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BULLET NOTES

Pakistan Affairs
Revised Syllabus
Ayesha Younas
[Pick the date]

This document is compiled from numerous articles and research papers. Some of
the references are mentioned. I hope you make the best use of this hard work.
Wish you all Best of Luck!

Compiled by Ayesha Younas


Contents
1) Ideology of Pakistan-Definition and Elucidation
2) Muslim Rule in Subcontinent-Downfall and Efforts for Renaissance
3) Movements for Reforms-Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi
4) Movement of Reforms: Shah Walli Ullah
5) Movement of Reforms-Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi
6) Educational Institutions-Aligarh Movement
7) Educational Institutions-DEOBAND
8) Educational Institutions-NADWA
9) Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of ALLAMA IQBAL
10)
Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of QUAID E AZAM
11)
Land and People of Pakistan-Geography
12)
Land and People of Pakistan-Agriculture
13)
Land and People of Pakistan-Natural Resources
14)
Land and People of Pakistan-Education
15)
Land and People of Pakistan-Industry
16)
Land and People of Pakistan-Society
17)
Nuclear Program of Pakistan, Its Safety and Security; International
Concerns
18)
Civil Military Relations in Pakistan
19)
Political Evolution Since 1971
20)
Pakistan and US War on Terror
21)
Foreign Policy of Pakistan post 9/11
22)
Evolution of democratic system in Pakistan
23)
Ethnic Issues and National Integration
24)
Hydro-politics; Water Issues in domestic and regional context
25)
Pakistans National Interest
26)
Critical Analysis of Economic Survey
27)
Critical Analysis of Previous and Current Budgets
28)
Critical Analysis on problems and performance of major sectors
29)
Pakistan and changing regional Apparatus
30)
The Recent Constitutional and Legal Debates, the Latest Constitutional
Amendments and Important Legislations, Legal Cases and the Role of Higher
Courts
31)
Topic 31: Non-Traditional Security Threats In Pakistan: Role Of NonState Actors
32)
Current Scenario Of Pakistan-Ratings

Topic 1: Ideology of Pakistan-Definition and Elucidation


1) What is Ideology?

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a. A form of social or political philosophy in which practical elements are
as prominent as theoretical ones.
2) Evolution of Ideology
a. It was first used in French as idologie at the time of the French
Revolution, introduced by a philosopher, A.-L.-C. Destutt de Tracy, as a
short name for science of ideas as the study of the origin, evolution
and nature of ideas.
3) Ideology of Pakistan and different Scholars
a. Dr. Aslam Syed: Ideology of Pakistan is the name of molding of
individual and collective lives according to Islam and also of saving
from conflicting ideologies.
4) Historical aspects of The Ideology of Pakistan
a. Introduction
i. Historical experience provided the base; Subcontinent not only
faced a struggle of political supremacy but was a clash of two
social orders
ii. Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation,
iii. Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality
iv. the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives
Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction
b. Evolution of Two Nation Theory;
i. Beginning of Muslim Nationalism; first hindu accepted islam
ii. Muhammad bin Qasim, the first Muslim invader, invadedand
captured parts of India in 712 AD.
iii. Mahmud of Ghazna launched 17 attacks
iv. The Muslim sufi (saints) like Ali Hejveri, Miran Hussain Zanjani
etc. entered Sub-Continent.
v. Qutub-ud-Din Aibuk permanently established Muslim dynasty in
India that followed Sultanate and Mughal dynasties
vi. The War of Independence (1857) was a shattering setback to the
Indian Muslims, who were put in the dark.
vii. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98) awakened and guided his
community through his educational drive, the Ali-Garh
movement.
viii. In 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded to indicate
the beginning of the Indian nationalist movement under the
British.
ix. "Two Nations Theory" espoused by the All-India Muslim League,
founded in 1906 and led to its demand for a separate state for
the Muslims of India.
x. Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees
and a federal system of government with powers to the
provinces. Later, they demanded a separate state.
c. Hindi-Urdu Controversy
i. Hindu revivalist movements turned more against the Muslims
especially after 1857

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ii. There were demonstrations against Urdu by the Hindus in
Banaras in 1867
d. Characteristics of The Muslim nationalism
i. Rule of Law, socio-economic justice, equity and fair play.
ii. Equality of opportunity to all citizens irrespective of caste, sect,
religion or region.
iii. Religious and Cultural tolerance.
iv. Respect for human dignity and rights.
v. Protection of the rights and interests of non-Muslims and
freedom to practice their beliefs and religions.
5) Conclusion
Topic 2: Muslim Rule in Subcontinent-Downfall and Efforts for Renaissance
1) Muslim Rule in Subcontinent
a. Arab Conquest: The Arab conquest of Sindh is the landmark event in
the history of subcontinent. It gave Muslims a firm foothold in the
region. (M Bin Qasims attack in 711 AD). Arab rule lasted for 3
centuries. Rule of various Caliphs in Baghdad
i. Caliph Hashim (724-743 A.D.)
ii. Caliph Mansoor (754-775 A.D.)
iii. Caliph Mehdi (775-785 A.D.)
iv. Caliph Haroon (786-809 A.D.)
b. Turkish Period: Arabs were succeeded by Turks from 10th Century. It
properly rose in Afghanistan under the leadership of Sultan Mahmud,
Mahmud Ghauri in 1196 A.D.
i. Ghaznavids (976-1148 A.D.)
ii. Ghauris (1148-1206 A.D.) (17 expeditions)
iii. Sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526 A.D.)
1. Slaves of Mumluks (1206-1290)
2. Khiljis (1290-1320)
3. Tughluq (1320-1413)
4. Sayyids (1414-1451)
5. Lodhis (1451-1526)
c. Mughal Period: The Mughal Rule formally began in 1526 with the
invasion of Babur
i. Babur (1526-1530)
ii. Humayun (1530-1539)
iii. Sher Shah (1539-1545)
iv. Islam Shah (1545-1556)
v. Akbar (1556-1605)
vi. Jehangir (1605-1628)
vii. Shah Jehan (1628-1658)
viii. Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
ix. Bahadur Shah Zafar (1707-1857) Bahadur was banished to
Rangoon, where he died in 1862. His two sons and grandsons
were shot by British. The Mughal Period was a brilliant chapter of
History which ends with the success of British.

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2) Causes of Decline of Mughals
a. Majority of Non-Muslim Population
b. Akbars religious policy of Tolerance Din-e-ilahi
c. Untrustworthy Administration
d. Luxurious Living Standards of Mughal Rulers-Lavish spending
e. Lack of military discipline
f. Huge size of the Empire
g. Lack of timely Communication
h. Financial Mismanagement
i. Sectarian jealousy and violence
j. Wars of succession
k. Local Insurections
i. Marathas in Deccan
ii. Rajpoots and movements of Banaras
iii. Sikhs in Punjab
l. Foreign attacks and Colonization
i. 1739-Nadir Shah of Iran attacked and destroyed delhi
ii. Ahmed Shah Abdali attacked India
iii. Third Battle of Panipat defeated Marathas
iv. 1740-1763 colonization under Robert Clive by British, Battle of
Buxar (Bengal and Bihar)
v. 1857, exile of Bahadur Shah Zafar
3) Efforts For Renaissance
a. Role of Sufis
b. Role of Reformists; Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi, ShaH Wali Ullah, and Syed
Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi
c. Role of Educationists: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Muhammad
Iqbal
4) Conclusion

Topic 3: Movements for Reforms-Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi


1) Introduction
a. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi ; Hazrat Mujadid Alaf Sani (June 1564 Dec
1626)
b. Descendant of second caliph Hazrat Umar
c. Father name Sheikh Abdul Ahad
d. Went to Delhi at age of 36
e. Disciple of Khawaja Baqi Billah
2) Social Conditions during his time
a. Populace belief in Karamat
b. Ulema refer to Jurisprudence rather than Quran
c. Akbars anti Islamic look: Din-E-Elahi, Title Of Mujahhid-I-Azam And
Imam-I-Adil.
d. Hindu cultural domination
e. Bakhti Movement
f. Wahdat al Wajood theory
3) Mujadids efforts
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a. Jehad against Din-i-Ilahi (Exposed its fallacy)
b. Theory of Wahdat-ul-Shahood
c. Emphasis on Ittibat-I-Sunnah and the Commandments of Sharia.
d. Countering Wahdat-ul-Wajood: sufis of Akbars time presented the
wrong concept that there is no difference between God and creations.
He negated that and presented wahdat-ul-shahud that creator and
creations are two separate entities.
e. Refusal to prostate society purification
i. Jehangir imprisoned him in Gawaliar for three years
ii. Preaching in fort of Gawaliar
f. Preparation of Disciples
g. Maktaba-e-Imam-e-Rabbani
i. Letters to important nobles and leaders
ii. Abdur Rahim, Khan e Azam Mirza Aziz, Mufti Sardar Jehan
4) Books
a. Isbat ul Nabuwwat
b. Risla e Nabuwwat
c. Need & importance of Prophethood
d. Maktubat e Imam e Rabbai
e. Toheed e Shaheedi
f. Islamic philosophy
5) Two nation theory
a. First stone of two nation theory first founder of Pakistan
b. Influence over Jehangir Khutba; Cow Slaughter
6) Shaikh imprisoned
a. Asaf Jah, Jehangeers PM Shaikh summoned, No prostration, jailed
b. After 3 years of imprisonment, Jehangeer released him giving him
10000 rupees
c. He stayed 3 years in Jehangeer courts. Died on Dec 10,1024 A.D,
buried in Sirhind,
When seen in the perspective of history, whether accepted by Sufis or not, it is in
the rejection of monism that Sheikhs claim for being the Mujadad of his age. IH
Qureshi
Sheikh Ahmad, an individual from Sirhind, rich in knowledge and vigorous in action.
I associated him for few days and found marvelous things in his spiritual life. He will
turn into a light which will illuminate the world. Khawaja Bakhtiar Kaki quoted by S
M Ikram

Topic 4: Movement of Reforms: Shah Walli Ullah


1) Introduction
a. Hazrat Shah Wali Ullah a.k.a Mohadith Delvi
b. 1703 DELHI 1762
c. Father of Modern Muslim India
d. Real name Qutabuddin

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e. Born at Delhi
f. Son of Shah Abdur Rahim (Fatwa e Alamgeeri) scholar of Fiqa and
Islamic jurisprudence
g. Got knowledge of Fiqah, Ahadith, Tafsir and Hikmat
h. Completed study in 15 year of age
i. Went to Arabia for higher education and came back in July 1732
j. He taught at Madrasa Rahimia for 12 years
k. Aim was to Revive the past glory of Muslims and purify the society
inwardly
2) Conditions
a. Incapable successor of Aurangzeb
b. Un-Islamic trends,
c. Muslim life honour property not secured,
d. Shia-Suni conflicts,
e. Marhats and Sikhs challengers
3) SHAHS EFFORTS
a. Religious work
i. Translation of Holy Quran in Persian 1738
ii. Commentary on Hadith collection of Imam Muttah in Arabic and
Persian
iii. Urged Muslims to follow Holy prophet & abandon un-Islamic
trends
iv. Trained students in different Islamic knowledge
v. Recommended application of Ijtehad
vi. Initiated Tatbiq liberal element
vii. Balance b/w four schools
viii. Removed misunderstanding b/w Shai & Sunni Khilafat-alKhulafa
b. Political work
i. Marathas were threatening the Muslim empire
ii. Wrote letters to seek help from Muslim nobles against Sikhs
won over Najib ud Dola, Shuja ud Daula
iii. Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated Sikhs at the Third battle of
Panipat in 1761
c. Social work
i. Strongly opposed integration of Islamic culture in subcontinent
ii. Concept of reorientation of Muslim society
iii. Basic social justice
iv. Removing social inequalities
d. Concept of economy
i. Production of wealth
ii. Consumption of wealth
iii. Distribution of wealth
iv. Exchange of wealth
4) Literary work
a. Izalat-al-Akifa
b. Khalifa-al-Khulafa
c. Al-Insaf-fi-Bayan-Sababa-al-Ikhtilaf
d. Master piece of literature 1738
e. Commentary on Hadith Imam Muttah

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f. Quranic translation in Persian
g. Alfauz-ul-Qabir Fi-Usool-e-Tafseer
h. Hujjat-ul-Balagha about decay, Ijtehad, Mujjad and Ruler
I was informed through Ilham that I would have to undertake this responsibility. The
time has come when every injunction of the Sharia and instruction of Islam should
be presented to the world in a rational manner. Quoted by SM Ikram
Topic 5: Movement of Reforms-Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi
1) Introduction
a. Syed Ahmad Shaheed Barelvi (1786 1831)
b. Inheritor of mantle of Shah Abdul Aziz
c. Birth at Rai Barally in 1786
d. Father Shah Illam Ullah
e. Inspired by Shah Abdul Aziz
f. 1810 joined Nawab Ameer Khan as Sawar
g. 1818 wrote Seerat-e-Mustaqeem
2) Condition
a. Punjab ruled by Ranjit Singh who mutilated Muslims
b. NWFP by Sikhs
3) Objective
a. Purification of Muslim society and destruction of British power through
armed struggle
b. Establishment of a state based on Islamic principles
4) Jehad Movement
a. HQ at Nowshehra in Dec 1826
b. Battles
i. OKARA 1826
ii. HAZRO 1827
c. Yar Muhammad Conspiracy
i. He joined Mujahideen in Pesh, force arouse to 80,000
ii. Tried to poison Syed Ahmad
iii. Killed by Mujahideen in 1829
d. BATTLE FOR PESHAWAR
i. Ranjit Singh saved Peshawar and gave to Sultan Muhammad
e. HAZARA II 1830
i. Sikh were attacked, Sultan M arrested
ii. Declaration of Khilafat (1830)
f. Sultan M pardoned & withdrew from Pesh
g. BALAKOT BATTLE 1831
h. Sikh attacked, Syed Ahmad killed
5) Causes of Failure
a. Western generals Vantura and Elite in Ranjits army training &
modern war strategy
b. Outdated weapons of Mujahideen
c. Financial sources of Ranjit Singh
d. Misunderstandings created by Ranjit Singh
e. Ranjit attracted Pathans by bribing them to spy, revolt & slaughter
Mujahideen

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f.
g.
h.
i.

