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FSAE

Wheel Centers
Summary
FEAanalysisinthissectionsuggestsitispossibletocreateanaluminiumwheelcenterfrom1mm6061
T6aluminiumsheet.Significantimprovementsinthekeyareassuchasmass,massmomentofinertia
andstiffnesshavebeenmadeandaresummarizedinthetablebelow.

1mmAluminiumSheet
08Center
Massmomentinertia 741851.38gmm^2(86%less)
5280772.65gmm^2
MaxDisplacement
0.65mm(50%less)
1.3mm
Mass
442.41g(42%less)
765.35g
MaxStress
235MPa(3%less)
242.4MPa

Thereisnodoubtasheetaluminiumwheelcenterisoptimal,itshouldprovesignificantlycheaperto
manufacturewhilstalsoprovidingapathtowardscarbonfibrewheelcentersofasimilardesign.

Howevermuchcautionmustbetakentoensuremanufacturingproceduresproduceapartthatis
equivalenttothemodel.Areasofconcernincludethereductioninthethicknessofthesheetwhere
bendsaremadeandtheresidualstressesinducedbyforming.Ifthesheetisannealedornormalizedto
reducethesestressesitiscriticalthatthematerialsT6orotherheattreatmentbereturned.

Cautionmustalsobetakentoensurewheelsarenotdamaged;the1mmthickaluminiumsheetingwill
beeasilydamagedifthecenterisdroppedandanobjectimpactsthesheet.Theserisksmustbe
weighedandconsidered;onepotentialalternativeisusingslightlythickersheet,possiblyanimperial
gaugethickness.

Concept Overview
DesignofFSAEwheelsisaimedatproducingthelightestpossiblewheelwiththelowestpossiblemass
momentofinertiawhilemaintainingahighleveloflateralstiffness.

Massreductionisespeciallyimportantinthewheelpackagebecauseitisbothunsprungandrotating.
Sincethewheelsareunsprung,anyreductioninmasswillhaveapositiveeffectonsuspension
transience;asthewheeltravelsoverabump,thetimewithwhichittakesthesuspensiontoforcethe
wheelbackintocontactwiththegroundisgreatlyreducedhencetractionwillincrease.

Whenthecaracceleratesitmustnotonlyacceleratethewheelmassinthedirectionoftravel,itmust
alsoacceleratethewheelintherotationaldirection.Thewheelsresistancetothisacceleration,the
massmomentofinertia,isequaltothemassmultipliedbythesquareoftheradialdistancetothatmass
dividedby2(
).Thereforethefurtherthemassfromtheaxisofrotationthegreateritsvaluein
termsofmassreduction.

Lateralandtoalesserdegreelongitudinalstiffnessofthewheelcenterisofgreatimportancetocontact
patchgeometry.Itisdifficulttopredictandaccountforchangesincontactpatchgeometryduetowheel
centerdisplacementinsuspensiondesignforFSAEcars.Asthewheelcenterdisplaces;thereispotential

tonegativelyaffectthecontactpatchgeometryandproduceunpredictablehandlingcharacteristics,
stiffnessofthewheelcenteristhereforeofgreatimportance.

Keydesignconsiderations:
Minimisemass,especiallyatradialextremitiestoreduceMMOI
Stiffness
Constantbendingmomentalonganyradiallinefromcontactpatchtoaxisofrotationto
produceanevenstressdistributionandminimiseunnecessarymass.
Manufacturabilityandcost

Toobtainaconstantbendingmomentthestressedareamustvarywiththeradialdistancefromthe
load.Thebestmethodoffinetuningthestressedareaisusingcutoutswhichproducespokelike
features.Inthecaseofthesheetmetalcenterfailureisshownbelowtooccuronthesheetunder
compressionandhenceatriskofbuckling.Thecircumferentialcurvatureofthewheelnaturallyresists
thisbuckling,howeverasspokesareintroducedthiscurvatureoneachspokeisreducedandhenceits
bucklingresistanceisrelatedtothewidthofthespoke.Asaresultofthisandtheinherentstrengthof
thecentertorimflangeonly9spokes,oneforeverytworimbolts,wasutilisedratherthanonespoke
foreveryrimboltwhichmayproduceabetterstressdistributionatherimflange.

