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Summer Training Project Report

Working of a chilled water plant


Submitted By:
B-Tech II/IV, Chemical engineering,
University college of technology,OU

I deem it a privilege to have been the student of Chemical engineering
stream in UCT,OU. My heartful thanks to Mr. J.PrabhakarRao,
DM(Training), Technical Training Institute of Visakhapatnam steel plant for
giving an opportunity to do the summer internship.
My heartful thanks to the project guide Mr.K.V.V Prasad Sir Dy.
General Mgr (O), Vizag Steel Plant and Mr.B.S.Rao Sir Asst.General Mgr
(O) who helped me to bring out this project in good manner with their
precious suggestions and rich experience. I take this opportunity to express
my sincere thanks to my project guide for cooperation in accomplishing this
project with a satisfactory conclusion.
I am grateful to all plant In-charges, technicians and other employees
of different dept. working under operation, maintenance and instrumentation
departments for sharing their valuable experience with me.







The role of ferrous metals in general and of steel in particular in
national economy is enormous. One cannot name an economic branch where
ferrous metals find no applications. The economic power of country is
determined by its output of steel, since it determines the progress in the
principle economic branches, be it mining, transport, manufacture
engineering or agriculture implements is unthinkable without steel.
An additional impetus for increasing the scope of steel manufacturers
had been the vigorous progress in chemical engineering. It has turned out
that steel can be very profitable combined with certain novel materials for
instance plastic combined with stainless steel are excellent materials fore
making furniture, decorating automobiles internal lining of houses and
building purposes. As a result the manufacture of stainless steel has been
appreciably increased in order to cover these new demands in recent years.
The world for the steel rises continuously and is expected to reach the level
of thousand million tons per year by the end of this century. The steel will
obviously remains the principle structural material in for seeable.
To meet the above requirements the following iron and steel
companies were established:
Tata iron and steel company is the first ever-integrated steel plant in

India in 1908 at Jamshedpur.

TISCO in Bihar
IISCO in Burnapur
Bhadravathi steel in Karnataka
Hindustan steel plant at Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur
Visakhapatnam steel plant at Visakhapatnam

In order to increase the steel production reasonably high in the nation
and remove the regional imbalances in industrial developments, the
government of India took a great step in setting up the coastal-based steel
plant of India is Visakhapatnam steel plant in Andhra Pradesh. This plant is
located 16km south west of the city limits. A great emphasis has been made
on total automation, seamless integration and efficient up gradiation at
Visakhapatnam steel plant. This has resulted in a great demand for
Visakhapatnam steel plant product in India and abroad which are having
international standards. Visakhapatnam steel plant is considered to be the
first integrated steel plant in India to become fully ISO-9002 certified
company. This certificate covers quality systems of training and marketing
functions over four regional marketing functions and 22 stock yards located
all over the country. The decision of the government of India to set up an
integrated steel plant at Visakhapatnam was announced by the Prime
Minister Smt.Indira Gandhi. The plant was inaugurated formally on 20 th
January 1971 by the prime minister.
The project was estimated to the cost of rupees 3,897.28 crores based
on process on 4th quarter of 1981 but during the implementation of VSP is
has been on served that the project cost as increased substantially over the
sanctioned coast mainly due to this and the approved concept were studied
in 1986 the rationalization has basically been from the point of view of
obtaining maximum output from the equipment already installed panelled
for procurement, achieving the higher level of operation efficiency and
procurement over what was envisaged earlier under the rationalized concept.
3.0 million tons of liquid steel is to be produced in a year and the project is
estimated to cost 5,822 crores based on 4th quarter of 1987.


It has crossed many milestones in the fields of production,

productivity and exports.
Coke rate at an order of 543kg/ton hot metal
Average converter life of 649 heats.
An average of 11.5 heats per sequence in continuous bloom caster.
Specific energy consumption of 7.51 Kcal/ton of liquid steel.
Specific refractory consumption of 15.2kg.
A labour productivity of 192-ton/man yr.

Visakhapatnam steel plant is the most sophisticated and modern
integrated steel plant in the country. Modern technology has been adopted in
many areas of production, some of them for the first time in the country.
Among these are:

Selective crushing of coal

Dry quenching of coke
On ground blending of sinter base mix
Conveyor charging and bell less top blast furnace
Cast house slag granulation for blast furnace
100% continuous casting of liquid steel
Gas expansion turbine for power generation utilization blast furnace
top gas pressure
Computerization for process control


Coke oven batteries of 672ovens each having 41.6 cu.m volumes.

