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Pu-Re

Pu-Re (Plutonium-Rhenium)
Phase diagram
Solubility of Re in liquid Pu at temperatures up to 1223 K has been determined by Bowersox et al.
[67Bow1]. Schonfeld et al. [61Sch2] have reported the existence of the intermediate phase PuRe 2 .
Moffatt [80Mof1] has proposed a phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and,
which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Re. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The structure of PuRe 2 is hexagonal (MgZn 2 -type) with lattice parameter a = 0.5396 nm (Ellinger
[61Ell1]).

References
61Ell1

Ellinger, F.H., in: "The Metal Plutonium", A.S. Coffinberry, W.N. Miner (eds.), University
of Chicago Press, Chicago (1961) 281

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Re
61Sch2
67Bow1
80Mof1
90Mas1

Schonfeld, F.W., "Plutonium Phase Diagrams Studied at Los Alamos", in: "The Metal
Plutonium", A.S. Coffinberry, W.N. Miner (eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago
(1961) 240
Bowersox, D.F., Leary, J.A.: J. Nucl. Mater. 21 (1967) 219
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1980)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Rh

Pu-Rh (Plutonium-Rhodium)
Phase diagram
Land et al. [78Lan1] have investigated the phase diagram. It has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]
and from there information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Rh. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Rh

Table 1. Pu-Rh. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Pu 5 Rh 3
Pu 31 Rh 20
Pu 5 Rh 4
PuRh 2
PuRh 3

tetr
tetr
orth
cub
cub

Pu 31 Rh 20
Sm 5 Ge 4
Cu 2 Mg
Cu 3 Au

1.0941
1.1076
0.7276
0.7488
0.4009

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.4332

0.60203
3.6933
0.7419

74Bes1
77Cro1
77Cro2
67Kut3
67Kru2

References
67Kru2
67Kut3
74Bes1
77Cro1
77Cro2
78Lan1
90Mas1

Kruglov, A.A., Petrov, P.N., Smotritskaya, E.S.: Sov. At. Energy (Engl. Transl.) 23 (1967)
1279
Kutaitsev, V.I., Chebotarev, N.T., Lebedev, I.G., Adrianov, M.A., Konev, V.N.,
Menshikova, T.S.: "Plutonium 1965", Proc. Int. Conf. Plutonium, 3rd, London, 1965,
Capman and Hall (1967) 420
Beznosikova, A.V., Chebotarev, N.T., Lukjanov, A.S., Chernij, A.V., Smirnova, E.A.: At.
Energ. 37 (1974) 144
Cromer, D.T., Larson, A.C.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 33 (1977) 2620
Cromer, D.T.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 33 (1977) 1993
Land, C.C., Peterson, D.E., Root, R.B.: J. Nucl. Mater. 75 (1978) 262
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Ru

Pu-Ru (Plutonium-Ruthenium)
Phase diagram
The phase diagram has been reported by Kutaitsev et al. [67Kut3], Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it
and from the latter compilation information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Ru. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Ru

Table 1. Pu-Ru. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Pu 3 Ru
PuRu
Pu 5 Ru 3
PuRu 2

orth
cub
tetr
cub

0.6216
0.33635
1.0745
0.7472

0.6924

0.8093

CsCl
W 5 Si 3
Cu 2 Mg

63Ber1
67Kru2
75Cro1
67Kru2

0.5719

References
63Ber1
67Kru2
67Kut3
75Cro1
90Mas1

Berndt, A.F.: Proc. Annu. Conf. Appl. X-ray Analysis 6 (1963) 18


Kruglov, A.A., Petrov, P.N., Smotritskaya, E.S.: Sov. At. Energy (Engl. Transl.) 23 (1967)
1279
Kutaitsev, V.I., Chebotarev, N.T., Lebedev, I.G., Adrianov, M.A., Konev, V.N.,
Menshikova, T.S.: "Plutonium 1965", Proc. Int. Conf. Plutonium, 3rd, London, 1965,
Capman and Hall (1967) 420
Cromer, D.T., Larson, A.C., Roof, R.B.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 31 (1975) 1756
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-S

Pu-S (Plutonium-Sulfur)
The phase diagram is not known.
Phase transitions of Pu 2 S 3 are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Pu-S. Temperature of phase transitions of Pu 2 S 3 .
Transition

T [K]

Ref.

Melting Point

1623
1673
2623

66Mar1
66Mar1
67Kru1

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of plutonium sulfides are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Pu-S. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

PuS
Pu 2 S 3
Pu 2 S 3
Pu 2 S 3
PuS 2

cub
orth
orth
cub
tetr

NaCl

0.55412
0.739
1.050
0.84546
0.3981

Th 3 P 4
Cu 2 Sb

b [nm]

c [nm]

1.532
1.298

0.398
0.718
0.7962

Ref.
67Kru1
70All1
66Mar1
66Mar1
66Mar2

References
66Mar1
66Mar2
67Kru1
70All1

Marcon, J.P., Pascard, R.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 262 (1966) 1679
Marcon, J.P., Pascard, R.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 28 (1966) 2551
Kruger, O.L., Moser, J.B.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28 (1967) 2321
Allbutt, M., Dell, R.M., Junkison, A.R.: Proc. Inst. Adv. Study Chem. Extended Defects,
Arizona 1969 (1970) 124

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Sb

Pu-Sb (Plutonium-Antimony)
The phase diagram is not known.
Two intermediate phases are found in this system (see below).
Kruger et al. [67Kru1] have determined the melting point of PuSb. It amounts to 2253 K.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Pu-Sb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

PuSb
PuSb 2

cub
orth

NaCl
Sb 2 Sm

0.62396
0.619

0.605

1.758

71Mit1
77Cha1

References
67Kru1
71Mit1
77Cha1

Kruger, O.L., Moser, J.B.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28 (1967) 2321


Mitchell, A.W., Lam, D.J.: J. Nucl. Mater. 39 (1971) 219
Charvillat, J.P., Damien, D., Wojakowski, A.: Rev. Chim. Miner. 14 (1977) 178

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Sc

Pu-Sc (Plutonium-Scandium)
Phase diagram
Ellinger et al. [68Ell3] have reported the phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Moffatt [79Mof1]
and by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter publication information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.
As Massalski [90Mas1] stated, this diagram needs some modification, for Baxi et al. [89Bax1] have
been not able to calculate the phase equilibria using known thermodynamic data.

Fig. 1. Pu-Sc. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The structure of -phase (Pu 3 Sc 2 ) is hexagonal with lattice parameters a = 0.3310 nm and c = 1.0715 nm
(Kutaitsev et al. [67Kut2]).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Sc

References
67Kut2
68Ell3
79Mof1
89Bax1
90Mas1

Kutaitsev, V.I., Chebotarev, N.T., Andrianov, M.A., Konev, V.N., Lebedev, I.G., Bagrova,
V.I., Beznosnikova, A.V., Kruglov, A.A., Petrov, P.N., Smotritskaya, E.S.: Sov. At. Energy
(Engl. Transl.) 23 (1967) 1279
Ellinger, F.H., Miner, W.N., O'Boyle, D.R., Schonfeld, F.W.: "Constitution of Pu Alloys",
Los Alamos Sci. Laboratory, Univ. of California, Los Alamos, N.M., Report LA-3870
(1968) 98
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1979)
Baxi, H.C., Massalski, T.B.: private communication (1989); see [90Mas1]
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Se

Pu-Se (Plutonium-Selenium)
The phase diagram is not known.
PuSe melts at 2348 K (Kruger et al. [67Kru1]).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Pu-Se. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

PuSe
Pu 2 Se 3
PuSe 2

cub
orth
tetr

NaCl
Sb 2 S 3
Cu 2 Sb

0.57934
1.110
0.4132

0.410

1.132
0.8343

67Kru1
66Mar1
70All1

References
66Mar1
67Kru1
70All1

Marcon, J.P., Pascard, R.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 262 (1966) 1679
Kruger, O.L., Moser, J.B.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28 (1967) 2321
Allbutt, M., Dell, R.M., Junkison, A.R.: Proc. Inst. Adv. Study Chem. Extended Defects,
Arizona 1969 (1970) 124

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Si

Pu-Si (Plutonium-Silicon)
Phase diagram
Using X-ray diffractography, metallographic observations, thermal analysis, and dilatometry, Land et al.
[63Lan1] have determined the phase diagram, which has been reported by Shunk [69Shu1], redrawn by
Massalski [90Mas1] and, at last, taken as a basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Si. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Si

Table 1. Pu-Si. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [65Lan1].
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Pu 5 Si 3
Pu 3 Si 2
PuSi
"Pu 3 Si 5 "
"PuSi 2 "

tetr
tetr
orth
hex
tetr

W 5 Si 3
Si 2 U 3
FeB
AlB 2
ThSi 2

1.1407
0.7483
0.7933
0.3875
0.398

b [nm]

c [nm]

0.3847

0.5444
0.4048
0.5727
0.4102
1.358

References
63Lan1
65Lan1
69Shu1
90Mas1

Land, C.C., Johnson, K.A., Ellinger, F.H.: J. Nucl. Mater. 15 (1963) 23


Land, C.C., Johnson, K.A., Ellinger, F.H.: J. Nucl. Mater. 15 (1965) 23
Shunk, F.A.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys, Second Supplement", New York: McGrawHill (1969)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Sm

Pu-Sm (Plutonium-Samarium)
Phase diagram
Ellinger et al. [69Ell1] have investigated the phase diagram, which has been redrawn with some
modifications by Massalski [90Mas1], who has inserted a miscibility gap in the liquid state. This
improved diagram has been the basis for constructing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Sm. Phase diagram.

References
69Ell1
90Mas1

Ellinger, F.H., Land, C.C., Johnson, K.A.: J. Nucl. Mater. 29 (1969) 178
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Sn

Pu-Sn (Plutonium-Tin)
Phase diagram
First experimental results have been reported by Schonfeld et al. [59Sch1]. Ward et al. [64War1]
determined the solubility of Pu in liquid Sn between 673 K and 1375 K. PuSn 3 melts at 1471 K. Foltyn et
al. [90Fol1] have proposed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Sn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Known crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Sn

Table 1. Pu-Sn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

PuSn 2
PuSn 3

tetr
cub

Ga 2 Hf
AuCu 3

0.443
0.4630

3.10

74Wal1
83Sar1

References
59Sch1
64War1
74Wal1
83Sar1
90Fol1

Schonfeld, F.W., Cramer, E.M., Miner, W.N., Ellinger, F.H., Coffinberry, A.S.:
"Metallurgy and Fuels", H.M. Finniston, J.P. Howe (eds.), Progress in Nuclear Energy, Ser.
V, Vol. 2, London: Pergamon Press (1959) 578
Ward, J.W., Mulford, R.N.R.: J. Nucl. Mater. 12 (1964) 335
Wallace, P.L., Harvey, M.R.: J. Nucl. Mater. 54 (1974) 171
Sari, C., Vernazza, F., Mller, W.: J. Less-Common Met. 92 (1983) 301
Foltyn, E.M., Peterson in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Sr

Pu-Sr (Plutonium-Strontium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Schonfeld [61Sch2] stated that Pu and Sr do not form any intermediate phases nor solid solutions.

References
61Sch2

Schonfeld, F.W., "Plutonium Phase Diagrams Studied at Los Alamos", in: "The Metal
Plutonium", A.S. Coffinberry, W.N. Miner (eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago
(1961) 240

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Ta

Pu-Ta (Plutonium-Tantalum)
Phase diagram
On the basis of results reported by Schonfeld et al. [59Sch2], Bowersox et al. [67Bow1] and Ellinger et
al. [68Ell1], Baxi et al. [91Bax1] have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as a
source of information to draw Fig. 1.
The Pu-rich part of the phase diagram is given, in an enlarged version, in Fig. 2.

Fig. 1. Pu-Ta. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Ta

Fig. 2. Pu-Ta. Partial phase diagram (Pu-rich part).

Metastable phase
By sputtering a metastable phase has been found with orthorhombic structure (Busch [70Bus1]; 10 at%
Ta).

References
59Sch2
67Bow1
68Ell1
70Bus1
91Bax1

Schonfeld, F.W., Cramer, E.M., Miner, W.N., Ellinger, F.H., Coffinberry, A.S.:
"Metallurgy and Fuels", H.M. Finniston, J.P. Howe (eds.), Progress in Nuclear Energy, Ser.
V, Vol. 2, London: Pergamon Press (1959) 579
Bowersox, D.F., Leary, J.A.: J. Nucl. Mater. 21 (1967) 219
Ellinger, F.H., Miner, W.N., O'Boyle, D.R., Schonfeld, F.W.: "Constitution of Pu Alloys",
Los Alamos Sci. Laboratory, Univ. of California, Los Alamos, N.M., Report LA-3870
(1968) 109
Busch, R.A.: "Plutonium 1970 and other Actinides", W.N. Miner (ed.), AIME, New York
(1970) 1037
Baxi, H.C., Massalski, T.B., Rizzo, H.F.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 593

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Tb

Pu-Tb (Plutonium-Terbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Moffatt [87Mof1] has sketched a hypothetical phase diagram on the basis of some properties of this
system mentioned by Storhok [63Sto1]: Intermediate phases are not existing; a peritectical equilibrium
occurs at Pu-rich side; about 20 at% Pu are soluble in solid Tb; maximum solid solubility of Tb in solid
Pu amounts to about 2 at% Tb. Further on, Moffatt [87Mof1] assumes that the phase diagram of the
system Pu-Tb is similar to that of the systems Nd-Pu, Pr-Pu and Pu-Sm.
The diagram thus proposed by Moffatt [87Mof1] has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and also
has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Tb. Phase diagram.

References
63Sto1
87Mof1
90Mas1

Storhok, V.W.: React. Mater. 6 (1963) 14


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1987)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Tb

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Te

Pu-Te (Plutonium-Tellurium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Kruger et al. [67Kru1] have determined the melting point of PuTe. It amounts to 2143 K.

Crystal structure
The crystallographic data of the intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Pu-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

PuTe
Pu 2 Te 3
PuTe 2
PuTe 3

cub
cub
tetr
orth

NaCl
P 4 Th 3
Cu 2 Sb
NdTe 3

0.6151
0.9355
0.4391
0.4338

b [nm]

2.560

c [nm]

Ref.

0.8938
0.4338

70All1
70All1
70All1
76Bla1

References
67Kru1
70All1
76Bla1

Kruger, O.L., Moser, J.B.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28 (1967) 2321


Allbutt, M., Dell, R.M., Junkison, A.R.: Proc. Inst. Adv. Study Chem. Extended Defects,
Arizona 1969 (1970) 124
Blaise, A., Fournier, J.M., Salmon, P., Wojakowski, A.: Plutonium and other Actinides,
Proc. Int. Conf., 5th, Baden Baden, 1975, (1976) 635

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Th

Pu-Th (Plutonium-Thorium)
Phase diagram
Experimental investigations of phase equilibria have been done by Poole et al. [58Poo1], Bochwar et al.
[58Boc2], Schonfeld [61Sch2], Elliott et al. [61Ell2], and Portnoff et al. [67Por1] (X-ray diffractography,
metallographic observations, thermal analysis, dilatometry and density measurements). The published
results have been taken by Peterson [85Pet1], to construct an assessed phase diagram. This diagram has
been used as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.
Fig. 2 shows the Pu-Th rich part of the Pu-Th phase diagram proposed by Elliott et al. [61Ell2] in an
enlarged version.

Fig. 1. Pu-Th. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Th

Fig. 2. Pu-Th. Partial phase diagram (Pu-rich part).

Crystal structure
(Pu 7 Th 13 ) is the only one intermediate phase in this system. Its structure is orthorhombic with lattice
parameters a = 0.622 nm, b = 1.162 nm and c = 0.709 nm (Marcon et al. [68Mar1]).

References
58Boc2
58Poo1
61Ell2
61Sch2
67Por1
68Mar1
85Pet1

Bochwar, A.A., Konobeevskii, S.T., Kutaitsev, V.I., Menshikova, T.S., Chebotarev, N.T.:
Sov. At. Energy (Engl. Transl.) 5 (1958) 1177
Poole, D.M., Williamson, G.K., Marples, J.A.C.: J. Inst. Met. 86 (1957-1958) 172
Elliott, R.O., Larson, A.C., in: "The Metal Plutonium", A.S. Coffinberry, W.N. Miner
(eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1961) 265
Schonfeld, F.W., "Plutonium Phase Diagrams Studied at Los Alamos", in: "The Metal
Plutonium", A.S. Coffinberry, W.N. Miner (eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago
(1961) 240
Portnoff, A.Y., Calais, D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 24 (1967) 158
Marcon, J.P., Portnoff, A.Y.: J. Nucl. Mater. 28 (1968) 341
Peterson, D.E.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 6 (1985) 342

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Ti

Pu-Ti (Plutonium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Experimental investigations of phase equilibria have been done by Poole et al. [61Poo1], Elliott et al.
[61Ell2], Kutaitsev et al. [67Kut3], and Languille [71Lan1] (thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography,
metallography). Taking the results of these works, Murray [90Mur1] has proposed an assessed phase
diagram, which has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Ti. Phase diagram.

References
61Ell2
61Poo1
67Kut3
71Lan1
90Mur1

Elliott, R.O., Larson, A.C., in: "The Metal Plutonium", A.S. Coffinberry, W.N. Miner
(eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1961) 265
Poole, D.M., Bale, M.G., Mardon, P.G., Marples, J.A.C., Nichols, J.L.: "Plutonium, 1960"
E. Grison (ed.), London: Cleaver-Hume Press (1961) 267
Kutaitsev, V.I., Chebotarev, N.T., Lebedev, I.G., Adrianov, M.A., Konev, V.N.,
Menshikova, T.S.: "Plutonium 1965", Proc. Int. Conf. Plutonium, 3rd, London, 1965,
Capman and Hall (1967) 420
Languille, A.: Mem. Sci. Rev. Metall. 68 (1971) 435
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Ti

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Tl

Pu-Tl (Plutonium-Thallium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Pu-Tl. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [58Boc1].
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Pu 3 Tl
PuTl 3

cub
hex

AuCu 3
Mg

0.4723
0.3458

0.5519

References
58Boc1

Bochvar, A.A., Konobeevsky, S.T., Kutaitsev, V.I., Menshikova, T.S., Chebotarev, N.T.:
Proc. U.N. Int. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, Geneva, Vol. 6, IAEA, Vienna, Austria
(1958) 184

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Tm

Pu-Tm (Plutonium-Thulium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Based on information given by Storhok [63Sto1] (no intermediate phases, peritectic at the Pu-rich
side, solubility of Pu in Tm 20 at% Pu and solubility of Tm in Pu 2 at% Tm) Moffatt [87Mof1] has
sketched a hypothetical phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter
compilation information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Tm. Tentative phase diagram.

References
63Sto1
87Mof1
90Mas1

Storhok, V.W.: React. Mater. 6 (1963) 14


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1987)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-U

Pu-U (Plutonium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria first have been investigated by Ellinger et al. [59Ell1], Waldron [61Wal1], Bochwar et al.
[58Boc1] and Elliott et al. [61Ell2] (thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallography, dilatometry).
From the results of these works, Peterson et al. [89Pet1] have constructed an assessed phase diagram.
This diagram has been improved by Okamoto [92Oka1] and reinvestigated using differential thermal
analysis by Okamoto et al. [94Oka4]. In the latter report has been stated that the results are in agreement
with the phase diagram assessed by Peterson et al. [89Pet1] and Peterson et al. [90Pet1]. Results from the
latter authors have been taken to draw Fig. 1.
The Pu-rich region, as constructed by Peterson et al. [89Pet1], has been taken to draw Fig. 2.

Fig. 1. Pu-U. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-U

Fig. 2. Pu-U. Partial phase diagram (Pu-rich part).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Pu-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [59Ell1].
Phase

at% U

Structure

a [nm]

c [nm]

(at 773 K)

(at 298 K)

25

tetr

1.057

1.076

35

cub

1.0692

50
70

1.0664
1.0651

References
58Boc1
59Ell1
61Ell2
61Wal1
89Pet1
90Pet1
92Oka1

Bochvar, A.A., Konobeevsky, S.T., Kutaitsev, V.I., Menshikova, T.S., Chebotarev, N.T.:
Proc. U.N. Int. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, Geneva, Vol. 6, IAEA, Vienna, Austria
(1958) 184
Ellinger, F.H., Elliott, R.O., Cramer, E.M.: J. Nucl. Mater. 1 (1959) 233
Elliott, R.O., Larson, A.C., in: "The Metal Plutonium", A.S. Coffinberry, W.N. Miner
(eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1961) 265
Waldron, M.B., in: "The Metal Plutonium", A.S. Coffinberry, W.N. Miner (eds.),
University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1961)
Peterson, D.E., Foltyn, E.M.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 10 (1989) 160
Peterson, D.E., Foltyn, E.M., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 13 (1992) 107

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-U
94Oka4

Okamoto, Y., Maeda, A., Suzuki, Y., Ohmichi, T.: J. Alloys Compounds 213/214 (1994)
372

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-V

Pu-V (Plutonium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Results of investigations of phase equilibria by Konobeevsky [55Kon1] and Bowersox et al. [68Bow1]
have been taken by Baxi et al. [91Bax2] to draw an assessed phase diagram. From the latter publication
information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-V. Phase diagram.

References
55Kon1
68Bow1
91Bax2

Konobeevsky, S.T.: Conf. Acad. Sci. USSR, Peaceful Uses At. Energy Sess., Div. Chem.
Sci. III (1955) 362
Bowersox, D.F., Leary, J.A.: J. Nucl. Mater. 27 (1968) 181
Baxi, H.C., Massalski, T.B.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 598

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-W

Pu-W (Plutonium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria reported by Ellinger et al. [68Ell2], Schonfeld et al. [59Sch2] and Schonfeld [61Sch2]
have been used by Pandian et al. [90Pan1] to construct an assessed phase diagram. This diagram has been
taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-W. Phase diagram.

References
59Sch2
61Sch2

Schonfeld, F.W., Cramer, E.M., Miner, W.N., Ellinger, F.H., Coffinberry, A.S.:
"Metallurgy and Fuels", H.M. Finniston, J.P. Howe (eds.), Progress in Nuclear Energy, Ser.
V, Vol. 2, London: Pergamon Press (1959) 579
Schonfeld, F.W., "Plutonium Phase Diagrams Studied at Los Alamos", in: "The Metal
Plutonium", A.S. Coffinberry, W.N. Miner (eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago
(1961) 240

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-W
68Ell2
90Pan1

Ellinger, F.H., Miner, W.N., O'Boyle, D.R., Schonfeld, F.W.: "Constitution of Pu Alloys",
Los Alamos Sci. Laboratory, Univ. of California, Los Alamos, N.M., Report LA-3870
(1968) 125
Pandian, S., Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Y

Pu-Y (Plutonim-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
From results reported by Kutaitsev et al. [67Kut1], Massalski [90Mas1] has drawn the phase diagram,
which has been the basis for constructing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Y. Phase diagram.

References
67Kut1
90Mas1

Kutaitsev, V.I., Chebotarev, N.T., Andrianov, M.A., Konev, V.N., Lebedev, I.G., Bagrova,
V.I., Beznosnikova, A.V., Kruglov, A.A., Petrov, P.N., Smotritskaya, E.S.: At. Energ. 23
(1967) 511
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Yb

Pu-Yb (Plutonium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Storhok [63Sto1] stated that there are no intermediate phases in this system. Moffatt [87Mof1],
assuming similarity to the Pu-Er system, has sketched a phase diagram, which has been redrawn by
Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter publication information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Yb. Tentative phase diagram.

References
63Sto1
87Mof1
90Mas1

Storhok, V.W.: React. Mater. 6 (1963) 14


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1987)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Zn

Pu-Zn (Plutonium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Cramer et al. [60Cra1], using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, and metallography,
have investigated phase equilibria within the whole concentration range. Albrecht [64Alb1] has
redetermined the phase diagram at concentrations > 69 at% Zn (X-ray diffractography, metallographic
observations, thermal analysis). Cramer et al. [67Cra1] have investigated the phase equilibria at > 78 at%
Zn (thermal analysis, metallography, single-crystal X-ray diffraction). Further on, Ellinger et al. [68Ell2]
have reported phase equilibria. Mainly this latter report has been taken by Chiotti et al. [81Chi3] to
construct a phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. The latter compilation has
been the basis for constructing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Zn

Table 1. Pu-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% Zn

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

PuZn 2
Pu 13 Zn 58
Pu 3 Zn 22
Pu 2 Zn 17

66.7
80.582
88
89.5

cub
hex
tetr
hex

Cu 2 Mg
Gd 13 Zn 58
Pu 3 Zn 22
U 2 Zn 17

0.7760
1.443
0.885
0.8994

1.414
2.118
2.660

60Cra1
67Lar1
68Joh1
60Cra1

References
60Cra1
64Alb1
67Cra1
67Lar1
68Ell2
68Joh1
81Chi3

90Mas1

Cramer, E.M., Ellinger, F.H., Land, C.C.: "Extractive and Physical Metallurgy of
Plutonium and its Alloys", Symp., San Francisco, Calif. (1960) 169
Albrecht, E.D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 12 (1964) 125
Cramer, E.M., Wood, D.H.: J. Less-Common Met. 13 (1967) 112
Larson, A.C., Cromer, D.T.: Acta Crystallogr. 23 (1967) 70
Ellinger, F.H., Miner, W.N., O'Boyle, D.R., Schonfeld, F.W.: "Constitution of Pu Alloys",
Los Alamos Sci. Laboratory, Univ. of California, Los Alamos, N.M., Report LA-3870
(1968) 125
Johnson, Q., Wood, D.H., Smith, G.S.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 24 (1968) 480
Chiotti, P., Akhachinskij, V.V., Ansara, I., Rand, M.H., in: "The Chemical
Thermodynamics of Actinide Elements and Compounds", Part 5, "The Actinide Binary
Alloys", V. Medvedev, M.H. Rand, E.E. Westrum jr. (eds.), F.L. Oetting (executive editor),
IAEA, Vienna, Austria (1981) 257
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Zr

Pu-Zr (Plutonium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Marples [60Mar1] and Bochvar et al. [58Boc1] have investigated the phase equilibria. The results are not
in quite agreement with each other. Elliott [65Ell2] has preferred the diagram published by Marples
[60Mar1], for it seems to be the more accurate one. Further on, thermodynamic modeling by Leibowitz et
al. [88Lei1] confirmed the liquidus and solidus found by [60Mar1]. At last, Maeda et al. [94Mae1] have
determined the vapor pressure of Pu above solid and liquid alloys. From the results these authors
calculated solidus and liquidus curves. It should be mentioned that the caluclated liquidus is in agreement
with the liquidus found by [60Mar1] and the solidus agrees with the solidus reported by [58Boc1]. After
critical discussion of all known data, Okamoto [95Oka6] has constructed an assessed phase diagram,
which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pu-Zr. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Pu-Zr

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Pu-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

at% Zr

Structure

(Pu 4 Zr)

(PuZr 3 )

1030

tetr

74

hex

Type

AlB 2

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.0893

1.4889

67Ber1

0.5055

0.3123

60Mar1

Thermodynamics
By Knudsen effusion method Maeda et al. [94Mae1] have determined partial vapor pressures of
plutonium between 1400 K and 1900 K. Estimated thermodynamic activities of plutonium indicate that
liquid alloys behave nearly ideal. The solid solutions however show little deviation from ideality.

References
58Boc1
60Mar1
65Ell2
67Ber1
88Lei1
94Mae1
95Oka6

Bochvar, A.A., Konobeevsky, S.T., Kutaitsev, V.I., Menshikova, T.S., Chebotarev, N.T.:
Proc. U.N. Int. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, Geneva, Vol. 6, IAEA, Vienna, Austria
(1958) 184
Marples, J.A.C.: J. Less-Common Met. 2 (1960) 331
Elliott, R.P.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys, First Supplement", New York: McGraw-Hill
(1965)
Berndt, A.F.: J. Less-Common Met. 12 (1967) 82
Leibowitz, L., Veleckis, E., Blomquist, R.A., Pelton, A.D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 154 (1988) 145
Maeda, A., Suzuki, Y., Okamoto, Y., Ohmichi, T.: J. Alloys Compounds 205 (1994) 35
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 287

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ra-S

Ra-S (Radium-Sulfur)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of RaS have been determined by Weigel et al. [69Wei1]. Its structure is cubic
(NaCl-type) with lattice parameter: a = 0.6575 nm.

References
69Wei1

Weigel, F., Trinkl, A.: Radiochim. Acta 12 (1969) 29

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ra-Se

Ra-Se (Radium-Selenium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of RaSe have been determined by Weigel et al. [69Wei1]. The structure is cubic
(NaCl-type) with lattice parameter a = 0.680 nm.

References
69Wei1

Weigel, F., Trinkl, A.: Radiochim. Acta 12 (1969) 29

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ra-W

Ra-W (Radium-Tungsten)
The phase diagram is not known.
Nagender Naidu et al. [90Nag1] suppose that there are no intermediate phases in this system existing.
In analogy to the Ca-W system no alloy formation should be possible (Kremer [16Kre1]).

References
16Kre1
90Nag1

Kremer, D.: Abh. Inst. Metallhuettenw. Elektrometall., Techn. Hochsch. Aachen 1 (1916) 7
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Rh

Rb-Rh (Rubidium-Rhodium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Loebich et al. [81Loe1] found no intermediate phases in this system. No mutual solubility of the solid
components could be detected.

References
81Loe1

Loebich jr., O., Raub, C.J.: Platinum Met. Rev. 25 (1981) 113

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Ru

Rb-Ru (Rubidium-Ruthenium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Loebich et al. [81Loe1] found no intermediate phases and no mutual solubility of components in the
solid state.

References
81Loe1

Loebich jr., O., Raub, C.J.: Platinum Met. Rev. 25 (1981) 113

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-S

Rb-S (Rubidium-Sulfur)
Phase diagram
The phase diagram reported by Brandes [83Bra1] has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the
latter publication information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rb-S. Partial phase diagram (4080 at% S).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of Rb-sulfides are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-S

Table 1. Rb-S. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Rb 2 S
Rb 2 S 3
Rb 2 S 5

cub
orth
orth

CaF 2
K2S3

0.765
0.7513
0.6837

1.0375
1.7845

0.7769
0.6633

36May1
80Bt2
79Bt1

References
36May1
79Bt1
80Bt2
83Bra1
90Mas1

May, K.: Z. Kristallogr. 94 (1936) 412


Bttcher, P.: Z. Kristallogr. 150 (1979) 65
Bttcher, P.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 461 (1980) 13
Brandes, E.A.: "Smithells Metals Reference Book", 6th Edition, London: Butterworths
(1983) 11
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Sb

Rb-Sb (Rubidium-Antimony)
Phase diagram
Dorn et al. [61Dor1], using thermal analysis and X-ray diffractography, have investigated the phase
diagram, Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it. From the latter publication information has been taken to
construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rb-Sb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Sb

Table 1. Rb-Sb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Rb 3 Sb
RbSb

hex
orth

Na 3 As
NaP

0.632
0.7315

0.7197

1.119
1.2815

61Chi1
79Sch1

References
61Chi1
61Dor1
79Sch1
90Mas1

Chikawa, J., Imamura, S., Tanaka, K., Shiojiri, M.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 16 (1961) 1175
Dorn, F.W., Klemm, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 309 (1961) 189
von Schnering, H.G., Hnle, W., Krogull, G.: Z. Naturforsch. B 34 (1979) 1678
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Se

Rb-Se (Rubidium-Selenium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis and X-ray diffractography, Yatsenko et al. [77Yat1] have investigated phase
equilibria. Moffatt [78Mof1] and Massalski [90Mas1] have redrawn the phase diagram published by the
former authors. From Massalski [90Mas1] information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rb-Se. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Se

Table 1. Rb-Se. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Rb 2 Se
Rb 2 Se 3
Rb 2 Se 5

cub
orth
orth

CaF 2
K2S3
S 5 Tl 2

0.8019
0.7856
0.7135

1.0858
1.8299

0.7977
0.6910

77Som1
80Bt2
79Bt1

References
77Som1
77Yat1
78Mof1
79Bt1
80Bt2
90Mas1

Sommer, H., Hoppe, R.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 429 (1977) 118
Yatsenko, S.P., Kuznetsov, A.N., Chuntonov, K.A.: Inorg. Materials 13 (1977) 602
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Bttcher, P.: Z. Kristallogr. 150 (1979) 65
Bttcher, P.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 461 (1980) 13
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Si

Rb-Si (Rubidium-Silicon)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Only the structure of RbSi is known precisely (Busmann [60Bus1, 61Bus1]). Its structure is cubic
(isotypic with KGe with 32 atoms in the unit cell). The lattice parameter is: a = 1.304 nm (Schfer et al.
[61Sch1]).
By decomposition of RbSi in high vacuum at about 800 K Schfer et al. [61Sch1] prepared RbSi 6 . Its
structure is possibly cubic with a = 1.34 nm.

References
60Bus1
61Bus1
61Sch1

Busmann, E.: Naturwissenschaften 47 (1960) 82


Busmann, E.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 313 (1961) 90
Schfer, R., Klemm, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 312 (1961) 214

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Sn

Rb-Sn (Rubidium-Tin)
The phase diagram is not known.
Hewaidy et al. [64Hew1] have found the intermediate phase RbSn, the structure of which is bodycentered tetragonal with a = 1.171 nm and c = 1.909 nm. It is isotypic with NaPb.

References
64Hew1

Hewaidy, I.F., Busmann, E., Klemm, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 328 (1964) 283

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Sr

Rb-Sr (Rubidium-Strontium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Using X-ray diffractography, Klemm et al. [67Kle1] found no intermediate phases and no miscibility
in the whole concentration range in the solid as well as in the liquid state.

References
67Kle1

Klemm, W., Kunze, D.: Proc. Int. Symp. Alkali Metals, London Chem. Society, Special
Pub. No. 22 (1967) 3

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Te

Rb-Te (Rubidium-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Phases and phase equilibria have been investigated by Chuntonov et al. [78Chu1]. Taking the results of
these authors and assuming similarity with K-Te and Cs-Te systems, Sangster et al. [90San1] have
constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rb-Te. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Te

Table 1. Rb-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Rb 2 Te 3
Rb 2 Te 5

orth
mon

K 2 Te 3
Rb 2 Te 5

1.6109
1.2144

1.0591
0.9124
= 121.13

0.4786
0.5750

80Bt1
83Bt1

References
78Chu1
80Bt1
83Bt1
90San1

Chuntonov, K.A., Yatsenko, S.P.: Zh. Fiz. Khim. 52 (1978) 2145; Russ. J. Phys. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 52 (1978) 1241
Bttcher, P.: J. Less-Common Met. 70 (1980) 263
Bttcher, P., Kretschmann, U.: J. Less-Common Met. 95 (1983) 81
Sangster, J., Pelton, A.D., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Ti

Rb-Ti (Rubidium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
In a short review of experimental works concerning the alloying behaviour of Rb and Ti Bale [90Bal1]
mentioned that there is almost no mututal solubility of the components in the liquid as well as in the solid
state. The phase diagram he proposed has been the basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rb-Ti. Phase diagram at 1 kbar.