Ifwheelpackingallowsvariationinhubthickness,itisforeseenthatincreasingthehubwidthandin
turnincreasingtheanglebetweenthealuminiumsheetswillreducethebendingmomentseeninthe
sheet.Thereforeincreasesinhubwidthshouldcorrespondtoincreasesinlateralstiffnesshoweverwill
increasemassandMMOIandincreasethestressconcentrationswherethesheetisbentandformedto
meetthehubandouterrim.

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Current 2008 wheel centers

Summary
Massmomentinertia 5280772.65gmm^2
MaxDisplacement
1.3mm
Mass
765.35g
MaxStress
242.4MPa

Togainabaselineanalysisofthe2008wheelcenterasurfacewascreatedontheinboardsideofthe
centertorepresenttheinterfacebetweenthespindleandthewheelcenter.Thecenterwasthenmated
totheprovidedmodeloftherimandtyre.

FigureW1:Spindleprojectiononinboardsurfaceofwheelcenter.

Thisnewspindlesurfaceandthelargewashersurfacesontheoutboardsurfacewerefixed,abonded
connectionspecifiedbetweentherimandcenteranda3600Nlateraland1800Nverticalloadappliedto
thetyrecontactpatch.

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FigureW2:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduringcornering(2008center).

FromthestressplotinfigureW2wecanseethatthestressdistributioncanbeimproved.Ideallythe
crossofeachspokeshouldvarywiththedistancefromtheappliedloadtomaintainaconstantbending
momentandhencestressdistributionalongthespoke.Thisisclearlynotthecasewiththespokeson
the2008wheelcenter,withsignificantlyhigherstresspresentontheouterofthespokeasindicated
bytheredontheoutboardsurfaceonthetwomosthighlyloadedspokes.

Onepotentialreasoningforthisdesignisthesquarelawofthemassmomentofinertiaforadisk;where
reducingmassattheradialextremitiesissignificantlymorevaluable.Thedesignermayhave
compromisedstiffnessforareductioninthemassmomentofinertia

Probingtheouteredgeof08wheelcenterinthedisplacementplotshowninfigureW2weseethe
maximumtotaldisplacementisapproximately1.3mmatthepointclosesttothecontactpatch.As
displacementisoneofthemaindesignconsiderationsdesignalterationsshouldbeaimedatreducingit.

FigureW3:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduringlongitudinalacceleration(2008center).

Torunthistorquereactionsimulationthepreviouslymodelledspindlesurfacewasremovedasthiswas
apointforunrealisticstressconcentrations,inrealitythestresswouldbelimitedbythefriction
betweenthespindleandwheelcenterwhichisnothighestontheedgesoftheinterface.The3bolt
holeswerethenusedastherestraintsandfixed.The3600Nlateralloadwasthenreplacedwitha2700N
longitudinalload,andthesimulationrun.

ThedisplacementandstressdistributionsinfigureW3arebothgoodwithnomajorstress
concentrationsandamaximumdisplacementof0.47mm.Itisthereforeevidentthatdesignsshouldbe
focusedonimprovingcharacteristicsunderlateralloading;howeverthelongitudinalloadingcaseshould
neverbeignored.

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Proposed Sheet Aluminium Wheel Centers

FigureW4:Explodedviewofproposedaluminiumsheetcenter.

Summary
Massmomentinertia 11338937.18gmm^2(114%greater)
MaxDisplacement
0.22mm(83%less)
Mass
1308.3g(71%greater)
MaxStress
85MPa(65less)
*comparedwith08center

Itisproposedthatawheelcentercanbemanufacturedfromsheetaluminium.Twosheetswouldbe
formedbypressingthemoveradiethenacenterhubmachinedandsandwichedbetweenthesetwo
sheets.