No support for poors Zakat collection


Islamic laws during war compulsory girls & widow marriage
Severe punishment
Pathans were against Wahabisim

The movement led by Brelvi was a precursor for later Muslim national movements
of the subcontinent. Dr. Sachin Sen
Topic 6: Educational Institutions-Aligarh Movement
1) Introduction
a. The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims.
b. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries
because they had ousted them from power
c. The British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic
changes
d. Arabic, Persian and religious education banned in schools
e. English made not only the medium of instruction but also the official
language in 1835
f. Seeing this atmosphere of despair and despondency, Sir Syed
launched his attempts to revive the spirit of progress through modern
education.
2) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (17 Oct, 1817 27 Mar 1898)
a. Got knowledge from Farid ud Din (maternal-grandfather Ex Mughal
PM)
b. Got knowledge of Quran, Arabic, Persian, History, Maths and Medicine
c. Joined govt in 1839 after fathers death in a clerical job 1841
promoted as Sub-Judge 1846 transferred to Delhi Chief judge in
1846 was offered an estate for services rendered to British during
war 1857 but he rejected 1877 member of imperial council 1886
University of Edinburgh LL.D degree 1888 Knighthood
3) Educational Aspect of Aligarh Movement
a. Objective:
i. Modern education for Muslims to compete Hindus
ii. Cooperation with the British government
b. Schools
i. Muradabad (1859)
ii. Ghazipur (1863)
c. Scientific society at Gahazipur (1864)
i. (to translate modern work from English to urdu and Persian)
ii. 1866 Society published Aligarh Gazette (to arouse sentiments
of goodwill & friendship)
d. Muhammadan Educational Conference
i. Established in 1866 held public meetings, discussed modern
education techniques Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik,
Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members
ii. 1869 went to England, studied education system of Oxford &
Cambridge
e. Anjuman-i-Taraqi-i-Musalmanan-i-Hind (1870)
i. to impart modern knowledge to Muslims

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f.

4)
5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College


i. On pattern of Oxford Fund raising committee formed 24th
May, 1874, MAO High school established 1877 got status of
college western, eastern and Islamic education 1920
status of University
Political Aspects of Aligarh Movement
a. Muslims should avoid active politics
b. Sir Syed wrote Risala-i-Asbab-Baghawqat-i-Hind
Religious Services of Aligarh Movement
a. Wrote Essay on the Life of Muhammad & Rebattle in response to
William Muires objectionable remarks in Life of Muhammad
b. Philosophical commentary Tabaeen-al-Kalam on bible point out
similarities
c. Influenced by MBA Wahab and Shah Ismail Shaheed having positive
attitude towards religion
Social services of Aligarh Movement
a. Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq criticized conservative way of life and advised to
adopt new trend
b. Established Orphanage houses
c. Founded Anjuman-i-Tariki-i-Urdu protecting Urdu
d. Ahkam-i-Taham-i-Ahle-Kitab Muslims can eat with Christians
e. Pioneer of two nation theory
i. Advocate of Hindu Muslim unity
ii. Urdu Hindi controversy 1867 in Banaras, changed his views
iii. Shakespeare dialogue
Features of Aligarh
a. Western & Eastern Education
b. Islamic Education
c. Residential College
d. European and Indian staff
e. Non-Muslim students
f. Loyalist Disposition
Aligarh Movement after Sir Syeds death
a. 1889 Sir Syed proposed a trustee bill Sir Syed as Sec. of the trust
& Syed Mahmud (son) as joint sec.
b. After Sir Syeds death (1898), Syed Mahmud as Sec. was a weak
manager resigned
c. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk as new sec devoted deposited six lac Rs to
govt handled the conflict b/t two groups Sahibzada Aftab Khan (in
favor of European staff) & Muhammad Ali Johar Died in 1907
d. Nwab Vaqar ul Malik took over tussle on European staff arouse
Nawab resigned in 1912 health
e. Nwab Muhammad Ishaq Khan deposited 20 lac for status of
University 1919- college student played role in Tehrik e Khilafat
Causes of WOI 1857
a. Non representation of Indian in legislative councils
b. Conversion of Indian into Christianity
c. Mismanagement of Indian army
d. Ill advised measure of govt
e. Consequence: Indian membership in Act 1861

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f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
10)
a.
b.

1866 Sir Syed formed British India Association at Aligarh to express


grievances of Indians to govt
wrote Loyal Muhammadans of India
Indian Patriotic Association 1888 forum for those who did not join
Congress
Muhammadan Political Association 1903 Against Hindu Revivalist
movements
Arya Smaj Hindustan 1977
B G Tilak Cow Slaughter
Shudhi
Shangtahn
Conclusion
Allama Iqbal: The real greatness of the man (Sir Syed) consists in the
fact that he was the first Indian Muslim who felt the need of a fresh
orientation of Islam and worked for it.
Jawaharlal Nehru, Sir Saiyad was an ardent reformer and he wanted to
reconcile modern scientific thought with religion by rationalistic
interpretations and not by attacking basic belief. He was anxious to
push new education. He was in no way communally separatist.
Repeatedly he emphasized that religious differences should have no
political and national significance.

Topic 7: Educational Institutions-DEOBAND


1) Introduction
a. Started at April 1866)
b. Aligarh movement was cooperating with British
c. Christians working to convert Muslims into Christianity
d. Apr 1866 Madrasah established at Deoband 2nd to Al Azhar Cairo
e. Founder Haji M. Abid floated the idea Collection of fund
Managing committee Maulana M Qasim , Maulana Fazl ur Rehman,
Maulana Zulfiqar, Maulana M Yaqoob Maulana Shabir A Usmani
taught
f. Maulana M Qasim first principal worked devotedly Madrasah
came to known as Qasim al Uloom I Deoband
g. Madrasah followed Madrasah I Rahimia (Shah wali Ullahs father) and
British education system
h. Produced Shah Abdur Rahim, Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Rashid Ahmad
Ganghoi, Maulana Mehmood ul Hassan
2) Political Services of Deoband
a. Jamiat Ulama I Islam Thanvi group lead by Ashraf Ali Thanvi,
Shabir Ahmad Usmani Muslim league
b. Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Hind Madni group lead by Maulana Hussain
Madani, Mufti Kafayat Ullah influenced by Abu-ul-Kalam Azad
Congress
3) Educational Services of Deoband
a. A great religious Madrasah 2nd to Al Azhar
b. Principals Maulana M Qasim (1880) Rashid Ahmad Ganghoi
Sheikh ul Hind M. Mehmood Ul Hassan.
4) Deoband and Aligarh

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a. Policy towards British
b. Political role of Muslims
c. Emphasizing area of education
5) Rapprochement with Aligarh
a. Jamiat-ul-Ansar (1906) at Deoband Sahibzada Aftab A Khan attended
the meeting Swap of education religious and western
b. Jamiat-i-Milia (1920)
6) Conclusion
Topic 8: Educational Institutions-NADWA
1) Introduction
a. NADVA-TUL-ULEMA OF LUCKNOW (1894)
b. Aligarh acquisition of western education
c. Deoband religious education
d. Need for balanced school
e. Committee was formed in 1892 Nadva-tul-Ulema established in
1894 functioned in 1898
f. Founder Maulana Abdul Ghafoor Shibli Naumani and Mau. Abdul
Haq chalked out a liberal program
2) Objectives
a. Promoting religious knowledge, moral uplift and social regeneration of
Muslims, Work to remove secretarial differences
b. British govt opposed the idea (Anthony MacDonal expressed it as a
political institute)
3) Nadva-tul-Ulema & Shibli Nohmani
a. Shibli influenced by Maulana M Farooq opposing Sir Syed while his
father influenced by Sir Syed
b. Joined Aligarh as A Prof of Arabic in 1883 Impressed Sir Syed
Asset to Aligarh some serious differences Man of arrogance and
sensitive resigned in 1904
c. Associated with Nadva used his expreince to bring reform gave
training in writing (Syed Suleman Nadvi, Abu-al-Kalam Aza)
d. Established academy Dar-ul-Musanifin
e. Differences aroused resigned
Topic 9: Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of ALLAMA IQBAL
1) Introduction
a. The sense of nationhood developed among the Muslims before the
establishment of Pakistan.
b. Their goal was mostly to protect and promote their identity.
c. To shape their lives in accord with their ideals and philosophy of life
without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority.
2) Separate Recognition of Muslims: India is not a country, it is a Sub-continent
of human beings belonging to different languages and practicing different
religions. Muslim nation has its own religious and cultural identity.

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3) Condemnation of Western Democratic Concepts: Western democracy is
devoid of depth, it has merely an attractive outlook.
4) Concept of separate Muslim State: I want to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sindh
and Balochistan in the form of one homogenous state. Whether India gets
independences under the crown of England or out of it, I think independent
state of western provinces is the destiny of the people living there.
5) Acclamation of Idea of Single Nation: I remained the supporter of this idea
but now I am of the view that preservation of separate nationhood is useful
for Hindus and Muslims birth. To have the concept of single nation in India is
no doubt poetic and beautiful but impractical regarding present
circumstances. (March, 1909 when lqbal refused to address a meeting held
by Minvra Raj Amritsar)
6) Concept of Two Nation Theory: Despite living together for 1000 years, Hindus
and Muslims have their own individual ideologies so the only solution of
political conflict in India is to have a separate independent parliament for
each nation.
7) Eradication of Racial & Regional Prejudices: Concept of nation and homeland
is confusing the Muslims. That is why Islamic humane objects are becoming
dim. It is also possible that these concepts may destroy the real concepts of
Islam.
8) Explanation of Relation of Islam & politics: Islam does not consider matter
and soul separate from each other. Allah, Universe and state all are the basic
elements of single unit. Man is not so alien that he should leave worldly
affairs for the sake of religion.
9) Islam is complete code of life: Islam is not the name of some beliefs and
customs but it is a compete code of life. In, Europe, religion is every ones
personal matter which divides the human oneness into two opposite parts i.e.
body and soul. In contrast to that in Islam, God, Universe, soul, matter, sate
and religions are bound to each other or in other words Muslims are one
nation
10)
Islam is a lively power: Islam is a lively power which frees human
mind from thoughts country and race. If we understand this thing then we
can be the leaders of prominent Indian civilization.
11)
Islam is the way to success: The lesson which I learnt from history is
that Islam always helped the Muslims. Even today, Ideology of Islam can save
your being from destruction by uniting your divided powers.
12)
Opposition of Nationalism: I am opposed to nationalism, not because
if it is allowed to develop in India. It is likely to bring less material gain to
Muslims. I am opposed to it because I see in it the germs of atheistic
materialism which I look upon as the greatest danger to modern humanity
13)
Foundation of Pakistan: To address this session of All India Muslim
League you have selected a man who is not despaired of Islam as a living
force for freeing the outlook of man from its geographical limitations, who
believes that religion is a power of utmost importance in the life of individual
as well as states.