References
90Bal1

Bale, C.W., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Tl

Rb-Tl (Rubidium-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Most phase equilibria have been determined experimentally by Thmmel et al. [70Th1]. The phase
diagram has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information has been
taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rb-Tl. Phase diagram.

References
70Th1
90Mas1

Thmmel, R., Klemm, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 376 (1970) 44


Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-V

Rb-V (Rubidium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Young et al. [62You1] have tried to determine the solubility of V in Rb between 810 K and 1366 K.
They found that less than 2 at ppm V are soluble in Rb.
Using Miedema's model (de Boer et al. [80DeB1], Niessen et al. [83Nie1]), Smith et al. [89Smi2]
have calculated a phase diagram for a pressure of 0.1013 MPa. This diagram has been the basis for
constructing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rb-V. Phase diagram at 0.1013 MPa.

References
62You1

Young, P.F., Arabian, R.V.: Aerojet-General Nucleonics, San Ramon, C.A., AGN 8063
(1962) 72

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-V
80DeB1
83Nie1
89Smi2

de Boer, F.R., Boom, R., Miedema, A.R.: Physica B + C (Amsterdam) 101 (1980) 294
Niessen, A.K., de Boer, F.R., de Chatel, P.F., Mattens, W.C.M., Miedema, A.R.:
CALPHAD 7 (1983) 51
Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.),
ASM, Materials Park, Ohio (1989)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-W

Rb-W (Rubidium-Tungsten)
The phase diagram is not known.
No intermediate phases are existing in this system. The mutual solubility of the components obviously
is negligible small (see Nagender Naidu et al. [90Nag1]).

References
90Nag1

Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Zn

Rb-Zn (Rubidium-Zinc)
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Only one intermediate phase is existing in this system. In analogy to the Na-Zn and K-Zn systems,
Pelton [90Pel1] has proposed a hypothetical phase diagram, which has been the basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rb-Zn. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of RbZn 13 are: Structure is cubic (NaZn 13 -type). Lattice parameter: a = 1.2420 nm
(Bruzzone [71Bru2]).

References
71Bru2
90Pel1

Bruzzone, G.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 27 (1971) 862


Pelton, A.D., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rb-Zr

Rb-Zr (Rubidium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
In analogy to other alkalimetal-zirconium systems, Bale [90Bal1] assumed that in this system (Rb-Zr),
there is almost no mutual solubility of the components in the liquid as well as in the solid state. Thus he
constructed a phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rb-Zr. Tentative phase diagram.

References
90Bal1

Bale, C.W., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Rh

Re-Rh (Rhenium-Rhodium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been determined experimentally by Tylkina et al. [62Tyl1]. The phase diagram
constructed by these authors has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From there information has been
taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Rh. Phase diagram.

References
62Tyl1
90Mas1

Tylkina, M.A., Asyganova, I.A., Savitskii, E.M.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 7 (1962) 1917; Russ. J.
Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 7 (1962) 990
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Ru

Re-Ru (Rhenium-Ruthenium)
Phase diagram
The Ru-rich part of the phase diagram has been determined experimentally by Rudy et al. [62Rud2]. The
speculative total phase diagram has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation
data have been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Ru. Phase diagram.

References
62Rud2
90Mas1

Rudy, E., Kietter, B., Froelich, H.: Z. Metallkd. 53 (1962) 90


Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-S

Re-S (Rhenium-Sulfur)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of Re-sulfides are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Re-S. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

ReS 2

hex

Metastable phases
ReS 2
tricl
Re 2 S 7

tetr

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

0.3166
ReSe 2

0.6401
= 118.97
1.366

0.6362
= 91.60

c [nm]

Ref.

1.2192

63Jel1

0.6455
= 105.04
0.553

71Wil1

References
59Tra1
59Tra2
63Jel1
71Wil1

Traore, K., Brenet, J.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 249 (1959) 280
Traore, K., Brenet, J.P.: Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 82 (1959) 323
Jellinek, F.: Ark. Kemi 20 (1963) 442
Wildervanck, J.C., Jellinek, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 24 (1971) 73

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

59Tra2,
59Tra1

Re-Sb

Re-Sb (Rhenium-Antimony)
Phase diagram
Furuseth et al. [66Fur1] could not find noticeable mutual solubility of the components in the solid state.
Moffatt [78Mof1] sketched a phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the
latter author information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Sb. Phase diagram.

References
66Fur1
78Mof1
90Mas1

Furuseth, S., Kjekshus, A.: Acta Chem. Scand. 20 (1966) 245


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Sc

Re-Sc (Rhenium-Scandium)
Phase diagram
Savitskii et al. [66Sav1] have determined, using differential thermal analysis, hardness measurements and
some other methods, the phase diagram, Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it, and from the latter author
information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Sc. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Sc

Table 1. Re-Sc. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Re 24 Sc 5
Re 2 Sc

cub
hex

Mn
MgZn 2

0.96448
0.5264

0.8584

66Sav1
81Szk1

References
66Sav1
81Szk1
90Mas1

Savitskii, E.M., Tylkina, M.A., Khamidov, O.Kh.: Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) 4 (1966) 52
Szklarz, E.G., Giorgi, A.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 81 (1981) 349
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Se

Re-Se (Rhenium-Selenium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Two intermediate phases have been prepared: ReSe 2 and Re 2 Se 7 , the latter one by chemical methods
(Briscoe et al. [31Bri1]).
The crystallographic data of ReSe 2 are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Re-Se. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

ReSe 2

tricl

ReSe 2

hex

NbSe 2

0.66065
= 91.83

0.67196
= 104.93
2.55

65Alc1

ReSe 2
312 GPa,
8731573 K

0.67272
= 118.94
0.330

76Lar1

References
31Bri1
65Alc1
76Lar1

Briscoe, H.V.A., Robinson, P.L., Stoddart, E.M.: J. Chem. Soc. 134 (1931) 1439
Alcock, N.W., Kjekshus, A.: Acta Chem. Scand. 19 (1965) 79
Larchev, V.I., Popova, S.V.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 12 (1976) 1130

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Si

Re-Si (Rhenium-Silicon)
The phase diagram has been determined experimentally by Jorda et al. [82Jor1]. Solubility of Si in solid
(Re) has been investigated by Setz et al. [68Set1]. Knapton [59Kna1] stated that the solubility of Re in
solid (Si) is negligible. These results published have been taken by Gokhale et al. [90Gok1] to construct
an assessed phase diagram, which has been used as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Si. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Si

Table 1. Re-Si. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Re 5 Si 3
Re 5 Si 3

tetr
mon

Si 3 W 5
Re 5 Si 3

0.953
0.80994

ReSi
ReSi 2

cub
tetr

FeSi
MoSi 2

0.4773
0.3131

b [nm]
0.96012
= 127.41

c [nm]

Ref.

0.481
0.53938

59Kna1
79Pec1

0.7676

69Sko1
59Kna1

References
59Kna1
68Set1
69Sko1
79Pec1
82Jor1
90Gok1

Knapton, A.G.: Plansee Proceedings 1958, F. Benesovsky (ed.), Reutte, Austria,


Metallwerke Plansee (1959) 412
Setz, S., Nowotny, H., Benesovsky, F.: Monatsh. Chem. 91 (1968) 2004
Skolozdra, R.V., Fedorov, T.F., Popova, N.M., Gladyshevskii, E.I.: Sov. Powder Metall.
Met. Ceram. (Engl. Transl.) 8 (1969) 743
Pecharskii, V.K., Bodak, O.I., Gladyshevskii, E.I.: Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. (Engl. Transl.)
24 (1979) 540
Jorda, J.L., Ishikawa, M., Muller, J.: J. Less-Common Met. 85 (1982) 27
Gokhale, A.B., Abbaschian, G.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol.
3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Sm

Re-Sm (Rhenium-Samarium)
The phase diagram is not known.
The crystal structure of Re 2 Sm is hexagonal (MgZn 2 -type) with lattice parameters a = 0.5303 nm; c =
0.8804 nm (Elliott [65Ell1]).

References
65Ell1

Elliot, R.P.: Proc. 4th Conf. Rare Earth Res., Phoenix (Arizona), 1964 (1965) 215

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Sn

Re-Sn (Rhenium-Tin)
Phase diagram
Tsyganova et al. [71Tsy1] have sketched a schematic phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Moffatt
[78Mof1] and by Massalski [90Mas1] and which, also, has been taken as a basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Sn. Tentative phase diagram.

References
71Tsy1
78Mof1
90Mas1

Tsyganova, I.A., Tylkina, M.A., Savitskii, E.M.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1971) 188;
Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1971) 129
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Ta

Re-Ta (Rhenium-Tantalum)
Phase diagram
Brophy et al. [60Bro1, 60Bro2], Tylkina et al. [60Tyl2], Savitskii et al. [58Sav2], and Knapton [60Kna1]
have investigated the phase diagram. Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn the diagram reported by Brophy
[60Bro1]. From this diagram information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Ta. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Ta

Table 1. Re-Ta. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

(ReTa)

(Re 3 Te 2 )

cub

Mn

0.9711

tetr

CrFe

0.969

c [nm]

Ref.
56Gre1

0.504

60Bro1

References
56Gre1
58Sav2
60Bro1
60Bro2
60Kna1
60Tyl2
90Mas1

Greenfield, P., Beck, P.A.: Trans. AIME 206 (1956) 265


Savitskii, E.M., Tylkina, M.A.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 3 (1958) 820
Brophy, J.H., Schwarzkopf, D., Wulf, J.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 218 (1960) 910
Brophy, J.H., Schwarzkopf, P.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 218 (1960) 184
Knapton, A.G.: J. Less-Common Met. 2 (1960) 113
Tylkina, M.A., Tsyganova, I.A., Savitskii, E.M.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 5 (1960) 1905
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Tb

Re-Tb (Rhenium-Terbium)
Phase diagram
Savitskii et al. [68Sav1] have determined experimentally the phase diagram, which has been redrawn by
Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Tb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The crystal structure of Re 2 Tb is hexagonal (MgZn 2 -type) with lattice parameters a = 0.5272 nm, c =
0.8648 nm (Elliott [65Ell1]).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Tb

References
65Ell1
68Sav1
90Mas1

Elliot, R.P.: Proc. 4th Conf. Rare Earth Res., Phoenix (Arizona), 1964 (1965) 215
Savitskii, E.M., Khamidov, O.Kh.: Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1968) 108
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Tc

Re-Tc (Rhenium-Technetium)
Phase diagram
Darby et al. [62Dar1] has found an uninterrupted miscibility in the solid state. Eremenko et al. [89Ere1]
reported the phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation,
data have been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Tc. Phase diagram.

References
62Dar1
89Ere1
90Mas1

Darby jr., J.B., Lam, D.J., Norton, L.J., Downey, J.W.: J. Less-Common Met. 4 (1962) 558
Eremenko, V.N., Velikanova, T.Ya., Bondar, A.A.: Poroshk. Metall. 46 (1989) 868
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Te

Re-Te (Rhenium-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, measurements of microhardness, dilatometry and
measurements of some other physical properties, Kurbanov et al. [77Kur1] have determined the phase
diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information has
been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Te. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Te

Table 1. Re-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

ReTe 2

tricl

Re 2 Te 5

orth

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.7520
= 101.0
1.2935

0.6882
= 99.67
1.4212

68Sor1

Re 2 Te 5

0.8992
= 99.87
1.3003

83Kla1

References
68Sor1
77Kur1
83Kla1
90Mas1

Sorrel, C.A.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 51 (1968) 285


Kurbanov, T.Kh., Dorlyatshina, R.A., Dzhavodova, I.A., Akhmenov, F.A.: Russ. J. Inorg.
Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 22 (1977) 622
Klaiber, F., Petter, W., Hulliger, F.: J. Solid State Chem. 46 (1983) 112
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Th

Re-Th (Rhenium-Thorium)
Phase diagram
Niemiec [61Nie1] and Dwight [61Dwi2], using X-ray diffractography (see Ageev et al. [72Age1]), and
Badaeva et al. [72Bad1] have investigated phases in this system. Later on, Garg et al. [77Gar1] has
studied the phase equilibria, too. At last, all available data have been taken by Massalski [90Mas1] to
draw an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Th. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Only one intermediate phase, Re 2 Th, has been found and investigated. The results are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Th

Table 1. Re-Th. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Re 2 Th

hex

MgZn 2

0.5490
0.54927

0.9102
0.91010

72Bad2
70Gio1

References
61Dwi2
61Nie1
70Gio1
72Age1
72Bad1
72Bad2
77Gar1
90Mas1

Dwight, A.E.: Trans. ASM 53 (1961) 479


Niemiec, J.: Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Chim. 9 (1961) 501
Giorgi, A.L., Szklarz, E.G.: J. Less-Common Met. 22 (1970) 246
Ageev, N.V. (ed.): "Phase Diagrams of Metallic Systems", Acad. Sci. USSR, Moscow
(1972)
Badaeva, T.A., Dashevskaya, L.J.: Phys. Chem. of Alloys and Refractory Compounds of
Thorium and Uranium (1972) 14
Badaeva, T.A., Dashevskaya, L.J.: Phys. Chem. of Alloys and Refractory Compounds of
Thorium and Uranium (1972) 142
Garg, S.P., Ackermann, R.J.: J. Nucl. Mater. 64 (1977) 265
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Ti

Re-Ti (Rhenium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been studie experimentally by Savitskii et al. [58Sav1, 59Sav3, 69Sav2]. The
results reported in these publications have been taken by Murray [82Mur1, 90Mur1] to draw an assessed
phase diagram. See Fig. 1.
By quenching from (Ti) a metastable phase can be obtained. At high Ti-concentrations a hexagonal
close packed phase (''Ti) is formed martensitically. At lower Ti-concentrations ('''Ti) is obtained, the
structure of which is an orthorhombic distorted cph one. By decomposition of (Ti) into (Ti) at low
temperatures a metastable phase is formed. For thorough discussion of metastable phases see Murray
[82Mur1].

Fig. 1. Re-Ti. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of the intermediate phase Re 24 Ti 5 are: Cubic structure (Mn-type) with lattice
parameter a = 0.9609 nm (Matthias et al. [61Mat1]).

References
58Sav1

Savitskii, E.M., Tylkina, M.A.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 3 (1958) 815; Russ. J. Inorg. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 3 (1958) 338

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Ti
59Sav3
61Mat1
69Sav2
82Mur1
90Mur1

Savitskii, E.M., Tylkina, M.A., Zotev, Yu.A.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 4 (1959) 703; Russ. J.
Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 4 (1959) 319
Matthias, B.T., Compton, V.B., Corenzwit, E.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19 (1961) 130
Savitskii, E.M., Tylkina, M.A., Khamidov, O.Kh.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1969) 200;
Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1969) 130
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1982) 462
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Tm

Re-Tm (Rhenium-Thulium)
The phase diagram is not known.
The crystal structure of Re 2 Tm is hexagonal (MgZn 2 -type) with lattice parameters a = 0.5359 nm,
c = 0.8761 nm (Elliott [65Ell1]).

References
65Ell1

Elliot, R.P.: Proc. 4th Conf. Rare Earth Res., Phoenix (Arizona), 1964 (1965) 215

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-U

Re-U (Rhenium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Larsen et al. [62Lar1], Jackson et al. [63Jac1], Garg et al. [77Gar1] and Chandrasekharaiah et al.
[86Cha1] have investigated phases and phase equilibria. Using the results reported by these authors,
especially by [86Cha1] and [77Gar1], Massalski [90Mas1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram,
which has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-U

Table 1. Re-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Re 2 U
(> 453 K)
Re 2 U
(< 453 K)

hex

MgZn 2

0.5405

orth

Re 2 U

0.55932

b [nm]

0.91828

c [nm]

Ref.

0.8683

72Lam1

0.84746

86Ott1

References
62Lar1
63Jac1
72Lam1
77Gar1
86Cha1
86Ott1
90Mas1

Larsen, W.L., Jackson, R.J., Williams, D.E.: USAEC Rep. IS-500 (1962) M32
Jackson, R.J., Williams, D.E., Larsen, W.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 5 (1963) 443
Lam, D.J., Mitchell, A.W.: J. Nucl. Mater. 44 (1972) 279
Garg, S.P., Ackermann, R.J.: J. Nucl. Mater. 64 (1977) 265
Chandrasekharaiah, M.S., Dharwadkar, S.R., Das, D.: Z. Metallkd. 77 (1986) 509
Ott, R.H., Hulliger, F., Delsing, P., Rudiger, H., Fisk, Z.: J. Less-Common Met. 124 (1986)
235
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-V

Re-V (Rhenium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been investigated by Kuzma et al. [69Kuz1], Giorgi et al. [78Gio1], Eremenko
et al. [83Ere1], and Jorda et al. [86Jor1]. Further on, Tylkina et al. [60Tyl1] and Komjathy [61Kom1]
have published phase diagrams of the Re-V system. On the basis of the results reported by the above
mentioned authors Smith [89Smi1] has, after thorough discussion, constructed an assessed phase diagram,
which has been taken as a basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-V. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-V

Lattice constants of bcc (V) solid solutions are also shown in Table 1 (Jorda et al. [86Jor1]).
Table 1. Re-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

24 at% V

29 at% V
(V)
35 at% V
80 at% V
100 at% V

tetr

CrFe

0.944

0.489

83Ere2

cub

Cr 3 Si

0.4869

cub

69Kuz1
86Jor1

0.3054
0.3024
0.3030

References
60Tyl1
61Kom1
69Kuz1
78Gio1
83Ere1
83Ere2
86Jor1
89Smi1

Tylkina, M.A., Povarova, K.B., Savitskii, E.M.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 5 (1960) 1907; Russ. J.
Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 5 (1960) 927
Komjathy, S.: J. Less-Common Met. 3 (1961) 468
Kuzma, Yu.B., Kovalyk, D.A., Sistema, A.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 5 (1969)
1687; Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 5 (1969) 1428
Giorgi, A.L., Matthias, B.T., Steward, G.R.: Solid State Commun. 27 (1978) 291
Eremenko, V.N., Kharkova, A.M., Velikanova, T.Ya.: Dopov. Akad. Nauk Ukr. RSR, Ser.
A, Fiz. Mat. Tekh. Nauki (1983) 72
Eremenko, V.N., Kharkova, A.M., Velikanova, T.Ya.: Dopov. Akad. Nauk Ukr. RSR, Ser.
A, Fiz. Mat. Tekh. Nauki (1983) 77
Jorda, J.L., Mller, J.: J. Less-Common Met. 119 (1986) 337
Smith, J.F., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM,
Materials Park, Ohio (1989)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-W

Re-W (Rhenium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
Becker et al. [30Bec1], Dickinson et al. [59Dic1] and Savitskii et al. [59Sav1] have investigated
experimentally the phase equilibria (metallographic observations, incipient melting methods). Nagender
Naidu et al. [91Nag1] have discussed the results present in the literature and proposed a phase diagram,
which has been the basic information source for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-W. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-W

Table 1. Re-W. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

40.5 at% W

25 at% W

tetr

CrFe

0.9645

0.5038

55Kna1

cub

Mn

0.9588

56Gre1

References
30Bec1
55Kna1
56Gre1
59Dic1
59Sav1
91Nag1

Becker, K., Moers, K.: Metallwirtsch. Metallwiss. Metalltech. 9 (1930) 1063


Knapton, A.G.: Bull. Inst. Met. 3 (1955) 21
Greenfield, P., Beck, P.A.: Trans. AIME 206 (1956) 265
Dickinson, J.W., Richardson, L.S.: Trans. ASM 51 (1959) 758
Savitskii, E.M., Tylkina, M.A., Shishkina, L.L.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Otd. Tekh. Nauk
Metall. Topl. 3 (1959) 99
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten Alloys",
S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams,
The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Y

Re-Y (Rhenium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Lundin [61Lun1] has reported the phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. The
latter publication has been used as source of information to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The only one intermediate phase found in this system is Re 2 Y. Its structure is hexagonal (MgZn 2 -type)
with lattice parameters a = 0.5397 nm and c = 0.8828 nm (Dwight [61Dwi2]).

References
61Dwi2

Dwight, A.E.: Trans. ASM 53 (1961) 479

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Y
61Lun1
90Mas1

Lundin jr., C.E., in: "Rare Earth", F.H. Spedding, A.H. Daane (eds.), New York: John
Wiley Sons (1961) 263
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Yb

Re-Yb (Rhenium-Ytterbium)
The phase diagram is not known.
The crystal structure of Re 2 Yb is hexagonal (MgZn 2 -type) with lattice parameters a = 0.5340 nm, c =
0.8685 nm (Elliott [65Ell1]).

References
65Ell1

Elliot, R.P.: Proc. 4th Conf. Rare Earth Res., Phoenix (Arizona), 1964 (1965) 215

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Zn

Re-Zn (Rhenium-Zinc)
The phase diagram is not known.
Sims et al. [56Sim1] found that liquid Zn at 793 K attacs only little solid (Re).

References
56Sim1

Sims, C.T., Jaffee, R.I.: Trans. AIME 206 (1956) 913

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Zr

Re-Zr (Rhenium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Using metallographic methods, X-ray diffractography and incipient melting method, Savitskii et al.
[59Sav2] have investigated the phase equilibria. Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn the phase diagram
reported there. And from the mentioned compilation information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Re-Zr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Re-Zr

Table 1. Re-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Re 24 Zr 5
Re 2 Zr
ReZr 2

cub
hex
tetr

Mn
MgZn 2
CrFe

0.9713
0.5251
1.012

0.8570
0.542

68Kuz1
42Wal1
59Sav2

References
42Wal1
59Sav2
68Kuz1
90Mas1

Wallbaum, H.J.: Naturwissenschaften 30 (1942) 149


Savitskii, E.M., Tylkina, M.A., Tsyganova, L.A.: Sov. At. Energy (Engl. Transl.) 7 (1959)
724
Kuzma, Yu.B., Lakh, V.I., Stadnyk, B.I., Voroshilov, Yu.V.: Sov. Powder Metall. Met.
Ceram. (Engl. Transl.) 7 (1968) 462
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Ru

Rh-Ru (Rhodium-Ruthenium)
Phase diagram
Paschoal et al. [84Pas1] have, using metallography, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis,
electron microprobe analysis and microhardness measurements, investigated the phase equilibria in the
temperature range between 1173 K and 2573 K. Grler [93Gr1] has optimized the phase diagram. As
Okamoto [94Oka1] mentioned, the calculated phase diagram is in good agreement to the experimental
results. In Fig. 1 the phase diagram experimentally obtained [84Pas1] is given. It has been redrawn by
Massalski [90Mas1].

Fig. 1. Rh-Ru. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of cph ( Ru, Rh) solid solutions and of fcc ( Rh, Ru) solid solutions annealed at
1673 K and 1973 K are plotted in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, respectively (taken from Paschoal et al. [84Pas1]).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Ru

Fig. 2. Rh-Ru. Lattice parameters for cph (Ru) solid solution.

Fig. 3. Rh-Ru. Lattice parameter for fcc (Rh) solid solution.

References
84Pas1
90Mas1
93Gr1
94Oka1

Paschoal, J.D.A., Kleykamp, H., Thmmler, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 98 (1984) 279
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Grler, R.: J. Alloys Compounds 191 (1993) 31
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 15 (1994) 232

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-S

Rh-S (Rhodium-Sulfur)
Phase diagram
Experimental investigations of the phase equilibria have been done by Juza et al. [35Juz1], Biltz et al.
[37Bil1], and Zwingmann et al. [71Zwi1]. The phase diagram in the range < 60 at% S has been
constructed by Moffatt [78Mof1], phase equilibria at > 60 at% S are hypothetical. This phase diagram has
been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. Later on Taylor et al. [81Tay1] has performed measurements of
phase equilibria by differential thermal analysis and experiments with thermobalance at pressure high
enough to avoid boiling of the compounds. Okamoto [92Oka2] taking all information available in the
literature, has constructed a phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-S. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of Rh-sulfides are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-S

Table 1. Rh-S. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Rh 17 S 15
Rh 2 S 3
RhS 3

cub
orth
cub

Pd 17 Se 15
Rh 2 S 3
FeS 2

0.99103
0.8462
0.558

0.5985

0.6138

63Kno1
67Par2
37Bil1

References
35Juz1
37Bil1
63Kno1
67Par2
71Zwi1
78Mof1
81Tay1
90Mas1
92Oka2

Juza, R., Hlsmann, O., Meisel, K.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 225 (1935) 369
Biltz, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 233 (1937) 282
Knop, O.: Can. J. Chem. 41 (1963) 1832
Parth, E., Hohnke, D., Hulliger, F.: Acta Crystallogr. 23 (1967) 832
Zwingmann, G., Wenzel, E.M.: Metall 25 (1971) 1121
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Taylor, J.R.: Metall. Trans. B 12 (1981) 47
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 13 (1992), Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams Updating
Service

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Sb

Rh-Sb (Rhodium-Antimony)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria in the Sb-rich part of the system have been investigated by Zhuravlev et al. [58Zhu1] (Xray diffractography, thermal analysis, metallography). Kuzmin et al. [63Kuz1] have investigated alloys
with < 50 at% Sb (metallography, X-ray diffraction experiments). Results of these works have been used
by Shunk [69Shu1] to construct a phase diagram, which has been taken from a small figure. This diagram
has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From this latter compilation information has been taken to
draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Sb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Sb

Table 1. Rh-Sb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

RhSb
RhSb 2

orth
mon

MnP
CoSb 2

0.5965
0.570

0.6325
0.3485

73Sel1
77Kje1

RhSb 3

cub

CoAs 3

0.9229

0.3865
0.659
= 90.58

60Zhu1

References
58Zhu1
60Zhu1
63Kuz1
69Shu1
73Sel1
77Kje1
90Mas1

Zhuravlev, N.N., Gvan, O.P., Kuzmin, R.N.: Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. Mat. Mekh. Astron.
Fiz. Khim. 13 (1958) 79
Zhuravlev, N.N., Zhdanov, G.S., Kuzmin, R.N.: Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. (Engl. Transl.) 5
(1960) 532
Kuzmin, R.N., Zhuravlev, N.N.: Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 3: Fiz. Astron. 18 (1963) 9
Shunk, F.A.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys, Second Supplement", New York: McGrawHill (1969)
Selte, K., Kjekshus, A.: Acta Chem. Scand. 27 (1973) 3195
Kjekshus, A., Rakke, T.: Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. A 31 (1977) 517
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Sc

Rh-Sc (Rhodium-Scandium)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallographic observations, and microprobe
analysis, Khorujaya et al. [95Kho1], have investigated the phase equilibria. The phase diagram reported
by these authors has been the basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Sc. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Sc

Table 1. Rh-Sc. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Ref.

Rh 3 Sc
RhSc
Rh 13 Sc 57

cub
cub
cub

Cu 3 Au
CsCl
Rh 13 Sc 57

0.3900
0.3206
1.4405

61Dwi1
65Geb1
85Cen1

Thermodynamics
By direct synthesis calorimetry Selaoui et al. [93Sel1] have determined standard enthalpies of formation
of two intermediate phases. The results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Rh-Sc. Standard enthalpy of
formation of intermediate phases [93Sel1].
Phase

H [kJ g-atom1]

Rh 3 Sc
RhSc

51.7 1.4
94.5 1.5

References
61Dwi1
65Geb1
85Cen1
93Sel1
95Kho1

Dwight, A.E., Downey, J.W., Conner, R.A.: Acta Crystallogr. 14 (1961) 75


Geballe, T.H., Matthias, B.T., Compton, V.B., Corenzwit, E., Hull jr., G.W., Longinotti,
L.D.: Phys. Rev. 137 (1965) A119
Cenzual, K., Chabot, B., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C 41 (1985) 313
Selhaoui, N., Kleppa, O.J.: J. Alloys Compounds 191 (1993) 145
Khorujaya, V.G., Korniyenko, K.Ye., Martsenyuk, P.S.: J. Alloys Compounds 229 (1995)
283

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Se

Rh-Se (Rhenium-Selenium)
Phase diagram
On the basis of experimental results reported by Rummery et al. [67Rum1] and Kjekshus et al. [79Kje1],
Massalski [90Mas1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the source of information
to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Se. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Se

Table 1. Rh-Se. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

RhSe
Rh 2 Se 3
Rh 3 Se 8
RhSe 2
(Rh 0.9 Se 2 )

hex
orth
hex
cub

NiAs
Rh 2 Se 3
Rh 3 Se 8
FeS 2

0.3650
0.8888
0.85444
0.59981

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.6294

0.5530
0.6423
1.01971

67Rum1
67Par2
68Hoh1
79Kje1

References
67Par2
67Rum1
68Hoh1
79Kje1
90Mas1

Parth, E., Hohnke, D., Hulliger, F.: Acta Crystallogr. 23 (1967) 832
Rummery, T.E., Heyding, R.D.: Can. J. Chem. 45 (1967) 131
Hohnke, D., Parth, E.: Z. Kristallogr. 127 (1968) 164
Kjekshus, A., Rakke, R., Andresen, A.F.: Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. A 33 (1979) 719
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Si

Rh-Si (Rhodium-Silicon)
Phase diagram
On the basis of experimental phase equilibria investigations by Schellenberg et al. [85Sch1] and Yupko et
al. [87Yup1] (differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallography, microhardness
measurements), Schlesinger [92Sch1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the
basis of drawing Fig. 1.
The concentration range from 38 to 70 at% Si is given in Fig. 2 in an enlarged version.

Fig. 1. Rh-Si. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Si

Fig. 2. Rh-Si. Partial phase diagram (3870 at% Si).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Rh-Si. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Rh 2 Si
Rh 5 Si 3
Rh 20 Si 13
RhSi
RhSi
Rh 4 Si 5

orth
orth
hex
orth
cub
mon

Co 2 Si
Rh 5 Ge 3
Rh 20 Si 13
MnP
FeSi
Rh 4 Si 5

0.541
0.5322
1.1851
0.553
0.4675
1.235

0.393
1.0126

0.738
0.3897
0.3623
0.636

63Eng1
85Sch1
65Eng1
60Bha1
54Gel1
68Eng2

Rh 3 Si 4

orth

Rh 3 Si 4

1.8810

0.306

0.3508
0.5924
= 100.181
0.3614
0.5813

68Eng1

Thermodynamics
Novoselov et al. [78Nov1] have determined Si-vapor pressures of liquid Rh-Si alloys, to calculate
thermodynamic activities, aSiL . The results are plotted in Fig. 3.
By metal solution calorimetry Topor et al. [88Top1] have determined the enthalpy of formation of
RhSi. It amounts to H S = 150.0 5.0 kJ g-atom1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Si

Fig. 3. Rh-Si. Thermodynamic activity of Si in liquid alloys at 1973 K [78Nov1].

References
54Gel1
60Bha1
63Eng1
65Eng1
68Eng1
68Eng2
78Nov1
85Sch1
87Yup1
88Top1
92Sch1

Geller, S., Wood, E.A.: Acta Crystallogr. 7 (1954) 441


Bhan, S., Schubert, K.: Z. Metallkd. 51 (1960) 327
Engstrm, I.: Acta Chem. Scand. 17 (1963) 775
Engstrm, I.: Acta Chem. Scand. 19 (1965) 1924
Engstrm, I., Persson, E.: Acta Chem. Scand. 22 (1968) 3120
Engstrm, I.: Acta Chem. Scand. 22 (1968) 3127
Novoselov, B.M., Dubinin, E.L., Timofeev, A.I., Chegodaev, A.I., Demidovich, O.V.:
Tezisy Nauchn. Soobshch. Vses. Konf. Str. Svoistvam Met. Third 2 (1978) 5
Schellenberg, L., Jorda, J.L., Mller, L.: J. Less-Common Met. 109 (1985) 261
Yupko, L.M.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 296 (1987) 100
Topor, L., Kleppa, O.J.: Metall. Trans. A 19 (1988) 1061
Schlesinger, M.E.: J. Phase Equilibria 13 (1992) 54

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Sm

Rh-Sm (Rhodium-Samarium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
On the basis of known intermediate phases and assuming that the phase diagram of Rh-Sm system is
similar to that of Rh-Nd system, Moffatt [90Mof1] has proposed a phase diagram, which has been
redrawn with some modification by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter source information has been
taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Sm. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Sm

Table 1. Rh-Sm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Rh 3 Sm
Rh 2 Sm
RhSm
Rh 4 Sm 5
Rh 2 Sm 3
Rh 3 Sm 7

hex
cub
cub
orth
hex
hex

CeNi 3
Cu 2 Mg
CsCl
Ge 4 Sm 5
Er 3 Ni 2
Fe 3 Th 7

0.5251
0.7540
0.3466
0.7335
0.8701
0.9903

b [nm]

1.467

c [nm]

Ref.

0.7557
1.6526
0.6248

76Loe1
73Gha1
76Loe1
76Ram2
77LeR1
73Gha1

References
73Gha1
76Loe1
76Ram2
77LeR1
90Mas1
90Mof1

Ghassem, H., Raman, A.: Z. Metallkd. 64 (1973) 197


Loebich, O., Raub, E.: J. Less-Common Met. 46 (1976) 1
Raman, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 48 (1976) 111
Le Roy, J., Moreau, J.M., Paccard, D., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 33 (1977) 2414
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Sn

Rh-Sn (Rhodium-Tin)
Phase diagram
On the basis of experimental information taken from St. Claire Deville [1859StC1] and Schubert
[47Sch1], Hansen et al. [58Han1] have sketched a hypothetical phase diagram, which has been redrawn
with some modifications by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter source information has been taken to
draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Sn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Sn

Table 1. Rh-Sn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Rh 2 Sn
Rh 3 Sn 2
RhSn
RhSn 2
< 773 K
RhSn 2
> 773 K

orth
hex
cub
tetr

Co 2 Si
InNi 2
FeSi
RhSn 2

0.5520
0.4331
0.5122
0.4457

0.4221

0.8209
0.5542
1.7717

59Sch3
46Now1
47Sch1
56Hel1

tetr

Al 2 Cu

0.6398

0.5643

50Sch2

References
1859StC1
46Now1
47Sch1
50Sch2
56Hel1
58Han1
59Sch3
90Mas1

St. Claire Deville, Debroy, H.: Ann. Chim. Phys. 56 (1859) 385
Nowotny, H., Schubert, K., Dettinger, U.: Z. Metallkd. 37 (1946) 137
Schubert, K.: Z. Naturforsch. A 2 (1947) 120
Schubert, K., Pfisterer, H.: Z. Metallkd. 41 (1950) 433
Hellner, E.: Z. Kristallogr. 107 (1956) 99
Hansen, M., Anderko, K.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys", Second Edition, New York:
McGraw-Hill (1958)
Schubert, K., Lukas, H.L., Meissner, H.G., Bhan, S.: Z. Metallkd. 50 (1959) 534
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Sr

Rh-Sr (Rhodium-Strontium)
The phase diagram is not known.
The crystallographic data of Rh 2 Sr have been reported by Heumann et al. [57Heu1]. Its structure is
cubic (Cu 2 Mg-type) with lattice parameter a = 0.7695 nm.