AsseeninthestressplotoffigureW2themajorityoftheloadiscarriedalongtheoutersurfaceofthe
spokes.Onasheetaluminiumwheelcentertheredundantmaterialisremovedandwhatisleftis
essentiallyastressedskin.Thisshouldprovideanopportunitytoreducethemassandmassmomentof
inertiawhilemaintainingorimprovingthecentersstiffness.

Fortheinitialstudytheprovidedmodelsweremodifiedtoalloweasiervariationofboththethicknessof
thesheetandseparationofthesheetsatthehub.Thecenterboreofthehubwasthenfixedand3600N
lateraland1800Nverticalloadsappliedtothetyrecontactpatch.

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FigureW5:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduetolateralacceleration

FromthestressplotinfigureW5weseethestressdistributionismuchmoreeventhanthatseenonthe
08centerinfigureW2.Whilethereissomestressconcentrationaroundthehubareaofthesheet
aluminiumthemaximumstressseenislessthanhalfthatseeninthe08center(85MPavs242.4MPa).

ProbingthedisplacementplotinfigureW5weseethemaximumdisplacementontheouteredgeofthe
centerisonly0.22mmvs1.3onthe08center.Comparingthemassesweseethattheincreasedstiffness
andreducedstresseshavecomeatthecostofanincreaseinmassmomentofinertiabyoverafactorof
twofrom5280772.65gmm^2onthe08centerto11338937.18gmm^2andanincreaseinmassby
almostafactoroftwofrom765.35gonthe08centerto1308.3g.

Furtherdesignswillfocusonreducingmassandmassmomentofinertiawhileatleastmaintainingthe
wheelcenterstiffnessandmaximumstressesseeninthe2008wheelcenter.

Investigation of Fastening System

Astherearenospokesorloadconcentrationsonthiscenteritisproposedthatalargenumberofsmall
fastenersoronelargesinglefastenerbeusedtomoreevenlydistributetheload.Specialconsideration
shouldbemadewhenselectingafastenersystemasitislikelyfuturedesignsmaylooktoreplacethe
sheetaluminiumwithcarbonfibrewhichismuchlesscapableofwithstandingloadconcentrations.
Selectingtheoptimalfastenersystematthistimewillavoidtheneedtoredesignandremanufacture
wheelpackagecomponents.

Onepotentialhazardwithusingmultiplesmallerfastenersistheincreasedlikelihoodofovertorquing
andstrippingofthefasteners.Ontheotherhandusingonelargesinglefastenerwouldlikelyutilisea
finethreadtoreducethelikelihoodofthefastenerundoingandhencehastheassociatedincreasedrisk
ofcrossthreading.

Theprevioussimulationresultsareequivalenttoonelargefastenersonext7M8fastenerswere
replicatedbyextrudingwashersfrontthesheetaluminiumaroundthehubandboltholescutthrough
thesheetaluminiumandhub.Thefastenerswereplacedinbetweentheexistingcircularcutoutsto
directmoreloadtothefastener.Forthesimulationtheentireinboardhubsurfacewasfixedto
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representcontactwiththespindleandonlythewashersurfacesfixedontheoutboardside.Allother
forcesremainedthesameasinprevioussimulationproducingthestressplotbelowinfigureW6.

FigureW6:Stressconcentrationsinducedby7smallfasteners.

ThelargestressconcentrationsseeninfigureW6showthatthisfastenersystemisinferiortoonelarge
fastenerwithamuchmoreevenstressdistribution.Howeveritshouldbenotedthatotherthanthe
largestressconcentrationsattheextrudedwashersurfacesthestressdistributionthroughthesheethas
notsignificantlychanged,neverthelesslargestressconcentrationshavebeenintroduced.