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14)

Conclusion

Topic 10: Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of QUAID E AZAM


1) Introduction
a. He changed the course of history. He was a real charismatic leader
possessing a visionary leadership.
b. Gave practical shape to the ideology given by Sir Syed and Allama
Iqbal
2) Quaid e Azam political Life
a. He started his political career in 1906 by joining the Indian National
Congress. He was elected to the Legislative Council in 1909 and in
1913 he also joined the All India Muslim League (AIML).
b. Having disagreement with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-rule),
complete freedom from the British and on using extra-constitutional
means, Jinnah resigned from the Congress in 1920.
3) Jinnah and his transition from Hundu-Muslim Unity to Two NationTheory
a. His early efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity were materialized
when THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916) was signed. The Hindus accepted the
Muslim demands:
i. Separate Electorate
ii. One-third Seats in Central Legislature
iii. protection of minority rights
b. In the Nehru Report, the accepted Muslim rights were ignored. Jinnah
retaliated forcefully by presenting 14 Points in 1929.
c. 1935 onwards Quaid started emphasizing on separate identity of
Muslim and a separate nation. Started mobilizing masses.
d. 1937 there are only two parties in India said Nehru on performance
of ML in elections. Quaid said Muslims are third party in India
e. 1939 Muslim and Hindu are two nations. We are going to live as a
nation and play a role as a nation.
f. March 9, 1940 Quaid wrote his only article published in British media
namely Time and Tide. He discussed 1.How Hindu and Muslims are
separate nations? 2. What should be future of India and how Muslims
can be accommodated well?
g. He emphasized on Islam as well as modern democracy, Social
economic justice and rights of minorities.
4) Pakistan as A modern Democracy: Pakistan was to be a modern democratic
state that derived its ethical foundation from Islam where the source of
guidance and inspiration for constitution making and governance is going to
be Islam
5) Muslims as a Nation: It has been taken for granted mistakenly that Muslims
are a minority, and of course we got used to it for such a long time that these
settled notions sometimes difficult to remove. The Muslims are not a
minority; the Muslims are a nation by every definition. By all canons of
international law we are a nation. 23rd March 1940
6) India an amalgam of cultures: India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a sub
continent of nationalities, Hindus and Muslims belong to the two major
nations. The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religion,
philosophies, social customs and literature. They belong to two different

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civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.
Their aspects on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that both derive
their inspirations from different sources of history 23rd March 1940
7) Muslims as a distinctive nation
a. We are a nation with our distinct culture and civilization, language and
literature, art and architecture, sense of values and proportions, legal
laws and moral codes, customs and calendars, history and traditions.
In short we have our distinct outlook on life and of life By all canons of
International law we are a separate nation. 1942
b. The Muslims are nation by every right to establish their homeland
1942
8) Islam as the binding force:
a. We should base our democracy on the principals and concepts of
Islam Feb 1942
b. Pakistan does not mean freedom and independence only, but the
Islamic ideology as well which has to be preserved. June 1945
c. I cannot understand a section of people who deliberately want to
create a mischief and make propaganda that the constitution of
Pakistan will not be made on the basis of Shariat. Islamic principals
today are as applicable to life as they were 1300 years ago. Jan 25,
1948 Eid Milad Un Nabbi Karachi Bar Association
9) Conclusion
Topic 11: Land and People of Pakistan-Geography
1) Introduction
a. The science dealing with the description, distribution and interaction of
the diverse physical, biological and cultural features of the earths
surface.
b. Geography is the study that deals with the location of countries, cities,
rivers, mountains, and lakes etc.
2) Pakistans Geography
a. Pakistan is situated between latitude 24 and 37 degrees north and
longitude 62 and 75 degrees east.
b. The country borders Iran on the west, India in the east, Afghanistan in
the North West, China in the north and Arabian Sea on the south.
c. The great mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakorum and the
Hindu Kush from Pakistan's northern highlight of the north western
frontier and the Northern Area
d. Province of Punjab is flat, alluvial plain with five major rivers
dominating the upper region eventually joining the Indus River flowing
south to Arabian sea
e. Sindh is bounded on the west by Kirthar range
f. The Baluchistan plateau is an arid tableland, encircled by dry
mountains.
3) POPULATION (1998 Census):
a. Total population: 130.58 million, Growth Rate : 2.61% per annum.
b. Density : 164 person / Sq.kms
c. Sex Ratio : 108 males to 100 females
4) AREA:

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a. 8,03,940 Sq.km (including FATA and FANA)
5) CLIMATE:
a. Pakistan has well defined seasons; Winter (December - February),
Spring (March - April), Summer (May - September) and Autumn
(October - November).
b. During summer in central and southern parts of the country, the
temperature may go as high as 45oC. However, the northern regions
have very pleasant weather during summers.
c. Between July and August, the season brings an average 38-51cm of
rain to plains and 152-203cm in lower Himalayan valleys of Murree,
Kaghan, Swat and Azad Kashmir.
6) Physical Features
a. The Northern and Western Highlands
i. Northern Mountain Range
1. The Himalayas (Nanga Parbat-8126 meters)
2. The Karakoram (K-2 8611 meters, KKH on Hunza river)
ii. North Western Mountain Range
1. Hindu Kush (Tirichmir-7690 meters)
iii. Western Mountain Ranges
1. The Koh-e-Sufian (Khyber Pass-53 km, trade with
Afghanistan khurrai pass)
2. Suleiman Range (Tukht-e-suleman 3500 meters, Bolan)
3. Kirthar Range (max height 2150 meters, south river Hub
and Lyari flow)
4. Salt Range( river swan, Avg height 700 meters)
b. The Indus Plain
i. The Upper Indus Plain (area above Mithan kot, very fertile, low
rainfall)
ii. The Lower Indus Plain (Indus delta, very fertile)
c. The Plateaus
i. The Balochistan Plateau (South of coastal Makran Range, Khojak
Pass, Sui Gas, avg height 3000 meters, rivers Gomal, Zhob, and
Hingol)
ii. The Pothar Plateau (Kala Chitta and Margalla hills in North, Salt
Range in South, Jehlum flows in East, River Indus in West.
Khewra Salt Mine)
d. The Desert Regions
i. Cholistan (Bahawalpur)
ii. Kharan (NW of Balochistan)
e. Coastal Areas (700 km long)
7) Conclusion
Topic 12: Land and People of Pakistan-Agriculture
1) Introduction
a. Agriculture accounted for 20.9 percent of the Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) in 2014-15 and is a source of livelihood of 43.5 percent of rural
population.

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2)

3)

4)

5)

b. Majority of the population, directly or indirectly, dependent on this


sector as it accounts for 45 percent of employed labor force and is the
largest source of foreign exchange earnings.
Highlights according to the Economic Survey
a. The agriculture growth stood at 2.9 percent during July-March, 2014-15
as compared to 2.7 percent during the last year.
b. Crops witnessed a growth of 1.0 percent, Livestock 4.1 percent,
Forestry 3.2 percent and Fishing 5.8 percent.
c. During 2014-15, cotton production stood at 13,983 thousand bales as
compared to 12,769 thousand bales in 2013-14 and registered an
increase of 9.5 percent.
d. Wheat production decreased to 25,478 thousand tonnes in 2014-15 as
compared to 25,979 thousand tonnes in 2013-14 showing a decrease
of 1.9 percent.
e. Rice production has increased to 7,005 thousand tonnes in 2014-15 as
compared to 6,798 thousand tonnes in 2013-14 showing an increase of
3.0 percent
f. During July-March, 2014-15 about 446.1 thousand tonnes of improved
seeds of various Kharif/Rabi crops were procured.
Problems related to Agriculture
a. Lack of Education
b. Lack of Capital
c. Following of old traditions
d. Water-logging and salinity
e. Uneconomical Land holdings
f. Scarcity of Water
g. Soil Erosion
h. Lack of organized marketing
i. Pests and Crop Diseases
j. Poor means of transportation
k. Lack of Credit Facilities
l. Low Yield per acre
Suggestions and remedies
a. Reclamation of Land
b. Irrigation Facilities
c. The Use of fertilizers
d. Credit facilities
e. Better quality seeds
f. Plant protection
g. Mechanization
h. Cooperative farming
i. Higher Education Level
j. Marketing Facilities
k. Improvement in the means of transportation and communication
Conclusion

Topic 13: Land and People of Pakistan-Natural Resources


1) Introduction
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a. Natural Resources occur naturally within environments characterized
by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various
ecosystems.
b. Pakistan has enormous energy surplus resource potential of both
renewable and nonrenewable, which is greater than that of oil rich
countries of Gulf.
2) Natural Resources and their management
a. Contrary to economic potential of its natural resources, Pakistan is a
depending on the following
i. Foreign aid and debt.
ii. Deficit in trade
iii. Acute energy crisis to run industry
iv. Water stress for agriculture
b. Sustainable development required.
3) Richness / abundance of natural resources in Pakistan
a. Among the world's 200 plus countries
b. Second largest salt mines,
c. Second largest coal reserves,
d. Fifth largest copper and gold reserves,
e. Seventh largest wheat and rice production capacity.
4) Pakistan's Natural Resources
a. Energy resources
i. Nonrenewable energy resources
1. Oil and Gas reserves
a. Crude Oil - proved reserves: 247.5 million bbl (1
January 2013 est.) CC: 57, and Natural gas - proved
reserves: 679.6 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.):
CC: 31
b. Current oil production is 61,660 bbl/day (2012 est.)
c. Current gas production is 39.15 billion cu m (2011
est.)
2. Coal reserves
a. 185 billion tons equivalent to 618 billion barrels of
crude oil.
b. If it is converted into oil by gasification, it will
generate 650 barrels of crude oil which at an
average market rate of eighty dollars per barrel,
would generate 5.2 trillion dollars.
ii. Renewable energy resources
1. Wind and solar power
a. 1046 km long coastal line gives potential of 40000
MW of electricity
b. vast lands of Balochistan can be utilized for solar
electricity generation.
2. Hydropower
a. Only 33 percent of around 20,000 MW generation
capacity is produced from this resource which has
the potential of producing 40,000 MW
b. Agricultural resources
i. Out of 77 million acres cultivable area, only 55.5 million acres

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5)

6)
7)
8)

have been ploughed


ii. Irrigation Network
iii. Fertile Land
iv. Variety of Crops
v. Animal Husbandry (Sahiwal cow-best breeds)
vi. Fishing
c. Mineral Ore Resources
i. Copper and gold resources
1. The Riko deq project, copper and gold reservoir, have
been estimated to be worth of 260 billion dollars
ii. Salt mines and other minerals
iii. Uranium: In 2006 Pakistan produced about 45 tons of uranium.
d. Human resources
i. Sixth Largest Population in the World
ii. Youth comprising major chuck (63 percent below age of 25
years, according to United Nations Development Programme)
e. Atomic Energy (Pakistan has operated Atomic blasts in Chagi in
Balochistan on 28 May 1998.)
Factors leading to poor management / Governance
a. Political instability/ rivalry,
b. Lack of vision and planning,
c. Flawed policies,
d. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and corruption,
e. Worsened Law and order situation,
Implications of mismanagement of natural resources (Economic Survey 201415)
Way forward
Conclusion
a. country comparison to the world: CC
b. Source CIA factbook
c. Bbl: barrel

Topic 14: Land and People of Pakistan-Education


1) Introduction
a. Educational indicators of Pakistan are still dismally low, although
steady progress has been noticed during last few decades.
b. Article 25-A of constitution of Pakistan states: State shall provide free
and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen
years in such manner as may be determined by law.
c. At present, about one third primary school age children are out of
school, 42% population (age 10+) is illiterate.
d. Gender Parity Index in case of participation in primary education is
0.82.
e. Over 6.7 million children are out of school, and majority of them (62%)
are girls
2) Current Statistics According To The Economic Survey 2014-2015
a. According to Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM)
Survey 2013-14, literacy in urban areas is 74 percent and in rural areas

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(49 percent), and is more prevalent for men (81.0 percent) compared
to women (66.0 percent) in urban areas.
b. Government is spending 2.1 percent of its GDP on education sector.
c. Net Enrolment Rates (NER) at the national level during 2013-14
remained at 57 percent.
d. Under Prime Ministers Hunarmand Pakistan Program short-term skill
development training up to six-month duration courses was conducted
in collaboration with public and private sector training institutes.
e. During the period 2008-14, a total number of 10,376 Scholarships were
awarded under different programmes of HEC.
3) Education System in Pakistan
a. Introduction
i. Education is a provincial subject as a result of the 18
Constitutional Amendment legislated by the parliament during
April 2010
ii. The Ministry of Education and Trainings and Standards in Higher
Education (MET&SHE) at the federal level coordinates with
international development partners.
iii. Public sector formal school system consists of 12 academic
years.
iv. It starts from Primary and ends at Intermediate level or Higher
Secondary School Certificate (HSSC).
v. Private sector; one third enrolled children, following either public
sector national curricula or that of Cambridge International
Examinations.
b. Primary and Secondary Education
i. 146,185 formal primary, 42,147 middle level (Lower Secondary)
and 29,874 secondary schools
ii. 75% are public sector schools; 10% private sector schools;
others deeni madressahs and non-formal basic education
systems
iii. Enrolment in Middle Schools: 6 million with 57% boys and 43%
girls, enrolment in secondary schools: 2.8 million with 58%
males and 42% females
c. Non-Formal Basic Education
i. an extensive network of Non-Formal Basic Education (NFBE)
institutions for out-of-school children; enrolment of at least 2.5
million students
ii. 13,000 Basic Education Community Schools (BECS) are
functioning; 0.6 million enrollment
iii. BECS are financed by the Federal Government and operate
directly under MET&SHE
d. Private Sector Contribution in Primary Education
i. At the primary level, overall 4.8 million (34%) children of 5-9
years age group are enrolled.
ii. 34% of boys and 33% of girls
e. Religious Education (Deeni Madaris)
i. According to NEMIS data, at present, the total number of Deeni
Madarisin Pakistan is 13,240

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4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

ii. These Madaris are run by five different WAFAQS(governing


bodies)
iii. 1.79 million students enrolled; 1.1 million boys and 0.66 million
girls
National Education Policies
a. The National Education Policy (1998-2010)
b. The National Education Policy (2009)
c. Education Sector Reforms (2001-06)
d. National Plan of Action for EFA (2001-15)
e. Provincial Education Sector Plans
f. Free Education and Incentives to Enhance Enrolments and Retention
g. The National Plan of Action for Accelerating Education-Related MDGs
(2013-16)
Key Education Challenges in Pakistan
a. Lack of Access to Education
b. Poor Quality of Education
c. Budgetary Constraints
d. Weak Governance
e. External Factors
i. Poverty
ii. Law and Order
iii. Natural Disasters
Prospects For 2015 and Beyond
a. Expanding and improving comprehensive Early Childhood Education
(ECE)
b. Increased Equitable Access
c. Improved Learning Outcomes
d. Literacy
e. Gender Parity
f. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
g. Education for Culture of Peace
h. Consultative Workshops in Provinces and Areas on Improving Quality
Beyond
Priority Areas To Be Achieved
a. Basic education
b. Post-basic and Tertiary education
c. Youth and adult literacy
d. Skills for work and life
e. Quality and relevant teaching and learning
f. Financing of education
Conclusion (Source: Education for All 2015 National Review, UNESCO
Document)

