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Megan Costello and Sayeh Bozorghadad

Marston
APUSH P. 3
May 25, 2010

UNITED STATES HISTORY


Section II
Part A
2010 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
(Suggested writing time –– 45 minutes)
Percent of Section II score –– 45

Directions: the following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that
integrates your interpretation of Documents A-K and your knowledge of the period
referred to in the question. High scores will be earned only by essays that both cite key
pieces of evidence from the documents and draw of outside knowledge of the period.

1. How did the women’s civil rights movement lead to both legal change and change in
public perception of these rights between 1960 and 1980?

Document A

x by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees o

Document B

ing well all the jobs that were once considered the private domain of men, it is estimated that there are still over a thousan

Even when the law permits, custom frequently does not.

we have never had a woman Mayor. Our City Council has 35 members, yet not a single one of them is a woman. The major

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2010 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
Document C

uld not be related to education in the way it was then believed to be. The problems and satisfaction of their lives, and min

eaven or hell.

Document D

omen who work today outside the home, in every industry and skilled profession, most of them wives who take care of ho

Document E

ts Act – Title IX is of the same import to women. I think that while racial discrimination has been looked at as one of the

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2010 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS

Document F

d,” 1964.

nkly, it got boring after awhile,” says Gwen Gain, a … 34-your-old mother of four… “I tried working as a secretary, and t

ng last fall at the University of Pennsylvania where she’d been a freshman 16 years ago before dropping out to get marrie

5, who have enrolled at Penn since the school lifted a long-standing ban against part0time undergrads and set up a women

ack to campus by thousands of older women eager to continue or begin work toward a college degree.

Document G

pril, M.I.T. soon will have an on-campus dormitory to accommodate from 120 to 150 women students…

me of the limitations on the enrollment of women and on the kind of extracurricular program we can provide for them.

oday there are more opportunities for girls in the scientific profession than ever before. Indeed, women’s potential for ac

Document H

e Ladies, ” 1964. -
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ver underestimated the power of a woman, Thursday named Margaret Hickey of the Ladies Home Journal to a new job wh
2010 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
visory Council on the Status of Women…
Document I
Hickey for “championing full opportunity” for women.

Source: “Women’s Pro-Choice March,” 1969.

Document J

Source: “Demonstrators Opposed to ERA in Front of the White House,” 1977.

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2010 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS

Document K

on Rises to Amendment on Equal Rights,” 1973.

ndment to the Constitution no longer looks like a sure thing.

financed opposition groups have appeared, and they are making arguments against the amendment that many state legisl

orms of sex discrimination that are based on law or Governmental action. Congress passed it early last year.

ith two key assertions: that the amendment would subject women to the draft and that it would abrogate laws that would r

Analysis of the Documents

Document A

President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963 into law as part of
his New Frontier Program. Although Kennedy brought youth and idealism to the White
House, the entire nation was not entirely behind him. Kennedy only won 49.7 percent of
the popular vote, showing a significant portion of the nation did not approve of his ideas.
Although the Equal Pay Act of 1963 tried to eradicate gender discrimination in the
workplace, women still did not receive the same salary as men. However, this bill was
one of the first major pieces of legislation of the civil rights era of the 1960’s and 70’s,
and it marked the beginning of a wave of feminism that was soon to follow. The student
can also mention Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the creation of the Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission, and even Title IX, all of which furthered efforts
to eliminate gender discrimination.

Document B

Document B demonstrates that despite legislation, such as the Equal Pay Act of
1963, women still were not treated as equals in the workplace. Although women were
slowly entering jobs previously occupied only by men, the majority of the public still
perceived them as inferior. Slowly during the 1960’s and 70’s, women began to gain
equality as more laws were passed, but such laws were still weakened by the men who
were determined to entrench their dominance. Women fought to change custom through
their work in feminist organizations such as NOW, which was founded in 1966. Also,
airline stewardesses in the 1970’s fought sex discrimination and the age and marriage
restrictions held by the major airline companies, showing the public that marriage was
not all women wanted. They demonstrated that women are more than just sex symbols;
they are capable, professional workers. A student can also parallel the women’s rights
movement with the civil rights movement. She can mention the Civil Rights Act of 1964

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2010 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
and note that it also did not bring about instant change in public perception, as shown by
the Watts Riot and Martin Luther King Jr,’s assassination.

