DATA EXPORT: The field SECTOPTDATA.NPV was not being
exported correctly in some circumstances. This error occurred
when the NPV was large. The field width has been increased to
allow a larger range of data.
39) RUN DATA EXPORT: The field WORKPROGRAMME.SECT_ID was blank.
This has been corrected.
40) RUN DATA EXPORT: The field ANNUALVEHICLE.SS_KAV was not
output for non-motorised vehicles. For non-motorised vehicles
SSKav is equal to the round-trip free-speed. The correct value
is now output.
41) RUN DATA EXPORT: The selected vehicle data exported as part
of the run data do not have their currency field initialised.
This has now been corrected. [CR231]
42) RUN DATA EXPORT: The works and vehicle fleet currencies,
together with their conversion rates to output currency, were
not being exported. This has now been corrected. [CR226]
43) RUN DATA EXPORT: some fields were not initialised when a
programme or strategy analysis was performed. This has now been
corrected. [CR219]
44) VEHICLE EXPORT: The optimal life regression coefficients 1 &
2 were not being exported with sufficient decimal places. They
are now exported to 4 decimal places. [CR230]
45) REPORTS: The function to add reports to HDM-4 did not check
to see if there were any new reports to add, and it was possible
to add a blank report. If this report was selected and the
Generate Report button clicked HDM-4 would crash. HDM-4 now
checks to see if there are new reports to add and prevents a user
from adding a blank report to the system. [CR192]
46) ANNUAL PAVEMENT DETERIORATION SUMMARY (COMBINED) REPORT: The
roughness before works (IRIbef.) for unsealed roads should be
blank. The concept of before and after values should not apply
to unsealed sections in this instance.
47) BENEFIT COST RATIO REPORT: A change has been made to the
economic indicators calculated.
48) ANNUAL DISCOUNTED NET BENEFIT REPORT: The total in "Capital
Works" column of the report gave an incorrect value. The capital
cost being reported was being summed for ALL a section's
alternatives. This has now been corrected.
49) UNDISCOUNTED COMPARISON OF COSTS STREAMS REPORT: nonmotorised and accident benefits were not shown. This has now
been corrected. [CR232]

50) COPYING OF ALTERNATIVES WITH NEW SECTIONS: when copying


an alternative with a new section, the new section's traffic
in the new alternative was not initialised correctly. This
has now been corrected. [CR256]
51) WORK PROGRAMME DISPLAY: the economic indicator displayed
in the work programme displayed in programme and strategy
analysis has been changed to NPV/CAP as this is a more
meaningful economic indicator. [CR255]
52) IMPORT/EXPORT: The importing of data was failing when the
section name field had the " or ' character within them. To
avoid these problems the " character is no longer accepted as
an input character in text fields. [CR254]
53) SECTION CONDITION DATA: It was possible for a user to
delete all of a sections yearly condition data. In these
circumstances HDM-4 would crash when viewing these sections in
the road network grid view. To perform an analysis there must
be at least one yearly condition column defined. To prevent the
display error the user is now prevented from deleting the last
yearly condition column. [CR253]
54) MAINTENANCE STANDARDS: The tab
Slurry seal operation type did not
all of the parameters necessary to
user-interface has been changed to
[CR258]

pages displayed for the


allow the user to enter
define the effects. The
display the correct tab pages.

55) MAINTENANCE STANDARDS: Spot Regravelling works were not


triggered on unsealed sections with an earth surface material.
This has been corrected. [CR259]
56) RECREATION OF WORKS LOOKUP TABLE: when this lookup table was
recreated the default works currency was also reset. The default
works currency is nolonger reset when the lookup table is
recreated. [CR102]
57) VALIDATION OF SECTIONS: a warning was written to the status
window during input validation for unsealed sections saying ELANES
was equal to zero. ELANES is not an input parameter for unsealed
sections and so this warning has been removed. [CR269]
58) WORK ITEMS: The status bar prompts for spot-regravelling
preparatory financial and economic costs were incorrect. The
correct prompts are now displayed. [CR170]
=========================
11. CHANGES IN VERSION 1.3
=========================
BUGS FIXED IN VERSION 1.3
------------------------1) ROAD DETERIORATION - SEASONAL AND DRAINAGE EFFECTS: the
drainage effects model was found to be giving incorrect
results due to a specification error. NOTE: THE CORRECTION
OF THIS ERROR WILL HAVE A SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON THE