Topic 15: Land and People of Pakistan-Industry


1) Introduction
a. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP.
b. Cotton textile production and apparel manufacturing are Pakistan's
largest industries, accounting for about 66% of the merchandise
exports and almost 40% of the employed labor force.
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2) Current Statistics According To The Economic Survey 2014-2015
a. Large Scale Manufacturing (LSM) during July-March 2014-15 registered
a growth of 2.5 percent as compared to 4.6 percent in the same period
last year.
b. The Year on Year (YoY) growth for March 2015 stood at 4.5 percent as
against negative growth of 1.0 percent in March 2014.
c. Negative Growth: Wood Product declined by 78.46 percent,
Engineering Products 10.68 percent, Paper and Board 7.26 percent,
Food Beverage and Tobacco 1.03 percent and Rubber products 0.56
percent.
d. Positive Growth: Iron and Steel Products 35.63 percent, Automobiles
17.02 percent, Leather Products 9.62 percent, Electronics 8.21 percent,
Pharmaceuticals 6.38 percent, Chemicals 5.94 percent, Non Metallic
mineral products 2.56 percent, Coke & Petroleum Products 4.73
percent, Fertilizers 0.95 percent and Textile 0.50 percent.
e. Automobile sector such as trucks, tractors, cars & jeeps and LCVs
registered growth of 53.9 percent, 44.6 percent, 23.1 percent and 31.2
percent, respectively.
f. Mining and Quarrying sector grew by 3.8 percent in 2014-15
3) SWOT Analysis Of Iron And Steel Industry Of Pakistan
a. Strengths
i. Development Projects; Dams, Bridges
ii. Boom in Construction Sector; Real Estate
iii. Defense Production
b. Weaknesses
i. Old depreciated plant and machinery
ii. Limited capacity to fulfill demand
iii. Lack of infrastructure
iv. High taxes
v. Declining Skilled force
c. Opportunities
i. Abundant coal available to power Steel Mills
ii. Abundant Iron ore available domestically
iii. Increase in prices and demand of steel worldwide
d. Threats
i. Political instability
ii. Competition on mainstream
iii. Increase in iron ore prices worldwide
4) Critical Analysis of Textile Industry
a. Contribution of Textile Sector
i. Increase in National Income
ii. Contribution to Taxes
iii. Economic Stability
iv. Improvement in Balance of Payments
v. Agricultural Development
vi. Increased Employment Opportunities
vii. Collateral Industrial Development
viii. Enhanced Government Revenues
ix. Diversification of Economy
b. Problems Faced By The Textile Industry Of Pakistan
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i. Financial Problems
ii. Domestic Issues
iii. Global Recession
iv. Textile input Issues
v. Taxation Issues
vi. Energy Crisis
vii. International Competition
viii. Environmental Issues
c. Remedies and Solutions
i. Input-related Remedies
ii. Remedies for Energy Crisis
iii. Financial Remedial Measures
iv. Human Resource Development
v. SMEs Promotion
vi. Labor Intensive Industries
vii. Taxation Solutions
viii. Foreign Investment Promotion
ix. Environmental Remedies
5) Conclusion
Topic 16: Land and People of Pakistan-Society
1) Introduction
a. The aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered
community.
b. Pakistan was created in 1947, as a homeland for Muslims in South Asia,
and about 97 percent of Pakistanis are Muslim
c. Pakistani society is ethnically diverse.
d. It is largely rural yet beset by the problems of hyper-urbanization.
e. Pakistan has enjoyed a robust and expanding economy, but wealth is
poorly distributed
f. A middle-class is emerging, but a narrow stratum of elite families
maintains extremely disproportionate control over the nation's wealth,
almost one-third of all Pakistanis live in poverty.
g. It is a male-dominated society in which social development has lagged
considerably behind economic change
2) Salient features of Pakistani Society
a. Religious Uniformity
b. Diversity of Ethnicity
c. Unity In Family Structure
d. Language
e. Literature and Poetry
f. Dress and Diet
g. Male Dominated Society
h. Arts and Architecture
i. Recreational Activities-Sports
3) Critical Indicators of Society
a. Sanitation

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4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

b. Access to health care


c. literacy
d. Increasing population pressure on limited resources
e. Social and Economic Inequity
Role Of Religion on Ideology
a. Founders of Pakistan hoped that religion would provide a coherent
focus for national identity
b. A focus that would supersede the country's considerable ethnic and
linguistic variations
c. Islam has been a pervasive presence in Pakistani society
d. Role that Islamic law should play in the country's affairs and
governance remains an important issue
Regional Diversity
a. Pakhtuns, Baloch, Punjabis, and Sindhis are all Muslim, yet they have
diverse cultural traditions and speak different languages.
b. Ethnic, regional, and--above all--family loyalties figure far more
prominently for the average individual than do national loyalties
c. Punjabis predominate in the central government and the military.
d. Baloch, Pakhtuns, and Sindhis find the Punjabi preponderance at odds
with their own aspirations for provincial autonomy.
e. Ethnic mixing within each province further complicates social and
political relations.
Role of Social Movements
a. After 1990, social movements, assumed a more central role in public
life.
b. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) committed to economic and
social development
c. Loss of a sense of social contract among Pakistanis that has adversely
affected the country's infrastructure
d. The populace has failed to develop a sense of publicly committed
citizenship
Personal Approach of Individuals
a. The self-centeredness is increasingly noticeable in many areas of social
life
b. Many people once imagined that economic development would by
itself improve the quality of life, not now
c. Family or personal interest and status take precedence over public
good in Pakistan
d. All the individual affairs depend more upon connections or wealth than
on ability and merit such as admissions in schools
Sectors of the Country
a. Failure to develop civic-minded citizenship is also evident in public
administration
b. There is imbalanced government spending
c. The bureaucracy has not modernized sufficiently to incorporate new
technologies and innovations
Conclusion

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Topic 17: Nuclear Program of Pakistan, Its Safety and Security;
International Concerns
1) Introduction
a. Pakistan; first Muslim country to construct and operate civil nuclear
power plants.
b. It is one of the four nuclear armed states that is not a party of the
nuclear non-proliferation treaty.
c. Member on International Atomic Energy Commission (IAEA).
d. Plans on constructing 32 nuclear power plants by 2050.
2) Nuclear Power Program of Pakistan
a. 725 MWe capacity; nuclear arsenal consists of approximately 60-90
nuclear warheads
b. Pakistan's nuclear weapons capabilities have arisen independently of
the civil nuclear fuel cycle, using indigenous uranium.
c. Pakistan is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, due to its
weapons program, it is largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or
materials, and however, China is positive to cooperate.
d. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is responsible for all
nuclear energy and research applications; two divisions; Nuclear Power
Generation (NUPG) and Nuclear Power Projects (NUPP)
e. The Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH) at
Rawalpindi near Islamabad is managed by the PAEC and is one of the
largest science and technology research establishments in the country
3) General Potential Threat Of Nuclear Terrorism Defined By IAEA:
a. Theft of a nuclear weapon
b. Theft of material to make an improvised nuclear explosive device
c. Theft of other radioactive material for an RDD
d. Sabotage of a facility or a transport
4) Concerns On Security Issues Of Pakistan
a. Extremist government in power.
b. Radicals taking over
c. Terrorist attack on nuclear installations
d. The insider dimension
5) Starting Of Safety And Security Issues Of Pakistan Nuclear Program
a. The terrorist attack on twin towers and Fukushima power plant disaster
has changed the whole global discourse of safety and security of
nuclear weapons.
b. Attack on army GHQ in 2009,PNS mehran attack in 2011 and KAMRA
air base attack in 2012
c. Political instability
d. The pace of developing nuclear weapons
6) Security System Of Nuclear Program In Pakistan
a. In May 1998, the Government of Pakistan announced its National
Command Authority (NCA), which comprises the Employment Control
Committee, the Development Control Committee and Strategic Plans
Division (SPD) - the secretariat of the Authority.

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b. The SPD has developed a foolproof security system such as Permissive
Action Link system, which is modeled after the one used in the US,
among other responsibilities.
c. Pakistan National Security Council: estb. in Feb 2000 to supervise the
employment, deployment, research and development and command
structure of Pakistan nuclear program
d. Security Division: Most imp. organ of strategic planning division which
is responsible for security and protection of Pakistan nuclear arsenal,
facilities and the entire strategic organization
e. Personal Reliability Program (PRP): security clearance and screening
processes of all individuals for employment in the strategic
organizations to break the insider link with any terrorist group
f. Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities: security division is responsible
for physical protection of all civilian and military nuclear installations.
g. Transportation Security: Pakistan has approved the convention on
physical protection of nuclear material in 2000 to ensure safe transport
of nuclear material
h. Fissile Material Protection, Control And Accounting: SPD measure and
do external audits on nuclear inventories and implementing regular
and surprise inspections at all facilities.
i. Export Control Regime: In 2000,Pak estb. a strategic export control
division to control export of nuclear material by any means.
j. International agreements to prevent nuclear terrorism: Pak joined US
led containee security initiative in 2006 and global initiative to combat
nuclear terrorism in 2007.
k. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority: came into being under PAEC.
Supervise all matters relating to nuclear safety and radiation
protection.
l. Radiological Source Security: The PNRA is tasked to protect workers in
the facilities, public, and the environment against accidental or
malicious acts
m. Nuclear Security Summit (NSS): Pakistan has participated in two NSS in
2010 and 2012.
7) Conclusion
a. The countrys nuclear security is supported by five pillars
i. a strong command and control system led by the National
Command Authority (NCA);
ii. an integrated intelligence system;
iii. a rigorous regulatory regime;
iv. a comprehensive export control regime;
v. and active international cooperation
Topic 18: Civil Military Relations in Pakistan
1) Introduction
a. Governance in Pakistan is a delicate balancing act between the military
chiefs and the elected civilian government

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b.

It is a power-sharing arrangement whereby the military has important


influence over foreign, security and key domestic issues
c. Soft Military Intervention-The military has repeatedly demonstrated
that it can and will influence the nature and direction of political
change without necessarily assuming power.
d. 'soft' military intervention a common dilemma for civilian leaders
2) The Transition to Civilian Rule
a. The ascendancy of Pakistan's military began in 1947.
b. Direct assumption of power by the Army Chief, General (later Field
Marshal) Ayub Khan, October 1958- June 1962,
c. A second coup was staged in March 1969' by General Yahya Khan, who
surrendered power to an elected civilian leader in December 1971
(1971 Indo-Pakistan war)
d. General Zia ul-Haq reasserted military dominance by overthrowing the
civilian government in July 1977.( July 1977 December 1985)
e. The civilian system that replaced Zia's military rule in 1985 enabled
the military to shift its emphasis from overt 'rule' to a more subtle. Zia
introduced far-reaching changes in the 1973 Constitution, powerful
President (Zia himself) and a weak Prime Minister
3) A Pivot in the Power Structure
a. The Army Chief is a pivot in Pakistan's post-1988 power structure.
b. Together with the President and the Prime Minister, he constitutes onethird of the 'Troika' -an extra-constitutional arrangement for civilianmilitary consensus-building on key domestic, foreign policy and
security issues.
c. Its members not only discuss security and organizational and
professional matters, but also deliberate on domestic issues such as
law and order, and general political conditions
d. A smooth interaction among the Troika members ensures the military's
support for the Prime Minister, which contributes to general political
stability.
e. The military's primary consideration is not direct exercise of power, but
protection and advancement of its professional and corporate
interests.
4) The Military's Interests
a. National security: nuclear policy, Strong and credible conventional
defense and nuclear-weapons capabilities
b. Overseas weapons and equipment procurement is another military
interest with foreign-policy implications
c. Military autonomy and civilian non-interference in internal
organizational matters and service affairs
d. The military is opposed to any unilateral cut in defense expenditure by
civilian leaders
e. Protection of perks and privileges provided to officers along with
generally improving service conditions.

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f.

The military also expects a civilian government to ensure socio-political


stability
5) The Military and the Intelligence Agencies
a. Role of the Military Intelligence (MI)
b. Role of the ISI
c. Role of Intelligence Bureau (IB)
6) Conclusion
a. The military's decision to stay in the barracks after President Zia's
death in 1988, began Pakistan's democratic transition
b. The civilian governments that followed were troubled by the necessity
of balancing democratic imperatives with the legacy of long military
rule.
c. The military elite concede that governance is not one of its primary
tasks, and gives this right to the civilian leaders.
d. But the military leadership also firmly believes that it must play an
autonomous role
Topic 19: Political Evolution Since 1971
1) Introduction
a. Pakistan has alternated between eras of civilian rule and decades
under the control of its powerful military.
b. First democratic era in 1947,the government is headed by Muhammad
Ali Jinnah as Governor-General, with Liaquat Ali Khan serving as Prime
Minister.
c. First military period: President Iskander Mirza carries out a coup d'etat,
suspending the constitution in 1958
d. The controversy over General Elections in 1970 leads to a war, also
involving India that results in the independence of Bangladesh after a
brutal Pakistani army action in East Pakistan.
2) Second democratic era
a. 1972: Martial Law is lifted. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto is elected as president.
He also launches Pakistan's nuclear programme.
b. 1973: A new constitution is enacted, declaring Pakistan a
parliamentary democracy, with a prime minister as head of state,
leading a bi-cameral legislature. Bhutto goes from president to prime
minister.
c. 1976: Bhutto appoints General Zia-ul-Haq as his chief of army staff.
d. 1977: General elections are held, Bhutto's party wins. Amid unrest
following allegations of vote-rigging from the opposition, General Ziaul-Haq steps in, removing Bhutto in a coup, suspending the
constitution and declaring martial law.