Sinter machines of 312 3m area.
Blast furnace of 3200m useful volume.
Steel melt shop with three L.D converters of 150 ton capacity each
and 6 nos. of 4 strand continuous bloom casters
Light and medium merchant mill of 710,000 tonnes per year capacity
Wire rod mill of 850,000 tons per year capacity
Medium merchant and structural mill of 850,000 tons per year

Extensive facilities have been provided for repair and maintenance as

well as manufacture of spare parts. A power plant, oxygen plant, compressed
air plant also form part of the plant facilities. The steel plant is getting its
supply of iron ore-lumps and fines from the Bailadilla deposits in Madhya
Blast furnace grade limestone comes from jaggayyapeta in Andhra
Pradesh, SMS grade limestone from Jaisalmer and Goton in Rajasthan. Blast
furnace and SMS grade dolomite from Birmitrapur (Orrisa) the Khammam
deposits in Andhra Pradesh. 70% of the coking coal requirements are met by
imports through the harbor while the balance come from the Bengal Bihar
area. Coal for Power generation comes from Anantha deposits of Talcher
region in Orissa.
The plant has in-plant power generation from a power plant having 3
nos. of 60MW sets installed. Additional requirements of operational power,
around 150MVA is being met from the APSEB grid. Operational power
supply is initially at 220 KV, which is subsequently stepped down to 400

Raw materials handling plant
Coke ovens and coal chemical division
Sinter plant

Blast furnaces
Steel melt shop
Rolling mills
LMMM (Light and medium merchant mill)
WRM (Wire rod mill)
MMSM (Medium merchant and structure mill)


1. Raw material handling plant:

VSP annually requires quality raw materials like iron ore, fluxes
(dolomite, limestone) coking coal and non-coking coal. It requires 12-13
million tonnes of raw materials, which produce three million tonnes of liquid
steel. It is provided with unloading, stacking and reclaiming facilities, which
include wagon , tippler , ground and track hoppers. The various features are:
Peripheral unloading system for railway wagons
Blender reclaimed for blending of ores and fluxes
Storage yards to facilitate comfortable storage and supply of raw
Ring granulators for crushing of boiler coals
PLC control of all systems
Mixer for mixing lime is purchased and generated fines
Cone crushers for the crushing of lump ore.

2. Coke ovens and coal chemical division:

Coke is manufactured by heating of crushed coking coal in absence of
air at a temperature of 1000c and for about 16-18 hrs. a coke oven comprises
of two hallow chambers namely coal chamber and heating chamber. In
heating chamber a gaseous fuel such as gas, coke oven gas is burnt. The heat
so generated is conducted through the common wall to heat & carbonize the
coking coal placed in the adjacent coal chamber. Various features of coke
oven are:
7 mts tall coke oven batteries.
Coke dry cooling or quenching using Nitrogen.
Recovery of BY-Product from coke oven gas by Distillation process.
Twin fuel gas regenerative system for power generation from coke
oven gas.
Back pressure turbine station for power generation from coke oven
Selective coal crushing.
High productivity.
High capacity of coke ovens.


Sinter is hard, porous ferrous material obtained by agglomeration of

iron fines, coke breeze, lime stone fines, metallurgical waste like dust, mill
scale, LD slag. Usage of sinter in B.F increase productivity by decrease in
the coke rate and imposing the quality of hot metal produced. Parameters of
the machines are:

Effective area
312 m22
Sintering area
276 m
450 m2
Sinter bed height 300mm


Hot metal is produced in blast furnace, which are tall and vertical.
Raw materials are Iron Ore, Coke, Dolomite, and Limestone. It is charged
from the top and hot blast at 1100c-1300c. there are two B.Fs each with a
volume of 3200m3, each with 4 tap holes and with a daily production of
9720 tons of liquid steel. The technical parameters are:
Effective volume
Number of tap holes
Each furnace is facilitated with two Cast Houses, Slag Granulation
Plants. There are 4 Pig Casting Machines to handle the pig iron to cast into


Steel is an alloy of iron with carbon up to 18%. Hot
metal produced in B.Fcontains impurities such as carbon
(3.5-4.25%), silicon (0.4-0.5%, manganese (0.3-0.4%),
sulphur(0.04%max) and phosphorous(0.14%max). to
improve the quality of steel, the impurities have to be
removed by oxidation process which is done in converter
shop having 3 LD converters.
Operational parameters
Useful volume
150 tons
Temporary Lining
Tarred Dolomite
Permanent lining
Chrome magnesite
Oxygen working pressure


Blooms produced in SMS-CCD do not have much

application as they are. So they are shaped into Billets,
Rounds, Squares, Angles, Channels, Wire Rods, Rein
Forced Bars etc. by rolling them in 3 sophisticated high
capacity, high speed, fully automated rolling mills namely


It is unique rolling mill; it consists of Billet Mill and Bar Mill. It is
facilitated with 2 walking beam furnaces of 200 TPH heating capacity and 2
stand roller hearth furnaces. The roller hearth furnace connects the billet
with bar mill.