References
57Heu1

Heumann, T., Kniepmeyer, M.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 290 (1957) 191

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Ta

Rh-Ta (Rhodium-Tantalum)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated thoroughly by Giessen et al. [64Gie2] using thermal analysis, Xray diffractography and metallography. The phase diagram has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1].
From the latter compilation information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Ta. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Lattice parameters of (Rh) solid solutions are plotted in Fig. 2 (taken from Kleykamp [89Kle1]).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Ta

Fig. 2. Rh-Ta. Lattice parameter for fcc (Rh) solid solution.

Table 1. Rh-Ta. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Rh 3 Ta
Rh 2 Ta
Rh 3 Ta 2
Rh 2 Ta 3
Rh 3 Ta 7

cub
orth
orth
tetr
tetr

Cu 3 Au
Co 2 Si

0.386
0.5454
1.3551
0.9754
0.9863

CrFe
CrFe

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.4027
0.2822

0.8179
0.4742
0.5058
0.5131

59Dwi1
64Gie1
64Gie2
56Gre1
64Gie2

References
56Gre1
59Dwi1
64Gie1
64Gie2
89Kle1
90Mas1

Greenfield, P., Beck, P.A.: Trans. AIME 206 (1956) 265


Dwight, A.E., Beck, P.A.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 215 (1959) 976
Giessen, B.C., Grant, N.J.: Acta Crystallogr. 17 (1964) 615
Giessen, B.C., Ibach, H., Grant, N.J.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 230 (1964) 113
Kleykamp, H.: J. Less-Common Met. 152 (1989) 15
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Tb

Rh-Tb (Rhodium-Terbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Accepting the intermediate phases reported in the literature and assuming similarity to Rh-Er system,
Moffatt [90Mof1] has proposed a hypothetical phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski
[90Mas1] and which has been taken as a basis for Fig. 1, too.

Fig. 1. Rh-Tb. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Tb

Table 1. Rh-Tb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Rh 5 Tb
Rh 2 Tb
RhTb
Rh 2 Tb 3
Rh 3 Tb 5
Rh 3 Tb 7
RhTb 3

hex
cub
cub
tetr
hex
hex
orth

CaCu 5
Cu 2 Mg
CsCl
Rh 2 Y 3
Mn 5 Si 3
Fe 3 Th 7
Fe 3 C

0.5134
0.7492
0.3417
1.125
0.8176
0.9788
0.7156

b [nm]

0.9505

c [nm]

Ref.

0.4290

73Gha1
73Gha1
65Dwi1
76Mor1
73Gha1
73Gha1
73Gha1

2.520
0.6385
0.6175
0.6308

References
65Dwi1
73Gha1
76Mor1
90Mas1
90Mof1

Dwight, A.E., Conner jr., R.A., Downey, J.W.: Acta Crystallogr. 18 (1965) 837
Ghassem, H., Raman, A.: Z. Metallkd. 64 (1973) 197
Moreau, J.M., Paccard, D., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 32 (1976) 1767
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Tc

Rh-Tc (Rhodium-Technetium)
Phase diagram
Intermediate phases have not been found in this system.
From data of mutual solubility of the components present in the literature ([63Dar1, 63Nie2]), Moffatt
[78Mof1], assuming similarity to binary phase diagrams of Tc, Re, Ru, Os (all cph) with Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt (all
fcc), has constructed a hypothetical phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis for Fig. 1 (see also
Massalski [90Mas1]).

Fig. 1. Rh-Tc. Tentative phase diagram.

References
63Dar1
63Nie2
78Mof1
90Mas1

Darby jr., J.V., Norton, L.J., Downey, J.W.: J. Less-Common Met. 5 (1963) 397
Niemiec, J.: Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Chim. 11 (1963) 665
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Te

Rh-Te (Rhodium-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Experimental investigations have been performed by Ding et al. [90Din1] (differential thermal analysis,
X-ray diffraction experiments) and Kjekshus et al. [78Kje1] (X-ray diffractography, metallographic
observations and differential thermal analysis). The reported results have been taken by Okamoto
[91Oka8] to construct an assessed phase diagram. This has been used as a basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Te. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Te

Table 1. Rh-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Rh 3 Te 2
RhTe
Rh 3 Te 4

orth
hex
mon

0.7694
0.3987
0.6812

1.2446

NiAs

0.3697
0.5661
1.123

66Zac1
55Gel2
68Plo1

RhTe 2x
RhTe 2+y

hex
cub

0.541

55Gel2
55Gro1

Rh 3 Te 8

hex

1.0988

78Kje1

CdI 2
FeS 2
(pyrite)
Rh 3 Se 8

0.392
0.6428
0.91443

0.3954
= 92.55

References
55Gel2
55Gro1
66Zac1
68Plo1
78Kje1
90Din1
91Oka8

Geller, S.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77 (1955) 2641


Groenveld Meijer, W.O.J.: Am. Mineral. 40 (1955) 646
Zachariasen, W.H.: Acta Crystallogr. 20 (1966) 334
Plovnick, R.H.: Inorg. Chem. 7 (1968) 2596
Kjekshus, A., Rakke, R., Andersen, A.F.: Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. A 32 (1978) 209
Ding, Z., Kleykamp, H., Thmmler, F.: J. Nucl. Mater. 17 (1990) 134
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991), Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams Updating
Service

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Th

Rh-Th (Rhodium-Thorium)
Phase diagram
The phase diagram proposed by Thomson [63Tho1] has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the
latter source data have been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Th. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Rh-Th. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Rh 3 Th
Rh 2 Th
Rh 4 Th 3
RhTh
Rh 3 Th 7

cub
hex
cub
orth
hex

Cu 3 Au
Ni 2 In

0.4146
0.4629
0.5085
0.3866
1.0031

CrB
Fe 3 Th 7

b [nm]

c [nm]
0.5849

1.124

0.4220
0.6287

Ref.
75Mur1
63Tho1
63Tho1
63Tho1
63Tho1

Thermodynamics
Using the EMF method, Murabayashi et al. [75Mur1] have determined enthalpies of formation of
intermediate phases. The results are given in Table 2.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Th

Table 2. Rh-Th. Enthalpy of formation


of intermediate phases (taken from
Murabayashi et al. [75Mur1].
H S [kJ g-atom1]

Phase
Rh 5 Th
Rh 3 Th
Rh 2 Th
Rh 5 Th 3
Rh 4 Th 3
RhTh
Rh 3 Th 7

56.1 1.3
83.7 1.3
98.4 1.3
105.5 1.3
111.4 0.8
129.7 1.3
79.1 4.1

References
63Tho1
75Mur1
90Mas1

Thomson, J.R.: J. Less-Common Met. 5 (1963) 437


Murabayashi, M., Kleykamp, H.: J. Less-Common Met. 39 (1975) 235
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Ti

Rh-Ti (Rhodium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Experimental investigations have been done by Raub et al. [66Rau1] (X-ray diffractography,
metallographic observations, thermal analysis) and by Eremenko et al. [72Ere1] as well as by Shtepa et al.
[75Sht1]. Murray [82Mur4, 90Mur1] stated that the phase diagram proposed by [72Ere1, 75Sht1] and that
reported by Raub et al. [66Rau1] are in some parts contradictory. Therefore he proposed a diagram
including both types of phase equilibria. This "double" phase diagram has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Ti. Phase diagram. Solid lines [66Rau1], dotted lines [72Ere1], dashed lines speculative or uncertain,
dashed-dotted line diffusionless.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Ti

Table 1. Rh-Ti. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Rh 3 Ti
Rh 5 Ti 3
RhTi
RhTi
RhTi 2

cub
orth
tetr
cub
tetr

Cu 3 Au
Ge 3 Rh 5
AuCu
CsCl
MoSi 2

0.3821
0.536
0.417
0.3126
0.3078

b [nm]

c [nm]

1.042

0.408
0.3354
0.9882

Ref.
66Rau1
69Gie1
64Ram1
88Yi1
66Ere1

Thermodynamics
The standard enthalpy of formation of RhTi has been determined calorimetrically by Topor et al.
[87Top2]. The value amounts to H S = 143.0 9.8 kJ mol1.

References
64Ram1
66Ere1
66Rau1
69Gie1
72Ere1
75Sht1
82Mur4
87Top2
88Yi1
90Mur1

Raman, A., Schubert, K.: Z. Metallkd. 55 (1964) 704


Eremenko, V.N., Shtepa, T.D., Sirotenko, V.G.: Sov. Powder Metall. Met. Ceram. (Engl.
Transl.) 5 (1966) 487
Raub, E., Rschel, E.: Z. Metallkd. 57 (1966) 546
Giessen, G.C., Wang, R., Grant, N.J.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 245 (1969) 1207
Eremenko, V.N., Shtepa, R.D.: Coll. Int. CNRS (Paris), (1972) 403
Shtepa, T.D.: Fiz. Khim. Kondens. Faz. Sverkhtverd. Mater. (1975) 175
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 3 (1982) 336
Topor, L., Kleppa, O.J.: private communication
Yi, S.S., Chen, B.H., Franzen, H.F.: J. Less-Common Met. 143 (1988) 243
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Tm

Rh-Tm (Rhodium-Thulium)
A reliable phase diagram is not known (see Massalski [90Mas1]).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Rh-Tm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Rh 2 Tm
RhTm
Rh 3 Tm5

cub
cub
hex

Cu 2 Mg
CsCl
Mn 5 Si 3

0.7416
0.3358
0.8058

c [nm]

Ref.

0.6252

66Dwi1
65Dwi1
82LeR1

References
65Dwi1
66Dwi1
82LeR1
90Mas1

Dwight, A.E., Conner jr., R.A., Downey, J.W.: Acta Crystallogr. 18 (1965) 837
Dwight, A.E., Downey, J.W., Conner jr., R.A.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 236 (1966) 1509
Le Roy, J., Moreau, J.M., Pacard, D.: J. Less-Common Met. 86 (1982) 63
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-U

Rh-U (Rhodium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Elliott [65Ell2] has reviewed the older reports on this system. Some later works have been mentioned and
discussed by Chiotti et al. [81Chi1]. Park [68Par2] has proposed a phase diagram. At last Massalski
[90Mas1] has reported a diagram which is similar to that of the previous mentioned author. This latter
phase diagram has been the basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-U

Table 1. Rh-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Rh 3 U
RhU 2

cub
mon

Cu 3 Au

0.3988
1.3122

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.3421
= 96.43

0.5159

81Fab1
65Ber1

Thermodynamics
Kleykamp [91Kle2], on the basis of EMF measurements, has proposed the standard enthalpy of formation
of Rh 3 U. The value amounts to H 0 = 297 4 kJ mol1. From measurements of gas equilibria, Prasad et
al. [93Pra1] have found H 0 = 314.4 3.0 kJ mol1 for the same phase. Also for the same intermediate
phase Jacob et al. [90Jac1] have found, using EMF measurements, H 0 = 293.2 4 kJ mol1.

References
65Ber1
65Ell2
68Par2
81Chi1

81Fab1
90Jac1
90Mas1
91Kle2
93Pra1

Berndt, A.F., Dwight, A.E.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 233 (1965) 2075
Elliott, R.P.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys, First Supplement", New York: McGraw-Hill
(1965)
Park, J.J.: J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. A 72 (1968) 1, 11
Chiotti, P., Akhachinskij, V.V., Ansara, I., Rand, M.H., in: "The Chemical
Thermodynamics of Actinide Elements and Compounds", Part 5, "The Actinide Binary
Alloys", V. Medvedev, M.H. Rand, E.E. Westrum jr. (eds.), F.L. Oetting (executive editor),
IAEA, Vienna, Austria (1981) 167
Faber jr., J., Lander, G.H., Brown, P.J., Delapalme, A.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A 37
(1981) 558
Jacob, K.T., Chandrasekharaiah, M.S.: Z. Metallkd. 81 (1990) 509
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Kleykamp, H.: Pure Appl. Chem. 63 (1991) 1401
Prasad, R., Sayi, Y.S., Radhakrishna, J., Yadav, C.S., Shankaran, P., Ckhapru, G.C.: J.
Alloys Compounds 199 (1993) 141

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-V

Rh-V (Rhodium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Waterstrat et al. [77Wat1] (metallography, X-ray diffraction
experiments, differential thermal analysis, electron microprobe analysis) and by Aksenova et al. [77Aks1]
(thermal analysis). Smith [89Smi1], after thorough discussion, has preferred the results obtained by
[77Wat1]. The assessed phase diagram proposed by him is redrawn by Smith [90Smi2] and from there
information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-V. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases and of marginal solid solutions are listed in Table 1 (taken
from Smith [89Smi1]).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-V

Table 1. Rh-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% V

Structure

Type

a [nm]

(Rh)

0
5
10
15
18
25
30
37.5
60
56
53
50
65
70
75
85
100

cub

Cu

cub

Cu 3 Au

orth
tetr

Rh 5 V 3
AuCu

orth
cub

IrV
Cr 3 Si

cub

0.3801
0.3800
0.3797
0.3793
0.3789
0.3784
0.3287
0.5420
0.3855
0.3870
0.3895
0.578
0.4788
0.4779
0.4784
0.3009
0.30282

Rh 3 V
Rh 5 V 3
RhV tetr
RhV orth
RhV 3
(V)

b [nm]

0.9276

0.655

c [nm]

0.4320
0.3599
0.3657
0.3599
0.278

Ref.
89Smi1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
77Wat1
58Pea1

References
58Pea1
77Aks1
77Wat1
89Smi1
90Smi2

Pearson, W.B.: "A Handbook of Lattice Spacings, and Structures of Metals and Alloys",
Oxford: Pergamon Press (1958)
Aksenova, O.V., Kuprina, V.V., Bernard, V.B., Skolozdra, R.O.: Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser.
2: Khim. 18 (1977) 429; Moscow. Univ. Chem. Bull. (Engl. Transl.) 32 (1977) 40
Waterstrat, R.M., Manuszewski, R.C.: J. Less-Common Met. 52 (1977) 293
Smith, J.F., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM,
Materials Park, Ohio (1989)
Smith, J.F., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-W

Rh-W (Rhodium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
An assessed phase diagram has been published by Nagender Naidu et al. [91Nag1], which is mainly
based on a report by Rapperport [62Rap1]. Solid-solid equilibria investigated by Raub et al. [51Rau1]
have been incorporated. The diagram reported by [91Nag1] has been taken as a source of information to
draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-W. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of components and of intermediate phases, as collected by Nagender Naidu et al.
[91Nag1], are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-W

Table 1. Rh-W. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% W

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

(Rh)

'

0
19.2
25

cub
hex
hex

Cu
Mg
Cd 3 Mg

0.37967
0.2708
0.5453

0.4328
0.4350

58Pea1
56Gre1
66Gie1

References
51Rau1
56Gre1
58Pea1
62Rap1
66Gie1
91Nag1

Raub, E., Walter, P., in: Festschrift aus Anla des 100-jhrigen Jubilums der Firma W. C.
Heraeus GmbH., Hanau (1951) 124
Greenfield, P., Beck, P.A.: Trans. AIME 206 (1956) 265
Pearson, W.B.: "A Handbook of Lattice Spacings, and Structures of Metals and Alloys",
Oxford: Pergamon Press (1958)
Rapperport, E.J., Smith, M.F.: "Refractory Metal Constitution Diagrams", Tech. Rep.
WADD-TR-60-132 Pt. II., (AD 287548) (1962) 8
Giessen, B.C., Jaehnigen, U., Grant, N.J.: J. Less-Common Met. 10 (1966) 147
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten Alloys",
S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams,
The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Y

Rh-Y (Rhodium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Assuming similarity to the phase diagram of the Rh-Gd system and accepting the existence of the
intermediate phases reported in the literature, Moffat [90Mof1] has proposed a schematic phase diagram,
which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information has been taken
to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases, are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Y

Table 1. Rh-Y. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Rh 5 Y
Rh 3 Y
Rh 2 Y
RhY
Rh 2 Y 3
Rh 3 Y 7
RhY 3

hex
hex
cub
cub
tetr
hex
orth

CaCu 5
CeNi 3
Cu 2 Mg
CsCl
Rh 2 Y 3
Fe 3 Th 7
Fe 3 C

0.5141
0.5230
0.7490
0.3410
1.1232
0.9775
0.7138

b [nm]

0.9438

c [nm]

Ref.

0.4294
1.738

73Gha1
73Gha1
85Har1
65Geb1
76Mor1
72Ram1
72Ram1

2.516
0.6190
0.6319

References
65Geb1
72Ram1
73Gha1
76Mor1
85Har1
90Mas1
90Mof1

Geballe, T.H., Matthias, B.T., Compton, V.B., Corenzwit, E., Hull jr., G.W., Longinotti,
L.D.: Phys. Rev. 137 (1965) A119
Raman, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 26 (1972) 199
Ghassem, H., Raman, A.: Z. Metallkd. 64 (1973) 197
Moreau, J.M., Paccard, D., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 32 (1976) 1767
Harrus, A., Mihalisin, T., Kemly, E.: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 47+48 (1985) 93
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Yb

Rh-Yb (Rhodium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
Parts of the phase diagram have been sketched by Iandelli et al. [76Ian1]. This uncompleted diagram has
been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and from there information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Yb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Yb

Table 1. Rh-Yb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Ref.

Rh 2 Yb
RhYb

cub
cub

Cu 2 Mg
CsCl

0.7432
0.3347

65Ell1
76Ian1

References
65Ell1
76Ian1
90Mas1

Elliot, R.P.: Proc. 4th Conf. Rare Earth Res., Phoenix (Arizona), 1964 (1965) 215
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: Rev. Chim. Miner. 13 (1976) 55
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Zn

Rh-Zn (Rhodium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Westgren et al. [30Wes1] have found the intermediate phase Rh 5 Zn 21 . The liquidus in the Zn-rich region
has been determined by Knighton et al. [61Kni1]. From this information Massalski [90Mas1] has
constructed rather small parts of the phase diagram, which have been the source of information to draw
the diagram in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Rh-Zn. Partial phase diagram.

References
30Wes1
61Kni1
90Mas1

Westgren, A., Eckman, W.: Ark. Kemi Mineral. Geol. B 10 (1930) Na 11


Knighton, J.B., Burris jr., L., Feder, H.M.: USAEC, ANL-6223 (1961)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Zr

Rh-Zr (Rhodium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Phases and phase equilibria have been investigated by Raman et al. [64Ram1], Zegler [65Zeg1],
Eremenko et al. [78Ere1, 78Ere2, 80Ere1, 83Ere3], and Jorda [88Jor2, 88Jor1]. After discussion of the
results reported by all these publications, Arias et al. [93Ari1] have proposed an assessed phase diagram.
This diagram has been taken as a source of data necessary to draw Fig. 1.
In the middle of the concentration range there is only poor agreement of the experimental data.
Obviously this is due to contamination of the samples by interstitials (see Abriata [85Abr1]). Therefore
the reliability of results in this concentration range is not high. The system should, as Arias et al. [93Ari1]
recommended, be reinvestigated.

Fig. 1. Rh-Zr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Zr

Table 1. Rh-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Rh 3 Zr
Rh 5 Zr 3
RhZr

cub
orth
cub

Cu 3 Au
Pd 5 Pu 3
CsCl

0.392
0.8663
0.3295

0.6986

0.8622

RhZr 2

tetr

Al 2 Cu

0.64937

0.56058

80Ere1
88Cen1
78Ere1 at
943 K
65Zeg1

Ni 3 P

1.0802
0.5055

0.5629
0.3103

85Can1
65Zeg1

Metastable phases
RhZr 3
tetr
97 at% Zr hex

Ref.

Metastable phases
By quenching from 1273 K (Zr) with 99.099.9 at% Zr transforms martensitically to (Zr) (Zegler
[65Zeg1]). In the concentration range from 96 to 98 at% Zr the same authors found by qenching a
metastable hexagonal phase. Jorda et al. [88Jor2] prepared by quenching metastable (Zr) solid
solutions at concentrations > 80 at% Zr. At 75 at% Zr Raub et al. [63Rau1] obtained a metastable phase
RhZr 3 of NiTi 2 -type. Obviously, this phase is stabilized by small amounts of oxygen (Nevitt et al.
[60Nev1]).
At concentrations > 66 at% Zr metallic glasses have been prepared (Drehman et al. [79Dre1],
Bowman et al. [88Bow1]).

Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of formation of some intermediate phases have been determined by Jorda et al. [88Jor2] (direct
reaction calorimetry) and Topor et al. [87Top1] (mixing calorimetry). The results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Rh-Zr. Enthalpy of formation of intermediate phases
determined by calorimetry.
Phase

H S [kJ g-atom1]

Ref.

Rh 3 Zr
RhZr

72.0
75.8
75.9 3.6
55.4

88Jor2
88Jor2
87Top1
88Jor2

RhZr 2

References
60Nev1
63Rau1
64Ram1

Nevitt, M.V., Downey, J.W., Morries, R.A.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 218 (1960) 1019
Raub, C.J., Andersen, C.A.: Z. Physik 175 (1963) 105
Raman, A., Schubert, K.: Z. Metallkd. 55 (1964) 704

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Rh-Zr
65Zeg1
78Ere1
78Ere2
79Dre1
80Ere1
83Ere3
85Abr1
85Can1
87Top1
88Bow1
88Cen1
88Jor1
88Jor2
93Ari1

Zegler, S.T.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26 (1965) 1347


Eremenko, V.N., Semenova, E.L., Shtepa, T.D., V. Kudrjavtsev, Yu.: Dopov. Akad. Nauk
Ukr. RSR, Ser. A, Fiz. Mat. Tekh. Nauki (1978) 943
Eremenko, V.N., Semenova, E.L., Shtepa, T.D.: Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) 2 (1978) 158
Drehman, A.J., Johnson, W.L.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 52 (1979) 499
Eremenko, V.N., Semenova, E.L., Shtepa, T.D.: Diagr. Sostoyaniya Tugoplavk Sistem,
Akademia Nauk Ukr. SSR, Kiev (1980) 119
Eremenko, V.N., Semenova, E.L., Shtepa, T.D.: Term. Anal. Fazovye Ravnovesiya, F.R.
Verzhbitskii, (ed.), Permsk. Gros. Univ., Perm USSR (1983) 109
Abriata, J.P., in: "Alloy Theory and Phase Equilibria", D. Farkas, F. Dyment (eds.), Am.
Soc. Met. (1985) 69
Cantrell, J.S., Wagner, J.E., Bowman jr., R.C.: J. Appl. Phys. (New York) 57 (1985) 545
Topor, L., Kleppa, O.J.: J. Less-Common Met. 135 (1987) 67
Bowman jr., R.C., Cantrell, J.S., Samwer, K., Tebbe, J., Venturini, E.L., Rush, J.J.: Phys.
Rev. B 37 (1988) 8575
Cenzual, K., Jorda, J.L., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C 44 (1988) 14
Jorda, J.L., Gachon, J.C., Charles, J., Hertz, J.: J. Therm. Anal. (Engl. Transl.) 34 (1988)
551
Jorda, J.L., Graf, T., Schellenberg, L., Mller, J., Cenzual, K., Gachon, J.C., Hertz, J.: J.
Less-Common Met. 136 (1988) 313
Arias, D., Abriata, J.P.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 110

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-S

Ru-S (Ruthenium-Sulfur)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, and metallographic observations, Bryukvin et
al. [89Bry1] have determined phase equilibria in the concentration range < 66.6 at% S. There has been
found only one intermediate phase by Juza et al. [33Juz1]: RuS 2 . The results obtained by Bryukvin et al.
[89Bry1] have been used by Okamoto [91Oka6] to sketch a provisional partial phase diagram, which has
been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-S. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of RuS 2 have been determined several times. Knop et al. [63Kno1] found a cubic
structure (FeS 2 (pyrite)-type) with lattice constant a = 0.56103 nm.

References
33Juz1
63Kno1
89Bry1
91Oka6

Juza, R., Meyer, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 213 (1933) 273
Knop, O.: Can. J. Chem. 41 (1963) 1832
Bryukvin, V.A., Pavlyuchenko, N.M., Blagoveshchenskaya, N.V., Fishman, B.A.: Izv.
Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1989) 28; Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1989) 22
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 620

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Sb

Ru-Sb (Ruthenium-Antimony)
Phase diagram
Caillat et al. [93Cai1] have reported a partial phase diagram, which has been assessed by Okamoto
[95Oka1]. From the last mentioned publication information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Sb. Partial phase diagram ( 40 at% Sb).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Sb

Table 1. Ru-Sb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

RuSb
RuSb 2
66.768 at% Sb

orth
orth

MnP
Fe 2 S
(marcasite)

0.59608
0.59524

0.37023
0.66737

0.65797
0.31803

77End1
68Hol2

References
68Hol2
77End1
93Cai1
95Oka1

Holseth, A., Kjekshus, A.: Acta Chem. Scand. 22 (1968) 3273


Endresen, K., Furuseth, S., Selte, K., Kjekshus, A., Rokke, T., Andresen, A.F.: Acta Chem.
Scand. Ser. A 31 (1977) 249
Caillat, T., Borshchevaky, A., Fleurial, J.P.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 576
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 101

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Sc

Ru-Sc (Ruthenium-Scandium)
Phase diagram
Savitskii et al. [71Sav2] have investigated the phase equilibria. More reliable results have been obtained
by Eremenko et al. [95Ere1] (X-ray diffractography, metallography, differential thermal analysis,
microprobe analysis). The phase diagram published by the latter authors has been assessed by Okamoto
[95Oka8]. This diagram has been used as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Sc. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Sc

Table 1. Ru-Sc. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Ru 2 Sc
RuSc
Ru 3 Sc 5
RuSc 2
Ru 4 Sc 11
Ru 13 Sc 57
Ru 7 Sc 44

cub
cub
hex
cub
cub
cub
cub

Cu 2 Mg
CsCl
Mn 5 Si 3
Ti 2 Ni
Os 4 Zr 11
Sc 57 Rh 13
Mg 44 Rh 7

0.5119
0.3203
0.803
1.230
1.3367
1.4394
2.075

0.8542

59Com1
62Ald1
95Ere1
95Ere1
80Cha1
85Cen1
95Ere1

0.548

Thermodynamics
By direct synthesis calorimetry at 1473 2 K Selhaoui et al. [93Sel1] have determined the standard
enthalpy of formation of RuSc. The value amounts to H S = 44.5 2.2 kJ g-atom1.

References
59Com1
62Ald1
71Sav2
80Cha1
85Cen1
93Sel1
95Ere1
95Oka8

Compton, V.B., Matthias, B.T.: Acta Crystallogr. 12 (1959) 651


Aldred, A.T.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 224 (1962) 1082
Savitskii, E.M., Polyakova, V.P., Gorina, N.B.: Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1971) 117
Chabot, B., Cenzual, K., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 36 (1980) 7
Cenzual, K., Chabot, B., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C 41 (1985) 313
Selhaoui, N., Kleppa, O.J.: J. Alloys Compounds 191 (1993) 145
Eremenko, V.N., Khorujaya, V.G., Martsenyuk, P.S., Komiyenko, K.Ye.: J. Alloys
Compounds 217 (1995) 213
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 475

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Se

Ru-Se (Ruthenium-Selenium)
Phase diagram
Zhao et al. [85Zha1] found the intermediate phase RuSe 2 , Moffatt [88Mof1] sketched the phase diagram,
which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and from there information has been taken to draw
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Se. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
As mentioned, RuSe 2 is the only one intermediate phase in this system. Its structure is cubic (Fe 2 S
(pyrite)-type) with lattice parameter a = 0.5935 nm (Stassen et al. [68Sta1]).

References
68Sta1
85Zha1
88Mof1
90Mas1

Stassen, W.N., Heyding, R.D.: Can. J. Chem. 46 (1968) 2159


Zhao, H., Schils, H.W., Raub, C.J.: J. Less-Common Met. 113 (1985) 75
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1988)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Si

Ru-Si (Ruthenium-Silicon)
Phase diagram
Weitzer et al. [88Wei1] have investigated experimentally the phase equilibria. Massalski [90Mas1] has
redrawn the phase diagram. This diagram has been taken as a basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Si. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Si

Table 1. Ru-Si. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Ru 2 Si
Ru 5 Si 3
Ru 4 Si 3
RuSi
RuSi
Ru 2 Si 3
Ru 2 Si 3

orth
orth
orth
cub
cub
orth
tetr

Co 2 Si
Ge 3 Rh 5
Rh 3 Si 4
FeS
CsCl
Ru 2 Si 3

0.52835
0.52457
1.71584
0.47075
0.29073
1.1060
0.552

0.40044
0.98190
0.40239

0.74186
0.40236
0.51872

0.8952

0.5530
0.446

88Wei1
88Wei1
88Wei1
88Wei1
88Wei1
74Isr1
51Bud1

References
51Bud1
74Isr1
88Wei1
90Mas1

Buddery, J.H., Welch, A.J.E.: Nature (London) 167 (1951) 362


Israiloff, P., Vllenkle, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 105 (1974) 1313
Weitzer, F., Rogl, P., Schuster, J.C.: Z. Metallkd. 79 (1988) 154
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Sm

Ru-Sm (Ruthenium-Samarium)
Phase diagram
The Sm-rich part of the phase diagram has been determined experimentally by Palenzona et al. [89Pal1]
(differential thermal analysis). On the basis of the results reported, Okamoto [91Oka3] has sketched the
whole phase diagram, as has been done before by Moffatt [88Mof1]. The assessed phase diagram
[91Oka3] has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Sm. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Sm

Table 1. Ru-Sm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Ru 2 Sm
Ru 25 Sm 44
Ru 2 Sm 5

cub
orth
mon

Cu 2 Mg
Ru 25 Y 44

0.7580
2.8339
1.6083

RuSm 3

orth

Fe 3 C

0.7330

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.5451
0.6483
= 96.89
0.9461

1.5451
0.7314

61Dwi2
89Pal1
79Pal1

0.6334

79Pal1

References
61Dwi2
79Pal1
88Mof1
89Pal1
91Oka3

Dwight, A.E.: Trans. ASM 53 (1961) 479


Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 66 (1979) P27
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1988)
Palenzona, A., Canepa, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 155 (1989) L 31
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 253

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Sn

Ru-Sn (Ruthenium-Tin)
Phase diagram
Using information from Schwomma et al. [64Sch4], Massalski [90Mas1] has sketched a phase diagram,
which has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Sn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Sn

Table 1. Ru-Sn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Ru 2 Sn 3
RuSn 2
Ru 3 Sn 7

tetr
tetr
cub

Ru 2 Sn 3
Al 2 Cu
Ge 7 Ir 3

0.6172
0.6389
0.9351

0.9915
0.5693

64Sch4
64Sch4
47Nia1

References
47Nia1
64Sch4
90Mas1

Nial, O.: Sven. Kem. Tidskr. 59 (1947) 172


Schwomma, O., Nowotny, H., Wittmann, A.: Monatsh. Chem. 95 (1964) 1538
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Ta

Ru-Ta (Ruthenium-Tantalum)
Phase diagram
Contributions to the knowledge of the phase equilibria have been done by Kaufmann et al. [60Kau1],
Tsukamoto et al. [89Tsu1], and Chen et al. [90Che1]. Okamoto [91Oka5], after short discussion, has
proposed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Ta. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Lattice parameters of bcc (Ru) solid solutions and of cph (Ta) solid solutions are plotted in Fig. 2 and
Fig. 3, respectively (taken from Raub et al. [63Rau2]).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Ta

Fig. 2. Ru-Ta. Lattice parameter for bcc (Ru) solid solution [63Rau2].

Fig. 3. Ru-Ta. Lattice parameter for cph (Ta) solid solution [63Rau2].

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Ta

Table 1. Ru-Ta. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% Ta

Structure

Type

a [nm]

RuTa

48.2
50
70
45
48.2
50
50
55
60
50
50
50
51.8
52.2

cub

CsCl

tetr

AuCu

0.3176
0.3187
0.3201
0.3032
0.3066
0.3020
0.3100
0.3102
0.3114
0.4351
0.4371
0.4368
0.4385
0.4385

RuTa'

RuTa''

orth

b [nm]

0.4199
0.4247
0.4241
0.4199
0.4277

c [nm]

Ref.

0.3385
0.3380
0.3395
0.3340
0.3220
0.3227
0.3388
0.3391
0.3387
0.3304
0.3376

69Rie1
69Rie1
63Rau2
70Sch1
69Rie1
63Rau2
69Rie1
70Sch1
63Rau2
63Rau2
69Rie1
70Sch1
69Rie1
70Sch1

References
60Kau1
63Rau2
69Rie1
70Sch1
89Tsu1
90Che1
91Oka5

Kaufmann, A.R., Rapperport, E.J., Smith, M.F., Wulff, J., Brophy, J., Grant, N.J., Giessen,
B.C., Taylor, A., Doyle, N.: U.S.A.F. WADD Tech. Rep. 60-13 (1960) 181
Raub, E., Beskow, H., Fritzsche, W.: Z. Metallkd. 54 (1963) 451
Rietveld, H.M.: J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2 (1969) 65
Schmerling, M.A., Das, B.K., Lieberman, D.S.: Metall. Trans. 1 (1970) 3273
Tsukamoto, T., Koyama, K., Oota, A., Noguchi, S.: Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi 53 (1989)
253
Chen, B.H., Franzen, H.F.: J. Less-Common Met. 157 (1990) 37
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 395

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Tb

Ru-Tb (Ruthenium-Terbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
On the basis of intermediate phases present in the literature, after some discussion Moffatt [90Mof1]
has sketched a provisional phase diagrm, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] (considering
more recent results concerning intermediate phases). From the latter compilation information has been
taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Tb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Tb

Table 1. Ru-Tb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Ru 2 Tb
Ru 2 Tb 5

hex
mon

MgZn 2
B 2 Pd 5

0.5263
1.5745

RuTb 3

orth

Fe 3 C

0.7294

b [nm]
0.6318
= 97.21
0.9248

c [nm]

Ref.