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3) Second military period


a. 1978: Zia-ul-Haq is sworn in as president. He retains the office of army
chief.
b. 1979: After having been found guilty of "conspiracy to murder" in a
trial heavily criticized for having been influenced by Zia, Bhutto is
executed. Zia's 'Islamisation' policy.
c. 1982: Having put off polls indefinitely and banned political activity, Zia
forms a federal council of 'technocrats' he has nominated.
d. 1984: Zia-ul-Haq holds a referendum on his Islamisation policies. His
government claims that more than 95 per cent of votes cast were in
support of Zia.
e. 1985: General elections are held (on a non-party basis). Martial law is
lifted and elects Zia as President. Muhammad Khan Junejo is elected as
prime minister.
f.

1988: Amid widening rifts, Zia dissolves parliament, dismissing Junejo's


government under Article 58-2(b) of the constitution. He promises
elections within 90 days. On August 17, however, he is killed, along
with 31 others, in a plane crash.

4) Third Democratic Era


a. 1988: General elections are held, the PPP Benazir Bhutto wins. Bhutto
is sworn in as prime minister.
b. 1990: President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolves the National Assembly,
dismissing Bhutto's government on charges of alleged corruption and
incompetence. Fresh elections are held, and Nawaz Sharif, groomed
under Zia as the head of the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI), is elected
prime minister.
c. 1991: The National Assembly adopts the Shariat bill, codifying
elements of Islamic law into Pakistan's legal system.
d. 1993: President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismisses Sharif's government for
alleged corruption and incompetence. General elections are held, with
Benazir Bhutto elected prime minister for her second term. Farooq
Leghari, a member of the PPP, is elected as the country's president.

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e. 1996: President Farooq Leghari dissolves the National Assembly,


dismissing Benazir Bhutto's government, corruption allegations.
f.

1997: General elections are held, the fourth time such polls have taken
place since 1988. Nawaz Sharif's PML-N party wins and he is elected
prime minister for the second time. Rafiq Tarar is sworn in as President
the next year.

g. 1998: Pakistan conducts nuclear tests in the Chaghai Hills of


Balochistan, in response to similar Indian tests days earlier. The
international community imposes strict economic sanctions on the
country in response.
5) Third military period
a. 1999: After the Kargil War, Nawaz Sharif attempts to replace General
Pervez Musharraf, his army chief. Musharraf takes power in a coup.
b. 2000: The Supreme Court validates Musharraf's coup and gives him
executive and legislative authority for a period of three years. Nawaz
Sharif and his family flee to exile in Saudi Arabia
c. 2001: General Pervez Musharraf assumes the office of president, while
remaining chief of army staff.
d. 2002: Musharraf wins a referendum on his presidency, granting him
five more years in the job. The government claims he wins the poll by
more than 95 per cent. A general election is also held, with the PML-Q,
a party created by Musharraf and loyal to the president, winning most
seats. The PML-Q's Zafarullah Khan Jamali is elected prime minister.
Musharraf, meanwhile, institutes a raft of amendments to the 1973
constitution.
e. 2004: Zafaraullah Khan Jamali is replaced by Shaukat Aziz, then the
finance minister, as prime minister of Pakistan.
f.

2007: President Musharraf dismisses Chief Justice of the Supreme


Court Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, prompting a nationwide protest
movement for his reinstatement. Chaudhry is eventually restored, but
Musharraf imposes a state of emergency later in the year ahead of a
key apex court ruling on the legality of his rule. The National Assembly,
meanwhile, completes its five-year term for the first time in Pakistan's

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history. Benazir Bhutto, who returned to the country to campaign in the


general elections after the passage of a controversial blanket
corruption amnesty deal, is killed in a bomb attack in Rawalpindi.
6) Fourth democratic era
a. 2008: General elections are held, with the PPP winning the majority of
seats in the national assembly. Yousuf Raza Gilani is elected prime
minister, with Asif Ali Zardari, Bhutto's widower and now co-chairman
of the PPP, replacing Musharraf as president.
b. 2009: After heightening tensions over the issue, Iftikhar Muhammad
Chaudhry and his colleagues in the judiciary are restored to their
positions, having been dismissed by Pervez Musharraf after his 2007
state of emergency.
c. April 8, 2010 Pakistan's parliament passes the 18th amendment to the
1973 consitution, which, among other things, reverses some of the
changes brought about by Musharraf and also removes the President's
power to dissolve the parliament unilaterally under Article 58-2(b).
d. December 22, 2010 passing of 19th amendment for the appointment of
the Judges of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and made amendments in
the number of members of the parliamentary committee for the
appointment of Chief Electoral Officers at Election Commission of
Pakistan.
e. 2011: Caught amidst scandals involving both corruption probes and
the so-called "Memogate" affair, the PPP government comes under
increasing pressure from the opposition to hold early elections.
f.

February 14, 2012 passing of 20th amendment for For Free and Fair
Elections

g. 2012: After being found guilty of having committed contempt of court


for not implementing a Supreme Court order to reopen a corruption
case involving President Asif Ali Zardari, Prime Minister Yousuf Raza
Gilani is deemed to be ineligible to hold public office. He loses his seat
in parliament, but not before he becomes the longest serving prime
minister in Pakistan's history. He is succeeded as PM by Raja Pervez
Ashraf, another leading PPP member and Zardari loyalist.

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h. 2013: The PPP-led coalition government becomes Pakistan's first


democratically elected civilian-led government to complete its fiveyear term in office. A caretaker government is appointed and a general
election is set for May 11.
i.

2013 June - Parliament approves Nawaz Sharif as prime minister after


his Muslim League-N wins parliamentary elections in May. July Mamnoon Hussain elected president by parliament

j.

2013 November - Lt Gen Raheel Sharif takes over as head of the army
on the retirement of General Ashfaq Pervez Kayani.

k. January 7, 2015, passing of 21st amendment for Speedy Trial Military


Courts to deal with terrorism.
7) Conclusion
Topic 20: Pakistan and US War on Terror
1) Introduction
a. One mans terrorist is anothers freedom fighter reveals the wide
range of variations in the interpretation of the term terrorism
b. Simply, terror is extreme or intense fear
c. It is a psychological state, which combines the physical and mental
efforts to create dread and insecurity.
2) State Terrorism To Counter Terrorism
a. Examples of Kashmir and Palestine speak horrors of inhuman acts. The
Chechens have been branded through the Western media as terrorist
movements.
b. Israel as well as Indias state-terrorism falls in this scenario
c. Current imbroglio of Middle East Crisis and Yemen Crisis
3) Ulterior Motives Of US in War On Terror
a. Obtaining natural resources of Muslim countries, either by the policy of
friendship or confrontation.
b. To malign Muslim freedom struggles
c. To damage the ideologies of Islam specially Jihad to project Islam as a
religion of intolerance.
d. To stop the rise of orthodox Muslim governments in the name of
democracy.
e. To ensure a greater Israel on Arab Land for the satisfaction of American
Jewish lobby.
f. To spread its own culture. If a nation dies its a national death but if a
nation dies of cultural death, its all over.
g. To check the nuclear technology of the Muslim countries like Iran and
Pakistan.
4) Cause Of Terrorism In Pakistan

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a. Rise of sectarian terrorism through anti-Shiite militant groups such as
Sipah-i-Sahaba Pakistan after the 1979 revolution in Iran.
b. Sunni-dominated Iraq with the backing of the USA and Saudi Arabia
waged a war upon Shiite dominated Iran.
c. The Soviet Afghanistan War; Fighting proxy war, funds for arming the
Mujahideen through religious propaganda urging them to expel the
infidels from Afghanistan.
d. Soviet withdrawal exposed the damage leading to transformation of
violence
e. Armed freedom struggle surfaced in Kashmir during the eighties
f. After 9/11, when a gag was put on the fighters, they turned their guns
towards their adopted country.
5) The Internal Factors
a. The derailing of democracy, political alienation, leading to sense of
powerlessness.
b. Economy of Pakistan, replete with corruption, has disturbed the
distribution of wealth.
c. Dishonesty, bribery, and drug trade; Black money has disturbed the
balance of social structure.
d. The sense of deprivation and social injustice among the small
provinces
e. Polarization based on various castes, classes, religious affinities
f. The prevalent unfulfilling system of education is a colonial legacy
g. The Zamindars and Jagirdars own 32 per cent of the privately
cultivated land. a suppressed community often rises violently against
this injustice leading to extremism in the society.
h. A weak judicial system and judiciary are also responsible for these
unwanted tendencies. (fear, favor and corruption)
i. Incomplete facility of the national data base is a major security
concern.(NADRA)
6) Causes At International Level
a. Unresolved political disputes: e.g. Kashmir, Palestine, Iraq, Afganistan,
Chechnya.
b. Ineffectiveness of UNO
c. Universal law of cause-and-effect: State terrorism will produce
obviously terrorism.
d. Double standards of the West
e. The pride of US as being Unipolar.
7) Terrorists Groups in Pakistan
a. Harkat-ul-Jihad-i-Islami and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen were formed to wage
Afghan Jihad. merged to form Harkat-ul-Ansar (HUA) redirecting their
focus for freedom struggle in Indian held Kashmir.
b. The Sipah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP)
c. Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP)
d. Lashkar-e-Omar (LeO)
e. Tehreek-e-Jaferia Pakistan (TJP)

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f.

Lashkar-eJhangvi (LeJ)

g. Sipah-e-Muhammad Pakistan (SMP)


h. Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HM)
i.

Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT)

j.

Lashkar-e-Jabbar (LeJ)

8) Pakistans Efforts
a. A number of sectarian organizations was banned and their assets
frozen
b. Madrassas reforms.
c. Revamping the law enforcement agencies by better equipping and
training them,
d. NADRA
e. The government directed the expulsion and extradition of all foreign
students.
f. At the international level, the government cooperated with the UN to
curb the menace.
9) Counter Terrorism Strategy
a. Obama should avoid Bushs policies of use of force to avoid further
military and financial losses.
b. Involving UNSC & OIC would be in the interest of US to minmise anti US
sentiments in the Muslim world.
c. Interfaith dialogue can clear the misconceptions against each other.
d. Solution of issues like Kashmir and Palestine
e. The Muslims should discourage extremist groups in their social life.
f. Madressa reforms
g. Positive role of world media
10)
Counter Terrorism Strategy By Maleeha Lodhi
a. There is no silver bullet that can address global terrorism in all its
complexity, writes Dr Maleeha Lodhi in The Threats of all Threats.
b. She proposed a broad-gauge counter-terrorism strategy based on nine
Cs:
i. Comprehensiveness and multifaceted strategy is needed
ii. Consensus at the global level is required
iii. Causes and conditions that breed terrorism
iv. Confusion about the definition of terrorism
v. Capabilities must be improved and national capacities
strengthened
vi. Cooperative rather than coercive national and international
strategies
vii. Civil liberties and principles of good governance must be
viii. Civilization and cultural: dialogue and understanding
ix. Conference at the summit level must be called

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11)

Conclusion
a. Today terrorism is complex in scope, even across the continents by
non-state actors.
b. Deprivation and an unjust political and socio-economic dispensation
rapidly give rise to frustration.
c. The remedy lies in a tolerant and democratic society.
d. Make a distinction between terrorism and legitimate struggle for
freedom and right of self-determination, the denial of which can breed
terrorism and a threat to peaceful co-existence.