Duetotheincreasedstressconcentrationsandtherealworldcomplicationsthissystemwilltherefore
notbeutilisedinfurtherdesigns.

Reducing sheet thickness from 3mm to 2mm

Massmomentinertia 7797358.12gmm^2(48%greater)
MaxDisplacement
0.3mm(77%less)
Mass
1030.73g(35%greater)
MaxStress
105.5MPa(56%less)
*comparedwith08center

Thethicknessofthealuminiumsheetswasreducedfrom3mmto2mmwithonlythecenterboreofthe
wheelcenterfixedtorepresentonelargefastener.

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FigureW7:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduetolateralacceleration2mmthicksheet.

FromfigureW7weseethatreducingthesheetthicknessfrom3to2mmresultsinmorehighlystressed
areaswithstressconcentrationsatthecutoutholesbeginningtoform.Tocombatthestress
concentrationherethecutoutsshouldbemodified,perhapsmademoreelliptical.Thestiffnessofthe
wheelhasnotsignificantlychanged,increasingfrom0.22mmto0.3mmdisplacementwhichisstillwell
belowthe1.3mmmarkseenwiththe08center.

Themassmomentofinertiahasbeenreducedby30%andthemassby20%ascomparedwiththe3mm
sheetaluminiumwheelcenter,asignificantimprovementhoweverstillwellabovethatofthe08center.

Reducing sheet thickness from 2mm to 1mm

Massmomentinertia 4210764.15gmm^2(20%less)
MaxDisplacement
0.4mm(70%less)
Mass
726.63g(5%less)
MaxStress
92.5MPa(61%less)
*comparedwith08center

Thethicknessofthealuminiumsheetswasreducedagainfrom2mmto1mmandthecircularcutouts
removed.

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FigureW8:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduetolateralacceleration1mmthicksheet.

ByprobingthedisplacementplotinfigureW8weseeonlyaminordecreaseinthestiffnessofthewheel
withdisplacementincreasingfrom0.3mmto0.4mm.Thestressconcentrationsproducedbythecircular
cutoutshavebeenremovedproducingamuchmoreevenstressdistribution.Howeveritisclearthe
bendingmomentisnotlinearfromtheouterrimtothewheelcenterhub.Sinceweareusingsheet
aluminiumtheonlywaytoalterthebendingmomentistoremovematerialusingcutouts.Inthiscase
thebendingmomentishighestclosertothehubandsomaterialmustberemovedincreasinglytowards
theouterrim,attemptswillbemadetoimprovethestressdistributionnext.

Themassmomentofinertiahasbeenfurtherreducedby45%andthemassby30%ascomparedwith
the3mmsheetaluminiumwheelcenter.Themassisnowlessthanthatofthe08wheelcenter(726gvs
765g)asisthemassmomentofinertia(4210764.15gmm^2vs.5280772.65gmm^2)withfurther
reductionspossibleinthehubseparatingthesheets.

Introducing cut outs to improve the bending moment distribution

Massmomentinertia 6889245.22gmm^2(30%greater)
MaxDisplacement
0.22mm(83%less)
Mass
942.02g(23%greater)
MaxStress
101.5MPa(58%less)
*comparedwith08center

Thesheetthicknesshasbeenrevertedbackto2mmasthestrengthofthewheelcenterwillbereduced
throughtheintroductionofcutouts.Itisthoughtthatstressconcentrationsfromtherimboltswilllikely
necessitatetheuseof2mmsheetsodesignswillusethisthicknessuntilananalysisofthesestress
concentrationsismade.

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FigureW9:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduetolateralacceleration
2mmthicksheetwithcutouts.