0.8867
0.7279

66Dwi1
79Pal1

0.6280

79Pal1

References
66Dwi1
79Pal1
90Mas1
90Mof1

Dwight, A.E., Downey, J.W., Conner jr., R.A.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 236 (1966) 1509
Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 66 (1979) P27
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Tc

Ru-Tc (Ruthenium-Technetium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Darby jr. et al. [62Dar1] have found a continuous miscibility of the components in the solid state.

References
62Dar1

Darby jr., J.B., Lam, D.J., Norton, L.J., Downey, J.W.: J. Less-Common Met. 4 (1962) 558

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Te

Ru-Te (Ruthenium-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Only one intermediate phase has been found in this system (Zhao et al. [85Zha1]). Its transformation
from pyrite to marcasite structure on cooling has been investigated by Kjekshus et al. [75Kje1]. On the
basis of these facts, Moffatt [88Mof1] has sketched a tentative phase diagram, which has been redrawn by
Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation data have been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Te. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of RuTe 2 are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Ru-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

RuTe 2

cub

0.63910

RuTe 2

orth

Fe 2 S
(pyrite)
Fe 2 S
(marcasite)

0.52953

b [nm]

c [nm]

87Lut1
0.64126

0.40146

References
75Kje1
82Zha1

Kjekshus, A., Rakke, T.: Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. A 29 (1975) 443
Zhao, H., Schils, H.W., Raub, C.J.: J. Less-Common Met. 86 (1982) L 13

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ref.

82Zha1

Ru-Te
85Zha1
87Lut1
88Mof1
90Mas1

Zhao, H., Schils, H.W., Raub, C.J.: J. Less-Common Met. 113 (1985) 75
Lutz, H.D., Jung, M., Wschenbach, G.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 554 (1987) 87
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1988)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Th

Ru-Th (Ruthenium-Thorium)
Phase diagram
Thomson [63Tho1] has reported the phase diagram, Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it. From these
authors data have been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Th. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Ru-Th. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Ru 2 Th
RuTh
Ru 3 Th 7

cub
orth
hex

Cu 2 Mg
CrB
Fe 3 Th 7

0.7654
0.3879
0.9969

1.126

0.4069
0.6302

74Kle1
74Kle1
63Tho1

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Th

Thermodynamics
Using an EMF method, Murabayashi et al. [75Mur1] have determined the enthalpy of formation of some
intermediate phases. The results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Ru-Th. Enthalpy of formation
of intermediate phases [75Mur1].
Phase

H [kJ g-atom1]

Ru 2 Th
RuTh
Ru 2 Th 3
Ru 3 Th 7

49.8 4
60.0 3
56.5 3
54.8 2.5

References
63Tho1
74Kle1
75Mur1
90Mas1

Thomson, J.R.: J. Less-Common Met. 5 (1963) 437


Kleykamp, H., Murabayashi, M.: J. Less-Common Met. 35 (1974) 227
Murabayashi, M., Kleykamp, H.: J. Less-Common Met. 39 (1975) 235
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Ti

Ru-Ti (Ruthenium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been determined by Raub et al. [63Rau4], Eremenko et al. [73Ere1], and Boriskina
et al. [76Bor1]. As Murray [90Mur1, 82Mur3] stated, the reported phase diagrams are in some
quantitative disagreement. Possibly this is due to different contamination of the alloys with oxygen and
the different heat treatment to achieve equilibrium in the solid state. Murray [90Mur1] has preferred the
results reported by Eremenko et al. [73Ere1] and by Boriskina et al. [76Bor1] to construct an assessed
phase diagram. These authors have used, obviously, purer metals. The diagram reported by Murray
[90Mur1] has been used as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Ti. Phase diagram.

Metastable phases
At low Ru concentrations by quenching (Ti) transforms martensitically to ('Ti) (cph structure). At
concentrations > 2 at% Ru by martensitic transformation orthorhombic (''Ti) is obtained (Guseva et al.
[73Gus1], Boriskina et al. [76Bor1]). At concentrations > 2 at% Ru, (Ti) does not transform
martensitically.
At concentrations between 3.8 and 10.5 at% Ru by quenching Guseva et al. [73Gus1] and Boriskina et
al. [76Bor1] found a metastable phase (cph structure). This metastable phase, also, can be obtained by
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Ti

ageing metastable (Ti) at temperatures from 473 K to 723 K.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of RuTi and of metastable phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Ru-Ti. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

at% Ru

Structure

Type

a [nm]

RuTi

4553

cub

CsCl

0.3076
at 45 at% Ru

Metastable phases
02
('Ti)

hex

Mg

(''Ti)

orth

0.2943
at 1.19 at% Ru
0.3015
at 2.39 at% Ru

23.5

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.
63Rau4

0.4981

0.4691

73Gus1

0.4666

73Gus1

Thermodynamics
Using the EMF method, Kleykamp [91Kle1] has determined the standard enthalpy of formation of Ru 3 U.
The value amounts to H 0 = 154 4 kJ mol1.

References
63Rau4
73Ere1
73Gus1
76Bor1
82Mur3
90Mur1
91Kle1

Raub, E., Roeschel, E.: Z. Metallkd. 54 (1963) 455


Eremenko, V.N., Shtepa, T.D., Khoruzkaya, V.G.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1973) 204;
Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1973) 155
Guseva, L.N., Boriskina, N.G., Dolinskaya, L.K.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1973) 215;
Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1973) 182
Boriskina, N.G., Kornilov, I.I.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1976) 162
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 3 (1982) 216
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Kleykamp, H.: J. Less-Common Met. 167 (1991) 373

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Tm

Ru-Tm (Ruthenium-Thulium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Blazina et al. [87Bla1] have investigated intermediate phases in this system (see below). On the basis
of this work and assuming similarity to other Ru-Rare-Earth systems, Moffatt [90Mof1] has sketched a
hypothetical phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation
information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.
It should be pointed out that the phase RuTm (CsCl-type) mentioned by Dwight et al. [63Dwi1], could
not be confirmed by Sharifrazi et al. [84Sha1].

Fig. 1. Ru-Tm. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Tm

Table 1. Ru-Tm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Ru 2 Tm
Ru 2 Tm5

hex
mon

MgZn 2
B 2 Pd 5

0.5246
1.5362

RuTm3

orth

Fe 3 C

0.7260

b [nm]
0.6152
= 97.44
0.8986

c [nm]

Ref.

0.8790
0.7229

65Ell1
79Pal1

0.6173

79Pal1

References
63Dwi1
65Ell1
79Pal1
84Sha1
87Bla1
90Mas1
90Mof1

Dwight, A.E., Darby jr., J.B.: USAEC, ANL-6868 (1963) 303


Elliot, R.P.: Proc. 4th Conf. Rare Earth Res., Phoenix (Arizona), 1964 (1965) 215
Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 66 (1979) P27
Sharifrazi, P., Mohanty, R.C., Raman, A.: Z. Metallkd. 75 (1984) 801
Blazina, Z., Mohanty, R.C., Raman, A.: Z. Metallkd. 78 (1987) 485
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-U

Ru-U (Ruthenium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, metallographic examinations, and X-ray diffractography, Park [68Par1] has
investigated phase equilibria. On the basis of the results obtained there, Chiotti et al. [82Chi1, 90Chi1]
have drawn an assessed phase diagram, which has been used to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-U

Table 1. Ru-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Ru 3 U
RuU 2

cub
mon

Cu 3 Au
RuU 2

0.3988
1.3106

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.3343
= 96.17

0.5202

70Hol1
65Ber2

Thermodynamics
Using the EMF method, Kleykamp [91Kle1] has determined the standard enthalpy of formation of Ru 3 U.
The value amounts to H 0 = 154 4 kJ mol1.

References
65Ber2
68Par1
70Hol1
82Chi1
90Chi1
91Kle1

Berndt, A.F., Dwight, A.E.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 233 (1965) 2078
Park, J.J.: J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. A 72 (1968) 1
Holleck, H., Kleykamp, N.: J. Nucl. Mater. 35 (1970) 158
Chiotti, P., Akhachinskii, V.V., Ansara, I., Rand, M.H.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2
(1982) 490
Chiotti, P., Akhachinskii, V.V., Ansara, I., Rand, M.H., in: "Binary Alloy Phase
Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information
Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Kleykamp, H.: J. Less-Common Met. 167 (1991) 373

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-V

Ru-V (Ruthenium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Investigations of phase equilibria have been performed by Raub et al. [63Rau3] (X-ray diffractography,
metallographic observations) and by Waterstrat et al. [76Wat1] (X-ray diffractography, metallography,
electron-microprobe analysis). Mainly on the basis of results reported by Waterstrat et al. [76Wat1],
Smith [90Smi2] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been used to construct Fig. 1.
It should be mentioned that in the range > 50 at% V two different structures are occuring. Near 50 at%
V the CsCl-type (B 2 ) can be observed. At high V-concentrations solid solutions with W-type structure
(A 2 ) is present. A two-phase region between these both homogeneous fields has not been found.
Therefore the dashed line near 75 at% V is drawn (see Fig. 1), which only indicates some kind of a limit
between the A 2 and the B 2 structure.
For a thorough discussion the reader is referred to Smith [87Smi1].

Fig. 1. Ru-V. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of phases occuring in the Ru-V system are listed in Table 1 (taken from [87Smi1]).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-V

Table 1. Ru-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% V

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Ru

0
10
20
30
50
50
60
70
80
90
100

hex
hex
hex
hex
tetr ?
cub
cub
cub
cub
cub
cub

Mg
Mg
Mg
Mg

0.27053
0.2706
0.2701
0.2701
0.2944
0.3003
0.2999
0.2999
0.2998
0.3017
0.30238

0.44580
0.4292
0.4295
0.4313
0.3126

81Kin1
76Wat1
76Wat1
76Wat1
76Wat1
76Wat1
76Wat1
76Wat1
76Wat1
76Wat1
81Kin1

RuV
RuV
(V)

CsCl
CsCl
CsCl
W
W
W

References
63Rau3
76Wat1
81Kin1
87Smi1
90Smi2

Raub, E., Fritzsche, W.: Z. Metallkd. 54 (1963) 21


Waterstrat, R.M., Manuszewski, R.C.: J. Less-Common Met. 48 (1976) 151
King, H.W.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1981) 401
Smith, J.F.: J. Alloy Phase Diagrams 3 (1987) 133
Smith, J.F., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-W

Ru-W (Ruthenium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
Rapperport et al. [64Rap1] have investigated the phase equilibria (electron-microprobe analysis of twophase alloys and diffusion couples, metallographic observations, X-ray diffractography). Some
determinations of solubility in the solid state have been done by Raub et al. [51Rau1]). Nagender Naidu et
al. [91Nag1] have taken the results published by Rapperport et al. [64Rap1] and Raub et al. [51Rau1] to
construct an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-W. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of phases present in this system have been collected by Nagender Naidu et al.
[91Nag1] and are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-W

Table 1. Ru-W. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% W

(Ru)

0
5.8
12.1
19.2
35.6

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

hex

Mg

0.27053
0.2709
0.2717
0.2725
0.2746

0.42814
0.4283
0.4320
0.4344
0.4408

81Kin1
51Rau1

0.2706
0.2715
0.2725
0.2737
0.2751

0.4282
0.4299
0.4333
0.4375
0.4410

64Rap1

0.496
0.4972
0.4972

57Obr1
64Rap1

0
7.0
18.6
29.6
40.3

(W)

60.0
61.7
65.4

tetr

CrFe

0.955
0.9554
0.9561

85.0
91.9
100
100

cub

0.3157
0.3159
0.3165
0.31651

64Rap1
81Kin1

References
51Rau1
57Obr1
64Rap1
81Kin1
91Nag1

Raub, E., Walter, P., in: Festschrift aus Anla des 100-jhrigen Jubilums der Firma W. C.
Heraeus GmbH., Hanau (1951) 124
Obrowski, W.: Naturwissenschaften 44 (1957) 581
Rapperport, E.J., Smith, M.F.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 230 (1964) 6
King, H.W.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1981) 401
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten Alloys",
S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams,
The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Y

Ru-Y (Ruthenium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Savitskii et al. [72Sav1] have experimentally determined some phase equilibria. Moffatt [85Mof1] has
sketched a provisional phase diagram regarding similarity to Ru-Gd and Ru-Er systems taking as a basis
intermediate phases present in the literature. Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn with some modifications
this phase diagram, which, at last, has been used as a basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Y

Table 1. Ru-Y. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Ru 2 Y
Ru 25 Y 44
Ru 2 Y 5

hex
orth
mon

MgZn 2
Ru 25 Y 44
B 2 Pd 5

0.5275
2.8081
1.5769

RuY 3

orth

Fe 3 C

0.7342

b [nm]
1.51955
0.6341
= 97.20
0.9214

c [nm]

Ref.

0.8851
1.51959
0.7320

84Sha1
89For1
80Cen1

0.6333

84Sha1

References
72Sav1
80Cen1
84Sha1
85Mof1
89For1
90Mas1

Savitskii, E.M., Polyakova, V.P., Roshan, N.R.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1972) 129;
Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1972) 97
Cenzual, K., Palenzona, A., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 36 (1980) 1631
Sharifrazi, P., Mohanty, R.C., Raman, A.: Z. Metallkd. 75 (1984) 801
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1985)
Fornasini, M.L., Gunoli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 154 (1989) 149
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Yb

Ru-Yb (Ruthenium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
Iandelli et al. [76Ian1] have investigated experimentally some phases and phase equilibria. Massalski
[90Mas1] has redrawn the phase diagram. From the latter compilation information has been taken to
construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Yb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Ru-Yb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Ru 2 Yb
RuYb

hex
cub

MgZn 2
CsCl

0.5220
0.3360

0.8750

65Ell1
76Ian1

References
65Ell1
76Ian1

Elliot, R.P.: Proc. 4th Conf. Rare Earth Res., Phoenix (Arizona), 1964 (1965) 215
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: Rev. Chim. Miner. 13 (1976) 55

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Yb
90Mas1

Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Zn

Ru-Zn (Ruthenium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Edstrm et al. [71Eds1] have found and investigated the phase RuZn 6 . Knighton et al. [61Kni1] have
determined the solubility of Ru in molten Zn. On the basis of these two facts, Massalski [90Mas1] has
drawn a partial phase diagram, from which information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Zn. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The structure of RuZn 6 is cubic (RuZn 6 -type) with a lattice constant of a = 1.55575 nm (Edstrm et al.
[71Eds1]).

References
61Kni1
71Eds1
90Mas1

Knighton, J.B., Burris jr., L., Feder, H.M.: USAEC, ANL-6223 (1961)
Edstrm, V.A., Westman, S.: Chem. Scr., Stockholm 1 (1971) 137
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Zr

Ru-Zr (Ruthenium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Experimental work to elucidate phase equilibria of the Ru-Zr system have been done by Raub et al.
[63Rau4] (X-ray diffractography, metallography, pyrometric examinations) and by Eremenko et al.
[88Ere1] (thermal analysis, metallographic observations, X-ray diffractography). From the results of these
two investigations, Okamoto [93Oka2] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken
as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ru-Zr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1 (taken from Okamoto [93Oka2]).
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ru-Zr

Table 1. Ru-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% Zr

(Ru)

0
0
0.25
0.35
0.50
33.3

Ru 2 Zr
RuZr
Zr
Zr

50
100
100

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

hex

Mg

hex

MgZn 2

0.42814
0.42816
0.42818
0.42822
0.42850
0.8507
0.8504
0.8509

cub
hex
cub

CsCl
Mg
W

0.27053
0.27058
0.27054
0.27054
0.27049
0.5141
0.5144
0.5141
0.3253
0.32317
0.3609

81Kin1
54Hel1
54Hel1
54Hel1
54Hel1
42Wal1
61Mat1
63Rau4
59Dwi2
81Kin1
82Kin1

0.51476

Thermodynamics
By high-temperature mixing calorimetry Topor et al. [88Top1] have determined the standard enthalpy of
formation of RuZr. The value amounts to H S = 137.3 6.8 kJ mol1 at 1400 K.

References
42Wal1
54Hel1
59Dwi2
61Mat1
63Rau4
81Kin1
82Kin1
88Ere1
88Top1
93Oka2

Wallbaum, H.J.: Naturwissenschaften 30 (1942) 149


Hellawell, A., Hume Rothery, W.: Philos. Mag. 45 (1954) 797
Dwight, A.E.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 215 (1959) 283
Matthias, B.T., Compton, V.B., Corenzwit, E.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19 (1961) 130
Raub, E., Roeschel, E.: Z. Metallkd. 54 (1963) 455
King, H.W.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1981) 401
King, H.W.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 3 (1982) 275; 308
Eremenko, V.N., Khoruzhaya, V.T., Shtepa, T.D.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1988) 197;
Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1988) 194
Topor, L., Kleppa, O.J.: Metall. Trans. A 19 (1988) 1061
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 225

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Sb

S-Sb (Sulfur-Antimony)
Phase diagram
Experimental investigations of phase equilibria have been done by Jaeger et al. [12Jae2], Lee et al.
[84Lee1] and Lee et al. [86Lee1]. The results reported by these authors have been taken by Massalski
[90Mas1] to construct a partial phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-Sb. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The intermediate phase S 3 Sb 2 is of orthorhombic structure (S 3 Sb 2 -type) with lattice parameter a = 1.1380
nm, b = 0.3829 nm, c = 1.1189 nm (Nayak et al. [83Nay1]).

Thermodynamics
At concentrations < 60 at% S and at temperatures between 750 K and 1350 K Lee et al. [86Lee1] have
determined the heat content of liquid alloys. By evaluation of the primary results there could be obtained
thermodynamic activities, integral enthalpies of mixing and integral entropies of mixing. The latter
mentioned thermodynamic values are plotted in Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, respectively.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Sb

Fig. 2. S-Sb. Thermodynamic activities of Sb and S3Sb2 in liquid alloys at 1300 K.

Fig. 3. S-Sb. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 1300 K.


Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Sb

Fig. 4. S-Sb. Entropy of mixing for liquid alloys at 1300 K.

References
12Jae2
83Nay1
84Lee1
86Lee1
90Mas1

Jaeger, F.M., van Klooster, H.S.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 78 (1912) 246
Nayak, B.B., Acharya, H.N., Mitra, G.B., Mathur, B.K.: Thin Solid Films 105 (1983) 17
Lee, Y.H., Kim, M.B.: J. Korean Inst. Met. Mater. 22 (1984) 1182
Lee, Y.H., Itagaki, T.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 27 (1986) 1182
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Sc

S-Sc (Sulfur-Scandium)
The phase diagram is not known.
The melting point of S 3 Sc 2 is T = 2048 K (White et al. [63Whi1], Dismukes et al. [64Dis1]).

Crystal structure
Crystallogaphic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Sc. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

S 3 Sc 2
SSc

orth
cub

S 3 Sc 2
NaCl

1.041
0.51660

0.738

2.205

64Dis1
70Ste1

References
63Whi1
64Dis1
70Ste1

White, J.G., Dismukes, J.P.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A 16 (supl.) (1963) 24


Dismukes, J.P., White, J.G.: Inorg. Chem. 3 (1964) 1220
Steiger, R.P., Cater, E.D.: High Temp. Sci. 2 (1970) 398

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Se

S-Se (Sulfur-Selenium)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been investigated using thermal analysis and dilatometry (Ringer [02Rin1]).
Hansen et al. [58Han1], on the basis of results of the former investigation have reported an assessed phase
diagram. Later on, Nakagawa [73Nak1] has reinvestigated the Se-rich part of the system. Regarding all
results present in the literature, Sharma et al. [96Sha1] have constructed an assessed phase diagram,
which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-Se. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The crystal structure of the phase is monoclinic (Se-type) with lattice constants a = 0.11316 nm, b =
0.9104 nm, c = 1.420 nm, = 142.0 (Weiss [77Wei1]).

Metastable phases
By solidification of liquid alloys often glassy phases can be prepared. By heating of these glasses
metastable crystalline phases can be obtained (see for instance Nakagawa [73Nak1], El'Mously et al.
[67ElM1], El'Mously et al. [78ElM1]). For more information see Sharma et al. [96Sha1].
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Se

Thermodynamics
Maekawa et al. [73Mae1] have determined enthalpies of mixing, H L . The results are plotted in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. S-Se. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys.

References
02Rin1
58Han1
67ElM1
73Mae1
73Nak1
77Wei1
78ElM1
96Sha1

Ringer, W.E.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 32 (1902) 183


Hansen, M., Anderko, K.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys", Second Edition, New York:
McGraw-Hill (1958)
El'Mously, M.K., Borisova, Z.U.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Inorg. Materials 3 (1967) 827
Maekawa, T., Yokokawa, T., Niwa, K.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 46 (1973) 761
Nakagawa, T.: Nippon Kagaku Kaishi (1973) 1826
Weiss, J.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 435 (1977) 113
El'Mously, M.K., Kotkata, M.F., Salam, S.A.: J. Phys. C 11 (1978) 1077
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A.: J. Phase Equilibria 17 (1996) 148

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Si

S-Si (Sulfur-Silicon)
Phase diagram
The solubility of S in solid (Si) has been determined by Carlson et al. [59Car1]. The results, as reported
by Massalski [90Mas1], have been taken to draw Fig. 1. The intermediate phase S 2 Si has a melting point
of 1363 K and a boiling point between 1373 K and 1473 K (Kohlmeyer et al. [50Koh1]).

Fig. 1. S-Si. Solubility of S in (Si) solid solution.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of S 2 Si are given in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Si. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

S 2 Si

orth

S 2 Si

0.9545

0.5564

0.5552

82Pet1

GeS 2

0.5420

0.8718

65Pre1

High-pressure phase
tetr
S 2 Si

References
50Koh1

Kohlmeyer, E.J., Ratzlaff, H.W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 261 (1950) 248

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Si
59Car1
65Pre1
82Pet1
90Mas1

Carlson, R.O., Hall, R.H., Pell, E.M.: Phys. Chem. Solids 8 (1959) 81
Previtt, C.T., Young, H.S.: Science (Washington) 149 (1965) 535
Peters, J., Krebs, B.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 38 (1982) 1270
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Sm

S-Sm (Sulfur-Samarium)
Phase diagram
Experimental investigations of phase equilibria have been done by Vasileva et al. [82Vas1] and Flahaut et
al. [59Fla1]. With the assumption that there are no intermediate phases existing at > 50 at% Sm, Moffatt
[85Mof1] has sketched a partial phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]
considering the existence of S 7 Sm5 (Besanon et al. [68Bes1]). This assessed phase diagram has been the
basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-Sm. Partial phase diagram ( 30 at% Sm).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Sm

Table 1. S-Sm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

S 2 Sm
S 3 Sm 2
S 7 Sm 5
S 4 Sm 3
SSm

cub
orth
tetr
cub
cub

Type
La 2 S 3
Th 3 P 4
NaCl

a [nm]
0.796
0.733
1.488
0.8523
0.5972

b [nm]

c [nm]

0.390

1.512
1.976

Ref.
59Fla1
68Eli1
69Bes1
78Hel1
88Nik1

References
59Fla1
68Bes1
68Eli1
69Bes1
78Hel1
82Vas1
85Mof1
88Nik1
90Mas1

Flahaut, J., Guittard, M.M., Patrie, M.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1959) 1917
Besanon, P.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 267 (1968) 1130
Eliseev, A.A., Laurier, J., Kola, G., Yarembash, E.I., Suleimanov, M.Kh.: J. Struct. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 9 (1968) 464
Besanon, P., Adolphe, C., Flahaut, J., Laurelle, P.: Mater. Res. Bull. 4 (1969) 227
Helm, H., Brninghausen, H.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 34 (1978) 2084
Vasileva, I.G., Gibner, Ya.I., Kurochkina, L.N., Mironov, K.E.: Inorg. Materials 18 (1982)
296
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1985)
Nikanorov, S.P., Burenkov, Yu.A., Lebedev, A.B., Golubkov, A.V., Zhukova, T.B.,
Smirnov, I.A.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 105 (1988) K103
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Sn

S-Sn (Sulfur-Tin)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Andersen et al. [43And1], Albers et al. [61Alb1],
Karakhanova et al. [66Kar1], and Moh [69Moh1]. The results obtained have been taken by Sharma et al.
[90Sha1] to draw an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-Sn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases (stable and metastable ones) have been collected in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Sn

Table 1. S-Sn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

SSn
SSn

orth
orth

GeS
BCr

1.1143
0.4128

0.3971
1.148

0.4336
0.4173

86Cha2
86Cha2

Metastable
SSn (m)
S 3 Sn 2
S 2 Sn

cub
orth
hex

NaCl
S 2 Sn 2
CdI 2

0.600
0.88672
0.3645

0.37477

1.40178
0.5891

67Mar1
81Epp1
77Ala1

References
43And1
61Alb1
66Kar1
67Mar1
69Moh1
77Ala1
81Epp1
86Cha2
90Sha1

Andersen, J.S., Ridge, M.J.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 39 (1943) 98


Albers, W., Schol, K.: Philips Res. Rep. 16 (1961) 329
Karakhanova, M.I., Pashinkin, A.S., Novoselova, A.V.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg.
Mater. 3 (1966) 991
Mariano, A.N., Chopra, K.L.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 10 (1967) 282
Moh, G.H.: Neues Jahrb. Miner. Abh. 111 (1969) 227
Al-Alamy, F.A.S., Balchin, A.A., White, M.: J. Mater. Sci. 12 (1977) 2037
Eppelsheimer, D.: Z. Kristallogr. 156 (1981) 36
Chattopadhyay, T., Pannetier, J., von Schnering, H.G.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 47 (1986) 879
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Sr

S-Sr (Sulfur-Strontium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Khan et al. [68Kha1] have investigated the thermal expansion coefficient of SSr and stated that this
intermediate phase is stable, at least, up to 546 K.
Using X-ray diffractography, Syassen [85Sya1] has investigated SSr at high pressures (up to 35 MPa).
A phase transition has been found at 18 MPa.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of known intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Sr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

S 3 Sr
S 2 Sr
SSr

orth
tetr
cub

S 3 Sr
Al 2 Cu
NaCl

0.6982
0.6095
0.60233

0.8032

0.7088
0.7616

74Sch1
76Kaw1
68Kha1

CsCl

0.3372

High pressure
SSr
cub

References
68Kha1
74Sch1
76Kaw1
85Sya1

Khan, A.A., Deshpande, V.T.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A 24 (1968) 402


von Schnering, H.G., Ngoh-Khang Goh: Naturwissenschaften 61 (1974) 272
Kawada, I., Kato, K., Yamaoka, S.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 32 (1976) 3110
Syassen, K.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 91 (1985) 11

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

85Sya1

S-Ta

S-Ta (Sulfur-Tantalum)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Ta. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

S 3 Ta

orth
mon

NbSe 3

3.6804
0.9515

0.3340
1.4912

64Bje2
81Mee1

S 2 Ta

hex
hex
hex
hex
hex
hex
orth
orth
tricl

CaSi 2
CdI 2
MoS 2
NbS 2
S 2 Ta
WC
S 2 Ta 3
STa 2
STa 6

1.5173
0.33412
= 109.99

3.594
0.590
1.207
1.210
3.585
0.3125
0.55975
1.519
0.7611
= 77.18

54Hg1
62Jel1
72Con1
62Jel1
62Jel1
84Slo1
89Wad1
69Fra2
88Har1

STa
S 2 Ta 3
STa 2
STa 6

0.334
0.336
0.3316
0.3315
0.3335
0.327
0.74717
0.7379
0.5243
= 59.32

1.72176
0.5574
0.7572
= 68.58

References
54Hg1
62Jel1
64Bje2
69Fra2
72Con1
81Mee1
84Slo1
88Har1
89Wad1

Hgg, G., Schnberg, N.: Ark. Kemi 7 (1954) 371


Jellinek, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 4 (1962) 9
Bjerkelund, E., Kjekshus, A.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 328 (1964) 235
Franzen, H.F., Smeggil, J.G.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 25 (1969) 1736
Conroy, L.E., Raghavan Pisharody, K.: J. Solid State Chem. 4 (1972) 345
Meerschaut, A., Guemas, L., Rouxel, J.: J. Solid State Chem. 36 (1981) 118
Slovyanskikh, V.K., Kuznetsov, N.T.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 29 (1984) 1088
Harbrecht, B.: J. Less-Common Met. 138 (1988) 225
Wada, H., Onoda, M.: Mater. Res. Bull. 24 (1989) 191

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Tb

S-Tb (Sulfur-Terbium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Tb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

S 2 Tb(I)

mon

S 2 Tb(II)

mon

S 3 Tb 2
S 7 Tb 5
STb

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.77232

0.77131
= 89.95

0.78823

83Kuz1

CaSb 2

0.38723

0.78872

83Kuz1

orth
mon

La 2 S 3
S7Y5

0.7319
1.2811

1.5224
1.1638

87Eli1
69Van1

cub

NaCl

0.55221

0.38599
= 90.10
0.3898
0.3835
= 104.22

78Hul1

References
69Van1
78Hul1
83Kuz1
87Eli1

Van Tien, V., Khodadad, P.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1969) 30
Hulliger, F., Stucki, F.: Z. Phys. B 31 (1978) 391
Kuzmicheva, G.M., Eliseev, A.A., Orlova, I.G., Mukhin, B.V.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 28 (1983) 755
Eliseev, A.A., Orlova, I.G., Martynova, L.F., Pechennikov, A.V., Cherchernikov, V.I.:
Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 23 (1987) 1833

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Tc

S-Tc (Sulfur-Technetium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Wildervanck et al. [71Wil1] has investigated the intermediate phase S 2 Tc. Its structure is triclinic. The
lattice parameters are given in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Tc. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [71Wil1].
Phase

Structure

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

S 2 Tc

tricl

0.6659
= 118.96

0.6375
= 62.97

0.6465
= 103.61

References
71Wil1

Wildervanck, J.C., Jellinek, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 24 (1971) 73

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Te

S-Te (Sulfur-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Pellini [09Pel1], Jaeger et al. [12Jae1], Chikashige [11Chi1]
and Losano [23Los1]. The results reported have been used by Hansen et al. [58Han1] to draw an assessed
phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Li et al. [89Li1]. This latter diagram has been the basis to
construct Fig. 1. The S-rich side of the phase diagram is given in Fig. 2 in an enlarged version (taken from
[89Li1]).

Fig. 1. S-Te. Phase diagram.

Fig. 2. S-Te. Partial phase diagram (S-rich part).

High-pressure phase
Geller [68Gel1] has found at 4 MPa and 673 K an intermediate phase: S 10 Te 7 .

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Te

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of the high pressure intermediate phase S 10 Te 7 are given in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [68Gel1].
Phase

Structure

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

S 10 Te 7

tricl

4.149
= 90

0.924
= 142.7

2.609
= 90

Thermodynamics
By calorimetry, Maekawa et al. [73Mae1] have determined enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys. The
results are plotted in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. S-Te. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 741 K.

References
09Pel1
11Chi1
12Jae1
23Los1
58Han1
68Gel1
73Mae1
89Li1

Pellini, G.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 18 (1909) 701
Chikashige, M.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 72 (1911) 109
Jaeger, F.M., Menke, J.B.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 75 (1912) 241
Losana, L.: Gazz. Chim. Ital. 53 (1923) 396
Hansen, M., Anderko, K.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys", Second Edition, New York:
McGraw-Hill (1958)
Geller, S.: Science (Washington) 161 (1968) 290
Maekawa, T., Yokokawa, T., Niwa, K.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 46 (1973) 761
Li, D.T., Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 10 (1989) 348

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Th

S-Th (Sulfur-Thorium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Th. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

ThS
Th 2 S 3
ThS 2
Th 2 S 5

cub
orth
orth
tetr

NaCl
Sb 2 S 3
Co 2 Si
Th 2 S 5

0.5682
1.099
0.7267
0.543

0.396
0.4273

1.085
0.8615
1.015

49Zac1
49Zac1
84Amo1
60Gra1

References
49Zac1
60Gra1
84Amo1

Zachariasen, W.H.: Acta Crystallogr. 2 (1949) 291


Graham, J., McTaggart, F.K.: Aust. J. Chem. 13 (1960) 67
Amoretti, G., Calestani, G., Giori, D.C.: Z. Naturforsch. A 39 (1984) 778

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Ti

S-Ti (Sulfur-Titanium)
Phase diagram
The Ti-rich part and the range between 0 and 33 at% Ti of the phase diagram has been investigated by
Eremenko et al. [67Ere1]. In the region between about 30 at% Ti and 55 at% Ti, the phase equilibria are
not investigated. In the concentration range named "Polytypes" about 13 individual structures have been
found, which are different concerning stacking sequence of close packed S-layers (see Murray [86Mur1,
90Mur1]). In the range named "S 4 Ti 2.67 and Superlattices" 3 phases with similar structure are existing.
The phases known up to now have been obtained by direct synthesis from the elements in sealed silica
vessels at high temperatures and quenched to room temperature. The quenched samples have been
examined by X-ray diffraction methods. The phase equilibria, at least between 50 at% Ti and 33 at% Ti,
are not known.
Taking all information available in the literature, Murray [86Mur1] has constructed a phase diagram,
which has been the source of information to draw Fig. 1.
It should be pointed out that more experimental work has to be done to get a reliable and complete
phase diagram.

Fig. 1. S-Ti. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Ti

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of some intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
TiS is of NiAs-structure and TiS 2 of CdI 2 -structure. These structures have close packed S-layers. Ti
atoms are situated in octahedral voids between these layers. The difference between the both structures
consists only in the kind of occupation of the octahedral sites. Between TiS and TiS 2 several individual
phases have been found differing in the occupation of the octahedral sites (Ti 8 S 9 , Ti 8 S 10 and Ti 16 S 21 ).
Stacking variants of the S-layers result in polytype structure. Often the polytype structures Ti 2.67 S 4 and
Ti 7 S 12 have been found. Superlattice structures consist of ordered Ti atoms and vacancies in layers,
which are not completely occupied. The base of the structure is Ti 2.67 S 4 . The designation of them is
(4H) 2 and (4H) 3 . For more details of the structural features of solid Ti-S phases the reader is referred to
reviews by Legendre et al. [83Leg1] and Murray [86Mur1].