Topic 21: Evolution of democratic system in Pakistan


1) Introduction
a. Democracy and participatory governance are popular political notions
in todays world.
b. The founders of Pakistan had ardently supported and emphasized for
democratic system that could ideally permeate the governance
structure and body politic of Pakistan.
c. Contrary to dreams, hopes and promises, Pakistan offers chequered
history of democracy and unstable democratic process.
d. Ironically, the countrys constitution has been abrogated twice (1958
and 1969) and suspended thrice (1977, 1999 and 2007).
e. More than half of its political life has been encroached by military
generals. Five elected governments have been removed by army.
2) Prerequisites of Democratic Process
a. Sovereign parliament
b. Free and fair electoral process
c. Socio-economic Justice
d. Supremacy of constitution
e. Independent Judiciary
f. Rule of Law
g. Accountability of those exercising state power
h. Equal citizenship and Equality of opportunity
i. Security of Life and property
j. Guarantee of freedoms of movement, expression, association and
assembly
3) Pakistans political history with reference to the dominant style of governance
and political management
a. August 1947-October 1958 (Civilian Political Government)
b. October 1958-June 1962 (Direct Military Rule)
c. June 1962-March 1969 (Selective Use of Democracy by the Military;
Post-military rule)
d. March 1969-December 1971 (Direct Military Rule)
e. December 1971-July 1977 (Civilian Political Government)
f. July 1977- December 1985 (Direct Military Rule)
g. March 1985-November 1988 (Selective Use of Democracy by the
Military; Post-military rule)

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h. December 1988-October 1999 (Militarys influence from the sidelines
on policy making under civilian governments)
i. October 1999-November 2002 (Direct Military Rule)
j. November 2002-February 2008 (Militarys direct involvement in power
management after the end of military rule; constitutional and legal role
for the military)
k. September 2008-March 2013 (Civilian Political Government)
l. May 2013-till the present (Civilian Political Government)
4) Causes of weak Democracy
a. Colonial Inheritances and Institutional Imbalance
b. Frequent intervention of Non civilian forces into political domain
c. Weak Party System
d. Non Democratic Social structure
e. Manipulation of election process.
5) Solutions/Recommendations
a. State: All prerequisites of democracy to be installed.
i. Reforms in Judiciary
ii. Separation of Powers
iii. Devolution of powers
b. Political parties
i. Efficient accountability
c. Civil Society organizations
d. For Youth
6) Conclusion
Topic 22: Foreign Policy of Pakistan post 9/11
1) Introduction
a. The foreign policy of Pakistan is primarily directed to the pursuit of
national goals of seeking peace and stability through international
cooperation.
b. to project the image of the country as a dynamic and moderate society
c. seeks to promote the internationally recognized norms of interstate
relations
2) Guiding Principles of Pakistans Foreign Policy
a. According to Quaid e Azam
i. Our foreign policy is one of friendliness and goodwill towards all
the nations of the world.
ii. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or
nation
iii. principle of honesty and fair play in national and international
dealings
iv. promotion of peace and prosperity
v. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material
and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of
the world
vi. Upholding the principles of the United Nations Charter.
b. The Constitution of Pakistan also lays down guidelines in Article 40
3) Objectives
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a. Promotion Pakistan as a dynamic, progressive, moderate, and
democratic Islamic country
b. Safeguarding national security and geo-strategic interests, including
Kashmir
c. Consolidating our commercial and economic cooperation
d. Safeguarding the interests of Pakistani Diaspora abroad.
e. Ensuring optimal utilization of national resources for regional and
international cooperation
4) Foreign policy of Pakistan Post 9/11
a. 9/11 attacks proved to turn the foreign policy of Pakistan upside down
b. It was a crucial time that demanded an intelligence filled response.
c. Musharaf was one of the foreign leaders to receive a call from
Washington (You are either with us or against us)
d. Two ways were given,
i. To exigently join US in principle and workout the modalities later
on
ii. To refuse to submit in clear defiance and be ready for a war.
5) Consequences Of Choosing Not To Co-Operate:
a. U.S might have bracketed Pak with Taliban while declaring Pak a
terrorist state.
b. Our territory would have been subjected to furious onslaughts and
airstrikes to neutralize resistance under the pretext of eliminating
terrorist bases.
c. India would have given a green signal to attack Kahuta as it had done
previously.
d. Kashmiri freedom struggle might have been labeled as a terrorist
insurgency.
6) Pakistan's Choice
a. Taliban refused to hand Osama to America despite Pak's pleadings.
b. Musharaf on 19th Sept,2001 while addressing to nation said,
''Pakistan comes first, everything else is secondary.''
c. Pakistan joined U.S in strategic interest of,
i. territorial security
ii. protection of its own nuclear and missile programs
iii. revival of economy

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d. Joining (WOT) was the most appropriate among the available options
and was generally, if not entirely, in national interest.
e. This shift in foreign policy of Pakistan showed the strategic intelligence
of government towards the oncoming hurricane.
7) Demands By U.S After Alliance
a. To stop Al-Qaeda operations at its border.
b. To give blanket over flight and landing rights for military operations.
c. To provide intelligence information.
d. To provide territorial access to allied forces.
e. To continue to publicly condemn the terrorist acts.
f.

To sever ties with the Taliban, if they refuse to cope.

g. To cut off all shipments of fuel to Taliban and stop recruits from going
to Afghan.
8) Effects of Changing Foreign Policy:
a. Pakistan's decision to join world community in the war against
terrorism brought it back into the international mainstream and won it
the revived and stronger support from major countries of the world.
9) New Strategic Vision Of Foreign Policy Of Pakistan
a. The security of its own country and not the security of others.
b. Peaceful co existence, i.e. further development of regional ties and the
strengthening of their own positions.
10)

Conclusion

Topic 23: Ethnic Issues and National Integration


1) Introduction
a. National integration has remained an evolving pursue in all the postcolonial divided societies.
b. Ethnic heterogeneity and cultural pluralism is the major attribute of
Pakistani society
c. Creation of national integration caused problems due to improper
handling of conflicting socio-political fiber of Pakistani Society.

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d. The state adopted an authoritarian policy to expand and consolidate its
power and position but ethnic groups provoked ethnic politics
(preservation of their identity)
e. For the creation of national integration, assimilationist strategy should
be avoided and a pluralistic approach must be incorporated.
2) Ethnicity, Class, And The State in Pakistan
a. The state is both a resource in itself and a distributor of resources
b. It is of importance to assess how these resources and state power itself
are shared by the different ethnic groups, and how state power might
be used
c. The Pakistani state can be seen as a neocolonial state
d. The military and bureaucracy not only command the instruments of
state power, but pursue their own interests almost independently of
the dominant capitalist and landlord classes.
e. Intersection of Ethnicity and Class: Demographically, the Punjabis
comprise the largest single ethnic group (48.2 percent) in Pakistans
population, followed by Pushtoons (13.1 percent), Sindhis (11.8
percent), Siraikis (9.8 percent), Urdu-speaking (7.6 percent), BalochBrauhis (4.2 percent), and Hindko-speaking (2.4 percent). Mohajir and
Siraikis are the other two groups.
3) Ethnic Factors promoting ethno-nationalism
a. Culture
b. Inequalities in different areas
c. Less representation of Baluchis on Influential positions
d. Elitist Policies
e. Scarcity of resources
f. Centralized System
g. Role of military and military operations
h. Underdevelopment
i. Role of externals powers
j. Human rights violations
4) Approaches to National Integration and State Strategies
a. Assimilation Policy: based on social integration, Distinctive cultures are
tried to incorporate fully with the national culture
b. Exclusionary Policy: based on the concept to minimize contacts with
ethnic minorities, explained by differentialist model, whereby conflicts
are managed and resolved through a process of elimination of ethnic
minorities
c. Pluralist Policy: social order, consisting of institutionally segmented
cultural groups living side by side, yet without mingling in one political
unit. One cultural section monopolize power, controls the state
apparatus and dominant over others.
d. The Consociational Approach: arrangement to secure the interests of
major ethnic groups; two or more ethnic groups come together and
create consensus that they will recognize each others rights and
interests.

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e. Federalism: used to reconcile diversity within the structure of a single
state; applies to homeland people who seek a significant measure of
autonomy and self rule within their territory
5) Ethnic Politics And The Issue Of National Integration In Pakistan
a. Factor of ethnicity specially history, language and culture are the
supportive elements for creating nation- hood and promoting national
integration
b. Pakistanis are the product of many foreign and local influences
c. The instrumentalists approach is favored, that ethnicity by itself
cannot damage but it is the state and elite groups who use it and
stresses ethnic differences to get share in power. (Case of East
Pakistan)
d. In Pakistans history, religion and language are considered two
important attributes in the formation and deformation of nation- hood
(creation of ideology of Pakistan)
6) Suggestions for the Creation of Social Cohesion
a. The acceptance of federalism for social and political pluralism
b. Ethnic factor should be considered while shaping up the national policy
c. State has to evolve the strategies based on structural and perceptual
perspective
d. Political participation through regular free elections must be ensured in
which every group should have to participate
e. Unity in diversity must be protected. Any policy to create forced
assimilation could be disastrous for federation.
f. State should have to conduct a transparent census with regular
intervals that reflect the evolving demographic trends in Pakistan
7) Conclusion
Topic 24: Hydro-politics; Water Issues in domestic and regional context
1) Introduction
a. Water issue is a situation where the available water within a region is
less than the regions demand.
b. Water scarcity is among the main problems to be faced by many
societies and the world in the 21st century.
c. Water usage has been growing at more than twice the rate of
population increase in the last century.
d. Around 1.2 billion people, or almost one fifth of the worlds population,
live in areas of physical scarcity, and 500 million people are
approaching this situation.
e. Another 1.6 million or almost one quarter of the worlds population are
going to face water shortage.
2) Dynamics of Issue
a. Over use and pollution of water.
b. Regional conflicts over scarce water resources.
c. Groundwater excessive usage.
d. Inadequate access to drinking water for 1.1 billion people.

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e. Inadequate access to water for sanitation.
3) Determining the issue
a. Internationally, an indicator is devised to see if a certain country can
be classified as water stressed or water scarce country to determine
the emerging seriousness of water crisis.
4) Water issues in Pakistan
a. It is more complex and multi facet phenomenon.
b. Pakistan is one of the mist arid countries with a per capita water supply
of 1,250 m3 per year.
c. It is barely above international standards regarding 1000 m3 supply
per person per year as acute shortage.
d. The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank have termed
Pakistan as one of the most "water-stressed countries in the world.
5) Background
a. The partition of the subcontinent into the dominions of India and
Pakistan gave birth to a host of looming problems including the sharing
of waters of Indus Ravi system.
b. David Lilienthal's Study
c. World bank mediation
d. The Indus river Treaty
6) Construction of Dams and Barrages.
a. Indus Basin projects.
b. Indian projects.
i. Wullar Barrage(The Tulbul Navigation Lock)
ii. Kishanganga Project
iii. International court of Arbitrations Verdict
iv. Baglihar Dam
c. Pakistans Water Reservoirs.
i. Tarbela Dam
ii. Mangla Dam
iii. Chasma Barrage
d. Ongoing projects
i. Basha Diamer Dam
ii. Kalabagh Dam
iii. Munda Dam
iv. Akhori Dam
7) Resolving the water issues
a. Construction of Reservoirs
b. Effective policy making
c. Maintenance of Infrastructure
d. International code of conduct
8) Conclusion
a. Pakistan is at the last stage of water scarcity.
b. Need of the hour is to make effective policy to save our life from water
shortage and crisis.
c. We should highlight the water issues as a major threat to our
existence.
d. We need to have an awareness campaign for future water vision for
Pakistan.
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Topic 25: Pakistans National Interest
A states national interest as the name implies, comprises of all the interests of a
nation as a whole. Any countrys primary national interest is survival. In order to
achieve survival, one country has to aim for other goals such as national security,
economic prosperity, seeking alliances among other interests. Pakistans national
interest has always been influenced by external powers. Pakistan as a nation must
aim at attaining self-reliance in pursuing its national interests that must relate to the
economic vision of the country.
1) Introduction
a. The national interest is a country's goals and ambitions whether
economic, military, or cultural.
b. Often referred to by the French expression raison d'tat ("reason of
State")
c. Hans Morgenthau defines the national interest as: "The interest of a
nation as a whole held to be an independent entity separate from the
interests of subordinate areas or groups and also of other nations or
supranational groups ; any foreign policy which operates under the
standard of the national interest ."
d. There are external stakeholders, such as nation-states, organisations
and external pressures, economic or political, which are shaping the
future of Pakistan.
e. Most of the outside influences are proactive whilst the response by
Pakistans Government is reactive
f. National interest should relate to the economic vision of the country
and should be achieved with pragmatism.
2) Pakistans National Interests
a. National Security for survival and Safety of the Nuclear Program
b. Economic Prosperity; the nation-state must possess, produce, procure
and trade for the means of survival at a predetermined level which
reflects its means and aspirations
c. Sovereignty of the state
i. the ability to resist coercion
ii. the ability to coerce other states
d. Seeking alliances that may break the isolation
e. Attaining the ability to achieve internal reform in order to avoid foreign
pressure of all sorts
f. Avoiding international isolation to prevent other states from getting
together within the United Nations to use international law to harm it
g. Embracing pragmatism in the conduct of the state to come close to a
theoretical basis for the understanding of the conduct of a weak state.
3) Evolution of National Interest of Pakistan
a. Pakistan's primary interest was to remain independent and viable in
the face of a much larger and powerful neighbor.
b. The nation then adopted several other goals;

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c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

4) What
a.