InfigureW9abovewecanseeasignificantimprovementinthestressdistributionwithanalmostlinear
bendingmomentalonganyradialline.WhencomparingmodelsandfiguresW9andW7(2mmsheet
thicknesswithcircularcutouts)wenoteanimprovementinstiffnesswithareductionindisplacement
of0.08mm,thisdueentirelytothebettershapeandlocationofthecutouts.Itshouldalsobenoted
thatanoddnumberofspokeswerechosensoastoavoidwastedmaterialalongthewheelcenters
bendingmomentsneutralaxisparalleltotheground.9cutoutswerechosetocorrespondtothe18rim
boltscurrentlyusedontheFSAEwheelrims.Comparedtothecutoutfree1mmsheetwheelcenter
previouslyanalysedweseeincreasesinbothmassandmassmomentofinertiatolevelshigherthanthe
08centerwhichisunacceptable.

Further improvement of cut outs and weight reduction of separator

Massmomentinertia 5238263.88gmm^2(1%less)
MaxDisplacement
0.38mm(70%less)
Mass
664.6g(13%less)
MaxStress
119.5MPa(51%less)
*comparedwith08center

FromthestressplotinfigureW9wecanseeminorimprovementsinthecutoutdesigncanbemade.As
discussedpreviouslythemassmomentofinertiaisrelatedtothesquareofthedistancefromtheaxisof
rotationtotherotatingmass,effortswerethereforemadetoreduceasmuchmaterialaspossiblefrom
theradialextremitiesofthewheelcenter.

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FigureW10:Modifiedwheelcentercomponents:2mmthicksheetwithoptimisedcutouts,rim
boltholesandlightenedhub.

Therimtocenterinterfacehas4separatesheetsofaluminiumnowconvergingandhencehasmuch
excessstrength.Materialwasthereforeremovedbetweenthenowadded18rimboltholes.Thewheel
centercutoutswerebothwidenedandextendedfurtherintheradialdirectionwithgeometry
optimisedtoensurearelativelyconstantbendingmoment.

Thehuborsheetseparatorwasmodifiedtoreducemasswhilemaintainingthesamesurfaceareaatthe
sheettohubinterface.Dependingonthedesignofthespindleismaybepossibletofurtherreducethe
massofthehub;ifthespindleprotrusionthroughthehubiscapableofwithstandingthebending
momentsthenthepurposeofthehubistoonlymaintainseparationofthesheets.

FigureW11:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduetolateralacceleration
2mmthicksheetwithoptimisedcutouts,rimboltholesandlightenedhub.

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FromthestressplotaboveinfigureW11weseethestressdistributionalongthespokesisveryeven,
showingthatthebendingmomentalongaradiallineisrelativelyconstantandhencethecutoutsare
closetotheoptimalshape.

Thiswheelcenterisnowasignificantimprovementoverthe08center.Thestiffnesshasbeenincreased
by340%,massmomentofinertiahasreducedby1%,massreducedby15%andstressdistribution
significantlyimprovedasseeninfigureW11.

Analysis of stress concentrations from rim bolts

Attemptstosmoothandevenoutthestressdistributionhavebeensuccessfulsofar.Nowspecial
considerationmustbegiventothestressconcentrationsresultingfromthefastenersholdingthecenter
totheriminordertocheckspokedesign.Thisinterfaceconsistsof3differentparts;thetwohalvesof
thesheetmetalcenterandtherimflange.Inrealitytherimflangeisagain2halveshowevermodellingit
asonesingleflangeshouldnotnegativelyimpacttheanalysis.

Aglobalcontactbondmaynolongerbeusedbutthecenterhalvesmaystillbebondedtothe
spacer/hubhoweverallothercontactsmustbeindividuallyspecifiedasnopenetration.18bolt
connectorswerethenaddedwithpreloadcalculatedtobeapproximately1400N(Sp*As*Prld=

(830*1000000)*(0.85*PI*0.003*0.003)*0.7)forthe10.8M6bolts.

Theanalysiswouldnotrunasoneofthecenterhalveshadnorestraintsorloads.Aftermuch
researchitwasdiscoveredaboltedseriesboltfeaturemaybeusedforflangesinvolving2or
morecomponents.Tousethisfeaturetheadvancedtabwasopenedineachofthe18bolted
connectionsandtheboltholesonthesandwichedhalfofthewheelcenterwerespecifiedina
boltseries.