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Ti

Table 1. S-Ti. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% S

Structure

Ti 3 S
Ti 1x S

25
4649.7

tetr
hex

Ti 8 S 9

52.6

hex

Ti 16 S 21
Ti 2.67 S 4

56.6
57.961.4

hex
hex

(4H) 2

59.860.3

mon

S 3 Ti 2

mon

S 3 Ti 2

(4H) 3
Ti 7 S 12

62.8

hex

TiS 2

64.466.7

hex

TiS 3

75

mon

Type

CdI 2

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

0.9978
0.490
0.3287
0.6421
0.330
0.644
0.3272
0.6438
0.3299
0.6380
0.3425
2.493
0.3147
2.645
0.3423
2.646
0.3441
6.048
0.3420.3442
1.1441.1431
0.34198
1.1444
0.3445
1.145
0.34385
1.14322
0.343
1.142
0.343
1.144
0.594395
1.02951
2.28583
= 90.0
1.0238
0.59384
3.49245
= 90.0
0.3420
3.4326
0.3418
3.436
0.34073
0.56953
0.339
0.570
0.34049
0.56912
0.501
0.340
0.888
= 97.74
0.497
0.342
0.878
= 97.60
0.499
0.338
0.8784
= 97.324
0.499
0.338
1.76
= 97.324
0.4973
0.3433
0.8714
= 97.5

Ref.
67Ere1
58Bar1
54Hg1
67Ere1
58Bar1
58Bar1
56Hah2
67Ere1
70Wie1
60Jea1
70Nor1
57Wad1
79Ono1
58Mct1
56Hah2
79Ono1
79Ono1
75Tro1
66Fli1
75Tho1
54Hg1
59Jea1
58Mct1
58Jea1
75Fur1
56Hah2
63Har1

References
54Hg1
56Hah2
57Wad1
58Bar1
58Jea1
58Mct1
59Jea1
60Jea1
63Har1

Hgg, G., Schnberg, N.: Ark. Kemi 7 (1954) 371


Hahn, H., Harder, B.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 288 (1956) 241
Wadsley, A.D.: Acta Crystallogr. 10 (1957) 715
Bartram, S.F.: Diss. Abstr. 19 (1958) 1216
Jeannin, Y., Benard, J.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 246 (1958) 614
McTaggart, F.K., Wadsley, A.D.: Aust. J. Chem. 11 (1958) 445
Jeannin, Y., Benard, J.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 248 (1959) 2875
Jeannin, Y.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 251 (1960) 246
Haraldsen, H., Kjekshus, A., Rost, E., Steffensen, A.: Acta Chem. Scand. 17 (1963) 1283

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Ti
66Fli1
67Ere1
70Nor1
70Wie1
75Fur1
75Tho1
75Tro1
79Ono1
83Leg1
86Mur1
90Mur1

Flink, E., Wiegers, G.A., Jellinek, F.: Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays.-Bas. 85 (1966) 869
Eremenko, V.N., Lismovnichii, V.E.: "Structures and Properties of Titanium-Sulfur
Alloys" Khalkogenidy (Kiev) (1967) 69
Norrby, L.J., Franzen, H.F.: J. Solid State Chem. 2 (1970) 36
Wiegers, G.A., Jellinek, F.: J. Solid State Chem. 1 (1970) 519
Furuseth, S., Brattas, L., Kjekshus, A.: Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. A 29 (1975) 623
Thompson, A.H., Gamble, F.R., Symon, C.R.: Mater. Res. Bull. 10 (1975) 915
Tronc, P.E., Moret, R., Legendre, J.J., Huber, M.: Acta Crystallogr. B 31 (1975) 2800
Onoda, M., Saeki, M., Kawada, I.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 457 (1979) 62
Legendre, J.J., Moret, R., Tronc, E., Huber, M., in: "Crystal Growth and Characterization
of Polytype Structures", Vol. 7, P. Krishna (ed.), New York: Pergamon Press (1983) 309
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7 (1986) 156
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Tl

S-Tl (Sulfur-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffractography, Kabr et al. [74Kab1] have investigated
phase equilibria. The results are similar to phase equilibria obtained by Pelabon [07Pel1]. From the results
reported, Massalski [90Mas1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis for
information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-Tl. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Tl

Table 1. S-Tl. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

S 5 Tl 2
STl
S 3 Tl 4

orth
tetr
mon

S 5 Tl 2
TlSe
S 3 Tl 4

0.6660
0.77869
0.7720

1.670

0.6538
0.68071
0.7960

75Lec1
56Sca1
71Sou1

STl 2

hex

STl 2

1.226

1.829

79Cha1

1.298
= 103.5

References
07Pel1
56Sca1
71Sou1
74Kab1
75Lec1
79Cha1
90Mas1

Pelabon, H.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 145 (1907) 118


Scatturin, V., Frasson, E.: Ric. Sci. 26 (1956) 3382
Soulard, M., Tournoux, M.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1971) 791
Kabr, S., Guittard, M., Flahaut, J.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 278 (1974) 1043
Leclerc, B., Kabr, T.S.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 31 (1975) 1675
Chaus, I.S., Gornikov, Yu.I., Demchenko, L.E., Kompanichenko, N.M., Grischuk, A.G.:
Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 24 (1979) 346
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Tm

S-Tm (Sulfur-Thulium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Tm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

S 7 Tm5

mon

S7Y5

1.2628

1.1462

64Ado1

STm

cub

NaCl

0.5420

0.3761
= 104.82

High-temperature/high-pressure phases
S 2 Tm
tetr
Cu 2 Sb
S 2 Tm
cub
Cu 2 Mg
S 3 Tm2
mon
S 3 Tm2

0.3805
0.7745
1.1110

S 3 Tm2
S 3 Tm2
S 3 Tm2
S 3 Tm2

0.8225
1.051
0.677
1.0479

cub
cub
hex
orth

Th 3 P 4
Mn 2 O 3
S 3 Yb 2
Sb 2 S 3

0.3874
= 108.88

0.3805

73Buc1

1.0872

70Web1
70Web1
76Ran1

1.832
1.0353

69Eat2
69Pat1
75Eli1
75Ran2

References
64Ado1
69Eat2
69Pat1
70Web1
73Buc1
75Eli1
75Ran2
76Ran1

Adolphe, C., Guittard, M., Larnelle, P.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 258 (1964) 4773
Eatough, N.L., Webb, A.W., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 8 (1969) 2069
Patrie, M.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1969) 1600
Webb, A.W., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 1084
Bucher, E., Andres, K., Di Salvo, F.J.: Solid Compounds of Transition Elements IV, Int.
Conf., Geneva, 1973 (1973) 114
Elizeev, A.A., Grizik, A.A., Kuzmicheva, G.M., Borodulenko, O.P.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 20 (1975) 973
Range, K.J., Leeb, R.: Z. Naturforsch. B 30 (1975) 889
Range, K.J., Leeb, R.: Z. Naturforsch. B 31 (1976) 311

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-U

S-U (Sulfur-Uranium)
Phase diagram
On the basis of results reported by Ellert et al. [71Ell1], Strotzer et al. [40Str1], Eastman et al. [50Eas1],
Gronvold et al. [62Gro1], Kruger et al. [67Kru1] and Cater [60Cat1], Massalski [90Mas1] has drawn a
phase diagram, which has been taken as information to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-U

Table 1. S-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

S3U

mon

S 2 U
S 2 U
S 1.87 U
S5U3
S3U2
SU

orth
hex
tetr
orth
orth
cub

Type

Co 2 Si
W 5 Si 3
S5U3
Sb 2 S 3
NaCl

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.539

0.389
= 99.50
0.4124

1.822

74Ell1

0.8479
0.4059
0.6327
0.7411
1.031

68Gro1
55Pic1
64Sla1
68Gro1
76Sus1
84Nut1

0.7117
0.7238
1.028
1.1747
1.060
0.550

0.8100
0.3853

References
40Str1
50Eas1
55Pic1
60Cat1
62Gro1
64Sla1
67Kru1
68Gro1
71Ell1
74Ell1
76Sus1
84Nut1
90Mas1

Strotzer, E.F., Schneider, O., Biltz, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 243 (1940) 307
Eastman, E.D., Brewer, L., Bromley, L.A., Giles, P.W., Lofgren, N.L.: J. Am. Chem. Soc.
72 (1950) 4019
Picon, M., Flahaut, J.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 240 (1955) 2150
Cater, E.D.: USAEC, ANL-6140 (1960) 144
Gronvold, F., Haraldsen, H., Thurmann-Moe, T., Tufte, T.: Tech. Rep. ARL-62-427, pt. II
(AD 286672) (1962)
Slater, R.C.L.M.: Z. Kristallogr. 10 (1964) 278
Kruger, O.L., Moser, J.B.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28 (1967) 2321
Gronvold, F., Haraldsen, H., Thurmann-Moe, T., Tufte, T.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 30 (1968)
2117
Ellert, G.V., Slovyanskikh, V.K., Sevastyanov, V.G.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.)
16 (1971) 910
Ellert, G.V., Kuzmicheva, G.M., Eliseev, A.A., Slovyanskikh, V.K., Morozov, S.P.: Russ.
J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 19 (1974) 1548
Suski, W., Wojakowski, A., Blaise, A., Salmon, P., Fournier, J.M., Mydlarz, T.: J. Magn.
Magn. Mater. 3 (1976) 195
Nutsubitze, P.V., Chechernikov, V.I., Chachkhiani, L.G., Kuznetsov, N.T., Slovyanskikh,
V.K., Gracheva, N.V.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 20 (1984) 589
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-V

S-V (Sulfur-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Several investigations of phase equilibria have been done using different experimental techniques:
Klemm et al. [36Kle1], Vogel et al. [38Vog1], Biltz et al. [39Bil1], Hoschek et al. [39Hos1], Gaudefroy
[53Gau1], Hahn et al. [56Hah1], Jellinek [63Jel2], Gronvold et al. [69Gro1], De Vries et al. [74Dev1],
Horiuchi et al. [76Hor1], Vakihara et al. [76Wak1], Oka et al. [78Oka1], and Nakano-Onoda et al.
[79Nak1]. The results are in some aspects contradictory. Smith [89Smi1, 90Smi2] has constructed a
tentative partial phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.
For thorough discussion, especially of the phase equilibria in the middle part of the phase diagram, the
reader is referred to Smith [89Smi1, 90Smi2].

Fig. 1. S-V. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1 (taken from Smith [89Smi1].

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-V

Table 1. S-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

S4V

mon

SV 1+x -S y V
S-rich
V-rich
S4V3

hex
hex
mon

S8V5

mon

S4V5
SV 3
(> 1223 K)
SV 3
(< 1098 K)

tetr
tetr

Type

CdI 2
NiAs
Cr 3 S 4

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.678

1.042
= 100.8

1.211

64All1

0.5755
0.5846
1.1458

80Wie1
68Fra1
74Dev1

1.1299

74Dev1

0.3223
0.45930

74Dev1
83Wil1

0.46623

83Wil1

0.3221
0.3342
0.5850
1.1395

Te 4 Ti 5

tetr

0.8981
0.94795
0.93804

0.3298
= 91.65
0.6645
= 92.05

Thermodynamics
The enthalpy of formation of SV has been determined several times. The results obtained are listed in
Table 2.
Table 2. S-V. Enthalpy of formation of SV at
298 K (taken from [89Smi1]).
H S [kJ g-atom1]

Ref.

125
122
128
111

84Bot1
83Edw1
74Owz1
67Dro1

References
36Kle1
38Vog1
39Bil1
39Hos1
53Gau1
56Hah1
63Jel2
64All1
67Dro1
68Fra1

Klemm, W., Hoschek, E.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 226 (1936) 359
Vogel, R., Wstefeld, A.: Arch. Eisenhttenwes. 12 (1938-1939) 261
Biltz, W., Kocher, A.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 241 (1939) 324
Hoschek, H., Klemm, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 242 (1939) 49
Gaudefroy, G.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 237 (1953) 1705
Hahn, H., de Lorent, C.: Angew. Chem. 68 (1956) 523
Jellinek, F.: Ark. Kemi 20 (1963) 447
Allman, R., Baumann, I., Kutoglu, A., Roesch, H., Hellner, E.: Naturwissenschaften 51
(1964) 263
Drowart, J., Pattoret, A., Smoes, S.: Proc. Brit. Ceram. Soc. 8 (1967) 67
Franzen, H.F., Burger, T.J.: J. Chem. Phys. 49 (1968) 2268

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-V
69Gro1
74Dev1
74Owz1
76Hor1
76Wak1
78Oka1
79Nak1
80Wie1
83Edw1
83Wil1
84Bot1
89Smi1
90Smi2

Gronvold, F., Haraldsen, H., Pedersen, B., Tufte, T.: Rev. Chim. Miner. 6 (1969) 215
De Vries, A.B., Jellinek, F.: Rev. Chim. Miner. 11 (1974) 624
Owzarski, T.P., Franzen, H.F.: J. Chem. Phys. 60 (1974) 113
Horinchi, S., Kawada, I., Nakano-Onoda, M., Kato, K., Matsui, Y., Nagata, F., Nakahira,
M.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A 32 (1976) 558
Wakihara, M., Uchida, T., Taniguchi, M.: Mater. Res. Bull. 11 (1976) 973
Oka, Y., Kosuge, K., Kachi, S.: J. Solid State Chem. 24 (1978) 41
Nakano-Onoda, M., Nakahira, M.: J. Solid State Chem. 30 (1979) 283
Wiegers, G.A.: Physica B + C (Amsterdam) 99 (1980) 151
Edwards, J.G., Pelino, M., Starzynski, J.S.: J. Chem. Phys. 79 (1983) 2351
Willerstrom, J.O.: J. Less-Common Met. 92 (1983) 41
Botor, J.P., Edwards, G.J.: J. Chem. Phys. 81 (1984) 2185
Smith, J.F., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM,
Materials Park, Ohio (1989)
Smith, J.F., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-W

S-W (Sulfur-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
WS 2 , obviously, is the only one stable intermediate phase (Samoilo et al. [59Sam1]). Moh [78Moh1] has
proposed a hypothetical phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Nagender Naidu et al. [91Nag1] and,
which has been also taken as a basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-W. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of WS 2 are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-W

Table 1. S-W. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

WS 2 (h)
WS 2 (r)

hex
hex

MoS 2 (h)
MoS 2 (r)

0.3151
0.3162

1.229
1.850

48Ehr1
64Wil1

Thermodynamics
Standard enthalpy of formation of WS 2 has been determined several times. The results are collected in
Table 2.
Table 2. S-W. Standard enthalpy of formation of WS 2 (taken from O'Hara [87OHa1]).
Ref.

H S [kJ mol1]

Experimental methods

Parravano et al. 28Par1


Cerny et al. 59Cer1
Bartovska et al. 66Bar1
Hager et al. 67Hag1
Degroise et al. 70Deg1
Cerny et al. 59Cer1
Leitner et al. 82Lei1
Schaefer 80Sch1
Hartmann et al. 62Har1
O'Hare et al. 84Oha1

240 40
270 10
277 10
249 5
251 5
242 5
260 5
260 3
200
241.6 2.5

high-temperature equilibrium measurements


high-temperature equilibrium measurements
high-temperature equilibrium measurements
high-temperature equilibrium measurements
high-temperature equilibrium measurements
high-temperature EMF study
high-temperature EMF study
high-temperature EMF study
combustion
combustion

References
28Par1
48Ehr1
59Cer1
59Sam1
62Har1
64Wil1
66Bar1
67Hag1
70Deg1
78Moh1
80Sch1
82Lei1
84Oha1
87OHa1

Parravano, N., Malquori, G.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 7 (1928)
189
Ehrlich, P.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 257 (1948) 247
Cerny, C., Habes, M., Zelena, M., Erds, E.: Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 24 (1959) 38
Samoilov, S.M., Rubinshtein, A.M.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Otd. Khim. Nauk (1959) 1909
Hartmann, H., Wagner, H.: Abh. Braunschw. Wiss. Ges. 14 (1962) 13
Wildervanck, J.C., Jellinek, F.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 328 (1964) 309
Bartovska, L., Cerny, C., Kochanovska, A.: Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 31 (1966)
1439
Hager, J.P., Elliott, J.F.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 239 (1967) 513
Degroise, B., Oudar, J.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1970) 1717
Moh, G.H.: Top. Curr. Chem. 76 (1978) 107
Schaefer, S.C.: U.S. Bur. Mines, Rep. Invest. 8405 (1980)
Leitner, J., Cerny, C.: Chem. Prum. 32 (1982) 453
O'Hare, P.A.G., Hubbard, W.N., Johnson, G.K., Flotow, H.E.: J. Chem. Thermodyn. 16
(1984) 45
O'Hare, P.A.G.: J. Chem. Thermodyn. 19 (1987) 675

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-W
91Nag1

Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten Alloys",
S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams,
The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Y

S-Y (Sulfur-Yttrium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of Y-sulfides are given in Table 1.
Table 1. S-Y. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

SY
S7Y5

cub
mon

NaCl
Y5S7

0.5492
1.2768

S2Y

tetr

High-pressure phases
S3Y2
orth
2 MPa, 1123 K
cub
S3Y2
7.7 GPa, 2273 K
S2Y
tetr
7 GPa, 298973 K
S2Y
cub
5 GPa, 973 K

b [nm]

c [nm]

0.771

0.3803
1.1545
= 104.82
0.789

Sb 2 S 3

1.0602

0.3858

Th 3 P 4

0.8306

Cu 2 Sb

0.3860

Cu 2 Mg

0.7797

1.0436

0.7846

Flahaut, J., Guittard, M.M., Patrie, M.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1959) 1917
Adolphe, C.: Ann. Chim. (Paris) 10 (1965) 271
Eatough, N.L., Webb, A.W., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 8 (1969) 2069
Hulliger, F., Hull jr., G.W.: Solid State Commun. 8 (1970) 1379
Webb, A.W., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 1084
Range, K.J., Leeb, R.: Z. Naturforsch. B 30 (1975) 889

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

70Hul1
65Ado1
59Fla1
75Ran2
69Eat2

References
59Fla1
65Ado1
69Eat2
70Hul1
70Web1
75Ran2

Ref.

70Web1
70Web1

S-Yb

S-Yb (Sulfur-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
Eliseev et al. [78Eli1] have determined a partial phase diagram, Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it and
from there information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-Yb. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of Yb-sulfides are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Yb

Table 1. S-Yb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

SYb
S 8 Yb 7
S 7 Yb 4
S 4 Yb 3
S 3 Yb 2
S 2 Yb

cub
cub
tetr
orth
hex
mon

NaCl
S 8 Yb 7
S 7 Yb 4
S 4 Yb 3
S 3 Yb 2
BaS 2

0.5687
1.1250
0.7573
1.282
0.6772
0.9326

High-pressure, high-temperature
cub
Mn 2 O 3
S 3 Yb 2
<1223 K
S 3 Yb 2
cub
P 4 Th 3
7.7 GPa, 2273 K
S 3 Yb 2
orth
S 3 Sb 2
2.5 GPa, 1233 K
cub
MgCu 2
S 2 Yb
S 2 Yb
tetr
Cu 2 Sb
7 GPa, 2273 K

b [nm]

0.382
0.4754
= 118.39

c [nm]

0.7764
1.295
1.828
0.9025

Ref.
84Eli1
88Tom1
76Eli1
64Rin1
77Kuz1
74Tes1,
64Fla1

1.247

69Pat1

0.8224

69Eat2

1.0435
0.7722
0.3789

0.3786

1.0330

75Ran2

0.7767

70Web1
70Web1

References
64Fla1
64Rin1
69Eat2
69Pat1
70Web1
74Tes1
75Ran2
76Eli1
77Kuz1
78Eli1
84Eli1
88Tom1
90Mas1

Flahaut, J., Domenge, L., Pardo, M.P.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 258 (1964) 594
Ring, S.A., Tecotzky, M.: Inorg. Chem. 3 (1964) 1654
Eatough, N.L., Webb, A.W., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 8 (1969) 2069
Patrie, M.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1969) 1600
Webb, A.W., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 1084
Teske, C.L.: Z. Naturforsch. B 29 (1974) 16
Range, K.J., Leeb, R.: Z. Naturforsch. B 30 (1975) 889
Eliseev, A.A., Kuzmicheva, G.M., Evdokimova, V.V., Novokshonov, V.I.: Russ. J. Inorg.
Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 21 (1976) 1600
Kuzmicheva, G.M., Eliseev, A.A.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 22 (1977) 497
Eliseev, A.A., Kuzmicheva, G.M., Yushrov, V.I.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 23 (1978) 492; Russ. J.
Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 23 (1978) 273
Eliseev, A.A.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 29 (1984) 945
Tomas, A., Robert, M., Guittard, M.: Mater. Res. Bull. 23 (1988) 502
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Zn

S-Zn (Sulfur-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Sharma et al. [90Sha1, 96Sha4], by modelling and calculation, have determined the phase diagram, which
has been taken as a basis for constructing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of ZnS are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Zn

Table 1. S-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

ZnS
ZnS
ZnS
(high pressure)
ZnS 2
(6.58.9 GPa)

cub
hex
cub

sphalerite
wurtzite
NaCl

0.54109
0.38226
0.499

0.62605

60Asw1
67Ree1
65Smi1

cub

FeS 2

0.59542

68Bit1

References
60Asw1
65Smi1
67Ree1
68Bit1
90Sha1
96Sha4

van Aswegen, J.T.S., Verleger, H.: Naturwissenschaften 47 (1960) 131


Smith, P.L., Martin, J.E.: Phys. Lett. 19 (1965) 541
Reeber, R.R., Powell, G.W.: J. Appl. Phys. (New York) 38 (1967) 1531
Bither, T.A., Bouchard, R.J., Cloud, W.H., Donohue, P.C., Siemons, W.J.: Inorg. Chem. 7
(1968) 2208
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A.: J. Phase Equilibria 17 (1996) 261

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Zr

S-Zr (Sulfur-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Benz [78Ben1] and Rasneur et al. [75Ras1] have determined some phase equilibria. Massalski [90Mas1],
on the basis of the reported results, has constructed parts of the phase diagram, which have been used to
draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. S-Zr. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of Zr-sulfides are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S-Zr

Table 1. S-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Zr 9 S 2
Zr 21 S 8
Zr 2 S
Zr 3 S 2
ZrS
Zr 3 S 4
Zr 2 S 3

tetr
tetr
orth
hex
cub
tetr
cub
mon

Zr 9 S 2
Nb 21 S 8
PTa 2
WC
NaCl
CuTi
S 4 Zr 3
S 3 Zr 2

0.9752
1.688
1.53328
0.3436
0.5251
0.355
1.025
1.035

ZrS 2
ZrS 3

hex
mon

CdI 2
S 3 Ti

0.3657
0.517

b [nm]

1.2340

c [nm]

Ref.

1.9216
0.342
0.3520
0.3435

0.733

71Con1
71Con1
88Yao1
57Hah1
57Hah1
54Hg1
58Mct1
70Con1

0.5824
0.917

77Ala1
57Hah1

0.631
1.031
= 135.06
0.366
= 98.1

References
54Hg1
57Hah1
58Mct1
70Con1
71Con1
75Ras1
77Ala1
78Ben1
88Yao1
90Mas1

Hgg, G., Schnberg, N.: Ark. Kemi 7 (1954) 371


Hahn, H., Harder, B., Mutschke, U., Ness, P.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 292 (1957) 82
McTaggart, F.K., Wadsley, A.D.: Aust. J. Chem. 11 (1958) 445
Conard, B.R., Franzen, H.F.: Proc. Inst. Adv. Study Chem. Extended Defects, Arizona
1969, (1970) 207
Conard, B.R., Franzen, H.F.: High Temp. Sci. 3 (1971) 49
Rasneur, J., Marion, F.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 280 (1975) 301
Al-Alamy, F.A.S., Balchin, A.A., White, M.: J. Mater. Sci. 12 (1977) 2037
Benz, R.: Arch. Eisenhttenwes. 49 (1978) 59
Yao, X., Franzen, H.F.: J. Less-Common Met. 142 (1988) L27
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Se

Sb-Se (Antimony-Selenium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been determined several times. The results of the individual investigations are not
in all details in good agreement. At last, Wobst [71Wob1] has experimentally investigated again the phase
equilibria. Ghosh et al. [89Gho1] have calculated them. There is rather good agreement between the
results of both last mentioned works.
Further on, Berkes et al. [71Ber1] reinvestigated the phase diagram (thermal analysis, X-ray
diffractography), confirming the results obtained by Wobst [71Wob1]. Glazov et al. [84Gla1], by thermal
analysis, have determined a part of the liquidus. After thorough discussion of the results published, Ghosh
[93Gho1] constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Se. Phase diagram.

Metastable phases
Between 60 at% Se and 100 at% Se, Myers et al. [72Mye1] succeeded in preparing amorphous alloys by
vapor deposition and by melt quenching. Gospodinov et al. [67Gos1], Coutts et al. [67Cou1], and Bondar
et al. [78Bon1], by vapor deposition, have obtained amorphous thin films of Sb 2 Se 3 .

Crystal structure
The only one intermediate phase existing in this system, Sb 2 Se 3 , is of orthorhombic structure (Sb 2 S 3 type) with lattice parameters a = 1.1680 nm, b = 0.3980 nm, c = 1.1580 nm (Doenges [50Doe1]).
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Se

Thermodynamics
From results of vapor pressure measurements, Predel et al. [75Pre1, 79Pre1] have calculated
thermodynamic activities of Se in liquid Sb-Se alloys at 994 K. The results are rather scattering. The
mean values are plotted in Fig. 2.
Using high-temperature calorimetry, Maekawa et al. [72Mae2] had determined enthalpies of mixing
of liquid alloys at 935 K. The results are plotted in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. Sb-Se. Thermodynamic activity of Se in liquid alloys at 994 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Se

Fig. 3. Sb-Se. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 935 K.

References
50Doe1
67Cou1
67Gos1
71Ber1
71Wob1
72Mae2
72Mye1
75Pre1
78Bon1
79Pre1
84Gla1
89Gho1
93Gho1

Doenges, E.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 263 (1950) 280


Coutts, M.D., Levin, E.R.: J. Appl. Phys. (New York) 38 (1967) 4039
Gospodinov, G.G., Popovkin, B.A., Pashinkin, A.S., Novoselova, A.V.: Vestn. Mosk.
Univ., Ser. 2: Khim. 22 (1967) 54
Berkes, J.S., Myers, M.B.: J. Electrochem. Soc., Solid State Sci. 11 (1971) 1485
Wobst, M.: Scr. Metall. 5 (1971) 583
Maekawa, T., Yokokawa, T., Niwa, K.: J. Chem. Thermodyn. 4 (1972) 873
Myers, M.B., Berkes, J.S.: J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8 (1972) 804
Predel, B., Piehl, J., Pool, M.J.: Z. Metallkd. 66 (1975) 388
Bondar, N.M., Khubaeva, L.V.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 14 (1978) 1426
Predel, B., Gerdes, F., Gerling, U.: Z. Metallkd. 70 (1979) 109
Glazov, V.M., Pavlova, L.M., Gaev, D.S.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 29 (1984) 1079; Russ. J.
Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 29 (1984) 620
Ghosh, G., Lukas, H.L., Delaey, L.: Z. Metallkd. 80 (1989) 663
Ghosh, G.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 753

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Si

Sb-Si (Antimony-Silicon)
Phase diagram
First experimental investigations have been done by Wilhelms [07Wil1], Rohan et al. [59Roh1] and
Thurmond et al. [60Thu1]. Later on, some work has been done by Malmeja et al. [72Mal1] and Girault
[77Gir1]. On the basis of all results reported by these authors, Olesinski et al. [90Ole1, 85Ole1], by
modeling, have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been used as a source of information to
draw Fig. 1.
It should be mentioned that the solidus at the Si-side is of retrograde character with a maximum of
solubility of Sb in (Si) of about 0.1 at% Sb (at 1573 K) [90Ole1], as can be seen from Fig. 2.

Fig. 1. Sb-Si. Phase diagram.

Fig. 2. Sb-Si. Solubility of Sb in (Si) solid solution.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Si

References
07Wil1
59Roh1
60Thu1
72Mal1
77Gir1
85Ole1
90Ole1

Wilhelms, R.S.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 55 (1907) 1


Rohan, J.J., Pickering, N.E., Kennedy, J.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 106 (1959) 705
Thurmond, C.D., Kowalchik, M.: Bell Syst. Tech. J. 39 (1960) 169
Malmeja, Y., Desr, P., Bonnier, E.: Mem. Sci. Rev. Metall. 69 (1972) 565
Girault, B.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B 284 (1977) 1
Olesinski, R.W., Abbaschian, G.J.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 6 (1985) 445
Olesinski, R.W., Abbaschian, E.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Sm

Sb-Sm (Antimony-Samarium)
Phase diagram
Sadigov et al. [88Sad1] have reported a phase diagram, which has been reinvestigated and corrected by
Abulkhaev et al. [92Abu1]. Okamoto [94Oka3] has discussed the results and preferred the data reported
by [92Abu1] (differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallographic observations). The
intermediate phase SbSm 2 , found by Borzone et al. [85Bor1], could not be confirmed by Sadigov et al.
[88Sad1] nor by Abulkhaev et al. [92Abu1].
The assessed phase diagram reported by Okamoto [94Oka3] is substantially that found by [88Sad1]. It
has been, also, the basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Sm. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Sm

Table 1. Sb-Sm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sb 2 Sm
SbSm
Sb 3 Sm 4
Sb 3 Sm 5
SbSm 2

orth
cub
cub
hex
tetr

0.6171
0.6268
0.9308
0.9100
0.4468

0.6051

1.789

NaCl
Th 3 P 4
Mn 5 Si 3

67Wan1
85Bor1
85Bor1
85Bor1
85Bor1

0.9115
1.746

Thermodynamics
Using a direct differential isoperibolic calorimeter, Borzone et al. [85Bor1] have determined the enthalpy
of formation, H S , of intermediate phases at 300 K from the solid components. The results are given in
Table 2.
Table 2. Sb-Sm. Enthalpy of formation of
intermediate phases at 300 K [85Bor1].
H S [kJ g-atom1]

Phase
Sb 2 Sm
SbSm
Sb 3 Sm 4
Sb 3 Sm 5

85.4
117.5
115.9
101.5

References
67Wan1
85Bor1
88Sad1
92Abu1
94Oka3

Wang, R., Steinfink, H.: Inorg. Chem. 6 (1967) 1685


Borzone, G., Borsese, A., Delfino, S., Ferro, R.: Z. Metallkd. 76 (1985) 208
Sadigov, F.M., Shahguliyev, N.S., Aliyev, D.M.: J. Less-Common Met. 144 (1988) L5
Abulkhaev, V.D.: Neorg. Mater. 28 (1992) 81; Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 28 (1992) 64
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 15 (1994) 458

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Sn

Sb-Sn (Antimony-Tin)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been investigated several times. A comprehensive discussion recently is given
by Ohtani et al. [95Oht1]. Most important experimental work has been done by Iwase et al. [31Iwa1]
(differential thermal analysis, metallographic observations, electrical resistivity measurements, X-ray
diffractography) and by Predel et al. [71Pre1] (differential thermal analysis, metallographic methods). A
thermodynamic evaluation of phase equilibria has been performed by Jnsson et al. [86Jn1]. At last,
Ohtani et al. [95Oht1] thoroughly have discussed the results reported in the literature, especially those
obtained by [31Iwa1, 71Pre1, 86Jn1], coming to the opinion that the phase diagram published by
[71Pre1] seems to be the most accurate one. To check the phase boundaries between the phases (Sb) and
, Ohtani et al. [95Oht1] have reinvestigated them. Mainly on the basis of results by [71Pre1], Ohtani et
al. [95Oht1] have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as the main information
for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Sn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of Sn 3 Sb 2 are not available.
Lattice parameters of (Sn) solid solutions have been determined by Lee et al. [54Lee1]. The results are
plotted in Fig. 2.
The structure of the intermediate phase depends on pressure (Losev et al. [71Los1]). The
crystallographic data of this phase are collected in Table 1.
At high pressures SbSn exists in the CsCl-type structure (Losev et al. [71Los1]). The pressure
dependence of the lattice parameter of this modification is plotted in Fig. 3.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Sn

Table 1. Sb-Sn. Crystallographic data of the intermediate phase SbSn.


Phase

Type

a [nm]

Ref.

cub
stable at < 9.5 GPa
cub
stable at > 8.9 GPa

NaCl

0.5880
7.5 GPa
0.3502
19 GPa

72Kol1

CsCl

71Los1

Fig. 2. Sb-Sn. Lattice parameters for tetragonal (Sn) solid solution.

Fig. 3. Sb-Sn. Lattice parameter vs. pressure for cubic (CsCl-type) solid solution SbSn.

Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys have been determined calorimetrically by Kleppa [56Kle1], Wittig
et al. [67Wit1] and by Sommer et al. [83Som1]. The results are in rather good agreement. Tomiska et al.
[91Tom1] on the basis of a special calculation, have reported H L values with high precision. These
authors, also, have shown that the enthalpy of mixing in this system in the range from T = 783 K to T =
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Sn

1108 K are markedly dependent on temperature. The results are (partially) shown in Fig. 4.
On the basis of experimental work concerning EMF and vapor pressure measurements, Hultgren et al.
[73Hul1] have selected most reliable thermodynamic activities and integral excess entropies of liquid
alloys. These values are plotted in Fig. 5 (aSbL, aSnL ) and Fig. 6 (SL,ex).

Fig. 4. Sb-Sn. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 783 and 1108 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Sn

Fig. 5. Sb-Sn. Thermodynamic activities for liquid alloys at 905 K.

Fig. 6. Sb-Sn. Excess entropy of mixing for liquid alloys at 905 K.