i. the struggle of Kashmir to join Pakistan - or become independent


from India;
ii. a friendly and cooperative Afghanistan to ensure strategic depth
vis-a-vis India ;
iii. close relations with Saudi Arabia representing a religious socioeconomic nexus of interests;
iv. affirming itself as a front-line state of the religiously tolerant
West pitted against a God-less USSR.
Whilst Pakistan's role as a front line state was galvanized and pivotal
during the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, it became ambiguous and
anachronistic in the new world order.
Pakistan immediately bolstered its relationship with China, that it had
been developing over many years after the Sino-Soviet split in the
seventies as US strengthened its ties with India.
The end of the cold war and the abandonment by the US and its allies
of Afghanistan, and Pakistan, forced the latter to initiate a plan of
action
It combined its policy objectives of maintaining strategic depth in
Afghanistan; in accordance with its military doctrine of riposte vis-a-vis
its arch enemy India, and close ties with Saudi Arabia
Thus enabling the Taliban to become pervasively established, and
receiving Saudi largesse to finance it all, resulting in the eventual
dominance of the Taliban in Afghanistan.
America had ignored and distanced itself from all Saudi-Pakistani
action in Afghanistan from 1991 until the late 90's until the emergence
of wahabist-jihadists, Al-Qaeda.
The test came when, after 9/11, Pakistan had to choose between its
interests in maintaining the Taliban in Afghanistan and that of the US,
where the latter's objective was to oust the government that had
provided a safe haven to the alleged perpetrators of 9/11.
Apparently, Pakistan had to forego its interest and bow to US demands,
furtively, however, this did not prove to be the case as the War on
Terror developed.
After the war had begun, a paradigm shift took place, during the
decade, several attacks and assaults began targeting Pakistan and its
armed forces along with Afghan Taliban. Once NATO's ISAF and other
US troops arrived Pakistan had to recalibrate its policy in Afghanistan.
It follows that the country's prime interest, that of Security, is not
"secure," that its other interests such as a stable and friendly
Afghanistan, self-determination of Kashmir, its economic stability, are
failing and under attack from exogenous forces."
Pakistan needs to do?
Pakistan needs to reaffirm its commitment to maintaining a coherent
geo-strategy towards India; political nationalism is now getting
superfluous and obsolete and economic relations are taking on the
driving seat.
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b. It must redefine its commitment to Kashmir and redouble its efforts to
find a political solution to the plight of Kashmiris
c. It must re-examine its bond with Saudi Arabia and achieve an equitable
mix
d. It must capitalise on, and foster the economic and military relationship
with China, Pakistans most venerable and valuable ally
e. American and Pakistani interests do not coalesce any longer; therefore,
new parameters should be drawn up by both nations that limit and
phase out bilateral security cooperation
f. Pakistan must seek out its own path; independently, whilst remaining
faithful to its raison dtre; selfishly, whilst maintaining unity amongst
its peoples; and confidently, whilst maintaining discipline in every field
of its endeavor.
5) Conclusion
a. In summary, external forces are dictating and organizing Pakistans
national interests. Internally there is incoherence in defining the
national interest as the various political and economic elites identify
and explain it in terms of alignment with the US, which is seen as
indispensable for progress. Several others, in the country feel that this
is a pernicious attempt to change the norms and values of the country
and, therefore, are partial to realignment, extracting Pakistan from the
American sphere of influence.
b. Hence the national interest of Pakistan lies in being a liberal and
progressive Islamic state.
Topic 26: Critical Analysis of Economic Survey
1) Introduction
a. The targeted economic growth for the outgoing year was missed by a
long shot as most of targets were missed
b. Last year, finance minister Ishaq Dar announced a target of five
percent GDP growth but the tally could only muster up 4.24 percent.
c. The performance of the agriculture and manufacturing sector is more
revealing of why targeted growth was not achieved.
d. Agriculture comprises 20.9 percent of GDP where as manufacturing
contributes another 13 percent to national income.
e. The share of agriculture sector in total employment has dipped slightly
in the outgoing fiscal from 43.7 percent but, the report card claims that
unemployment has dropped marginally, from 6.24 percent in FY 14.
2) Highlights Of The Economic Survey
a. The economic growth rate is 4.24 percent; broad based and is the
highest achievement since 2008-2009.
b. Major success of the outgoing fiscal year includes
i. picking up economic growth, contained at lowest levels since
2003
ii. improvement in tax collection
iii. reduction in fiscal deficit
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3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

iv. workers remittances touches new heights


v. successful launching of Sukuk
vi. foreign exchange and stock market created new history.
c. The government is mindful of the limitations caused by energy crisis.
The survey cites ongoing energy projects are potential drivers for
economic activity in the upcoming year and also as a source of energy
for the power deprived industries.
Critical Analysis
a. Government failing to take full advantage of the fall in global oil prices
and riding on loans and grants, the country was able to shore up its
foreign currency reserves.
b. industrial and agriculture sectors missed their targets
c. Over the 2011-2015 period, average growth was 2.9pc, 3.17pc, 4.95pc
for each sector respectively. The 4.2% growth rate is the highest in
seven years.
d. Pakistan is the second largest economy of the entire South Asian
region we find that Pakistans growth of almost 4 percent in the past 5
years is much low compared to other countries in South Asia which
averaged almost 7 percent growth.
Inflation: Lowest CPI inflation rate in 11 years
a. CPI inflation in FY14-15 is the lowest it has been over the 2009-2015
period at 4.8pc, falling drastically from previous year's 8.6pc, with the
pace of decline quicker than that of some regional countries.
b. The decline is attributed to cheaper oil prices that fell by almost 50pc
in the same period and the lagged effect of monetary tightening in
2013 (increased interest rates)
GDP Growth
a. The difference between budgeted and achieved real GDP growth was
much greater than it has been in previous years
b. Pakistan is much behind than its regional counterparts in South Asia,
which averaged almost 7% growth in GDP.
Tax-to-GDP: Ratio one of the lowest in the world
a. According to the PES 2014-2015, Pakistan's tax revenue as a
percentage of GDP has declined significantly in the past year, from
10.2pc in FY13-14 to 7.5pc in FY14-15
b. The larger South Asian countries like India and Bangladesh have
struggled on account of tax revenue.
c. Despite introducing tax reforms in 2003, performance not good.
d. Until and unless Tax reforms are not introduced and measures are not
taken aggressively, deficit would keep increasing.
Health: Expenditure increases but health-to-GDP ratio stagnant
a. According to the PES 2014-15, the government spent 0.42pc of GDP on
health in FY14-15
Education: Literacy regresses
a. Pakistan's literacy rate fell two percentage points over FY13-14,
according to the PES 2014-2015.

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b. Average expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP has
remained consistent at around 2 percent for the period 2009-2014.
c. It is worthy to note over here that the PML (N) government had
promised a 4% for the education.
9) PSDP expenditure: Majority of PSDP projects concentrated in Punjab (Public
Sector Development Programme)
10)
Agricultural Growth
a. The 3.3 percent agricultural growth target was missed as the sector
grew by 2.9 percent only.
b. The production targets of important crops; other crops, livestock and
forestry were missed.
11)
Services Sector Growth
a. The services sector did the best, growing by 4.95 percent, which is a
narrow miss of its 5.2 percent government growth target.
12)
Industrial Growth
a. Industrial sector recorded growth at 3.62 percent as compared to 4.45
percent last year.
b. The target for the industrial sector growth was set at 6.8%. Large Scale
Manufacturing has registered growth of 2.38% as compared to the
growth of 3.99% last year. The target was set at 7%.
13)
Debt Servicing
a. Pakistan spent 44.5% of its total revenue to service debt payments in
first nine months till March 2015 compared to 47% spent during the
same period of previous year.
14)
Conclusion
Topic 27: Critical Analysis of Previous and Current Budgets
1) Introduction
a. Estimate of income and expenditures
b. Statements whether it is people-friendly or pro rich
c. Current Budget partly people friendly
2) Current Expenditure Break down
a. Rs. 3482 bn (Expenditure in last fiscal year was Rs. 3463 bn)
b. Civil Pension: Rs 56 bn
c. Military Pension: Rs. 174 bn
d. Subsidies: Rs. 137 bn
e. Non salary of civil govt: Rs. 129 bn
f. Civil Govt Allowance: Rs. 120 bn
g. Civil Govt. Salary: Rs. 73 bn
3) Current Revenue Breakdown
a. Rs. 4089 bn
b. Rs. 1.347 trillion: Direct tax
c. Rs. 1.755 trillion: Indirect Tax
d. Rs. 40 bn: Foreign Grant
e. Rs. 280 bn: Profit of State Bank
f. Rs. 227.6 bn: Property and enterprise Income
g. Rs. 40 bn: Royalty
4) Laymans analysis of Budgets
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a. Tax on mobiles: 100% tax on mobiles this year
b. Capital Gains Tax: (On shares) visible increase
i. Sale after 2 years, 0%(2014-15), 7.5 %(2015-16)
ii. Sale between 1 and 2 years, 10%(2014-15), 12.5 %(2015-16)
iii. Sale within 1 year, 12.5%(2014-15), 15 %(2015-16)
c. Oil and Gas Sector
i. Revenue in 2014-15: 405 bn
ii. Revenue in 2015-16: 382 bn (due to oil prices plunge)
d. Minimum Wages
i. 12000 in 2014-15 while it is increased to 13000 in budget 201516
e. Salary tax of people making between 400,000-500,000 decreased from
5% to 2%
f. Electricity Bills: Subsidies shrank from 203.24 bn(2014-15) to 137.6 bn.
g. PSDP has been raised from Rs. 525 bn to 700 bn
5) Analysis by Government
a. Total Outlay: 305% higher than previous budget
b. Resource Availability
i. 2015-16: 4163.3 bn
ii. 2014-15: 4073.8 bn
c. Net Revenue Receipts: 10.7 % increase than previous budget
d. Provincial Share: estimated to be rs. 1849 bn i.e. 7.5 % higher than
previous Budget
e. Net Capital Receipts
i. 2015-16: Rs. 606.3 bn
ii. 2014-15: Rs. 690.7 bn (12% decrease)
f. External Receipts: 12.1 % increase as compared to previous budget
g. Public Order and Safety
i. 2014-15: Rs 87,598 m
ii. 2015-16: Rs. 94,899 m
h. Agriculture etc
i. 2014-15: Rs 26623 m
ii. 2015-16: Rs. 23497 m
i. Fuel and Energy
i. 2014-15: Rs 960 m
ii. 2015-16: Rs. 769 m
j. Mining
i. 2014-15: Rs 1276 m
ii. 2015-16: Rs. 1403 m
k. Construction and Transport
i. 2014-15: Rs 12353 m
ii. 2015-16: Rs. 11854 m
l. Environment Protection
i. 2014-15: Rs 935 m
ii. 2015-16: Rs. 1055 m
m. Health
i. 2014-15: Rs 10124 m
ii. 2015-16: Rs. 11010 m
n. Education
i. 2014-15: Rs 64519 m
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ii. 2015-16: Rs. 75580 m
o. PSDP
i. 2015-16: 1513.7 bn which is 27.4% more than the previous
Budget
6) Critical Analysis
a. Reduction in inflation estimate at 4.8 % against 8% of 2014-15
b. Unemployment has decreased by 0.3 %
c. Focus on energy projects like hydro etc.
d. Interest free loans for solar powered tubewells to aid agriculture
e. Public development has been focused
f. Taxation have been a blow for shareholders
7) Conclusion (Habiba Sheikh)
Topic 28: Critical Analysis On Problems And Performance Of Major Sectors
The major sectors of Pakistan include Agriculture, Industry and services. There are
numerous sub-sectors under each main sector. The performance of each sector has
been judged according to the statistics of the Economic Survey FY 2014-2015. Some
of the problems of the major sectors have been mentioned and remedies offered.
1) Introduction
a. The GDP growth accelerates to 4.24 percent in 2014-15 against the
growth of 4.03 percent recorded in the same period last year. The
growth momentum is broad based, as all sectors namely agriculture,
industry and services have supported economic growth.
2) Agriculture
a. Current Scenario
i. The agriculture sector accounts for 20.9 percent of GDP and
43.5 percent of employment, the sector has strong backward
and forward linkages. The agriculture sector has four sub-sectors
including: crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry.
ii. The agriculture growth stood at 2.9 percent during July-March,
2014-15 as compared to 2.7 percent during the last year.
iii. Crops witnessed a growth of 1.0 percent, Livestock 4.1 percent,
Forestry 3.2 percent and Fishing 5.8 percent.
b. Problems related to Agriculture
i. Lack of Education and Lack of Capital
ii. Following of old traditions
iii. Water-logging and salinity
iv. Uneconomical Land holdings
v. Scarcity of Water
vi. Soil Erosion
vii. Lack of organized marketing
viii. Pests and Crop Diseases
ix. Poor means of transportation
x. Lack of Credit Facilities
xi. Low Yield per acre
c. Suggestions and remedies
i. Reclamation of Land
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ii. Irrigation Facilities
iii. The Use of fertilizers
iv. Credit facilities
v. Better quality seeds
vi. Plant protection
vii. Mechanization
viii. Cooperative farming
ix. Higher Education Level
x. Marketing Facilities
xi. Improvement in the means of transportation and communication
3) Industry
a. Current Scenario
i. The industrial sector contributes 20.30 percent in GDP; it is also
a major source of tax revenues for the government and also
contributes significantly in the provision of job opportunities to
the labour force.
ii. The manufacturing is the most important sub-sector of the
industrial sector comprising 65.4 percent share in the overall
industrial sector.
iii. Manufacturing has three sub-components; namely the LargeScale Manufacturing (LSM) with the share of 80 percent, Small
Scale Manufacturing with the share of 13 percent and
Slaughtering with the share of 7 percent.
iv. Electricity generation & distribution and Gas Distribution is the
most essential component of industrial sector. This sub-sector
has registered growth at 1.94 percent as compared to 5.57
percent in last year.
v. Cotton textile production and apparel manufacturing are
Pakistan's largest industries, accounting for about 66% of the
merchandise exports and almost 40% of the employed labor
force.
b. Problems Faced By The Textile Industry Of Pakistan
i. Financial Problems
ii. Domestic Issues
iii. Global Recession
iv. Textile input Issues
v. Taxation Issues
vi. Energy Crisis
vii. International Competition
viii. Environmental Issues
c. Remedies and Solutions
i. Input-related Remedies
ii. Remedies for Energy Crisis
iii. Financial Remedial Measures
iv. Human Resource Development
v. SMEs Promotion
vi. Labor Intensive Industries
vii. Taxation Solutions