Allotherforcesandrestraintsremainedthesame.

FigureW12:Plotofinducedstressin2mmthickaluminiumwheelcenter
withrimboltsfasteningrimtowheelcenter.

FromfigureW12weseethattherimtocenterfastenersdonosignificantlyimpactthestressplot.Stress
concentrationsareintroducedaroundtheboltholeshoweveritisbelievedthesearenotsourcefor
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majorconcern.Themaxstressattheboltholesisstillrelativelylowat225MPaanditseemsthatthe
simulationhasimpartedsomeforceontheboltholescylindricalfacewhichwhenfastenedwouldform
thestrongestandthickestflangeonthewholeassembly.

Thereforenodesignmodificationsarerequiredtoaccommodateforloadsandstressconcentrations
producedbytherimbolts.

Reduced thickness to 1mm thick sheet

Massmomentinertia 2699392.74gmm^2(48%less)
MaxDisplacement
0.62mm(52%less)
Mass
433.07g664.6g(40%less)
MaxStress
225MPa(7%less)
*comparedwith08center

FigureW13:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduetolateralloading1mmthicksheet.

AsseeninfigureW13reducingthesheetthicknessdownto1mmhasnodisastrouseffectonthestress
ordisplacementcharacteristicsofthecenterunderalateralload.Thelongitudinalcasewillnowbe
checkedtoensurethisothermainloadingcaseisnotneglected.

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FigureW14:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduetolongitudinalloading1mmthicksheet.

FigureW14showslargestressconcentrationsatthefilletsbetweenthespokes,thisisfarfromidealand
attemptswillbemadetorectifythisflaw.Afactorofsafety(FOS)studywillnowbecarriedoutto
determinewhetherthewheelwillfailundereitherlateralorlongitudinalloadings.

FigureW15:FOSplotfor1mmthicksheetwheelcenterunderlateralload
(showingsideundercompressionatriskofbuckling).

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FigureW16:FOSplotfor1mmthicksheetwheelcenterunderlongitudinalload(MinFOSof0.72).

WhilefiguresW15showsaminimumFOSsofover1.5,figureW16indicatesaFOSof0.72whichisless
than1meaningthewheelwillfailunderthemaxlongitudinalloadingcase.Thespokecutoutanglewill
bereducedandthefilletclosesttothehubincreasedtoobtainalongitudinalFOSabove1.5.

FINAL DESIGN
Massmomentinertia 741851.38gmm^2(86%less)
MaxDisplacement
0.65mm(50%less)
Mass
442.41g(42%less)
MaxStress
235MPa(3%less)
*comparedwith08

Thespokecutoutsweremodifiedtoreducethestressconcentrationbetweenthespokesatthefillet
closesttothehubthatwasreducingtheFOSto0.7asseeninfigureW16.Theangleatthefilletwas
increasedandthesizeofthefilletincreasedfrom2mmto6mm.Thesimulationwasnotchangedand
thefollowingplotsproduced.

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FigureW17:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduetolongitudinalloading1mmthicksheet.

FromfigureW17weseetheincreasedangleandfillethaveresultedinagreatlyreducedstress
concentration.Themaximumstressisnolongeratthispointandhasreturnedtotherimboltholeas
discussedforfigureW12.ByprobingthedisplacementplotinfigureW17wedeterminethemaximum
wheelcenterdisplacementtobe0.36mmunderthelongitudinalload.Nowthatthestress
concentrationhasbeennegatedafinalFOScheckismade.

FigureW18:PlotFOSplotfor1mmthicksheetwheelcenterunderlongitudinalloadafterreducingstress
concentrationsbetweenspokes.(MinFOS1.61)

TheFOSplotinfigureW18showstheminimumFOShasincreasedfrom0.7to1.61locatedatstress
concentrationattherimbolthole.Thedesignwillnolongerfailifitseesamaximumlongitudinalload.
Toensurethesechangeshavenotintroducedproblemsforthelateralloadingcase,thelateralload
simulationwillbererunandchecked.

