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Problem Set 1

Apolinario J. Katipunan
Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering
University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City
Instructors name: Russel Palmejar

1a.

Figure 1.1 Illustration of the working pit slope

Figure 1.2 Illustration of the final pit slope

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1b.
:
=
=
=
=
= 1
= 1
= 2
= 2
=
=

(ia) Inter-ramp angle of ramp 1 during the working pit slope


2 +

= tan1
(2) + (2

= tan

)+( 2 )
tan
tan()

2 20 +

(1.1)

20
2

20
20
(2 18) + (2
)+( 2 )
tan 65
tan(65 )

= .

(1.2)

(1.3)

(ib) Inter-ramp angle of ramp 1 during the final pit slope


1

= tan

= tan

2 +

(2 ) + (2
)+( 2 )
3
tan
tan()

2 20 +

(1.4)

20
2

20
1
20
(2 20 ) + (2
) + ( 2 )
3
tan 65
tan(65 )

= .

(1.5)

(1.6)

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(iia) Inter-ramp angle of ramp 2 during the working pit slope


1

= tan

2 + 2

(3) + (2
) + (2 2 )
tan
tan()

(2 2 ) + (2

= tan1

(3 18) + (2

(1.7)

20
)
2

20
20
2 )
) + (2
tan 65
tan(65 )

= .

(1.8)

(1.9)

(iib) Inter-ramp angle of ramp 2 during the final pit slope


2 + 2

= tan

(3

) + (2
) + (2 2 )
3
tan
tan()

(2 20 ) + (2

= tan

(1.10)

20
)
2

20
1
20
2 )
(3 20) + (2
) + (2
3
tan 65
tan(65 )

= .

(1.11)

(1.12)

(iii) Working pit slope angle


9

= tan1
(5) + (7

= tan1

1
) + (4 2 ) (2) + (3 ( ))
tan
3
tan()

9 20
20
20
2 ) (2 25) + (3 (1 20))
(5 18) + (7
) + (4
tan 65
3
tan(65 )

= .

(1.13)

(1.14)

(1.15)

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(iv) Final pit slope angle


9

1
(7
) + (4 2 ) (2) + (8 ( ))
tan
3
tan()

(1.16)

9 20
20
20
2 ) (2 25) + (8 (1 20))
(7
) + (4
tan 65
3
tan()

(1.17)

= tan1

= tan1

= .

(1.18)

1c. It is noted in the book of Open Pit Mine Planning and Design that the effect of steeper slopes
at the pit limits is to increase the amount of ore that can be mined and therefore increase the life of
the mine (Hustrulid et. al., p. 332). Also, as discussed in class, increasing the final pit slope angle
would lead to a reduction of the stripping ratio i.e.,
=

()
()

(1.19)

We need to reduce or minimize equation (1.19) so as to increase the profit per ton of ore mined. We
can do this by increasing the final pit slope angle, or making it steeper. This is due to the reason that
a gentler slope requires the mine to move more waste per ton of ore acquired.

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2a.

Figure 2.1 Working dimensions of the shovel and truck

As seen in figure 2.1, the working dimensions of the shovel are as follows:
= 7.3

(2.1)

= 9.5

(2.2)

= 12.7

(2.3)

= 14.9

(2.4)

= 16.1

(2.5)

2b.

Figure 2.2 Illustration of the width of the working bench

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Given that the static rolling radius of the truck is


= 1.56

(2.6)

the berm height should be equal to this magnitude. And knowing the angle of repose of the
material used for the berm to be 37 , well able to compute the berm width. Doing so, well get
= 2

1.56
+1
tan 37

= 5.14038

(2.7)

(2.8)

To compute the distance from the crest line to the truck centerline , we add the berm width,
clearance of truck from berm and half of the truck width.
= 5.14038 + 2 +

7.645
2

= 10.96288

(2.9)

(2.10)

Hence, the resulting width of the working bench is just equal to the sum of , the distance
from the shovel centerline to the maximum distance it can clean on the floor , and the
dumping radius at maximum height.
= + +

(2.11)

= 10.96288 + 12.7 + 14.9

(2.12)

= 38.56288

(2.13)