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viii. Foreign Investment Promotion
ix. Environmental Remedies
4) Services
a. Current Scenario
i. The share of the services sector has reached to 58.8 percent in
2014-15.
ii. Services sector contains six sub-sectors including: Transport,
Storage and Communication; Wholesale and Retail Trade;
Finance and Insurance; Housing Services (Ownership of
Dwellings); General Government Services (Public Administration
and Defense); and Other Private Services (Social Services).
iii. The Services sector has witnessed a growth rate of 4.95 percent
as compared to 4.37 percent last year.
iv. The growth performance in services sector is broad based, all
components contributed positively in growth, Finance and
Insurance at 6.1 percent, General Government Services at 9.4
percent, Housing Services at 4.0 percent, Other Private Services
at 5.9 percent, Transport, Storage and Communication at 4.2
percent and Wholesale and Retail Trade at 3.4 percent.
b. Problems of Services Sector
i. Lack of advance technical skill and education to the workers
ii. Incapable of coping up with global requirements
iii. Less absorption of labor in sophisticated industries, financial,
trade, transport and communication services.
iv. Lack of new avenues of services sector
v. No research and development (R&D)
vi. No technology up gradation
vii. Less efforts for human resource development (HRD) particularly
management improvement and reformed policy environment
viii. Lack of dynamic leadership at national level
ix. corruption, nepotism, maladministration
c. Strategy for Development of Services Sector
i. Good infrastructure (ICT, transport, shipping)
ii. Ability to plan and prepare the complete logistics chain
iii. Mobilization of human resources and entrepreneurial capacity
iv. Good language and communication skills in organization along
with a clear understanding of how these tools can be harnessed.
v. Upgrading skills and internal processes of employment
vi. Liberalizing the policy regime and mobilizing domestic financial
resources for long-term investment
vii. Reduce delays in adjudication of disputes related to foreign
investments
5) Conclusion

Topic 29: Pakistan And Changing Regional Apparatus

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1) Introduction
2) Current Scenario concerning Pakistan
a. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) agreement; not just a
bilateral economic co-operation project, has imp strategic implications
b. US-Pakistan arms deal:
i. Americas clearance of Foreign Military Sale of Viper Attack
Helicopters and Hellfire II Missiles to Pakistan
ii. U.S pak arm deal delivered a strong message to India that if it
continues to shop elsewhere then America will sell arms to other
countries also.
iii. Increased Pressure on India that it cancelled its deal with France.
c. Upward trajectory in Pakistan-Russia relations: Defence Agreement and
procurement of 4 MI-35M helicopters
d. Careful avoidance of direct military involvement in Yemen crisis:
i. long term benefit, dip in Pak-saudi relations is temporary;
ii. another theatre of proxy war between Iran and Saudia;
iii. the saudi move has been strongly backed by the U.S, which is
providing "logistical and intelligence support."
iv. Afghan has also announced its support for the military
intervention by Saudia
e. Afghanistans well thought out foreign policy shift towards Pakistan
f. If the P5+1 and Iran seal the nuclear deal, then Iran-Pakistan gas
pipeline project
g. Economists report about Pakistans economy; growth rate of 4.7
percent.
3) India-Pakistan Relations
a. The brash India of Modis early days is likely to mellow down
b. Together Pakistan and India could achieve more for their countries
c. erratic impulsive behavior by Indian policy makers often reflects
belligerent and aggressive mindset nuance than substance but has
been disrupting bilateral dialogue and has often scuttled meaningful
peace initiatives by Pakistan
d. arrogant India is certainly a source of regional instability
4) Regional apparatus concerning Afghanistan
a. America has reconciled with the possibility that it could be replaced in
Afghanistan by China with the help of Pakistan
b. President Ashraf Ghani has completed the first trip of the capitals
which matter in the future political and economic settlement of
Afghanistan; his desire to to make Afghanistan a graveyard of terror
looking for regional assistance
c. New Delhi may be losing influence in Afghanistan because of Ghanis
efforts to forge closer ties with Pakistan and China, because India has
disappointed Afghanistan on many counts.
d. Modi said that India should join an existing Afghan-Pakistan Trade and
Transit agreement
e. Ghani said: Our vision today is to be guided by that potential where
the energy of Central Asia will flow to South Asia where pipelines, fiber

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optics, railways, and connectivity, air, ground and virtual will connect
us. And this is what CPEC offers
f. India was the first country with which Afghanistan signed a strategic
partnership agreement, but the contour of the relationship has
changed. Afghanistan spoke to China about its new external priorities
indicating relegation of India to the outermost circle. decided not to
pursue the request for defence equipment from India
g. Engage Pakistan vigorously and obtain its cooperation; Ghani has also
started sending officer cadets for training at the Pakistani military
academy
h. He has concluded that Indias capacity to help is limited and Pakistani
and China could be more productive partners.
i. India may take the trajectories like: coax Iran and play repeat role of
1980s and 90s for destabilizing central government by provoking
ethnic minorities
5) Regional apparatus concerning Iran
a. China will now concentrate on energy-rich Iran that shall emerge much
stronger after its nuclear deal and in the backdrop of the recent events
in the Middle East and North African Region.
b. Russia, with its growing understanding with China is emerging as an
important regional player looking up to revive its stalled S3000 missile
deal with Iran.
c. China has also just agreed to build nuclear power plants for Iran.
d. US-Iran nuclear deal:
i. It will send a rolling new power dynamic in Middle East.
ii. Pak-Iran gas pipeline is becoming a reality.
iii. Saudi and Israel are apprehensive of Irans increasing power.
6) Conclusion
a. Pakistan needs to follow a prudent policy to capitalize on the
advantages that are visible now.
b. Some of these are transient while some others are fragile.
c. A time bound effort is required to benefit from transient ones and
comprehensive strategy should be evolved to secure the fragile ones.
Topic 30: The Recent Constitutional and Legal Debates, the Latest
Constitutional Amendments and Important Legislations, Legal Cases and
the Role of Higher Courts
1) Introduction
a. constitution; back bone of any country
b. Pakistan's dwindling constitution
c. need for amendments and changes
2) Basic structure of doctrine (BSD)
a. Introduction of BSD
i. The basic structure doctrine has gained significant prominence
in the constitutional jurisprudence of Pakistan for last 2 decades.

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ii. According to this, the constitution of Pak has some salient
features like federalism, a parliamentary form of govt,
fundamental human rights, Islamic provisions and independence
of judiciary which jointly form the framework of the constitution.
iii. These features are so important and inevitable that even
parliament has no right to modify/destroy them through any
constitutional amendment.
iv. It is a conflicting and contradictory judgment in Pakistan on the
issue of the so-called basic structure of constitution.
v. The doctrine has not yet been adopted by our apex court in
absolute terms. Nor has it struck down any constitutional
amendment passed by parliament so far .
b. When does it start:
i. first came in lime light when supreme court delivered its
judgment in the Mahmood Khan Achakzai case.
ii. In this case, the apex court did not absolutely restructure the
power of parliament to amend the constitution but merely made
it conditional to the provisions of objectives resolutions.
iii. It mentioned a legal technicality that a constitutional
amendment could not come in conflict with any provision of the
objective resolution that was part and parcel of the constitution.
iv. In case of Pakistan lawyers forum vs Federation of Pakistan,
apex court tried to dissipate entire "basic structure" controversy
in Pakistan. It maintained that undoubtedly the constitution of
Pak has some features but it was not the job of judiciary to
protect them.
c. Separation of power:
i. It is an important political doctrine that is based on principle of
"trias politica"
ii. It contends that all three branches of government, executive,
legislature and judiciary should wield their powers separately
and independent of each other.
d. Legislation:
i. An imp and basic function of legislation.
ii. Amending any provision of the constitution is also a prerogative
of the legislature as that is the body that forms the constitution.
3) The Recent Constitutional Amendment (21st amendment)
a. Introduction
i. Passed by both national assembly and senate on 6th Jan 2015.
ii. Revived assent of President on 7th Jan 2015.
iii. Amended the article 175 and the first schedule of constitution.
b. Background:
i. Sought to set up speedy trial military courts for offence relating
to terrorism, waging of war against Pak and prevention of acts
threatening the Pak security.
ii. Duration of these courts will be 2 years.
iii. Decision came after the 2014 Peshawar school massacre.
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c. Amendment provisions
i. 238 and 239
4) Supreme Court
a. Introduction
i. Article 175 to 188 of the constitution of Pakistan deals with the
establishment of Supreme Court and high court.
ii. A.k.a. Apex court, The apex court has jurisdiction all over
Pakistan, In that case its decision are binding upon all high
courts and other courts
iii. President appoints chief justice
iv. Guardian of constitution and fundamental rights
b. Appointment and Qualification
i. Appointment by President
ii. Must be citizen and has remained judge of high court for at least
5 years
iii. Advocate of high court for 15 years
iv. President has authority to remove chief justice
v. Retires at 65 years of age
vi. Chief Justice can be terminated from holding office for gross
misconduct, holding another public office
c. Jurisdiction (Jurisdiction means the territory over which power can be
exercised)
i. Original Jurisdiction
1. Means the powers granted as per constitution
2. In dispute between two or more governments
3. Element of public interest
4. Case Law: Benazir Bhutto vs Federtion of Pakistan (1988);
The SC accepted the constitutional petition of benazir and
declared objection as null and void
ii. Appellate Jurisdiction
1. Means orders that can be appealed to a higher court be it
a high court or supreme court
2. Appeal lies in
a. Reversal of order
b. Withdrawal of case
c. Punishment for contempt of high court
d. Amount of subject matter of dispute not less than
50,000
e. Property not less than 50,000
f. Interpretation of Constitution
iii. Advisory Jurisdiction
1. To advise the president on question of law having public
interest
2. this is only done by chief justice of supreme court to
president)
iv. Decision-Binding
1. Case Law: Red Grave Vs Hurd 1881; Decision of SC is
majority decision and is binding

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v. Transfer and Revision of Case
1. SC can order transfer from one HC to another
2. Can review its own judgement
5) High Court
a. Introduction
i. In each province
ii. Judgment binding on all courts
iii. Article 192-201
iv. Appointment by President
b. Appointment
i. By president after consultation with CJ, Governor, CJ of High
Court( in case of other judges)
c. Qualification
i. Citizen of Pakistan
ii. Age-45 years
iii. Advocate of HC for 10 years
iv. Member of civil service for 10 years
v. Exercised functions of district judge for 3 years
vi. Held judicial office for 10 years
vii. Retirement-62 years
d. Writ Jurisdiction of HC
i. Writ is an order issued by high court ordering a person to do or
avoid doing a certain act
ii. Habeas corpus
iii. Mandamus
iv. Prohibition
v. Quo warranto
vi. Certiorari
vii. Case Law: Fariz Ahmed Vs Govt of Pakistan 1965; It was held
that constitutional power of writ jurisdiction of HC is superior
remedy and cannot be curtailed by subordinate legislation
e. Other Powers
i. Appellate jurisdiction
ii. Advisory jurisdiction
iii. Punishment for contempt of court
iv. Code of conduct
v. Enforcement of fundamental right
6) Important Legislations
a. The Pakistan Army (Amendment) Act, 2015 7/1/15
b. The constitution (21st Amendment) Act, 2015 7/1/15
c. The Gas Infrastructure Development Cess Act, 2015 21/06/15
d. The Finance Act, 2015 29/06/15
e. The Finance Act, 2015 29/06/15
f. The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils (Amendment) Act 23/07/15
g. The Seed (amendment) Act 23/7/15
7) Conclusion (Habiba Sheikh and Rudaina Ali)

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Topic 31: Non-Traditional Security Threats In Pakistan: Role Of Non-State
Actors
1) Introduction
a. Non-traditional security threats are the challenges that arise primarily
out of non-military sources.
b. Non-State Actor is an individual or organization that has a significant
political influence but is not allied to any particular country/state.
2) Non-Traditional Security Threats In Pakistan:
a. Climate change:
i. most fundamental one
ii. frequent extreme weather events and changes in temperature
and precipitation.
iii. produces floods, droughts, cyclones and increased sea levels.
iv. Pakistan is in top 10 countries facing adverse climate change.
b. Increased population:
i. disturbs economy and environment burdening society.
c. Food scarcity
d. Water scarcity:
i. due to increased pressure of population and urbanization
ii. decreased level of precipitation.
e. Resource scarcity
f. infectious diseases
g. poverty
h. deteriorating economic conditions.
3) Positive Non-State Actors
a. NGOs
b. multinational corporations
c. international media
4) Negative Non-State Actors
a. violent non-state actors
b. religious groups
c. international media
5) Role Of Non-State Actors
a. dual role to play
b. Generate a non-traditional threat by manipulating the market
dynamics and playing with the intricacies of stock exchanges.
c. Play a role in mitigating the effects of some of the non-traditional
challenges.
d. Could act as a constructive or destructive agent
6) Conclusion (Rudaina Ali)

Current Scenario of Pakistan-Ratings


1) Situated on the western edge of South Asia, Pakistan has a population of
about 184 million, with sex ratio of 105.6: 100. It is estimated that about 62%
of the people are residing in rural and 38% in urban areas. GDP Per Capita
Income is US$ 1,368 for 2012-13.
Compiled by Ayesha Younas

Compiled by Ayesha Younas


2) rapid population growth, which was 3.1% or more during 1990s, and is still
above 2% per annum
3) The TI (Transparency International) described Pakistans CPI score of 29 out of
100 and ranking of 126 among 175 countries as the best in 2013 report.
4) The GDP growth accelerates to 4.24 percent 2014-15
5) Per capita income in dollar terms recorded a growth of 9.25 percent 2014-15
6) Trade account balance recorded deficit of US $ 13,910 million during Jul-April
FY15 as against US $ 13,811 million
7) Inflation rate averaged at 4.8 percent during July-April, 2014-15
To-do (1)
Topic 32: Challenges to Sovereignty, Challenging Security dynamics; Challenges to
National Security

Compiled by Ayesha Younas