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FigureW19:Plotofinducedstressanddisplacementduetolateralloading1mmthicksheet.

FigureW19showsnomajorchangeinstressdistribution,indicatingitislikelytheFOSplotwillbe
unaffected.ProbingthedisplacementplotinfigureW19showsthemaximumdisplacementhas
increasedfrom0.62to0.65,analmostinsignificantincreaseasaresultofnegatingthestress
concentrationsseeninthelongitudinalload.

FigureW20:PlotFOSplotfor1mmthicksheetwheelcenterunderlateralloadafterreducingstress
concentrationsbetweenspokes.(MinFOS1.61)

AsexpectedfigureW20showsnochangeintheminimumFOSwiththewheelsdesignnowdeemed
safewithaminimumFOSinbothlongitudinalandlateralloadingcasesof1.61.ThisminimumFOSis
locatedatastressconcentrationatarimboltandislikelyarealisticFOSishigherthanthis.

WhilecomponentlifeisminimalinFSAE,fatiguelifeisanothermajorconsiderationforthesewheel
centersandsobeforeafinaldecisionismadeafatigueanalysisshouldbecarriedouttoensurethe
fatiguelifeissufficientforFSAEapplications.

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Ithasthereforepossibletocreateanaluminiumwheelcenterfrom1mm6061T6aluminiumsheet.
Howevermuchcautionmustbetakenandtestscarriedouttoensuremanufacturingprocedures
produceapartthatisequivalenttothemodel.Areasofconcernincludethereductioninthethickness
ofthesheetwherebendsaremadeandtheresidualstressesinducedbyforming.Ifthesheetisthen
annealedornormalizeditiscriticalthatthematerialsT6orotherheattreatmentbereturned.Ifanyof
theseproceduresareplanneditisadvisablethat6061untreatedsheetispurchasedthenheattreated
afterforming.

Manufacturing

Manufacturingofthesesheetaluminiumwheelcentersshouldprovesignificantlycheaperandmore
efficientthanthemanufacturingofthe2008wheelcenters.Theflatsheetaluminiumwouldbe
purchasedandsenttohavetheinnerbore,cutouts,rimboltholesandouterdiametercutusingeither
waterjetorlasercuttingprovidedtotheFSAEfreethroughsponsorshipfromADDAtools.

Twosetsofformingdieswouldthenbemachinedonalathe,thefirsttoformtheinnerbendandthe
secondtoformtheouterbend.Fortheouterbendtheentireouterflangewouldbesandwichedusing
therimboltholesandsupportedsufficientlyhighoffthepressingtable.Aninnerdiewouldthenbe
presseddownagainstthealuminiumimpartingtherequiredbend.Asimilarprocedurewouldbeused
fortheinnerbend.Investigationsmustbemadeintotheresidualstressesthisformingmayimpart,one
potentialyettimeconsumingoptionmaybetoclampthealuminiuminitsformedpositionusingthe
diesthenheattreatthewholedieassembly,astandardsizedovenshouldbesufficientlylargeandhot
enoughforthis.

Theinnerhubwouldsimplybemachinedfromaluminiumwithsomeprovisionsfor3ormoresmall
dowelpinsontheinboardsidetostoptherotationofthewheelonthespindleshouldthefrictionbe
overcomeunderlongitudinalloading.

Specialconsiderationshouldbemadeherewhenmanufacturingthediesforformingthealuminium
sheets.Iftheinnerandouterdiesetsaremanufacturedinonesinglediesetitmaybepossibletoalso
usethemasamouldforthemanufacturingofcarbonfiberequivalentsandespeciallyusefulifthey
couldbeusedforpreimpregnatedcarbonfiberandplacedinanautoclaveorovenforcuring.

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