References
31Iwa1
54Lee1
56Kle1
67Wit1
71Los1

Iwase, K., Aoki, N., Osawa, A.: Sci. Rep. Res. Inst. Tohoku Univ. 20 (1931) 353
Lee, J.A., Raynor, G.V.: Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) Sect. B 67 (1954) 737
Kleppa, O.J.: J. Phys. Chem. 60 (1956) 842
Wittig, F.E., Gehring, E.: Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 71 (1967) 372
Losev, V.G., Kabalkina, S.S., Vereshchagin, L.F.: Sov. Phys. Solid State 12 (1971) 2374

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Sn
71Pre1
72Kol1
73Hul1
83Som1
86Jn1
91Tom1
95Oht1

Predel, B., Schwermann, W.: J. Inst. Met. 99 (1971) 169


Kolobyanina, T.N., Kabalkina, S.S., Vereshchagin, L.F., Kachan, M.F., Losev, V.G.: High
Temp. High Pressures 4 (1972) 207
Hultgren, R., Desai, P.D., Hawkins, D.T., Gleiser, M., Kelley, K.K.: "Selected Values of
Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Alloys", Am. Soc. Met., Metals Park, Ohio (1973)
Sommer, F., Lck, R., Rupf-Bolz, N., Predel, B.: Mater. Res. Bull. 18 (1983) 621
Jnsson, B., gren, J.: Mater. Sci. Technol. 2 (1986) 913
Tomiska, J., Lck, R., Predel, B.: Z. Metallkd. 82 (1991) 935
Ohtani, H., Okuda, K., Ishida, K.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 416

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Sr

Sb-Sr (Antimony-Strontium)
Phase diagram
Vakhobov et al. [75Vak1] has determined the phase diagram, Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it. From
the latter mentioned compilation [90Mas1] information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Sr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Sr

Table 1. Sb-Sr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

SbSr 2

tetr

La 2 Sb

0.5002

Other mentioned phases


mon
Sb 3 Sr 2

Sb 3 Sr 2

0.6670

Sb 3 Sr 5

Mn 5 Si 3

0.9496

hex

b [nm]

1.2973
= 90.09

c [nm]

Ref.

1.7405

73Mar3

1.5208

79Eis1

0.7422

73Mar2

References
73Mar2
73Mar3
75Vak1
79Eis1
90Mas1

Martinez-Ripoll, M., Brauer, G.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 29 (1973) 2717


Martinez-Ripoll, M., Haase, A., Brauer, G.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 29 (1973) 1715
Vakhobov, A.V., Niyazova, Z.U., Polev, B.N.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 11 (1975) 306
Eisenmann, B.: Z. Naturforsch. B 34 (1979) 1162
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Ta

Sb-Ta (Antimony-Tantalum)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Sb-Ta. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sb 2 Ta

mon

NbSb 2

1.022

0.829

64Hul1

Sb 4 Ta 5
SbTa 3

tetr
cub

Te 4 Ti 5
Cr 3 Si

1.0248
0.52646

0.3644
= 120.39

0.35460

65Fur1
65Fur1

References
64Hul1
65Fur1

Hulliger, F.: Nature (London) 204 (1964) 775


Furuseth, S., Selte, K., Kjekshus, A.: Acta Chem. Scand. 19 (1965) 95

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Tb

Sb-Tb (Antimony-Terbium)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, and metallographic methods, Abdusalyamova
et al. [81Abd1] have investigated the phase equilibria. The phase diagram proposed by these authors has
been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] adding the phase Sb 2 Tb, which has been reported later by
[88Abd1]. This corrected diagram has been taken as a source of information to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Tb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Tb

Table 1. Sb-Tb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Sb 2 Tb
orth
4 GPa, 1273 K
hex
SbTb
< 15 K
tetr
SbTb
< 16.5 K
cub
SbTb
cub
Sb 3 Tb 4
Sb 3 Tb 5
hex

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sb 2 Sm

0.6123

0.5969

1.772

69Eat1

0.87092

1.06986

78Hul1

0.6180

0.6161

69Lv1

0.6304

69Lv1
81Abd1
68Rie1

NaCl
Th 3 P 4
Mn 5 Si 3

0.6178
0.7170
0.8920

References
68Rie1
69Eat1
69Lv1
78Hul1
81Abd1
88Abd1
90Mas1

Rieger, W., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 24 (1968) 456


Eatough, N.L., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 8 (1969) 1439
Lvy, F.: Phys. Kondens. Mater. 10 (1969) 85
Hulliger, F., Stucki, F.: Z. Phys. B 31 (1978) 391
Abdusalyamova, M.N., Burnashev, O.R., Mironov, K.E.: J. Less-Common Met. 77 (1981)
81
Abdusalyamova, M.N., Burnashev, O.R., Mironov, K.E., Rakhmatov, O.I., Fazlyeva, N.D.:
Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 24 (1988) 495; Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 24
(1988) 409
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Te

Sb-Te (Antimony-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated rather often. A comprehensive experimental reinvestigation has
been done by Abrikosov et al. [59Abr1] (thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography). Ghosh [89Gho2] and
later on Ghosh [94Gho2] have, on the basis of results reported in the literature, by thermodynamic
calculations, obtained an assessed phase diagram. This diagram has been used to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Te. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Te

Table 1. Sb-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

33 at% Te

50 at% Te
Sb 2 Te 3

hex

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.425

1.758

71Ima1

hex

As

0.426

2.390

71Ima1

hex

Bi 2 Ti 3

0.4265

3.043

62Bek1

Thermodynamics
The enthalpy of mixing of liquid alloys has been determined calorimetrically by Maekawa et al.
[72Mae1]. The results are plotted in Fig. 2.
Further on, Feutelais et al. [94Feu1] and Onderka et al. [95Ond1] using an EMF method, have
determined thermodynamic data of liquid alloys. The results are very similar. In Fig. 3 the entropy of
mixing and in Fig. 4 thermodynamic activities are plotted, as they are reported by Feutelais et al.
[94Feu1].
The enthalpy of formation of Sb 2 Te 3 has been determined several times. The results are listed in
Table 2.

Fig. 2. Sb-Te. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 935 K [72Mae1].

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Te

Fig. 3. Sb-Te. Entropy of mixing for liquid alloys at 911 K.

Fig. 4. Sb-Te. Thermodynamic activities for liquid alloys at 911 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Te

Table 2. Sb-Te. Enthalpy of formation of Sb 2 Te 3 (taken from


[94Gho2]).
Ref.

H S [kJ mol1]

T [K]

64How1
67Ger1
68Bon1
71Zhd1
74Vec1
94Gho2

11.3
12.0 2
10.7 1.3
6.1
12.1
10.9
(calculated)

273
653693
298
298.15
700
289

References
59Abr1
62Bek1
64How1
67Ger1
68Bon1
71Ima1
71Zhd1
72Mae1
74Vec1
89Gho2
94Feu1
94Gho2
95Ond1

Abrikosov, N.Kh., Poretskaya, L.V., Ivanova, I.P.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 4 (1959) 2525; J.
Inorg. Chem. 4 (1959) 1163
Bekebrede, W.R., Guentert, O.J.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23 (1962) 1023
Howlett, B.W., Misra, S., Bever, M.B.: Trans. AIME 230 (1964) 1367
Gerasimov, Ya. I., Nikolskaya, A.V., Geiderikh, V.A., Abbaschian, A.S., Vecher, R.A.:
"Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Solids", Consultants Bureau, New York (1967)
87
Boncheva-Mladenova, Z., Pushinkin, A.S., Novoselova, A.V.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR
Neorg. Mater. 4 (1968) 1211; Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 4 (1968) 1065
Imamov, R.M., Semiletov, S.A.: Kristallografiya 15 (1971) 972; Sov. Phys. Crystallogr.
(Engl. Transl.) 15 (1971) 845
Zhdanov, V.M.: Zh. Fiz. Khim. 45 (1971) 2388; Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 45
(1971) 1357
Maekawa, T., Yokokawa, T., Niwa, K.: J. Chem. Thermodyn. 4 (1972) 153
Vecher, A.A., Mechkovskii, L.A., Skoropanov, A.S.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater.
10 (1974) 2140: Inorg. Mater. (USSR) 10 (1974) 1837
Ghosh, G., Lukas, H.T., Delaey, L.: Z. Metallkd. 80 (1989) 731
Feutelais, Y., Legendre, B., Misra, S., Anderson, T.J.: J. Phase Equilibria 15 (1994) 171
Ghosh, G.: J. Phase Equilibria 15 (1994) 349
Onderka, B., Fitzner, K.: Z. Metallkd. 86 (1995) 313

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Th

Sb-Th (Antimony-Thorium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Sb-Th. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sb 2 Th
Sb 4 Th 3
SbTh
SbTh
9 GPa

tetr
cub
cub
cub

Cu 2 Sb
Th 3 P 4
NaCl
CsCl

0.4353
0.93840
0.6318
0.3847

0.9172

56Fer1
65Pri1
88Ger1
88Ger1

References
56Fer1
65Pri1
88Ger1

Ferro, R.: Acta Crystallogr. 9 (1956) 817


Price, C.E., Warren, I.H.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 112 (1965) 510
Gerward, L., Olsen, J.S., Benedict, U., Dabos, S., Luo, H., Iti, J.P., Vogt, O.: High Temp.
High Pressures 20 (1988) 545

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Ti

Sb-Ti (Antimony-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Hansen et al. [58Han1] have, on the basis of intermediate phases known at that time, constructed a
hypothetical partial phase diagram. In the meantime 4 more intermediate phases have been detected, but
their incorporation in the phase diagram has not been done, as Murray [90Mur1] has shown. This latter
tentative phase diagram has been the basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Ti. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Ti

Table 1. Sb-Ti. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Sb 2 Ti
SbTi
Sb 5 Ti 6
Sb 3 Ti 5
SbTi 3
SbTi 4

tetr
hex
orth
orth
cub
hex

Al 2 Cu
NiAs

0.6666
0.4115
1.455
1.02173
0.52186
0.5958

Sb 3 Yb 5
Cr 3 Si
Ni 3 Sn

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.634
0.83281

0.5817
0.6264
0.531
0.71459

51Now2
62Kje1
62Kje1
77Ber1
62Kje1
51Now1

0.4808

References
51Now1
51Now2
58Han1
62Kje1
77Ber1
90Mur1

Nowotny, H., Funk, R., Pesl, J.: Monatsh. Chem. 82 (1951) 513
Nowotny, H., Pesl, J.: Monatsh. Chem. 82 (1951) 336
Hansen, M., Anderko, K.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys", Second Edition, New York:
McGraw-Hill (1958)
Kjekshus, A., Gronvold, F., Thorbjornsen, J.: Acta Chem. Scand. 16 (1962) 1493
Berger, R.: Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. A 31 (1977) 889
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Tl

Sb-Tl (Antimony-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated experimentally by Williams [06Wil1], Sugenuma [60Sug1] and
by Predel et al. [70Pre1]. On the basis of results of these works and concerning the intermediate phases
known in the literature, Sharma et al. [96Sha2] have proposed an assessed phase diagram, which has been
the basis for Fig. 1.
The phase equilibria around SbTl are given, in an enlarged version, in Fig. 2 (taken from Sharma et al.
[96Sha2]).

Fig. 1. Sb-Tl. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Tl

Fig. 2. Sb-Tl. Phase equilibria around SbTl (4682 at% Tl).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data only for Sb 2 Tl 7 are known. The structure is cubic (Sb 2 Tl 7 -type) with lattice
parameter a = 1.1618 nm (Stokhuyzen et al. [77Sto1]).

References
06Wil1
60Sug1
70Pre1
77Sto1
96Sha2

Williams, R.S.: Anorg. Allg. Chemie 50 (1906) 127


Sugenuma, R.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 15 (1960) 1395
Predel, B., Schwermann, W.: Z. Naturforsch. A 25 (1970) 877
Stokhuyzen, R., Chieh, C., Pearson, W.B.: Can. J. Chem. 55 (1977) 1120
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A.: J. Phase Equilibria 17 (1996) 151

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Tm

Sb-Tm (Antimony-Thulium)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, and metallographic observations,
Abdusalyamova et al. [91Abd1] have investigated the phase equilibria. Samsonov et al. [74Sam1] found
the melting point of SbTm at 1973 K. On the basis of this information, Okamoto et al. [94Oka2] have
constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Tm. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Tm

Table 1. Sb-Tm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sb 2 Tm
SbTm

orth
cub

Sb 2 Ho
NaCl

0.3252
0.6087

0.3851

0.7912

69Eat1
69Lv1

References
69Eat1
69Lv1
74Sam1
91Abd1
94Oka2

Eatough, N.L., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 8 (1969) 1439


Lvy, F.: Phys. Kondens. Mater. 10 (1969) 85
Samsonov, G.V., Abdusalyamova, M.N., Shokirov, Kh., Pryakhina, S.A.: Izv. Akad. Nauk
SSSR Neorg. Mater. 10 (1974) 1951; J. Inorg. Mater. 10 (1974) 1672
Abdusalyamowa, M.N., Rakhmatov, O.I., Fazlyeva, N.D., Chuiko, A.G.: Izv. Akad. Nauk
SSSR Neorg. Mater. 27 (1991) 1660: Inorgan. Mater. 27 (1991) 1386
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 15 (1994) 370

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-U

Sb-U (Antimony-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography and metallographic methods, Beaudry et al. [59Bea1] have
thoroughly investigated the phase equilibria. Reviews have been written by Elliott [65Ell2], Chiotti et al.
[81Chi2] and Chiotti [90Chi1]. From the latter author [90Chi1], information has been taken to draw
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-U

Table 1. Sb-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sb 2 U
Sb 4 U 3
SbU
Sb 3 U 4

tetr
cub
cub
hex

Cu 2 Sb
Th 3 P 4
NaCl

0.4270
0.9112
0.61910
0.9268

0.8746

64Trz1
64Trz1
80Kno1
59Bea1

High-pressure phase
SbU
cub
11 GPa

CsCl

0.3624

0.6201

86Ved1

Thermodynamics
The enthalpies of formation of the intermediate phases have been determined by direct reaction
calorimetry (Baskin et al. [70Bas1]). The results are listed in Table 2.
Table 2. Sb-U. Enthalpy of formation of
intermediate phases [70Bas1].
Phase

H S [kJ g-atom1]

Sb 2 U
Sb 3 U 4
SbU

137.8 11
150.7 7.5
138 7.5

References
59Bea1
64Trz1
65Ell2
70Bas1
80Kno1
81Chi2

86Ved1
90Chi1

Beaudry, B.J., Daane, A.H.: Trans. AIME 215 (1959) 199


Trzebiatowski, W., Sepichowska, A., Zygmund, A.: Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Chim.
12 (1964) 687
Elliott, R.P.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys, First Supplement", New York: McGraw-Hill
(1965)
Baskin, Y., Smith, S.D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 37 (1970) 209
Knott, H.W., Lander, G.H., Mller, M.H., Vogt, O.: Phys. Rev. B 21 (1980) 4159
Chiotti, P., Akhachinskij, V.V., Ansara, I., Rand, M.H., in: "The Chemical
Thermodynamics of Actinide Elements and Compounds", Part 5, "The Actinide Binary
Alloys", V. Medvedev, M.H. Rand, E.E. Westrum jr. (eds.), F.L. Oetting (executive editor),
IAEA, Vienna, Austria (1981) 170
Vedel, I., Redon, A.M., Leger, J.M.: Physica B + C (Amsterdam) 144 (1986) 61
Chiotti, P., Akhachinskii, V.V., Ansara, I., Rand, M.H., in: "Binary Alloy Phase
Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information
Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-V

Sb-V (Antimony-Vanadium)
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known. A speculative phase diagram reported by
Savitskii et al. [69Sav1] is, as Smith [89Smi1] mentioned, obviously inaccurate.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Sb-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sb 2 V
Sb 4 V 5
Sb 2 V 3
Sb 2 V 3
SbV 3

tetr
tetr
hex
hex
cub

Al 2 Cu
Te 4 Ti 5
Fe 3 Sn 2
NiAs
Cr 3 Si

0.6555
0.981
0.5551
0.4285
0.4932

0.5631
0.352
2.035
0.544

72Hav1
65Mei1
77Ste1
64Sch2
58Woo1

InNi 2

0.428

0.544

65Mei1

High-temperature phase
hex
Sb 2 V 3

Thermodynamics
Using an EMF method, Goncharuk et al. [79Gon1] and Eremenko et al. [84Ere1] have investigated solid
alloys. The enthalpy of formation found for the phase Sb 2 V amounts to H S = 18.1 0.54 kJ g-atom1
and the entropy of formation is S S = 3.51 0.71 J g-atom1 K1.

References
58Woo1
64Sch2
65Mei1
69Sav1
72Hav1
77Ste1
79Gon1
84Ere1
89Smi1

Wood, E.A., Compton, V.B., Matthias, B.T., Corenzwit, E.: Acta Crystallogr. 11 (1958)
604
Schubert, K., Meissner, H.G., Raman, A., Rossteutscher, W.: Naturwissenschaften 51
(1964) 287
Meissner, H.G., Schubert, K.: Z. Metallkd. 56 (1965) 523
Savitskii, E.M., Efimov, J.E.: Planseeber. Pulvermetall. 17 (1969) 103
Havinga, E.E., Damsma, H., Hokkeling, P.: J. Less-Common Met. 27 (1972) 169
Steinmetz, J., Malaman, B., Roques, B.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 284 (1977) 499
Goncharuk, L.V., Lukashenko, G.M.: Dopov. Akad. Nauk Ukr. RSR (1979) 769
Eremenko, V.N., Goncharuk, L.V., Lukashenko, G.M., Sidorko, V.R.: "Fiz. Khim.
Elektrokhim. Redk. Met. Solevykh Rasplavakh", P.T. Stangrit, (ed.), Akad. Nauk SSSR,
Kolsk Fil., Apatity, USSR (1984) 23
Smith, J.F., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM,
Materials Park, Ohio (1989)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-V

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-W

Sb-W (Antimony-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
Boller et al. [64Bol1] as well as Jensen et al. [66Jen1] found no intermediate phase and no solubility in
this system. On the basis of this statement, Moffatt [78Mof1] has proposed a speculative phase diagram,
which has been redrawn by Nagender Naidu [91Nag1] and, also, has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-W. Tentative phase diagram.

References
64Bol1
66Jen1
78Mof1
91Nag1

Boller, H., Nowotny, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 95 (1964) 1272


Jensen, P., Kjekshus, A., Skansen, T.: Acta Chem. Scand. 20 (1966) 403
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten Alloys",
S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams,
The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Y

Sb-Y (Antimony-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, and metallographic methods, Schmidt et al. [70Sch2] have
established the phase diagram. It has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and, also, has been the basis
for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Y

Table 1. Sb-Y. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

SbY
Sb 3 Y 5
SbY 3

cub
hex
tetr

NaCl
Mn 5 Si 3
PTi 3

0.6165
0.89114
1.2361

High-pressure high-temperature phases


orth
HoSb 2
Sb 2 Y
cub
P 4 Th 3
Sb 3 Y 4

0.3283
0.91390

b [nm]

0.5907

c [nm]

Ref.

0.62960
0.6180

83Fri1
70Sch2
70Sch2

0.7981

69Eat1
70Sch2

Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of formation of intermediate phases have been determined calorimetrically by Borsese et al.
[77Bor1]. The results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Sb-Y. Enthalpy of formation of
intermediate phases at 300 K [77Bor1].
H S [kJ g-atom1]

Phase
SbY
Sb 3 Y 5
SbY 3

104.7 21
96.3 21
64.0 21

References
69Eat1
70Sch2
77Bor1
83Fri1
90Mas1

Eatough, N.L., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 8 (1969) 1439


Schmidt, F.A., McMasters, O.D.: J. Less-Common Met. 21 (1970) 415
Borsese, A., Borzone, G., Saccone, A., Ferro, R.: J. Less-Common Met. 52 (1977) 123
Frick, B., Schoenes, J., Hulliger, F., Vogt, O.: Journels des Actinides, Proceedings, 13th,
Elat, Israel, 1983, B3 (1983)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Yb

Sb-Yb (Antimony-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
The phase diagram has been investigated experimentally by Bodnar et al. [67Bod1]. Massalski [90Mas1]
has redrawn it and from there information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Yb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Yb

Table 1. Sb-Yb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sb 2 Yb
SbYb
Sb 10 Yb 11
Sb 3 Yb 4
Sb 3 Yb 5
Sb 3 Yb 5

orth
cub
tetr
cub
orth
hex

ZrSi 2
NaCl
Ge 10 Ho 11
P 4 Th 3
Sb 3 Yb 5
Mn 5 Si 3

0.4536
0.5922
1.186
0.9322
1.2398
0.8995

1.663

0.4271

66Wan1
60Bri1
70Cla1
85Och1
71Bru1
67Bod1

1.710
0.9562

0.8246
0.6870

References
60Bri1
66Wan1
67Bod1
70Cla1
71Bru1
85Och1
90Mas1

Brixner, L.H.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 15 (1960) 199


Wang, R., Bodnar, R.E., Steinfink, H.: Inorg. Chem. 5 (1966) 1468
Bodnar, R.E., Steinfink, H.: Inorg. Chem. 6 (1967) 327
Clark, H.L., Simpson, H.D., Steinfink, H.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 1962
Brunton, G.D., Steinfink, H.: Inorg. Chem. 10 (1971) 2301
Ochiai, A., Nahai, S., Oyamada, A., Suzuki, T., Kasuya, T.: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 47+48
(1985) 570
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Zn

Sb-Zn (Antimony-Zinc)
Phase diagram
First experimental investigations (thermal analysis, metallographic methods) have been performed by
Mnkemeyer [05Mn1], Zemczuzny [06Zem1] and Curry [09Cur1]. Several other works followed. The
older results obtained have been reviewed by Hansen et al. [58Han1]. From results reported by Vuillard et
al. [66Vui1] and Takei [27Tak1], Massalski [90Mas1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which
has been the basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Zn

Table 1. Sb-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

SbZn
()
Sb 3 Zn 4
()
Sb 2 Zn 3
()

orth

CdSb

0.6218

0.7741

0.8115

48Alm1

hex

Sb 3 Zn 4

1.2233

1.2428

78May1

0.721

86Lap1

orth

1.516

2.442

Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic properties of Sb-Zn alloys have been determined several times. Earlier results are
compiled by Hultgren et al. [73Hul1]. Later on, Rubin et al. [74Rub1] have performed measurements
using an EMF method. The resulting thermodynamic activities are plotted in Fig. 2.
By direct reaction calorimetry, Wittig et al. [60Wit1] have determined enthalpies of mixing. The
results, taken from Hultgren et al. [73Hul1], are plotted in Fig. 3. In Fig. 4 optimized excess entropies of
mixing are plotted, as given by Hultgren [73Hul1].

Fig. 2. Sb-Zn. Thermodynamic activities for liquid alloys at 823 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Zn

Fig. 3. Sb-Zn. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 850 K.

Fig. 4. Sb-Zn. Excess entropy of mixing for liquid alloys at 850 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Zn

References
05Mn1
06Zem1
09Cur1
27Tak1
48Alm1
58Han1
60Wit1
66Vui1
73Hul1
74Rub1
78May1
86Lap1
90Mas1

Mnkemeyer, K.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 43 (1905) 182


Zemczuzny, S.F.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 49 (1906) 384
Curry, R.E.: J. Phys. Chem. 13 (1909) 589
Takei, T.: Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ. 16 (1927) 1031
Almin, K.E.: Acta Chem. Scand. 2 (1948) 400
Hansen, M., Anderko, K.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys", Second Edition, New York:
McGraw-Hill (1958)
Wittig, F.E., Gehring, E.: Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 70 (1960) 717
Vuillard, G., Pilon, J.P.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 263 (1966) 1018
Hultgren, R., Desai, P.D., Hawkins, D.T., Gleiser, M., Kelley, K.K.: "Selected Values of
Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Alloys", Am. Soc. Met., Metals Park, Ohio (1973)
Rubin, B., Komarek, K.L., Miller, E.: Z. Metallkd. 65 (1974) 191
Mayer, H.W., Mikhail, I., Schubert, K.: J. Less-Common Met. 59 (1978) 43
Lapkina, A.I., Sorokina, O.V., Ufimtsev, V.V.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 31
(1986) 117
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Zr

Sb-Zr (Antimony-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Russi et al. [51Rus1] and Betterton et al. [58Bet1] have investigated some phase equilibria. Several others
have looked at the structure of intermediate pahses (see below). After thorough discussion of all results
present in the literature, Okamoto [93Oka3] constructed a partial assessed phase diagram, which has been
used as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sb-Zr. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sb-Zr

Table 1. Sb-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Sb 2 Zr
Sb 3 Zr 5
SbZr 2
SbZr 3

orth
hex
tetr
tetr

Type
Mn 5 Si 3
Ni 3 P

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.4974
0.853
0.652
1.135

0.9968

0.3878
0.584
0.790
0.567

64Hul2
62Sch1
65Ros2
64Sch3

References
51Rus1
58Bet1
62Sch1
64Hul2
64Sch3
65Ros2
93Oka3

Russi, R.F., Wilhelm, H.A.: USAEC Rep. AECD-3610 (1951)


Betterton jr., J.O., Spicer, W.M.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 212 (1958) 456
Schubert, K., Meissner, H.G., Przschke, M., Rossteutscher, W., Storz,
Naturwissenschaften 49 (1962) 57
Hulliger, F.: Nature (London) 204 (1964) 991
Schubert, K., Raman, A., Rossteutscher, W.: Naturwissenschaften 51 (1964) 506
Rossteutscher, W., Schubert, K.: Z. Metallkd. 56 (1965) 813
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 228

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

E.:

Sc-Se

Sc-Se (Scandium-Selenium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Sc-Se. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

ScSe
Sc 2 Se 3

cub
orth

NaCl
S 3 Sc 2

0.5437
1.0846

0.7668

2.3004

74Bro1
65Fla1

References
65Fla1
74Bro1

Flahaut, J., Laurelle, P., Pardo, M.P., Guittard, M.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1965) 1399
Brozek, V., Flahaut, J., Guittard, M., Julien-Pouzol, M., Pardo, M.P.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr.
(1974) 1740

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Si

Sc-Si (Scandium-Silicon)
Phase diagram
Experimental investigations have been done by Eremenko et al. [88Ere2] and Kotroczo et al. [94Kot1].
After small modifications to the results reported, Okamoto [95Oka9] has constructed an assessed phase
diagram, which has been used as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Si. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Si

Table 1. Sc-Si. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sc 5 Si 3
ScSi
ScSi 2x

hex
orth
hex

Mn 5 Si 3
CrB
AlB 2
(defect)

0.7864
0.3998
0.3664

0.9882

0.5768
0.3659
0.3877

88Ere2
65Sch1
64Sch1

Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic data of intermediate phases have been determined by several authors. The results are
given in Table 2.
Table 2. Sc-Si. Standard enthalpy of formation and standard entropy of formation (see
Lukashenko et al. [90Luk1]).
Phase

H S [kJ mol1]

ScSi

87.1 2.1
117.2
102.8 3.8
161.1
89.9 4.3

Sc 5 Si 3

S S [J mol1 K1]
14.5 2.3
14.5 4.2
2.56

Ref.
90Luk1
84Gol1
90Luk1
84Gol1
89Top1
80Sic1

References
64Sch1
65Sch1
80Sic1
84Gol1
88Ere2
89Top1
90Luk1
94Kot1
95Oka9

Schob, O., Parth, E.: Monatsh. Chem. 95 (1964) 1466


Schob, O., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr. 19 (1965) 214
Sichev, N.I., Geld, P.V., Kalishevich, G.I.: Zh. Fiz. Khim. 54 (1980) 224
Golutvin, Yu.M., Mashlennikova, E.G., Titov, L.G.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. 6 (1984)
47
Eremenko, V.N., Meleshevich, K.A., Buyanov, Yu.I., Martsenyuk, P.S.: Sov. Powder
Metall. Met. Ceram. (Engl. Transl.) 27 (1988) 967
Topor, L., Kleppa, O.J.: Metall. Trans. B 20 (1989) 879
Lukashenko, G.M., Sidorenko, V.R., Meleshevich, K.A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk Ukr. SSR, Ser.
A 5 (1990) 86
Kotroczo, V., McColm, L.J.: J. Alloys Compounds 203 (1994) 259
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 477

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Sn

Sc-Sn (Scandium-Tin)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Palenzona et al. [95Pal1] using differential thermal analysis,
X-ray diffractography, and metallography. Due to contaminations of the samples by crucible material
(Mo), the Sc-rich part of the system has not been studied. The published partial phase diagram has been
used to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Sn. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Sn

Table 1. Sc-Sn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [95Pal1].
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Sc 5 Sn 3
Sc 6 Sn 5
ScSn 2

hex
orth
tetr

Mn 5 Si 3
Ti 6 Ge 5
ScSn 2

0.8401
0.8830
0.4238

1.9045

0.6073
0.6057
3.1073

Thermodynamics
By direct calorimetrical synthesis, Meschel et al. [96Mes2] have determined the standard enthalpy of
formation of Sc 5 Sn 3 . The value amounts to H S = 70.2 1.8 kJ g-atom1.

References
95Pal1
96Mes2

Palenzona, A., Manfrinetti, P.: J. Alloys Compounds 220 (1995) 157


Meschel, S.V., Kleppa, O.J.: J. Alloys Compounds 238 (1996) 180

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Sr

Sc-Sr (Scandium-Strontium)
Phase diagram
On the basis of results of some investigations of phase equilibria by Dzuraev et al. [86Dzu1], and
assuming some similarity to binary systems of Sc or Y with Ca, Ba, or Sr, Moffatt [88Mof1] proposed a
phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1], from where information has been taken
to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Sr. Tentative phase diagram.

References
86Dzu1
88Mof1
90Mas1

Dzuraev, T.D., Altynbaev, R.A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk Tadzh. SSR 29 (1986) 472
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1988)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Ta

Sc-Ta (Scandium-Tantalum)
Phase diagram
Dennison et al. [66Den1] have investigated the Sc-rich part of the phase diagram, Massalski [90Mas1]
has redrawn it. From the latter compilation information has been taken to construct the partial phase
diagram in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Ta. Partial phase diagram (Sc-rich part).

References
66Den1
90Mas1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 10 (1966)
108
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Tb

Sc-Tb (Scandium-Terbium)
Phase diagram
Koch et al. [70Koc1] found a series of continuous solid solutions of the components in the body centered
cubic modification (high temperature) as well as in the low-temperature one (hexagonal close packed).
Moffatt [78Mof1], on the basis of the above statement, has drawn a phase diagram, assuming that the gap
between liquid and bcc phase, and also between the bcc and the cph phase are so narrow that it could not
be drawn in the phase diagram. Massalski [90Mas1] has accepted the phase diagram reported by Moffatt
[78Mof1]. From the latter compilation information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Tb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of hexagonal solid solutions, have been determined at room temperature by Cavin et
al. [66Cav1], Chatterjee et al. [71Cha1], and Burgardt et al. [79Bur1]. The results have been discussed by
Gschneidner jr. et al. [83Gsc1], who stated that only little deviations from Vegard's law could be detected
for c lattice parameter, but not for a parameter.

References
66Cav1
70Koc1

Cavin, O.B., Steele, R.M., Harris, L.A., Yakel, H.L.: ORNL-3970, Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.,
Oak Ridge, T.N. (1966)
Koch, C.C.: J. Less-Common Met. 22 (1970) 149

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Tb
71Cha1
78Mof1
79Bur1
83Gsc1
90Mas1

Chatterji, D., Corner, W.D.: J. Phys. (Paris), Suppl. 32 (1971) C1


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Burgardt, P., Legvold, S., Beaudry, B.J., Harmon, B.N.: Phys. Rev. B 20 (1979) 3787
Gschneidner jr., K.A., Calderwood, F.W.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 4 (1983) 170
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Tc

Sc-Tc (Scandium-Technetium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Sc-Tc. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

ScTc 2
ScTc 7

hex
cub

MgZn 2
Mn

0.5224
0.9509

0.8570

81Szk1
61Lam1

References
61Lam1
81Szk1

Lam, D.J., Darby, J.B., Downey, J.W., Norton, L.J.: Nature (London) 192 (1961) 744
Szklarz, E.G., Giorgi, A.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 81 (1981) 349

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Te

Sc-Te (Scandium-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Only very few parts of the phase diagram are known. White et al. [65Whi1] found the intermediate phases
ScTe and Sc 2 Te 3 , and the homogeneity range of the latter compound. Chattopadhyay et al. [89Cha1], on
the basis of the above mentioned knowledge have drawn a "phase diagram", Massalski [90Mas1] has
redrawn ist and from there information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Te. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Te

Table 1. Sc-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

ScTe
Sc 2 Te 3
Sc 2 Te 3

hex
cub
hex

NiAs
NaCl
S 12 Ti 7

0.4130
0.5817
0.4109

0.6749

61Men1
61Men1
65Whi1

4.059

References
61Men1
65Whi1
89Cha1
90Mas1

Menkov, A.A., Komissurova, L.N., Simanov, Ju.P.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 141 (1961)
364
White, J.G., Dismukes, J.P.: Inorg. Chem. 4 (1965) 1760
Chattopadhyay, G., Bharadwaj, S.R., in: "Evaluated Phase Diagrams of Binary MetallTellurium Systems of the D-Block Transition Elements", Bhabha At. Res. Center, Bombay
(1989) 95
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Th

Sc-Th (Scandium-Thorium)
Phase diagram
Badayeva et al. [69Bad1] have investigated the phase equilibria. Terekhov et al. [90Ter1] (thermal
analysis, X-ray diffractography), have reinvestigated it. Mostly on the basis of results from the last
mentioned publication, Okamoto [91Oka2] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been
taken as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Th. Phase diagram.

References
69Bad1
90Ter1
91Oka2

Badayeva, T.A., Kuznetsova, P.I.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1969) 156; Russ. Metall.
(Engl. Transl.) (1969) 101
Terekhov, G.I., Sinyakova, S.J.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1990) 215
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 123

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Ti

Sc-Ti (Scandium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Savitskii et al. [61Sav1] and by Beaudry et al. [62Bea1]. The
results of the latter publication have been preferred by Murray [90Mur1], for there have been used highpurity materials (thermal analysis, metallography, X-ray diffractography). From [90Mur1] information
has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Ti. Phase diagram.

References
61Sav1
62Bea1
90Mur1

Savitskii, E.M., Burkhanov, G.S.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 6 (1961) 1253; Russ. J. Inorg. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 6 (1961) 642
Beaudry, B.J., Daane, A.H.: Trans. AIME 224 (1962) 770
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-U

Sc-U (Scandium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Holocombe et al. [86Hol1] have determined solubilities of the components in each other in the
temperature range between about 1470 K and 1520 K. Later on, Terekhov et al. [92Ter1] have
investigated the phase equilibria by differential thermal analysis, metallographic methods, and hardness
measurements. On the basis of the results reported by the above mentioned authors, Okamoto [93Oka6]
has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the source of information for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-U. Phase diagram.