Document C

The Feminine Mystique was one of the most important pieces of literature during
the women’s rights movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s. Friedan’s extensive research
revealed women’s discontent with motherhood in suburbia and transformed the social
fabric of America. It revealed that the image of the American woman was completely
inaccurate and America was on the brink of a major social revolution. The student can
note that Betty Friedan went on to establish the National Organization for Women
(NOW), which persuaded President Johnson to include women in executive orders and
ensured Congress included women in civil rights legislation. Some feminists, such as
Kate Millet (who wrote Sexual Politics) and Shulamith Firestone (who wrote The
Dialectic of Sex), even went beyond Friedan’s suggestion for women to look for greater
personal fulfillment and actually proposed that women should work together to attack the
male power structure. However, the student should also mention the backlash to The
Feminine Mystique. Many people, including Phyllis Schlafly, criticized the feminist
movement as being too progressive and threatening the quality of American motherhood.

Document D

The invention of the television revolutionized American culture; however, the


television also reinforced traditional gender stereotypes. Many women felt they were not
assuming the “proper” role if they entered the workplace because the 1950’s emphasis on
family life had strengthened prejudices against working-women, but in fact as many as a
third of all wives were part of the workforce by 1960. Friedan also challenged the belief
that homemakers were not hardworking, educated, and extremely capable. She points out
that many mothers are involved in local organizations and are an integral part of the
community. In fact, one of the greatest achievements of the feminist movement was its
ability to transform the general public’s assumptions about what women were capable of
achieving. Not only were many mothers part of the skilled workforce, but they were also
wives and mothers. The student can also mention The Feminine Mystique, which Friedan
wrote in 1963, and the women’s rights legislation, which included the Equal Pay Act of
1963 and Title VII, that allowed more and more mothers to enter the workplace.

Document E

The passage of Title IX was incredibly important because it was another


legislative attempt to guarantee equal rights for women. While the Ivy League schools
had begun accepting women in the early 1970s, sexism continued to be a problem, even
though, as Shirley Chisholm states, many did not realize that it was. This addition to the
Education Amendments was meant to further establish the right of women to equal
access to education, sports, and allocation of university funds. The student could include
information about the Executive Order regarding affirmative action for women because,
as Shirley Chisholm says, it really is a part of the affirmative action program. While this
was a necessary step towards equality for women, there were still those who continued to
oppose equality for women.

Document F

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2010 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
In this document, Gwen Gain reflects on how the domestic/separate sphere
women were categorized in left them feeling incomplete and unsatisfied with their lives.
But because universities began accepting women, they could pursue a more diverse range
of jobs instead of being confined to secretarial work or just being a housewife. As Klein
states, “Ms. Gain solved her problem” by going back to school. Gwen Gain’s problem
reflected the problem many other women in the US were facing at this time: staying
uneducated throughout their lives and forced to stay at home. Furthermore, this article
was written by a man, which shows that people were becoming more receptive to the idea
of equal opportunity for women. The student could also include information on Title IX,
which called for equal funds and access to education for women. Title VII of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964, which called for no discrimination, could also be included because
the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950’s created awareness, especially among minorities,
and their lack of rights.

Document G

This document further emphasizes the importance of equality of opportunity for


women, especially with regards to education. MIT took the next step by allocating funds
specifically for women in order to ensure they got fair and equal treatment in school
activities, as advocated in Title IX of the Education Amendments (1972). Even though
the donation made was anonymous, by specifically giving those funds to enhance
women’s educational experience demonstrates the growing support for equality for
women. The article also suggests that women have an important role in society through
their achievements in scientific and technical progress. This is important because it
actually acknowledges women’s contribution to society and emphasizes the importance
of equal opportunities so women can increase their roles in society.

Document H

This document shows how President Johnson worked to create equal opportunity
for women during his presidency, just as President John F. Kennedy did with his New
Frontier program. President Johnson and his “Great Society” plan, which was based off
of many of JFK’s ideas, advocated equality for all people, including women and other
minorities. The recognition of Margaret Hickey, and her promotion to “further the cause
of her own sex,” shows the growing appreciation of women’s contributions to society.
While early legislation did not necessarily create as large of an impact as it was supposed
to, there were also other attempts to ensure the enforcement of women’s rights. For
example, the student could include that in 1961, Eleanor Roosevelt was appointed to
chair the commission on the Status of Women, and in the 1960, the FDA approved the
birth control pill. These examples and the document show that Americans were becoming
more open-minded to more liberal ideas – like civil rights and equality for women.

Document I

This photograph depicting the Women’s pro-choice march in 1969 reflects the
revival of the feminist movement. The banner is advocating for legislators to make
abortions easily available to all women, and it also shows their support for the Socialist
party. The beginning of the 1970’s also marked the revival of the “New Left.” While
women’s rights advocates and Socialists created bonds and supported each other, both
also faced opposition from conservatives. Even though the FDA approved the birth
control pill in 1960, there continued to be opposition to birth control and abortion. For
example, there were limits on who could use birth control until a 1965 Supreme Court
ruling that struck down restrictions for married couples. While this opposition was still
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2010 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
prominent in the 1960’s-1970’s, women’s rights advocates continued to rally support and
create organizations, such as NOW (National Organization for Women) to implement
change to ensure equality among the sexes.