2c. To compute for the width of the cut , well use the equation:
= 2 0.9

(2.14)

= 2 14.9 0.9

(2.15)

= 26.82

(2.16)

As discussed in class, the volume of the cut just be equal to the width of the cut times the
bench height, and the length of the cut, that is:
=

(2.17)

= 26.82 15 30

(2.18)

= 12069 3

(2.19)

There might be a case where the volume capacity of the truck has reached its limits but not its
maximum weight capacity. In this problem, however, we will assume that the ability of the truck

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to transport the material will mainly depend on the maximum mass capacity of the truck and
not on its maximum volume capacity.
Computing for the mass of the width of cut , well get
= SG
3

= 12069 m3 2.7 1

= 32586.3 Mt

(2.20)

(2.21)

(2.22)

Dividing this value with respect to the nominal payload of the CAT 789D mining truck, well get
the number of times the truck has to return to transport all of the material.
=

mass of the cut


nominal payload capacity of CAT 789D mining truck

(2.23)

32586.3 Mt
181 Mt

(2.24)

= 180.03315

(2.25)

It takes approximately 180 full load of trucks to mine such dimensions of the cut.

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3.
:
=
=
=
=

= 2

2
=
3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Below is a representation of the plane failure diagram

Figure 3.1 Dimensions and forces in a rock slope with a potential failure plane

From the factor of safety equation of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, we have the equation:
=

+ tan

(3.1)

The weight of the block can be expressed in terms of its mass multiplied by the force of gravity
of the earth . Doing that, well get:
=

(3.2)

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The mass of the block can still be expressed in terms of its volume and rock density , hence
well have:
(3.3)

The volume of the unit block can be further simplified into


=

(3.4)

Substituting equation (3.4) into (3.3) well get


(3.5)

Substituting equation (3.5) into (3.2), well get


(3.6)

Also, the area of the plane failure can be derived from figure 3.1 and can be simplified to
=

sin

Also, the cohesive strength of a material in terms of

(3.7)

can be further expressed in terms of the

force of gravity and the cohesive strength of a material in terms of

2
,
3

i.e,

(3.8)

Substituting equation (3.6), (3.7) and (3.8) into (3.1), well get
(
=

) + ( tan )
sin

(3.9)

Simplifying equation (3.8), well have


=


+ ()
2

(3.10)

From figure 3.1, it can be deduced that the area of the triangular block is equal to:
=

1 2
1
1
(

)
2
tan tan

(3.11)

Solving for in equation (3.10), well have


=


( cot tan ) 2

(3.12)

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Equating (3.11) with (3.12), well have


1 2
1
1

(

)=
2
tan tan
( cot tan ) 2

(3.13)

Solving for minimum bench face angle well have


= tan1 (

1
)
1
2

2
tan ( cot tan )

(3.14)

The minimum bench face angle will be minimized if the factor of safety is set to 1, i.e., the block is
on the verge of failure
= tan1 (

1
1
2

tan (1 cot tan )2

(3.15)

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4.

Figure 4.1 Relationship between slope height and slope angle functions for plane failure in a drained.

:
=
=
=
=
=

The slope height function as given and presented by Hoek in figure 4.1 is known to be as
=

(4.1)

The density of a material can be derived from its specific gravity, i.e,
=

(4.2)

Solving for the density of andesite well get


=

(4.3)

(4.4

= 2.65 1000

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= 2650

(4.5)

Substituting equation (4.5) into (4.1) and all the given values in this problem, well have

1000
3

86000 2

2650
=

(4.6)

(4.7)

= 30.81395

Plotting this value in figure 4.1 the corresponding value will be equal to
= 24

(4.8)

= 2( )( )

(4.9)

Given that the equation for is given to be as

Substituting equation (4.8), and the corresponding values of and in (4.9), well have
24 = 2( 43 )(43 35 )

(4.10)

= 61

(4.11)

Solving for well have

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References
Hustrulid, William, Mark Kutcha and R. Martin. Open Pit Mine Planning & Design: Volume 1 Fundamentals 3rd Edition. Leiden, The Netherlands: CRC Press/ Balkema, 2013. PDF.

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