References
86Hol1
92Ter1
93Oka6

Holocombe jr., C.E., Chapman, L.R.: J. Nucl. Mater. 139 (1986) 279
Terekhov, G.I., Sinyakova, S.I.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1992) 200; Russ. Metall.
(Engl. Transl.) (1992) 187
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 655

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-V

Sc-V (Scandium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallography, hardness measurements, and microprobe
analysis, Savitskii et al. [70Sav1, 71Sav1] have investigated phase equilibria. On the basis of the phase
diagram, reported by the above mentioned authors, Smith et al. [89Smi2], by modeling, have calculated a
phase diagram, which has been rejected by Smith et al. [90Smi3]. In the latter publication, the authors
prefer a modeling on the basis of a subregular model, for by this modeling the experimentally determined
phase equilibria can be described with higher accuracy. This diagram has been taken as a basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-V. Phase diagram.

References
70Sav1
71Sav1
89Smi2
90Smi3

Savitskii, E.M., Terekhova, V.F., Torchinova, R.S., Markova, I.A., Naumkin, O.P.,
Koleshnichenko, V.E., Stroganova, V.F.: "Les Elments des Terres Rares", Vol. 1; ParisGrenoble Conference (1970) 47
Savitskii, E.M., Naumkin, O.P., Efimov, Yu.E.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1971) 178
Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.),
ASM, Materials Park, Ohio (1989)
Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-V

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-W

Sc-W (Scandium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
On the basis of results reported by Dennison et al. [66Den2] (solubility of W in liquid Sc) and Ackermann
et al. [72Ack1] (eutectic reaction), Pandian et al. [91Pan1] have proposed a simple phase diagram, which
has been the source of information to draw Fig. 1.
The phase equilibria near the eutectic are given in Fig. 2 in an enlarged version (taken from from
Pandian et al. [91Pan1]).

Fig. 1. Sc-W. Phase diagram.

Fig. 2. Sc-W. Partial phase diagram (Sc-rich part).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-W

References
66Den2
72Ack1
91Pan1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966)
423
Ackermann, R.J., Rauh, E.G.: High Temp. Sci. 4 (1972) 272
Pandian, S., Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten
Alloys", S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase
Diagrams, The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Y

Sc-Y (Scandium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been determined by Beaudry et al. [63Bea1], using thermal analysis, and X-ray
diffractography. The results reported have been taken by Gschneidner et al. [83Gsc2] to construct an
assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of cph (Sc, Y) solid solutions have been determined by Beaudry et al. [63Bea1].
The results are deviating from Vegard's law only little.

References
63Bea1
83Gsc2

Beaudry, B.J., Daane, A.H.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 227 (1963) 865
Gschneidner jr., K.A., Calderwood, F.W.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 4 (1983) 171

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Yb

Sc-Yb (Scandium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
For alloys of this system De Boer et al. [79Deb1] have predicted strong positive enthalpies of mixing. As
a consequence, Moffatt [80Mof1] proposed a phase diagram, with a miscibility gap in the liquid state.
Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn this phase diagram. It has been used, also, as a basis of information to
construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Yb. Tentative phase diagram.

References
79Deb1
80Mof1
90Mas1

De Boer, F.R., Dijkman, W.H., Mattens, W.C.M., Miedema, A.R.: J. Less-Common Met.
64 (1979) 241
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1980)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Zn

Sc-Zn (Scandium-Zinc)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Sc-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

ScZn
Sc 3 Zn 17
ScZn 12

cub
cub
tetr

NaCl
Be 17 Ru 3
Mn 12 Th

0.335
1.379
0.8814

c [nm]

Ref.

0.5140

63Lau1
66Kri1
66Kri1

References
63Lau1
66Kri1

Laube, E., Nowotny, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 94 (1963) 162


Kripyakevich, P.I., Protasov, V.S., Kuzma, Yu.B.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 2 (1966)
1351

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Zr

Sc-Zr (Scandium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis and X-ray diffractography, Beaudry et al. [63Bea1] have investigated the phase
equilibria. Palenzona et al. [91Pal3], on the basis of results obtained by the above mentioned authors and
after some corrections, have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis for
drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sc-Zr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of hexagonal (Sc, Zr) solid solutions are plotted in Fig. 2.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sc-Zr

Fig. 2. Sc-Zr. Lattice parameters for hexagonal (Sc, Zr) solid solution.

References
63Bea1
91Pal3

Beaudry, B.J., Daane, A.H.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 227 (1963) 865
Palenzona, A., Cirafici, S.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 53

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Si

Se-Si (Selenium-Silicon)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Peters et al. [82Pet1] has investigated the crystallographic data of the intermediate phase Se 2 Si. The
structure is orthorhombic (S 2 Si-type) with lattice parameters a = 0.9669 nm, b = 0.5998 nm, and c =
0.5851 nm.

References
82Pet1

Peters, J., Krebs, B.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 38 (1982) 1270

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Sm

Se-Sm (Selenium-Samarium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Se-Sm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Se 2 Sm
Se 3 Sm 2
Se 7 Sm 4

tetr
cub
mon

Cu 2 Sb
P 4 Th 2

0.4046
0.8766
0.840

Se 4 Sm 3
SeSm
SeSm
(thin film)

cub
cub
hex

Th 3 P 4
NaCl
ZnS

0.8848
0.6223
0.405

b [nm]

0.8200
= 90

c [nm]

Ref.

0.8244
0.8200

67Wan1
83Pri2
67Eli1

0.722

84Pri1
72Cha1
77Sin1

References
67Eli1
67Wan1
72Cha1
77Sin1
83Pri2
84Pri1

Eliseev, A.A., Yarambash, E.J.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 3 (1967) 1296
Wang, R., Steinfink, H.: Inorg. Chem. 6 (1967) 1685
Chatterjee, A., Singh, A.K., Jayaraman, A.: Phys. Rev. B 6 (1972) 2285
Singh, A.K., Srivastava, O.N.: Z. Metallkd. 68 (1977) 768
Pribylskii, N.Yu., Gamidov, R.S.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 28 (1983) 406
Pribylskaya, N.Yu., Eliseev, A.A., Pribylskii, N.Yu., Gamidov, R.S.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 29 (1984) 451

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Sn

Se-Sn (Selenium-Tin)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been investigated experimentally by Pelabon et al. [06Pel1], Biltz et al.
[09Bil1], Vasilenko et al. [64Vas1] and Kharakhanova et al. [66Kha1]. From results reported by these
authors, Sharma et al. [90Sha1] have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been used as a
basis to to draw Fig. 1.
By thermodynamic modeling, Feutelais et al. [96Feu1] have calculated the phase diagram. The results
are in good agreement with the assessed diagram reported by Sharma et al. [90Sha1].
Phase equilibria at the Sn-rich side of the system are given in Fig. 2 in an enlarged version.
There is some discussion in the literature concerning the order of the phase transition in the SeSn
phase (see Feutelais et al. [96Feu1]). Further on, the latter authors are discussing two possibilities of
phase equilibria at about 50 at% Se (see Fig. 3).

Fig. 1. Se-Sn. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Sn

Fig. 2. Se-Sn. Partial phase diagram (Sn-rich part).

Fig. 3. Se-Sn. Two possibilities, (a) and (b), of phase equilibria at about 50 at% Se discussed by [96Feu1].

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Sn

Table 1. Se-Sn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Se 2 Sn
Se 3 Sn 2
(thin film)
SeSn
(stable < 807 K)
SeSn
(stable > 807 K)
SeSn
(thin film)

hex
tetr

CdI 2

0.384
0.677

orth

GeS

0.4436

orth

BCr

0.4310

cub

NaCl

0.599

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.617
0.586

86Gar1
54Pal1

0.4162

1.149

61Kre1

1.1705

0.4318

81Sch1
67Mar1

Thermodynamics
By direct reaction calorimetry, Kotchi et al. [87Kot1, 88Kot1] have determined enthalpies of mixing of
liquid alloys in the concentration range higher than 25 at% Sn. The results are plotted in Fig. 4.
Kotchi et al. [87Kot1] have reported thermodynamic data for intermediate phases, too. These data are
given in Table 2.
Table 2. Se-Sn. Thermodynamic data of intermediate phases (see [87Kot1]) at 298 K.
Phase

H S [kJ mol1]

SeSn

94.6 2.1
96.7 4.2
90.8 0.4
90.0 7.1
124.7 1.3
146.9 8.5

S 2 Sn

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

S S [J mol1 K1]
5.0 4.6
3.3 9.2
17.2 2.5

Ref.
71Mel1
72Sem1
60Gad1
64Col1
71Mel1
67Kar1

Se-Sn

Fig. 4. Se-Sn. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 1175 K.

References
06Pel1
09Bil1
54Pal1
60Gad1
61Kre1
64Col1
64Vas1
66Kha1
67Kar1
67Mar1
71Mel1

Pelabon, H., Moissan, H.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 142 (1906) 1147
Biltz, W., Mecklenburg, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 64 (1909) 226
Palatnik, L.S., Levitin, V.V.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 96 (1954) 975
Gadzhiev, S.N., Sharifov, K.A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk Az. SSR 16 (1960) 662
Krebs, H., Gruen, K., Kallen, D.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 312 (1961) 307
Colin, R., Droward, J.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 60 (1964) 673
Vasilenko, T.V., Kharkov, Y.I.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 18 (1964) 203; Phys. Met.
Metallogr. (Engl Transl.) 18 (1964) 45
Kharakhanova, M.I., Pashinkin, A.S., Novoselova, A.V.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg.
Mater. 2 (1966) 1186
Karakhanova, M.I.: Thesis, Moscow (1967)
Mariano, A.N., Chopra, K.L.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 10 (1967) 282
Melekh, B.T., Stepanova, N.B., Fomina, T.A., Semenkovich, S.A.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 45 (1971) 1144

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Sn
72Sem1
81Sch1
86Gar1
87Kot1
88Kot1
90Sha1
96Feu1

Semenkovich, S.A., Melekh, B.T., Stepanova, N.B., Seregin, P.I.: Khim. Svyaz Poluprov.
Pollumetallakh (1972) 339
von Schnering, H.G., Wiedemeier, H.: Z. Kristallogr. 156 (1981) 143
Garg, A.K.: J. Phys. C 19 (1986) 3949
Kotchi, K.P., Castanet, R., Mathieu, J.C.: Z. Metallkd. 78 (1987) 714
Kotchi, K.P., Gilbert, M., Castanet, R.: J. Less-Common Met. 143 (1988) L1
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Feutelais, Y., Majid, M., Legendre, B., Fries, S.G.: J. Phase Equilibria 17 (1996) 40

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Sr

Se-Sr (Selenium-Strontium)
Phase diagram
Lyskova et al. [75Lys1] have reported the phase diagram, Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it and from
the latter compilation information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Se-Sr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
SeSr has a cubic structure (NaCl-type) with lattice parameter a = 0.62320 nm (Primak et al. [48Pri1]).

References
48Pri1
75Lys1
90Mas1

Primak, W., Kaufman, H., Ward, R.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70 (1948) 2043
Lyskova, Yu.B., Vakhobov, A.H.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 11 (1975) 361
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Ta

Se-Ta (Selenium-Tantalum)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Se-Ta. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Se 3 Ta

mon

NbSe 3

1.002

1.565

82Kik1

Se 2 Ta
Se 2 Ta
Se 2 Ta
Se 2 Ta
Se 2 Ta

hex
hex
hex
hex
tricl

CdI 2
MoS 2
N2W
NbS 2
Se 2 Ta

mon

Nb 2 Se 3

0.62411
1.2737
1.910
1.2696
0.936
= 120
0.9206

88Suz1
62Bri1
63Bri1
75Whi1
80Bro1

Se 3 Ta 2

0.35096
0.3431
0.3448
0.3436
1.245
= 101.9
0.6495

0.348
= 119.6

1.245
= 43.8
0.3408
= 103.63

68Kad1

References
62Bri1
63Bri1
68Kad1
75Whi1
80Bro1
82Kik1
88Suz1

Brixner, L.H.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 24 (1962) 257


Brixner, L.H., Tenter, G.: Inorg. Chem. 2 (1963) 992
Kadijk, F., Huisman, R., Jellinek, F.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 24 (1968) 1102
Whitingham, M.S., Gamble jr., F.R.: Mater. Res. Bull. 10 (1975) 363
Brouwer, R., Jellinek, F.: Physica B + C (Amsterdam) 99 (1980) 51
Kikkawa, S., Ogawa, N., Koizumi, M., Onuki, Y.: J. Solid State Chem. 41 (1982) 315
Suzuki, A., Yamashita, T., Matsui, K., Doyama, M.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 57 (1988) 1707

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Tb

Se-Tb (Selenium-Terbium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Se-Tb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

SeTb
stable < 48 K
SeTb
SeTb
Se 3 Tb 2
Sb 3 Tb 2
Sb 4 Tb 3

hex
cub
hex
cub
orth
cub

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

0.80835
NaCl
ZnS
P 4 Th 3
S 3 Sb 2
P 4 Th 3

0.57438
0.400
0.8678
1.1056
0.8710

c [nm]

Ref.

0.99836

78Hul1

0.695
0.4031

1.0954

78Hul1
77Sin1
83Pri1
87Eli1
84Pri1

References
77Sin1
78Hul1
83Pri1
84Pri1
87Eli1

Singh, A.K., Srivastava, O.N.: Z. Metallkd. 68 (1977) 768


Hulliger, F., Stucki, F.: Z. Phys. B 31 (1978) 391
Pribylskii, N.Yu., Gamidov, R.S., Vasilyeva, I.G.: Izv. Sib. Otd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser.
Khim. Nauk (1983) 51
Pribylskaya, N.Yu., Eliseev, A.A., Pribylskii, N.Yu., Gamidov, R.S.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 29 (1984) 451
Eliseev, A.A., Orlova, I.G., Martynova, L.F., Pechennikov, A.V., Cherchernikov, V.I.:
Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 23 (1987) 1833

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Te

Se-Te (Selenium-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilbria have been investigated experimentally by Pellini et al. [06Pel2], Lanyon et al. [66Lan1],
and Kotkata et al. [81Kot1]. Ghosh et al. [88Gho1] have calculated the phase diagram. All the results
obtained have been used by Ghosh et al. [94Gho1] to construct an assessed phase diagram. This latter
diagram has been taken as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.
Liquid-vapor equilibria have been determined by Sato et al. [52Sat1] and by Yannopoulos et al.
[64Yan1]. Results reported by the last mentioned authors [64Yan1] for Se-rich alloys are plotted in Fig. 2.

Fig. 1. Se-Te. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Te

Fig. 2. Se-Te. Partial phase diagram (< 60 at% Te) at 0.1 MPa.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of hexagonal (Se, Te) solid solutions have been determined several times with
relatively high scatter. After short discussion Ghosh et al. [94Gho1] stated that the a-parameter shows
some positive deviation from Vegard's law, whereas the c-parameter - within the experimental scatter obeys Vegard's rule roughly.

Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic activities have been determined by Yannapoulos et al. [64Yan1] (vapor pressure
measurements, 961 K to 1046 K), Konopelko et al. [73Kon1] (623 K to 923 K) and Nanjo et al. [76Nan1]
(714 K). The results from the latter authors are plotted in Fig. 3.
Integral enthalpies of mixing have been determined experimentally by Maekawa et al. [73Mae1]. The
results are plotted in Fig. 4.
Further on, enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys have been studied by Morgant et al. [89Mor1]
showing similar results.
Thermodynamic modeling has been performed by Ghosh et al. [88Gho1] and by Clavaguera-Mora et
al. [95Cla1].

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Te

Fig. 3. Se-Te. Thermo-dynamic activities for liquid alloys at 714 K [76Nan1].

Fig. 4. Se-Te. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 733 K [73Mae1].

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Te

Metastable phases
Amorphous alloys can be obtained by quenching of liquid alloys (water quenching; Kotkata et al.
[81Kot1], < 50 at% Te; Watanabe et al. [79Wat1]). The crystallization temperature as a function of Te
content has been studied by [81Kot1]. The influence of pressure on the crystallization of amorphous
alloys has been investigated by Parthasarathy et al. [84Par1].

References
06Pel2
52Sat1
64Yan1
66Lan1
73Kon1
73Mae1
76Nan1
79Wat1
81Kot1
84Par1
88Gho1
89Mor1
94Gho1
95Cla1

Pellini, G., Vio, G.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 15 (1906) 46
Sato, T., Kaneko, H.: Technol. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ. 16 (1952) 18
Yannapoulos, J.C., Themelis, N.J.: Can. J. Chem. Eng. 42 (1964) 219
Lanyon, H.P.D.: Phys. Status Solidi 17 (1966) K185
Konopelko, F.L., Svestnikov, Yu.N., Beleshenko, D.K.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg.
Mater. 9 (1973) 935; Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 9 (1973) 836
Maekawa, T., Yokokawa, T., Niwa, K.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 46 (1973) 761
Nanjo, M., Nakazawa, S., Yazawa, A., Taniuchi, K.: Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi 40 (1976)
958
Watanabe, H., Rao, K.C.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18 (1979) 1849
Kotkata, M.F., Mohmoud, E.A., El-Mously, M.K.: Acta Phys. Acad. Sci. Hung. 52 (1981)
61
Parthasarathy, G., Rao, K.J., Gopal, E.S.R.: Philos. Mag. B 50 (1984) 335
Ghosh, G., Lukas, H.L., Delaey, L.: CALPHAD 12 (1988) 295
Morgant, G., Feutelaiss, Y., Legendre, B.: Z. Metallkd. 80 (1989) 520
Ghosh, G., Sharma, R.C., Li, D.T., Chang, Y.A.: J. Phase Equilibria 15 (1994) 213
Clavaguera-Mora, M.T., Comas, C., Clavaguera, N.: J. Alloys Compounds 220 (1995) 39

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Th

Se-Th (Selenium-Thorium)
Phase diagram
Using tensimetry, melting point determinations, metallography and X-ray diffractography, D'Eye et al.
[52Dey1, 53Dey1] have found the intermediate phases SeTh, Se 3 Th 2 , Se 12 Th 7 , Se 2 Th, and Se 7 Th 3 . On
the basis of this knowledge, Hansen et al. [58Han1] has constructed a tentative phase diagram, which has
been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation data have been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Se-Th. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Th

Table 1. Se-Th. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Se 5 Th 2
tetr
Se 2 Th
orth
Se 12 Th 7
hex
Se 3 Th 2
orth
SeTh
cub
cub
SeTh
(high pressure)
> 15 GPa

Type

a [nm]

S 5 Th 2
Co 2 Si
Th 7 Si 12
Sb 2 S 3
NaCl
CsCl

0.5629
0.7629
1.1570
1.157
0.5880
0.360

b [nm]
0.4435
0.427

c [nm]

Ref.

1.0764
0.9085
0.423
1.134

60Gra1
60Gra1
53Dey1
52Dey1
87Pal1
88Ols1

References
52Dey1
53Dey1
58Han1
60Gra1
87Pal1
88Ols1
90Mas1

D'Eye, R.W.M., Sellman, P.G., Murray, J.R.: J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. (1952) 2555
D'Eye, R.W.M.: J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. (1953) 1670
Hansen, M., Anderko, K.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys", Second Edition, New York:
McGraw-Hill (1958)
Graham, J., McTaggart, F.K.: Aust. J. Chem. 13 (1960) 67
Palewski, T.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 84 (1987) K47
Olsen, J.S., Gerward, L., Benedict, U., Luo, H., Vogt, O.: High Temp. High Pressures 20
(1988) 553
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Ti

Se-Ti (Selenium-Titanium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases have been discussed by Murray [86Mur2]. Some of them are
given in Table 1.
Table 1. Se-Ti. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Se 2 Ti
Se 4 Ti 3

hex
mon

CdI 2
Cr 3 Se 4

0.35401
0.640

Se 9 Ti 8
SeTi 1x
SeTi

hex
orth
hex

MnP
NiAs

1.0684
0.6222
0.3575

b [nm]
0.357
= 90.70
0.3494

c [nm]

Ref.

0.60083
1.204

76Rie1
62Che1

0.6248
0.6462
0.5995

72Bru1
61Gro2
59Hah2

References
59Hah2
61Gro2
62Che1
72Bru1
76Rie1
86Mur2

Hahn, H., Ness, P.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 302 (1959) 17


Gronvold, F., Langmyhr, F.J.: Acta Chem. Scand. 15 (1961) 1949
Chevreton, M., Bertaut, F.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 255 (1962) 1275
Brunie, S., Chevreton, M.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 274 (1972) 278
Riekel, C.: J. Solid State Chem. 17 (1976) 389
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7 (1986) 163

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Tl

Se-Tl (Selenium-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Vasilev et al. [67Vas1, 71Vas1] and Morgaut et al. [81Mor1].
The phase diagram reported by Morgaut et al. [81Mor1] has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From
there information has been taken to draw Fig. 1. The phase Se 3 Tl 2 and the relating phase equilibria are
still in discussion.

Fig. 1. Se-Tl. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Se-Tl. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

SeTl
Se 3 Tl 2

tetr
mon

SeTl
Se 3 Tl 2

0.803
1.8159

b [nm]

0.7182
= 135.45

c [nm]

Ref.

0.698
0.8064

71Ito1
76Ram1

References
67Vas1

Vasilev, V.P., Nikolskaya, A.V., Bachinskaya, A.G., Gerasimov, Ya.I.: Dokl. Phys. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 176 (1967) 1335

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Tl
71Ito1
71Vas1
76Ram1
81Mor1
90Mas1

Itoga, R.S., Kannewurf, C.R.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 32 (1971) 1099


Vasilev, V.P., Nikolskaya, A.V., Gerasimov, Ya.I.: Zh. Fiz. Khim. 45 (1971) 2061; Russ. J.
Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 45 (1971) 1169
Ram Yadar, R., Phal Ram, R., Bhan, S.: Z. Metallkd. 67 (1976) 173
Morgaut, G., Legendre, B., Mareglier-Lacordaire, S., Souleau, C.: Ann. Chim. (Paris) 6
(1981) 315
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Tm

Se-Tm (Selenium-Thulium)
Phase diagram
A first proposal of the phase diagram has been given by Kaldis et al. [79Kal1]. Later on, Spychiger et al.
[85Spy1] have investigated the concentration region between 35 at% Tm and 60 at% Tm. Assuming no
intermediate phases at concentrations < 30 at% Tm and > 60 at% Tm, Moffatt [87Mof1] has
accomplished speculatively the phase diagram in those regions. Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn this
partially speculative diagram and from there information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Se-Tm. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Tm

Table 1. Se-Tm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Se 2 Tm
Se 3 Tm2
Se 3 Tm2
high temperature high pressure
Se 4 Tm3
SeTm

tetr
orth
cub

Cu 2 Sb
Sc 2 S 3
P 4 Th 3

0.3961
1.1316
0.85992

0.8056

0.8188
2.406

70Web2
65Dis1
70Eat1

orth
cub

Se 4 Tm3
NaCl

0.79591
0.5688

0.79524

1.12513

87Sie1
79Kal1

References
65Dis1
70Eat1
70Web2
79Kal1
85Spy1
87Mof1
87Sie1
90Mas1

Dismukes, J.P., White, J.G.: Inorg. Chem. 4 (1965) 970


Eatough, N.L., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 417
Webb, A.W., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 843
Kaldis, E., Fritzler, B., Peteler, W.: Z. Naturforsch. A 34 (1979) 55
Spychiger, H., Kaldis, E., Firtzler, B.: J. Less-Common Met. 110 (1985) 61
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1987)
Siegrist, T., Le Page, Y., Holtzberg, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 132 (1987) 243
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-U

Se-U (Selenium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffractography, Ellert et al. [75Ell1] have investigated
phase equilibria. Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn the phase diagram. From the latter compilation
information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Se-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-U

Table 1. Se-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Se 3 U

mon

TiS 3

0.5652

1.0469

89Sol1

Se 2 U(h)
Se 2 U(l)
Se 12 U 7
Se 5 U 3
Se 5 U 3
Se 3 U 2
Se 4 U 3
SeU
Se 2 U(h)

orth
hex
hex
orth
tetr
orth
cub
cub
tetr

Co 2 Si

0.7476
0.7630
1.1385
1.243
1.0772
1.133
0.8820
0.5741
1.0700

0.4056
= 115.03
0.4239

0.8967
0.4187
0.4099
0.777
0.6668
1.094

73Bre1
73Bre1
73Bre1
72Mos1
68Gro1
59Kho1
85Noe1
84Pal1
89Bec1

Th 7 S 12
U3S5
Si 3 W 5
Sb 2 S 3
P 4 Th 3
NaCl
Pu 5 Rh 3

0.848
0.406

0.6600

References
59Kho1
68Gro1
72Mos1
73Bre1
75Ell1
84Pal1
85Noe1
89Bec1
89Sol1
90Mas1

Khodadad, P.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 249 (1959) 694


Gronvold, F., Haraldsen, H., Thurmann-Moe, T., Tufte, T.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 30 (1968)
2117
Moseley, P.T., Brown, D., Whittacker, B.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 28 (1972) 1816
Breeze, E.W., Brett, N.H.: J. Nucl. Mater. 45 (1973) 131
Ellert, G.V., Sevastyanov, V.G., Slovyanskikh, V.K.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 20 (1975) 221;
Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 20 (1975) 120
Palewski, T.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 84 (1984) K47
Noel, H.: Physica B + C (Amsterdam) 130 B (1985) 499
Beck, H.P., Dausch, W.: J. Solid State Chem. 80 (1989) 32
Solovianskikh, V.K., Kuznetsov, N.T., Gracheva, N.V.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl.
Transl.) 34 (1989) 900
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-V

Se-V (Selenium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Several investigations concerning the structure of the phases have been performed. One of the first study
of phase equilibria has been done by Rst et al. [64Rs1] (metallographic observations, X-ray
diffractography). For the following papers the reader is referred to the comprehensive review given by
Smith [89Smi1]. After thorough discussion of all available results of investigations, Smith [89Smi1], has
proposed a partial phase diagram, which has been the basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Se-V. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of some intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-V

Table 1. Se-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Se 9 V 2

mon

Se 2 V 1+x
Se x V
Se 4 V 3

hex
hex
mon

Se 8 V 5

mon

Se 4 V 5

tetr

Type

CdI 2
NiAs
Cr 3 S 4

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.05899

1.24127
= 94.91

0.81198

84Fur1

0.6101
0.6002
1.1912

64Rs1
64Rs1
64Rs1

1.129

64Bru1

0.3417

64Rs1

0.3353
0.3624
0.5951
1.137

Te 4 Ti 5

0.9294

0.3434
= 90.06
0.665
= 91.31

References
64Bru1
64Rs1
84Fur1
89Smi1

Brunie, S., Chevreton, M.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 258 (1964) 5847
Rst, E., Gjersten, L.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 328 (1964) 299
Furuseth, S., Klewe, B.: Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. A 38 (1984) 467
Smith, J.F., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM,
Materials Park, Ohio (1989)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-W

Se-W (Selenium-Tungsten)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
The only one intermediate phase is Se 2 W. Its structure is hexagonal (MoS 2 -type) with lattice parameters
a = 0.328 nm, c = 1.295 nm (Brixner [62Bri1]).

Thermodynamics
The enthalpy of formation of Se 2 W has been determined by Zelikman et al. [83Zel1]. Using the Knudsen
effusion method they found H S = 151.4 kJ mol1. By calorimetry the same authors determined H S =
154.2 kJ mol1.

References
62Bri1
83Zel1

Brixner, L.H.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 24 (1962) 257


Zelikman, A.N., Kolchin, Yu.O., Golutvin, Yu.M.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 57
(1983) 519

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Y

Se-Y (Selenium-Yttrium)
The phase diagram is not available.
Klemm et al. [37Kle1] reported the melting temperature of Se 3 Y 2 to be > 2073 K.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Se-Y. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Se 3 Y 2
Se 7 Y 5

orth
mon

S 3 Se 2
Se 7 Y 5

1.1455
1.3213

2.438
1.2035

65Dis1
88Kim1

SeY

cub

NaCl

0.5703

0.8170
0.39490
= 104.82

High pressure
Se 3 Y 2
7 GPa, 2073 K

cub

Th 3 P 4

0.86626

64Bru2
70Eat1

References
37Kle1
64Bru2
65Dis1
70Eat1
88Kim1

Klemm, W., Koczy, A.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 233 (1937) 84


Bruzzone, G., Ferro Ruggiero, A., Olcese, G.L.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat.
Nat. Rend. 36 (1964) 66
Dismukes, J.P., White, J.G.: Inorg. Chem. 4 (1965) 970
Eatough, N.L., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 417
Kim, S.J., Franzen, H.F.: J. Less-Common Met. 138 (1988) L29

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Yb

Se-Yb (Selenium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
Only some features of the middle part of the phase diagram have been reported (Guittard et al. [66Gui1]).
Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it. From there information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Se-Yb. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crytallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Yb

Table 1. Se-Yb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Se 3 Yb 2
Se 4 Yb 3
Se 4 Yb 3
SeYb

orth
orth
hex
cub

S 3 Sc 2
S 4 Yb 3

1.1274
1.328
0.808
0.5933

0.8021
0.399

2.398
1.355
2.042

65Dis1
69Sou1
66Gui1
67Ian1

0.8151

70Web2

NaCl

Metastable or high-pressure phases


tetr
Cu 2 Sb
Se 2 Yb
17 GPA
cub
Th 3 P 4
Se 3 Yb 2
7 GPa
SeYb
hex
ZnS
(thin film)
(wurtzite)

0.3970
0.8615
0.412

70Eat1
0.726

77Sin1

References
65Dis1
66Gui1
67Ian1
69Sou1
70Eat1
70Web2
77Sin1
90Mas1

Dismukes, J.P., White, J.G.: Inorg. Chem. 4 (1965) 970


Guittard, M., Flahaut, J., Domange, L.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 262 (1966) 1002
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: Coll. Int. CNRS (Paris), (1967) 397
Souleau, C., Guittard, M., Laurelle, P.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1969) 9
Eatough, N.L., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 417
Webb, A.W., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 843
Singh, A.K., Srivastava, O.N.: Z. Metallkd. 68 (1977) 768
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Zn

Se-Zn (Selenium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
An experimental investigation of the phase equilibria is not known. Also, no thermodynamic data of
liquid alloys are present in the literature. Using an associated solution model, Sharma et al. [96Sha3,
79Sha1], taking into account some solubility data determined by Rubenstein [68Rub1] and Kikuma et al.
[80Kik1], have calculated the phase diagram, which has been presented by Sharma et al. [90Sha1], and,
which has been taken as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Se-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Zn

Table 1. Se-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

SeZn

cub

ZnS
(sphalerite)

0.56687

69Yim1

FeS 2

0.62930

68Bit1

ZnS
(wurtzite)

0.4003

High-pressure phase
cub
Se 2 Zn
(6.58.9 GPa)
Metastable phase
SeZn
hex

c [nm]

0.6540

Ref.

65Par1

Thermodynamics
The enthalpy of formation of the stable ZnSe has been determined several times. The results obtained are
given in Table 2.
Table 2. Se-Zn. Enthalpy of formation and entropy of formation of
the stable ZnS at 298 K.
Ref.

H S [kJ mol1]

S S [J mol1 K1]

82Har1
52Ros1
62Wos1
63Gol1
67Ter1
90Nas1

176.5
142.3
196.6
164.4
163.2 2.9
177.6 2.5

13.8 2.1
13.4

References
52Ros1
62Wos1
63Gol1
65Par1
67Ter1
68Bit1
68Rub1
69Yim1
79Sha1
80Kik1
82Har1

Rossini, F.D., Wagman, D.D., Evans, W.H., Levine, S., Jaffe, I.: "Selected Values of
Chemical Thermodynamic Properties", N.B.S., Circular 500 (1952)
Wosten, W.J., Geers, M.G.: J. Phys. Chem. 66 (1962) 1252
Goldfinger, P., Jeunehomme, M.: Trans. Faraday Soc. 59 (1963) 2851
Park, Y.S., Chan, F.L.: J. Appl. Phys. (New York) 36 (1965) 800
Terpilowski, J., Ratajczak, E.: Rocz. Chem. 41 (1967) 429
Bither, T.A., Bouchard, R.J., Cloud, W.H., Donohue, P.C., Siemons, W.J.: Inorg. Chem. 7
(1968) 2208
Rubenstein, M.: J. Cryst. Growth 3 (1968) 309
Yim, W.M.: J. Appl. Phys. (New York) 40 (1969) 2617
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A.: Metall. Trans. B 10 (1979) 103
Kikuma, I., Furukoshi, M.: J. Cryst. Growth 50 (1980) 654
Hartmann, H., Mach, R., Selle, B., in: "Current Topics in Materials Science", Vol. 9, E.
Kaldis (ed.), Amsterdam: North-Holland (1982)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Zn
90Nas1
90Sha1
96Sha3

Nasar, A., Shamsuddin, M.: Z. Metallkd. 81 (1990) 244


Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A.: J. Phase Equilibria 17 (1996) 155

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Se-Zr

Se-Zr (Selenium-Zirconium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Se-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Se 3 Zr

mon

Se 3 Ti

0.541

0.945

65Kr1

Se 2 Zr
Se 3 Zr 2
Se 3 Zr 4
Se 4 Zr 3
Se 2 Zr 3
SeZr 2

hex
hex
tetr
hex
hex
orth

CdI 2
S 8 Ti 5

0.37687
0.3744
0.3634
0.7509
0.3546
1.57968

0.377
= 97.5

0.61399
1.251
0.8361
0.9338
0.3614
0.36016

70Gle1
68Sal1
59Hah3
59Hah3
59Hah3
68Fra2

Se 4 Zr 3
WC
PTa 2

1.26400

References
59Hah3
65Kr1
68Fra2
68Sal1
70Gle1

Hahn, H., Ness, P.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 302 (1959) 37


Krnert, W., Plieth, K.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 336 (1965) 207
Franzen, H.F., Norrby, L.J.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 24 (1968) 601
Salomons, W., Wiegers, G.A.: Recl.: J. R. Neth. Chem. Soc. 87 (1968) 1339
Gleizes, A., Jeannin, Y.: J. Solid State Chem. 1 (1970) 180

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Sm

Si-Sm (Silicon-Samarium)
Phase diagram
By thermal analysis, metallography and X-ray diffractography, Copeland et al. [64Cop1] have
investigated phase equilibria. On the basis of the results obtained there and from structure determinations
reported in the literature (see below) Gokhale et. al. [88Gok1, 90Gok1] have constructed an assessed
phase diagram, which has been the source of information for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Sm. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are collected in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Sm

Table 1. Si-Sm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Si 2 Sm
Si 2 Sm
Si 5 Sm 3
SiSm
Si 4 Sm 5
Si 3 Sm 5

orth
tetr
hex
orth
orth
hex

Gd 2 Si 3
ThSi 2
AlB 2
FeB
Sm 5 Ge 4
Mn 5 Si 3

0.4105
0.408
0.3903
0.813
0.757
0.858

0.4035

1.346
1.351
0.4207
0.583
0.788
0.648

59Per1
59Per1
67Ram1
64Gla1
67Smi1
69May1

0.390
1.488

References
59Per1
64Cop1
64Gla1
67Ram1
67Smi1
69May1
88Gok1
90Gok1

Perri, J.A., Bunks, E., Post, B.: J. Phys. Chem. 63 (1959) 2073
Copeland, M., Kato, H.: "Physics and Material Problems of Reactor Control Rods", IAEA,
Vienna (1964)
Gladyshevskii, E.I., Kripyakevich, P.I.: J. Struct. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 5 (1964) 789
Raman, A.: Naturwissenschaften 54 (1967) 560
Smith, G.S., Tharp, A.G., Johnson, Q.: Acta Crystallogr. 22 (1967) 940
Mayer, I., Shidlovsky, I.: Inorg. Chem. 8 (1969) 1240
Gokhale, A.B., Abbaschian, G.I.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 9 (1988) 582
Gokhale, A.B., Abbaschian, G.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol.
3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Sn

Si-Sn (Silicon-Tin)
Phase diagram
Tamaru [09Tam1], Trumbore et al. [58Tru1], Thurmond et al. [60Thu1], Girault [77Gir1] and Kobylkin
et al. [82Kob1] have investigated experimentally phase equilibria. Olesinski et al. [84Ole1] have
constructed an assessed phase diagram and Jacobs et al. [96Jac1] have, by thermodynamic modeling,
calculated the liquidus and the solidus. These calculated results are in good agreement with optimized
data reported by Olesinski et al. [84Ole1] and the experimentally obtained results. The phase diagrams
given by Olesinski et al. [84Ole1] have been taken as a basis for drawing Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

Fig. 1. Si-Sn. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Sn

Fig. 2. Si-Sn. Partial phase diagram (Si-rich part).