It is a 4-stand mill and is fully automated. The mill has 4 zone
combination type pre heating furnace of 2100 TPH capacity. The mill
products include rounds and ribbed wire in size of 5.5mm-12.7mm dia. Wire
rods are made in coil from having maximum weight of 1200kg. The mill is
equipped with retarded still more lines for improving the quality of wire


This mill is installed at ground level and has the capacity of roll
8,50,000 ton of medium merchant products per annum. The feed materials to
mill are 250mm x 250mm blooms. MMSM is a high capacity continuous
rolling mill consists of 20 stands arranged in 3 train i.e. roughing,
intermediate and finishing trains.


I have been allotted Utilities department which deals with the generation
and compression of industrial gases like oxygen, nitrogen, argon, acetylene,
compressed air, industrial grade dry air and chilled water for air conditioning
The utilities play a vital role in the steel manufacturing process by directly
participating in the process and by playing a supportive role for reliable and
safe operation of different steps of the manufacturing process.
All customers expect the uninterrupted delivery of utilities in all the sections
round the clock even during the power failures for safe shutdown of various
Towards the fulfillment of RINL-VSP goals,utilities department has always
accorded top priority for minimization of energy consumption, optimistion
of operating and process parameters and upgradation/ automation of plant
equipment and machinery.
Utilities dept. Consists of
1. Air Separation Plant, designed to produce and meet the consumer
requirements of gaseous oxygen, Nitrogen and Argon through pipe lines and
through gas cylinders.
2. Compressor Houses 1 & 2, designed to produce and meet the
consumer requirements of Plant air and Industrial grade dry air.
3. Chilled water plants 3 & 4, designed to produce chilled water for
meeting the consumer air conditioning requirements.
4.LPG and ACETYLENE Distribution Plant

Utilities production units and products:

Production units
Air separation plant

Oxygen, Nitrogen, Argon gases, liquid Nitrogen,
liquid Oxygen, liquid Argon
Compressor house-1&2 Compressed air and Dry air
Chilled water plantChilled water
Acetylene plant
Acetylene gas
Air Seperation Plant:

The basic principe of ASP is the separation of main constituents of air

( i.e. Oxygen, Nitrogen and Argon whose boiling points are -183,
-196, -186 deg c respectively) is based on liquefying the air and
separation by utilizing the boiling point difference for distillation.
Air separation units are provided for meeting the O2,N2 and Argon
requirements of various shops of VSP. As per the requirement air
separation units can either run in gaseous mode or mixed mode
Compressor House -1&2
Compressor houses are provided for meeting the compressed air and
dry air requirements of the entire plant. Atmospheric air,filtered for
removal of dust, is compressed to 6.5 kscg pressure in the 4 stage
centrifugal compressors and a part of the compressed air is fed to the
drying units( moisture is removed by passing air through adsorbent
beds) installed in compressor houses for production of dry air.

Chilled Water Plant-3&4 :

Chilled water plants are provided for production of chilled water for
air conditioning of various control rooms in SMS,Rolling mills, IT
department, QATD and CDS bldg. Return warm water at 13 deg C.
from Air handling units of all the control rooms is chilled to 7 deg C
and pumped back to all Air handling units by the vapour compression
type with centrigugal chillers using refrigerant R-11.
LPG and Acetylene distribution plant :
LPG is procured and distributed through pipe lines for CCD &
Engineering Shops and for maintenance agencies through cylinders. DA
gas is being procured and distributed for Billet cutting at MMSM & for
critical maintenance agencies through cylinders.


The chilled water plants are installed in the place where whole large
buildings, shopping mall, Industries, chemical plants, airport, hotel, etc,
comprising of several floors are to be air conditioned. While in the direct
expansion type of central air conditioning plants, refrigerant is directly used
to cool the room air; in the chilled water plants the refrigerant first chills the
water, which in turn chills the room air.
Even at VSP, chilled water and chilled water plants are required for
Ventilation and Air Conditioning system in various departments, plants and
mills.So for this purpose chilled water plants 3&4 are established to meet the
needs of utilities department.
CWP-III provides air conditioning to Light and medium merchant mill
(LMMM), Wire rod mill(WRM), Medium merchant & Structural
mill(MMSM), Compressor houses-I & II, Steel melting shop, Air Separation
Plant and various electrical sub-stations.
The total quantity of chilled water for meeting the above requirements is
estimated to be 1400M3/hr. The above requirements are based on the water
inlet temperature to chiller of 16oC and outlet temperature from the chiller
of 7oC.
To meet the above requirements 9 nos. (8working, 1 stand by) of chillers
(180M3/hr capacity each) are installed. 3nos (2 working, 1 stand by) of
supply pumps (750M3/hr capacity each) and 4 nos. (3working, 1stand by) of
circulation pumps (600M3/hr capacity each) are installed.