RESULTS OF YOUR ANALYSES. YOU MAY WANT TO RE-RUN PREVIOUS


ANALYSES TO REVIEW THE IMPACT OF THIS CHANGE. Please see the
Erratum document for more details of this change. [CR277]
2) WORK EFFECTS: for some operation types the maximum and minimum
interval limits were being ignored. This error has been corrected.
[CR283]
3) WORK EFFECTS: the minimum and maximum roughness limits for
unsealed pavements were being incorrectly calculated following a
regravel work type. This error has now been corrected. [CR306]
4) WORK EFFECTS: incorrect parameters were being used to determine
the effects of the Inlay work type. This error has now been
corrected. [CR305]
5) WORK EFFECTS: scheduled fog sealing and rejuvenation operations
were not triggered in the specified years if the pavement exceeded
certain limits (Vol 4 - D2 - 4.1). These limits should have only
be checked if the responsive trigger mode was used. This error has
now been corrected. [CR327]
6) WORK EFFECTS - PATCHING: in version 1.2, a lower limit of 1.5 IRI was
implemented for roughness after patching, in order to prevent
negative IRIs from occurring. However, some v1.2 users found that
when patching had been performed on sections with a before-works
roughness of 1.02 to 1.47, the after-works roughness was 1.5.
Therefore, the effect of the patching had been to increase
roughness. The lower limit for roughness after patching has now
been reduced to 0.5. [CR341]
7) WORKS EFFECTS: skid resistance was not being reset correctly
after works. Due to a specification error the wrong skid
resistance indicator was being reset. This error has now been
corrected, [CR326]
8) IMPROVEMENT EFFECTS: the default value for roughness after
works for AM pavement types was being set to 2.8, although the
specification stated 2.0. This error has now been corrected.
[CR351]
9) IMPROVEMENT EFFECTS: the default value for skid resistance and
texture depth after works for AM pavement types was not being set
correctly. This error has now been corrected. [CR352]
10) DIVERTED TRAFFIC / NEW SECTIONS: this error occurred when
attempting to setup a study which involved the diversion of
traffic to multiple new sections. As the construction work on the
various new sections did not complete in the same year, it was
necessary to define several diversion periods to cover the
completion years. When running this setup, it was found that the
normal traffic for the new sections was being erroneously based on
the diverted traffic for the existing sections. This error has
now been corrected. [CR278]
11) DIVERTED TRAFFIC / GROWTH TYPES: one of the growth types
available for diverted traffic was not working correctly. When the
user selected the 'Annual increase in AADT' growth type, the
'Annual % Increase' growth type was actually being implemented.
This error has now been corrected. [CR279]

12) DIVERTED TRAFFIC / DEFINITION: it was found that the dialog


sometimes reported that the vehicle compositions did not sum to
100% when in fact they did. This was found to be caused by
floating point inaccuracies. The code to check the sum has been
modified to work to an accuracy of 2 decimal places and coded to
avoid floating point inaccuracies. The error message now also
displays the calculated percentage to help the user. [CR325]
13) IMPORT/EXPORT: an error in the strategy analysis import
routine caused it to fail if the strategy used a matrix (rather
than a network) to define the sections. This error has now been
fixed. [CR314]
14) IMPORT/EXPORT: when importing projects the assumption was that
only one new section per alternative would be defined. The import
process has been modified to handle any number of new sections per
alternative. [CR324]
15) IMPORT/EXPORT: only the first normal traffic growth for each
section was imported. This error has now been fixed. [CR307]
16) IMPORT/EXPORT: an error caused the importing of a project
analysis to crash if a new section was defined in the analysis.
This error has now been fixed. [CR311]
17) IMPORT/EXPORT: when exporting a study, the SEC_ID field of
selsections.hdbf was not being initialised correctly. This error
has now been fixed. [CR281]
18) RUNDATA / OPTIMISATION: an error was discovered in the
optimisation routine when the number of sections >= 100. In this
case, the optimisation routine was found to be assuming 0
sections. The cause of the error was found to be the width of the
NUM_SECTIONS field in the run-data files used by the optimisation
routine. The width of this field has now been increased to allow
for a larger number of sections. [CR319]
19) RUNDATA / TRAFFIC: it was found that when the total AADT for a
section was >= 100000, the width of the corresponding run-data
fields was not sufficient to store such values. Due to the
behaviour of dBASE files, when a value of >= 100000 was written to
an AADT field, 0 was actually being stored. The effect of this was
error was that traffic reports showed 0 when the AADT >= 100000.
This error has now been fixed. [CR338]
20) RUNDATA / WORKS STANDARDS: the run-data generation routine has
been enhanced so that details of the standards and work items used
in a study are now exported with the run-data. [CR346]
21) PROJECT ANALYSIS: repeated opening and closing of projects
sometimes caused HDM-4 to crash. This has now been fixed. [CR127]
22) ROAD DETERIORATION - PLASTIC DEFORMATION: when a study has no
heavy vehicles the speed of heavy vehicles (Sh) is calculated as 0.
This was causing floating point errors in the calculation of
plastic deformation. A default value of 80km/h is now used if
Sh = 0 to prevent over-prediction of this mode of rutting and to
prevent floating point errors. [CR350]

23) ROAD DETERIORATION - CONCRETE PAVEMENTS: an error was discovered


in the specification of the cracking model for JPCP pavements. The
error related to the incorrect application of the Kcr calibration
factor (please see the Erratum document for more details). This
error has now been corrected. [CR342]
24) RUN SETUP: flags are provided to allow the user to disable the
writing of two categories of run-data (annual vehicle and annual
vehicle period data). The two user interface controls used to
disable/enable these classes of data, were linked to the wrong
functions. The annual data tick-box was linked to the vehicle
period function, and vice-versa. This has now been corrected.
[CR310]
25) DRAIN TYPES: the range of drain types available for selection
does not match those given in Vol 4. The descriptions in the
software have been changed to reflect the meaning intended in Vol
4. [CR330]
26) ROAD USER EFFECTS - FREE SPEEDS: the minimum permitted values
for the XNMT and XFRI speed reduction factors have been reduced
from 0.6 to 0.4. The equation to calculate VDESIR0 (Vol 4 E2 3.2.5
Eq. 3.17) has been changed so that the product of XNMT and XFRI is
now MAX[0.36,(XNMT*XFRI)]. Please see the Erratum document for more
details. [CR347]
27) CAPACITY OVERFLOW: an error was found in the code used to
detect the occurrence of capacity overflow. As a result of this
error, capacity overflow was not being detected. This error has
been corrected. [CR309]
28) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS - the run data used in Economic Analysis
contains some numerical rounding due to the limited precision
of the export file format. Economic Analysis has been modified
to reduce the effects of rounding and thereby increase the
precision of the economic results. [CR356]