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WorkingofElectricMotor
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Theelectricmotor is a device which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. There
aremainlythreetypesofelectricmotor.
1.DCMotor
2.InductionMotor
3.SynchronousMotor.

Allofthesemotorsworkinmoreorlesssameprinciple.Workingofelectricmotormainly
dependsupontheinteractionofmagneticfieldwithcurrent.
Now we will discuss the basic operating principleofelectricmotor one by one for better
understandingthesubject.

WorkingofDCMotor
Working principle of DC Motor mainly depends upon Fleming Left Hand rule. In a basic DC
motor,anarmatureisplacedinbetweenmagneticpoles.Ifthearmaturewindingissupplied
by an external DC source, current starts flowing through the armature conductors. As the
conductors are carrying current inside a magnetic field, they will experience a force which
tends to rotate the armature. Suppose armature conductors under N poles of the field
magnet, are carrying current downwards (crosses) and those under S poles are carrying
current upwards (dots). By applying Flemings Left hand Rule, the direction of force F,
experienced by the conductor under N poles and the force experienced by the conductors
under S poles can be determined. It is found that at any instant the forces experienced by
theconductorsareinsuchadirectionthattheytendtorotatethearmature.
Again, due this rotation the conductors under N poles come under S pole and the
conductorsunderSpolescomeunderNpole.WhiletheconductorsgoformNpolesto
S pole and S poles to N pole, the direction of current throughthem,isreversedby
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means of commutator. Due to this reversal of current, all the conductors come under N
polescarrycurrentindownwarddirectionandalltheconductorscomeunderSpolescarry
currentinupwarddirectionasshowninthefigure.Hence,everyconductorcomesunderN
poleexperiencesforceinsamedirectionandsameistruefortheconductorscomeunderS
poles.Thisphenomenonhelpstodevelopcontinuousandunidirectionaltorque.

dc motor

WorkingofInductionMotor

WorkingofelectricmotorinthecaseofinductionmotorislittlebitdifferentfromDCmotor.
Insinglephaseinductionmotor,whenasinglephasesupplyisgiventothestatorwinding,a
pulsatingmagneticfieldisproducedandinathreephaseinductionmotor,whenthreephase
supplyisgiventothreephasestatorwinding,arotatingmagneticfieldisproduced.Therotor
ofaninductionmotoriseitherwoundtypeorsquirrelcadgetype.Whatevermaybethetype
of rotor, the conductors on it are shorted at end to form closed loop. Due to rotating
magneticfield,thefluxpassesthroughtheairgapbetweenrotorandstator,sweepspastthe
rotor surface and so cuts the rotor conductor. Hence according to Faradays law of
electromagnetic induction, there would be a induced current circulating in the closed rotor
conductors. The amount of induced current is proportional to the rate of change of flux
linkage with respect to time. Again this rate of change of flux linkage is proportional to the
relativespeedbetweenrotorandrotatingmagneticfield.AsperLenzlawtherotorwilltryto
reduce the every cause of producing current in it. Hence the rotor rotates and tries to
achievethespeedofrotatingmagneticfieldtoreducetherelativespeedbetweenrotorand
rotatingmagneticfield.
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induction motor

WorkingofschronousMotoryn

In synchronous motor, when balanced three phase supply is given to the stationary three
phase stator winding, a rotating magnetic field is produced which rotates at synchronous
speed.Nowifanelectromagnetisplacedinsidethisrotatingmagneticfield,itismagnetically
lockedwiththerotatingmagneticfieldandtheformerrotateswiththerotatingmagneticfield
atsamespeedthatisatsynchronousspeed.

synchronous motor

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ColpittsOscillator
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