CWP-IV provides air conditioning to Central computer centre (Systems
department), 4LBDS & R&C Lab.
The total quantity of chilled water for meeting the above requirements is
estimated to be 360 M3/HR. The above requirements are based on the water
inlet temperature to chiller of 16oC and outlet temperature from the chiller
of 7oC.
To meet the above requirements 3nos (2working, 1 stand by) of chillers
(180M3/hr capacity each) are installed. 3nos (2 working, 1 stand by) of
supply pumps (180 M3/Hr capacity each) and 3nos (2working, 1stand by) of
circulation pumps (550 M3/Hr capacity each) are installed


The various Vapour cycles for carrying of refrigration can be subdivided into
vapour compression systems, vapour absorption systems, vapour jet systems
etc. Among these the vapour compression refrigeration systems are

Vapour compression refrigeration cycle:

The word refrigeration implies the mailantenance of the temperature below
that of surroundings. This requires continuous absorption of heat at alow
temperature level,usually accomplished by evaporation of liquid in a steadystate flow process. The vapour formed may be returned to its original liquid
state for reevopartion in either of two ways. Most commomly,it is simply
compressed and then condensed. Alternatively, it may be absorbed by a
liquid of low volatility, from which it is subsequently evaporated at high
As mentioned, vapour compression refrigeration systems are the most
commonly used among all refrigeration systems. As the name implies, these
systems belong to the general class of vapour cycles, wherein the working
fluid (refrigerant) undergoes phase change at least during one process. In a
vapour compression refrigeration system, refrigeration is obtained as the
refrigerant evaporates at low temperatures. The input to the system is in the
form of mechanical energy required to run the compressor. Hence these
systems are also called as mechanical refrigeration systems. Vapour
compression refrigeration systems are available to suit almost all
applications with the refrigeration capacities ranging from few Watts to few
megawatts. A wide variety of refrigerants can be used in these systems to
suit different applications, capacities etc. The actual vapour compression
cycle is based on Evans-Perkins cycle, which is also called as reverse
Rankine cycle. To analyse this compression cycle carnot refrigerator is
considered that provides a standard of comparision.

The Carnot refrigeration cycle:

Carnot refrigeration cycle is a completely reversible cycle, hence is used as a
model of perfection for a refrigeration cycle operating between a constant
temperature heat source and sink. It is used as reference against which the
real cycles are compared. Figures 10.1 (a) and (b) show the schematic of a
Carnot vapour compression refrigeration system and the operating cycle on
T-s diagram. As shown in Fig.10.1(a), the basic Carnot refrigeration system
for pure vapour consists of four components: compressor, condenser, turbine
and evaporator. Refrigeration effect (q4- 1 = qe) is obtained at the evaporator
as the refrigerant undergoes the process of vaporization (process 4-1) and
extracts the latent heat from the low temperature heat source. The low
temperature, low pressure vapour is then compressed isentropically in the

compressor to the heat sink temperature Tc. The refrigerant pressure

increases from Pe to Pc during the compression process (process 1-2) and
the exit vapour is saturated. Next the high pressure, high temperature
saturated refrigerant undergoes the process of condensation in the condenser
(process 2-3) as it rejects the heat of condensation (q2-3 = qc) to an external
heat sink at Tc. The high pressure saturated liquid then flows through the
turbine and undergoes isentropic expansion (process 3-4). During this
process, the pressure and temperature fall from Pc,Tc to Pe, Te. Since a
saturated liquid is expanded in the turbine, some amount of liquid flashes
into vapour and the exit condition lies in the two-phase region. This low
temperature and low pressure liquid-vapour mixture then enters the
evaporator completing the cycle. Thus as shown in Fig.10.1(b), the cycle
involves two isothermal heat transfer processes (processes 4-1 and 2-3) and
two isentropic work transfer processes (processes 1-2 and 3-4). Heat is
extracted isothermally at evaporator temperature Te during process 4-1, heat
is rejected isothermally at condenser temperature Tc during process 2-3.
Work is supplied to the compressor during the isentropic compression (1-2)
of refrigerant vapour from evaporator pressure Pe to condenser pressure Pc,
and work is produced by the system as refrigerant liquid expands
isentropically in the turbine from condenser pressure Pc to evaporator
pressure Pe. All the processes are both internally as well as externally
reversible, i.e., net entropy generation for the system and environment is
Applying first and second laws of thermodynamics to the Carnot
refrigeration cycle,
q = w
q = w
q =q 41 q 23 = q e q c
w = w 34 w12 = w T w C = w net
(q c q e ) =w net
Heat sink