Document J

This photograph demonstrates some of the backlash advocates of women’s rights


received to their legislation. Those opposed to the passage of ERA (which was approved
by Congress in 1972, but never ratified) stood outside the White House to protest it.
Conservatives protested that, if women and men did have equal rights, then that would
imply that women could get drafted for the army (as shown on one of the picket signs).
This idea of total equality among men and women caused some women to be hesitant to
support complete equality because they did not want to give up some of the protections
they had because they were women. Instead, “selective equality” seemed like a good
compromise for conservatives, but advocates of equality did not want to make
compromises on women’s rights. The student could also include the Equal Employment
Opportunity Act of 1972, which further emphasized the complete equality most women
were working for in the 1970s.

Document K

This document, which was published one year after the approval of ERA, also
shows some of the opposition ERA received. As Shanahan states, many were opposed to
women being drafted and repeal laws that required men to support families. While these
were legitimate concerns among those opposed to women’s rights, advocates were not
willing to compromise. While ERA would “outlaw all forms of sex discrimination that
are based on law…” some were still opposed to its passage because of the protections
women would give up with its passage. The student could also mention that the fight for
women’s equality paralleled the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s. Both movements
received opposition from well-financed and established groups, but both were also able to
create legislation that supported equality for women and African Americans. Overall, this
document shows that even though feminist movement received considerable opposition
and backlash for its legislation, the liberal Warren Court, decisions like Roe v. Wade, etc.
helped the feminist cause to ensure complete equality among men and women.

Essential Outside Information


President Kennedy’s creation of the President’s Commission on the Status of Women
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2010 AP UNITED STATES HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
Executive Order 10925 (1961), Affirmative Action
The Feminine Mystique (1963), Betty Friedan
President Lyndon Johnson and “The Great Society”
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
The Equal Pay Act of 1963
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
1960: the FDA approved the birth control pill
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
The creation of the National Organization of Women (NOW) in 1966
Executive Order 11375 (1967) – Affirmative Action must be used, including for women,
when hiring federal government contractors
The Ivy Leagues begin to accept women (Princeton and Yale – 1969)
The emergence of the New Left in the 1970’s
1971 Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corp. (US Supreme Court ends sex discrimination in
hiring)
Gloria Steinem, Ms. Magazine (established 1972)
President Nixon and “New Federalism”
Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972
Equal Rights Amendment (passes Congress 1972, never ratified)
Phyllis Schlafly
Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972) (Extends right of contraceptives to single people)
Roe v. Wade (1973)
The Warren Court
The Burger Court
The Sunbelt
Beginning of women in sports: Babe Didrickson Zaharias (basketball), Olga Korbut
(gymnastics), Nancy Lopez (golf)
Parallel to Civil Rights movement
1963 March on Washington
Watts Riot, Selma, and Birmingham

BIBLIOGRAPHY

“An Interview on Title IX with Shirley Chisholm, Holly Know, Leslie R. Wolfe, Cynthia
G. Brown, and Mary Kaaren Jolly.” Harvard Educational Review November
1979: 504-508. Reprinted in American Decades: Primary Sources 1970-1979.
Cynthia Rose. Vol. 8. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2004. 161-163. Print.
Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey. 13th ed. Vol. 2. New York: McGraw Hill,
2009. Print.
“Civil Rights Timeline.” University of Connecticut. 2009. Web. 24 May 2010.
<http://www.ode.uconn.edu/AA%20history.pdf>.
Cheshire, Maxine. “More Power to the Ladies.”
- The Washington Post, Times Herald
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(1959-1973). 18 January 1964. Historical Newspapers. Web. 21 May 2010. <
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Davis, Flora. “Feminism’s Second Wave: The Opening Salvos” The Way We Lived:
Essays and Documents in American Social History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2008. 251-259. Print
“Demonstrators Opposed to the ERA in Front of the White House.” 4 February 1977.
Photograph. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs Division, Washington
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Klein, Frederick. “Mom’s a Coed.” Wall Street Journal. 7 May 1964. SIRS Decades.
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“M.I.T. Receives Pledge for Women’s Dormitory.” Technology Review May 1960: 15.
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Shanahan, Eileen. “Opposition Rises to Amendment on Equal Rights.” The New York
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%3BART%3B0000217782>.
“Women’s Pro-Choice March.” 1969. Photograph. Hulton Archive by Getty Images.
SIRS Decades. Web. 21 May 2010. < http://decades.sirs.com/decadesweb/decades
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