Thermodynamics
The only one experimental work on thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys has been performed by
Blatter [76Bla2], who determined thermodynamic activities using the Knudsen method. Olesinski et al.
[84Ole1] stated that the data obtained are obviously not of good accuracy and consistency with solubility
data used to construct the phase equilibria.

References
09Tam1
58Tru1
60Thu1
76Bla2
77Gir1
82Kob1
84Ole1
96Jac1

Tamaru, C.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 69 (1909) 40


Trumbore, F.A., Isenberg, C.R., Porbansky, E.M.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 9 (1958) 60
Thurmond, C.D., Kowalchik, M.: Bell Syst. Tech. J. 39 (1960) 169
Blattner, J.L.: Ph.D. Thesis, Colorado Scool of Mines (1976)
Girault, B.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B 284 (1977) 1
Kobylkin, A.N., Maslenkov, S.B., Nikolaev, A.G., Nayushkov, B.I.: Zavod. Lab. 48 (1982)
49
Olesinski, R.W., Abbaschian, G.J.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 5 (1984) 273
Jacobs, M.H.G., Spencer, P.J.: CHALPAD 20 (1996) 89

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Sr

Si-Sr (Silicon-Strontium)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been investigated by Obinata et al. [65Obi1]. The results reported there have
been taken by Itkin et al. [89Itk1] to construct an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis for
drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Sr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Sr

Table 1. Si-Sr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Si 2 Sr
SiSr
SiSr 2

cub
orth
orth

Si 2 Sr
CrB
Co 2 Si

0.6535
0.4826
0.811

1.1287
0.515

0.4042
0.954

78Eve1
67Rie1
76Wid1

ThSi 2
Ge 2 Sr 3
Si 3 Sr 5

0.441
1.298
0.805

0.489

1.3935
1.803
1.568

67Jan1
74Eis1
67Nag1

1.383

79Eve1

Other possible phases


tetr
Si 7 Sr 4
orth
SiSr
Si 3 Sr 5
tetr

High-pressure, metastable phase


tetr
ThSi 2
SiSr 2 II

0.4438

Thermodynamics
Esin et al. [79Esi1] have determined experimentally the enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys at 1766 K
for concentrations up to 50 at% Sr. The results are plotted in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Si-Sr. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 1493 K.

References
65Obi1
67Jan1
67Nag1
67Rie1
74Eis1
76Wid1
78Eve1

Obinata, I., Takeuchi, Y., Kurihara, K., Watanabe, M.: Metall 19 (1965) 21
Janzon, K.H., Schfer, H., Weiss, A.: Z. Naturforsch. B 22 (1967) 100
Nagorsen, G., Rocktschel, G., Schfer, H., Weiss, A.: Z. Naturforsch. B 22 (1967) 101
Rieger, W., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr. 22 (1967) 919
Eisenmann, B., Schfer, H., Turban, K.: Z. Naturforsch. B 29 (1974) 464
Widera, A., Wisenmann, B., Schfer, H.: Z. Naturforsch. B 31 (1976) 520
Evers, J.: J. Solid State Chem. 24 (1978) 199

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Sr
79Esi1
79Eve1
89Itk1

Esin, Yu.O., Kolesnikov, S.P., Baev, V.M., Valishev, M.G., Geld, P.V., Zaiko, V.P., Ryss,
M.A.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 53 (1979) 924
Evers, J.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 40 (1979) 951
Itkin, V.P., Alcock, C.B.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 10 (1989) 630

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Ta

Si-Ta (Silicon-Tantalum)
Phase diagram
On the basis of reuslts reported by Kocherzhinskii et al. [81Koc1], Schlesinger [94Sch1] has constructed
an assessed phase diagram, which has been the source of information to draw Fig. 1.
Schlesinger [94Sch1] mentioned that phase diagrams reported by earlier publications and earlier
compilations are not correct.

Fig. 1. Si-Ta. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are collected in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Ta

Table 1. Si-Ta. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Si 2 Ta
Si 3 Ta 5
Si 3 Ta 5
SiTa 2
SiTa 3

hex
tetr
tetr
tetr
tetr

CrSi 2
Cr 5 B 3
W 5 Si 3
Al 2 Cu
Ti 3 P

0.4773
0.650
0.986
0.6157
1.0193

0.6552
1.184
0.505
0.5039
0.5175

41Wal1
55Par1
55Par1
53Kie1
64Sch3

Thermodynamics
Enthalpy of formation of two intermediate phases have been determined by direct reaction calorimetry
(Robins et al. [55Rob1]). The results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Si-Ta. Enthalpy of formation of
intermediate phases [55Rob1]
Phase

H S [kJ g-atom1]

SiTa 2
Si 3 Ta 5

39.7
14.1

References
41Wal1
53Kie1
55Par1
55Rob1
64Sch3
81Koc1
94Sch1

Wallbaum, H.J.: Z. Metallkd. 33 (1941) 378


Kieffer, R., Benesovsky, F., Nowotny, H., Schachner, A.: Z. Metallkd. 44 (1953) 242
Parth, E., Nowotny, H., Schmid, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 86 (1955) 385
Robins, D.A., Jenkins, I.: Acta Metall. 3 (1955) 598
Schubert, K., Raman, A., Rossteutscher, W.: Naturwissenschaften 51 (1964) 506
Kocherzhinskii, Yu.A., Kulik, O.G., Shishkin, E.A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 261 (1981)
106; Dokl. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 261 (1981) 464
Schlesinger, M.E.: J. Phase Equilibria 15 (1994) 90

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Tb

Si-Tb (Silicon-Terbium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Si-Tb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Si 2 Tb
Si 5 Tb 3
SiTb
Si 4 Tb 5
Si 3 Tb 5

hex
hex
orth
orth
hex

AlB2
AlB 2
FeB
Ge 4 Sm 5
Mn 5 Si 3

0.3847
0.3864
0.7914
0.741
0.8425

b [nm]

0.3833
1.458

c [nm]

Ref.

0.4146
0.4154
0.5703
0.769
0.6333

79Ian1
74Nar1
66Hoh1
66Smi1
89Sem1

References
66Hoh1
66Smi1
74Nar1
79Ian1
89Sem1

Hohnke, D., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr. 20 (1966) 572


Smith, G.S., G. Tharp, A., Johnson, Q.: Nature (London) 210 (1966) 1148
Narasimhan, K.S.V.L., Steinfink, H.: J. Solid State Chem. 10 (1974) 137
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A., Olcese, G.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 64 (1979) 213
Semiletov, I,P., Konguetsof, H., Yakinthos, J.K., Roudaut, E.: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 79
(1989) 131

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Tc

Si-Tc (Silicon-Technetium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Si-Tc. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Si 7 Tc 4
SiTc
Si 3 Tc 5
SiTc 3
SiTc 4

tetr
cub
tetr
cub
cub

Mn 4 Si 7
FeSi
W 5 Si 3
Cu 5 Zn 8
W

0.5737
0.4755
0.9403
0.9014
0.3009

1.8099

65Wit1
65Dar2
65Dar2
65Dar2
65Dar2

0.4849

References
65Dar2
65Wit1

Darby jr., J.B., Downey, J.W., Norton, L.J.: J. Less-Common Met. 8 (1965) 15
Wittmann, A., Nowotny, H.: J. Less-Common Met. 9 (1965) 303

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Te

Si-Te (Silicon-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Bailey [66Bai1] and by Davey et al. [80Dav1]. Massalski
[90Mas1] has redrawn the phase diagram, which has been the basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Te. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
There is existing the stable intermediate phase Si 2 Te 3 with hexagonal structure (Si 2 Te 3 -type). The lattice
parameters are: a = 0.7429 nm; c = 1.3471 nm (Klein Haneveld et al. [68Kle1]).

Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys have been determined calorimetrically by Schlieper et al. [96Sch1].
The H L values obtained are plotted in Fig. 2.
Using a mass spectrocmeter, Exsteen et al. [67Exs1] have determined vapor pressures of solid alloys.
Evaluating the results of the vapor pressure measurements, the enthalpy of formation of Si 2 Te 3 has been
determined according to the equation:
2 Si + 3 Te Si 2 Te 3
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Te

(all participants are crystalline). By 3rd law evaluation there results H S = 76.6 16.7 kJ mol1.

Fig. 2. Si-Te. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 1213 K.

References
66Bai1
67Exs1
68Kle1
80Dav1
90Mas1
96Sch1

Bailey, L.G.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27 (1966) 1593


Exsteen, G., Drowart, J., Van der Auwera-Mahieu, A., Callaerts, R.: J. Phys. Chem. 71
(1967) 4130
Klein Haneveld, A.J., Van der Weer, W., Jellinek, F.: Recl.: J. R. Neth. Chem. Soc. 87
(1968) 255
Davey, T.G., Baker, E.H.: J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15 (1980) 1601
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Schlieper, A., Blachnik, R.: J. Alloys Compounds 235 (1996) 237

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Th

Si-Th (Silicon-Thorium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Stecher et al. [63Ste1], Kieffer et al. [63Kie1], Brown et al.
[59Bro1], Bannister et al. [64Ban1], and Thomson [72Tho1]. Taking the results obtained by these works,
Rand et al. [75Ran1] have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski
[90Mas1], and, also, has been taken as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Th. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are collected in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Th

Table 1. Si-Th. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Si 2 Th
Si 5 Th 3

tetr
hex

0.3985
0.3897

SiTh
Si 2 Th 3

orth
tetr

AlB 2
AlB 2
defect
FeB
Si 2 U 3

0.5896
0.7829

b [nm]

0.4148

c [nm]

Ref.

0.4220
0.4204

56Jac1
56Jac1

0.788
0.4149

63Ste1
63Ste1

Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of formation of some intermediate phases have been taken from the compilation published by
Rand [75Ran1]. The data have been given in Table 2.
Table 2. Si-Th. Enthalpy of formation of
intermediate phases taken from Rand
[75Ran1].
Phase

H S [kJ mol1]

Th 3 Si 2
ThSi
Th 3 Si 5
ThSi 2

285 21
128 12
482 42
174 17

References
56Jac1
59Bro1
63Kie1
63Ste1
64Ban1
72Tho1
75Ran1
90Mas1

Jacobson, E.L., Freeman, R.D., Tharp, A.G., Searcy, A.W.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78 (1956)
4850
Brown, A., Norreys, J.J.: Nature (London) 183 (1959) 673
Kieffer, R., Benesovsky, F.: "Hartstoffe", Wien: Springer (1963)
Stecher, P., Benesovsky, F., Nowotny, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 94 (1963) 549
Bannister, G.H., Thomson, J.R.: J. Nucl. Mater. 12 (1964) 16
Thomson, J.R.: J. Less-Common Met. 28 (1972) 185
Rand, M.H., von Goldbeck, O., Ferro, R., Girgis, K., Dragov, A.L., in: "Thorium: PhysicoChemical Properties of its Compounds and Alloys", O. Kubaschewski (ed.), Atomic
Energy Review, Special Issue No. 5, IAEA, Vienna, Austria (1975)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Ti

Si-Ti (Silicon-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Sutcliffe [54Sut1, 54Sut2], Pylaeva et al. [62Pyl1], Luzhnikov et al. [63Luz1] and Plichta et al. [78Pli1]
have investigated phase equilibria. Hansen et al. [52Han1] and Svechnikov et al. [70Sve1] have studied
the phase diagram comprehensively (thermal analysis, metallography, X-ray diffractography). At last,
Murray [87Mur1, 90Mur1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis to
draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Ti. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Ti

Table 1. Si-Ti. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Si 2 Ti
SiTi
SiTi
Si 4 Ti 5
Si 3 Ti 5
SiTi 3

orth
orth
orth
tetr
hex
tetr

TiSi 2
SiTi
FeB
Si 4 Zr 5
Mn 5 Si 3
PTi 3

0.8267
1.874
0.6544
0.6702
0.74610
1.039

0.4800
0.7081
0.3638

0.85505
0.3596
0.4997
1.2174
0.51508
0.517

77Jei1
70Nic1
61Bru1
69Nic1
86Kaj1
64Sch3

Thermodynamics
Enthalpy of mixing, H L , of liquid alloys have been determined at 2000 K at concentrations < 40 at% Ti
by Esin et al. [81Esi3]. Later on, Murray [87Mur1] has calculated H L . The calculated data are given in
Fig. 2. They are in good agreement with the experimental H L -values. Only for concentrations > 30 at%
Ti the calculated data are higher than those determined experimentally.

Fig. 2. Si-Ti. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys [87Mur1].

References
52Han1
54Sut1
54Sut2
61Bru1
62Pyl1
63Luz1
64Sch3

Hansen, M., Kessler, H.D., McPherson, D.J.: Trans. ASM 44 (1952) 518
Sutcliffe, D.A.: Met. Treat. 21 (1954) 191
Sutcliffe, D.A.: Rev. Met. 51 (1954) 524
Bruckl, C., Nowotny, H., Schob, O., Benesovsky, F.: Monatsh. Chem. 92 (1961) 781
Pylaeva, E.N., Vokova, M.A.: Titan Splavy. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Inst. Met. 7 (1962) 74
Luzhnikov, L.P., Novikova, V.M., Matreev, A.P.: Metalloved. Term. Obrab. Met. (1963)
13;
Schubert, K., Raman, A., Rossteutscher, W.: Naturwissenschaften 51 (1964) 506

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Ti
69Nic1
70Nic1
70Sve1
77Jei1
78Pli1
81Esi3
86Kaj1
87Mur1
90Mur1

Nickl, J.J., Sprenger, H.: Z. Metallkd. 60 (1969) 136


Nickl, J.J., Schweitzer, K.K.: Z. Metallkd. 61 (1970) 54
Svechnikov, V.N., Kocherzhinsky, Yu.A., Yupko, L.M., Kulik, O.G., Shishkin, E.A.: Dokl.
Akad. Nauk SSSR 193 (1970) 393
Jeitschko, W.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 33 (1977) 2347
Plichta, M.R., Aaronson, H.I., Perepezko, J.H.: Acta Metall. 26 (1978) 1293
Esin, Yu.O., Valishev, M.G., Ermankov, A.F., Geld, P.V., Petrushevskiy, M.S.: Izv. Akad.
Nauk SSSR Met. (1981) 95
Kajitani, T., Kawase, T., Yamada, K., Hirabayashi, M.: J. Jpn. Inst. Met. Sendai 50 (1986)
769
Murray, J.L., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Titanium Alloys", J.L. Murray (ed.),
Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio (1987)
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Tl

Si-Tl (Silicon-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Savitskiy et al. [58Sav3] has reported that the components are almost immiscible in each other. On this
basis Olesinski et al. [90Ole1] have constructed a phase diagram, which has been taken as a source of
information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Tl. Phase diagram.

References
58Sav3
90Ole1

Savitskiy, E.M., Baron, V.V., Tylkina, M.A.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 3 (1958)
310
Olesinski, R.W., Abbaschian, E.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Tm

Si-Tm (Silicon-Thulium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
On the basis of intermediate phases investigated by Iandelli et al. [79Ian1], Moffatt [84Mof1] has
proposed a speculative phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and, which has
been the source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Tm. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Tm

Table 1. Si-Tm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Si 2 Tm
SiTm
Si 3 Tm5

hex
orth
hex

AlB 2
BCr
Mn 5 Si 3

0.3768
0.418
0.826

1.035

0.4070
0.378
0.618

79Ian1
64Gla1
69May1

References
64Gla1
69May1
79Ian1
84Mof1
90Mas1

Gladyshevskii, E.I., Kripyakevich, P.I.: J. Struct. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 5 (1964) 789
Mayer, I., Shidlovsky, I.: Inorg. Chem. 8 (1969) 1240
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A., Olcese, G.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 64 (1979) 213
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1984)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-U

Si-U (Silicon-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Investigations of phase equilibria have been performed by Vaugoyeau et al. [71Vau1], Katz et al.
[51Kat1] and Brown et al. [60Bro3]. Massalski [90Mas1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram,
which has been the basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-U

Table 1. Si-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Si 3 U
Si 2 U
Si 5 U 3
SiU
Si 2 U 3
SiU 3 (l)
SiU 3

cub
hex
hex
orth
tetr
orth
tetr

AuCu 3
AlB 2
AlB 2
FeB
Si 2 U 3
SiU 3
SiU 3

0.4036
0.4028
0.3843
0.767
0.73299
0.8654
0.60328

b [nm]

0.391
0.8549

c [nm]

Ref.

0.3852
0.4069
0.566
0.39004
0.8523
0.86907

82Dwi1
59Bro1
59Bro1
49Zac2
49Zac2
80Kim1
73Dev1

References
49Zac2
51Kat1
59Bro1
60Bro3
71Vau1
73Dev1
80Kim1
82Dwi1
90Mas1

Zachariasen, W.H.: Acta Crystallogr. 2 (1949) 94


Katz, J.J., Rabinovich, E.: "The Chemistry of Uranium", New York: McGraw-Hill (1951)
Brown, A., Norreys, J.J.: Nature (London) 183 (1959) 673
Brown, A., Norreys, J.J.: Nature (London) 191 (1960) 61
Vaugoyeau, H., Lombard, L., Morlevat, J.P.: J. Nucl. Mater. 39 (1971) 323
de Voght, D., Verniers, G., Meester, P.D.: J. Nucl. Mater. 46 (1973) 303
Kimmel, G., Sharon, B., Rosen, M.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 36 (1980) 2386
Dwight, A.E.: Argonne Nat. Lab., ANL Report (1982) 1
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-V

Si-V (Silicon-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by several authors: Kieffer et al. [56Kie1], Efimov et al. [63Efi1],
Bruning [67Bru1], Kocherzhinskii et al. [73Koc1, 74Koc1], Savitskii et al. [78Sav1], Jorda et al. [82Jor2]
and Storms et al. [85Sto1]. An assessed phase diagram has been constructed by Smith [85Smi1, 89Smi1,
90Smi2]. The phase diagram reported by Smith [90Smi2] has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-V. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases have been listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-V

Table 1. Si-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Si 2 V
Si 5 V 6
Si 3 V 5
Si 3 V 5
SiV 3

hex
orth
hex
tetr
cub

CrSi 2
Nb 6 Sn 5
Mn 5 Si 3
Si 3 W 5
Cr 3 Si

0.4571
1.5966
0.7121
0.9429
0.47247

b [nm]
0.7501

c [nm]

Ref.

0.6372
0.4858
0.4832
0.4757

41Wal1
67Hal1
54Sch1
55Par1
82Jor2

Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys have been determined calorimetrically by Esin et al. [81Esi1] at
2000 K in the concentration range up to 40 at% V. The results are given in Fig. 2.
Enthalpies of formation of intermediate phases, as collected by Smith [89Smi1], are listed in Table 2.
Table 2. Si-V. Enthalpy of formation of intermediate phases as reported by Smith [89Smi1].
Ref.

H S [kJ g-atom1]
Si 2 V

60Gol1
71Gor1
72Gor1
75Ere1
73Cha2
78Fre1
Selected by
81Smi2

105 29
41.6 4.2
50.2 8.4
41.5 1.7
41.8 12
40.3 4.2
40.7 0.9

Si 5 V 6

50.7 1.7

49.6 2.6

Si 3 V 5

SiV 3

50 24
58.1 2.6
58.6 6.8
54.2 1.5
57.7 10
49.2 1.6

28 9
35.3 2.1

53.8 2.0

43.1 1.3

Fig. 2. Si-V. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 2000 K [81Esi1].

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

45.1 1.9
37.7 8
41.4 2.1

Si-V

References
41Wal1
54Sch1
55Par1
56Kie1
60Gol1
63Efi1
67Bru1
67Hal1
71Gor1
72Gor1
73Cha2
73Koc1
74Koc1
75Ere1
78Fre1
78Sav1
81Esi1
81Smi2
82Jor2
85Smi1
85Sto1
89Smi1
90Smi2

Wallbaum, H.J.: Z. Metallkd. 33 (1941) 378


Schachner, H., Cerwenka, E., Nowotny, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 85 (1954) 245
Parth, E., Nowotny, H., Schmid, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 86 (1955) 385
Kieffer, R., Benesovsky, F., Schmid, H.: Z. Metallkd. 47 (1956) 247
Golutvin, Yu.M., Kozlovskaya, T.M.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 34 (1960) 1116
Efimov, Yu.V.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 8 (1963) 1522; Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 8
(1963) 790
Bruning, H.A.C.M.: Philips Res. Rep. 22 (1967) 349
Hallais, J., Snateur, J.P., Fruchart, R.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 264 (1967) 1947
Gorelkin, O.S., Mikhailikov, S.V.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 45 (1971) 1523
Gorelkin, O.S., Dubrovin, A.S., Kolesnikova, O.D., Chirkov, N.A.: Russ. J. Phys. Chem.
(Engl. Transl.) 46 (1972) 431
Chart, T.G.: High Temp. High Pressures 5 (1973) 241
Kocherzhinskii, Yu.A., Kulik, O.G., Shishkin, E.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 209 (1973)
1347
Kocherzhinskii, Yu.A., Kulik, O.G., Shishkin, E., in: "Strukt. Faz. Fazovye Prevrasch.
Diagr. Sostoyaniyz Met. Sist.", O.S. Ivanov (ed.), Izv. Nauka, Moscow (1974) 136
Eremenko, V.N., Lukashenko, G.M., Sidorko, V.R.: Rev. Int. Hautes Temp. Refract. 12
(1975) 237
Freund, P.F., Spear, K.E.: J. Less-Common Met. 60 (1978) 185
Savitskii, E.M., Efimov, Yu.V., Eichler, K., Paufler, P.: Wiss. Z. Techn. Univ. Dresden 27
(1978) 675
Esin, Yu.O., Valishev, M.G., Eremenko, A.F., Geld, P.V., Petrushevskiy, M.S.: Russ.
Metall. (Engl. Transl.) 2 (1981) 71
Smith, J.F.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1981) 42
Jorda, J.L., Muller, J.: J. Less-Common Met. 84 (1982) 39
Smith, J.F.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 6 (1985) 266
Storms, E.K., Myers, C.E.: High Temp. Sci. 20 (1985) 87
Smith, J.F., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM,
Materials Park, Ohio (1989)
Smith, J.F., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-W

Si-W (Silicon-Tungsten)
The phase equilibria have been investigated several times. Extensive work has been done by Kieffer et al.
[52Kie1], Blanchard et al. [57Bla1], Maksimov et al. [69Mak1], and Kocherzhinskii et al. [73Koc2]
(thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallography). An assessed phase diagram has been
constructed by Nagender Naidu et al. [89Nag1, 90Nag3]. This diagram has been the basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-W. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-W

Table 1. Si-W. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Si 2 W
Si 2 W 3
Si 3 W 5
SiW 3
(thin film)

tetr
tetr
tetr
cub

MoSi 2
Si 2 U 3
Si 3 W 5
Cr 2 Si

0.3210
0.956
0.9605
0.4910

0.7829
0.494
0.4964

52Now1
55Par2
56Dau1
59Mat1

Thermodynamics
Assessed thermodynamic data for intermediate phases are given in Table 2.
By thermodynamic modeling Kaufman [79Kau1] has calculated the phase diagram. The obtained
calculated diagram is in good agreement with experimental results.
Table 2. Si-W. Thermodynamic data of intermediate phases assessed
by [75Cha1] (at 298 K).
H S [kJ mol1]

Phase
Si 2 W
Si 3 W 5

16.9
31.0

S S [J mol1 K1]
2.1
1.3

References
52Kie1
52Now1
55Par2
56Dau1
57Bla1
59Mat1
69Mak1
73Koc2
75Cha1
79Kau1
89Nag1
90Nag3

Kieffer, R., Benesovsky, F., Gallistl, E.: Z. Metallkd. 43 (1952) 284


Nowotny, H., Kieffer, R., Schachner, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 83 (1952) 1243
Parth, E., Schachner, H., Nowotny, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 86 (1955) 182
Dauben, C.H., Templeton, D.H., Myers, C.E.: J. Phys. Chem. 60 (1956) 443
Blanchard, R., Cueilleron, J.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 244 (1957) 1782
Matiushenko, N.N., Yefimenko, L.N., Solopikhin, D.P.: Phys. Met. Metallogr. (Engl
Transl.) 8 (1959) 67
Maksimov, V.A., Shamari, P.I.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 5 (1969) 1136;
Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 5 (1969) 965
Kocherzhinskii, Yu.A., Kulik, O.G., Shiskhin, E.A., Yupko, L.W.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk
SSSR 212 (1973) 642
Chart, T.B.: Met. Sci. 9 (1975) 504
Kaufman, L.: CALPHAD 3 (1979) 45
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Sriramamurthy, A.M., Rama Rao, P.: J. Alloy Phase Diagrams 5
(1989) 149
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Sriramamurthy, A.M., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase
Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information
Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Y

Si-Y (Silicon-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
As Okamoto [91Oka1] stated, the phase diagram constructed by Gokhale et al. [90Gok1] in some points
is thermodynamically improbable. Button et al. [90But1] has reinvestigated phase equilibria using
thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallography and hardness measurements. On the basis of
results obtained by the latter author, Okamoto [91Oka8] has proposed a phase diagram, which has been
used as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Y

Table 1. Si-Y. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Si 5 Y 3
SiY
Si 4 Y 5
Si 3 Y 5

hex
orth
orth
hex

AlB 2
CrB
Ge 4 Sm 5
Mn 5 Si 3

0.3836
0.4257
0.739
0.8418

1.0527
1.452

0.4139
0.3839
0.764
0.6337

61Lun2
61Lun2
67Smi1
61Lun2

Thermodynamics
Partial enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys have been determined by Esin et al. [76Esi1], Shchedrovskii
et al. [76Shc1] and by Ryss et al. [79Rys1]. Stukhalo et al. [80Stu1] have determined the integral enthalpy
of mixing. The results obtained at 2050 K are plotted in Fig. 2 together with H L -values obtained by
thermodynamic modeling (Ran et al. [89Ran1]).
Enthalpies and entropies of formation of intermediate phases as optimzied by [89Ran1] are listed in
Table 2.

Fig. 2. Si-Y. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 2050 K. Solid line [89Ran1], dashed lines [80Stu1].

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Y

Table 2. Si-Y. Enthalpy of formation and entropy of formation of


intermediate phases referred to (Y) and solid Si [89Ran1].
H S [kJ g-atom1]

Phase
Si 3 Y 5
Si 4 Y 5
SiY
Si 5 Y 3 (r)
Si 5 Y 3 (h)
Si 2 Y

60.0
65.2
61.9
45.2
44.4
38.9

S S [J g-atom1 K1]
11.2
12.6
10.7
5.0
4.0
2.5

References
61Lun2
67Smi1
76Esi1
76Shc1
79Rys1
80Stu1
89Ran1
90But1
90Gok1
91Oka1
91Oka8

Lundin jr., C.E., in: "Rare Earth", F.H. Spedding, A.H. Daane (eds.), New York: John
Wiley Sons (1961) 264
Smith, G.S., Tharp, A.G., Johnson, Q.: Acta Crystallogr. 22 (1967) 940
Esin, Yu.O., Valeshev, M.G., Geld, P.V., Tushkova, L.M.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met.
(1976) 19
Shchedrovskii,V.Ya., Ryabchikov, I.V., Burylev, B.P.: Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Chern.
Metall. (1976) 5
Ryss, G.M., Esin, Yu.O., Petrushevskii, M.S., Stroganov, A.I., Geld, P.V.: Izv. Akad. Nauk
SSSR Met. (1979) 67
Stukalo, V.A., Batalin, G.I., Neshchimenko, N.Ya., Kurach, V.P.: Ukr. Khim. Zh. 46
(1980) 98
Ran, Q., Lukas, H.L., Effenberg, G., Petzow, G.: Z. Metallkd. 80 (1989) 402
Button, T.W., McColm, I.J., Ward, J.M.: J. Less-Common Met. 159 (1990) 205
Gokhale, A.B., Abbaschian, G.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol.
3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)
Okamoto, H., Massalski, T.B.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 148
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991), Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams Updating
Service

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Yb

Si-Yb (Silicon-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
A hypothetical diagram has been drawn by Moffatt [84Mof1] on the basis of known intermediate
phases. This diagram has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information
has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Yb. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Yb

Table 1. Si-Yb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Si 1.8 Yb
Si 5 Yb 3
SiYb
Si 3 Yb 5

hex
hex
orth
hex

AlB 2
Pd 5 Th 3
CrB
Mn 5 Si 3

0.3784
0.6512
0.4178
0.8215

b [nm]

1.031

c [nm]

Ref.

0.4098
0.4090
0.3768
0.6186

79Ian1
79Ian1
67Mer1
69Tch1

References
67Mer1
69Tch1
79Ian1
84Mof1
90Mas1

Merlo, F., Fornasini, M.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 13 (1967) 603


Tchernev, D.I., Narasimhan, K.S.V.L., Steinfink, H.: IEEE Trans. Magn. 5 (1969) 222
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A., Olcese, G.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 64 (1979) 213
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1984)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Zn

Si-Zn (Silicon-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Moissan et al. [04Moi1], Thurmond et al. [60Thu1], Girault et
al. [77Gir1] and Schneider et al. [72Sch1]. After optimization of the results present in the literature,
Olesinski et al. [85Ole2] have constructed an assessed phase diagram , which has been the basis for
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Zn. Phase diagram.

References
04Moi1
60Thu1
72Sch1
77Gir1
85Ole2

Moisson, H., Siemens, F.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 138 (1904) 657
Thurmond, C.D., Kowalchik, M.: Bell Syst. Tech. J. 39 (1960) 169
Schneider, M., Krumnacker, M.: Neue Htte 17 (1972) 519
Girault, B.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B 284 (1977) 1
Olesinski, R.W., Abbaschian, G.J.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 6 (1985) 545

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Zr

Si-Zr (Silicon-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Taking mainly the results from experimental investigations performed by Kocherzhinskii et al. [76Koc2],
Okamoto [90Oka2, 90Oka1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis for
drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Si-Zr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Zr

Table 1. Si-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Si 2 Zr
SiZr
SiZr
Si 4 Zr 5
Si 2 Zr 3
Si 3 Zr 5
SiZr 2
SiZr 3

orth
orth
orth
tetr
tetr
hex
tetr
tetr

Si 2 Zr
FeB
CrB

0.3721
0.6982
0.3757
0.7123
0.7081
0.7886
0.6581
1.1011

1.468
0.3786
0.9915

0.3683
0.5302
0.374
1.3002
0.3701
0.558
0.5372
0.5453

55Vau1
54Kie1
65Ram1
68Kar1
57Dau1
53Sch1
53Sch1
76Koc2

Si 2 U 3
Mn 5 Si 3
Al 2 Cu
Ti 3 P

Thermodynamics
Sudavtsova et al. [85Sud1] have determined enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys at concentrations < 20
at% Zr. They found a linear dependence on concentration, which can be expressed by:
H S = ( 190.5 x Zr 0.15) kJ g-atom1.
x Zr is the atomic fraction of Zr.
Gueneau et al. [94Gue1], after thermodynamic assessment, have reported enthalpies of formation of
intermediate phases. The results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Si-Zr. Enthalpy of formation of
intermediate phases at 298 K reported by
[94Gue1].
Phase

H S [kJ mol1]

Si 2 Zr
SiZr
Si 4 Zr 5
Si 2 Zr 3
Si 3 Zr 5
SiZr 2
SiZr 3

168.8
167.3
794.7
444.1
625.4
231.2
243.3

References
53Sch1
54Kie1
55Vau1
57Dau1
65Ram1
68Kar1

Schachner, H., Nowotny, H., Machenschalk, R.: Monatsh. Chem. 84 (1953) 84


Kieffer, R., Benesovsky, F., Machenschalk, R.: Z. Metallkd. 45 (1954) 493
Vaughan, P.A., Bracuti, A.: Abstr. Am. Cryst. Assoc. (Summer Meeting), (1955) 8
Dauben, C.H.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 104 (1957) 521
Raman, A., Schubert, K.: Z. Metallkd. 56 (1965) 44
Karpinski, O.G., Evseev, B.A.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 4 (1968) 1094

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Si-Zr
76Koc2
85Sud1
90Oka1
90Oka2
94Gue1

Kocherzhinskii, Yu.A., Kulik, O.G., Shishkin, E.A.: Akad. Nauk Ukr. SSR, Metallofiz. 64
(1976) 48
Sudavtsova, V.S., Batalin, G.I., Tutevich, V.S.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 21
(1985) 779; Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 21 (1985) 676
Okamoto, H., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Okamoto, H.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 11 (1990) 513
Gueneau, C., Servant, C., Ansara, I., Dupin, N.: CALPHAD 18 (1994) 319

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Sn

Sm-Sn (Samarium-Tin)
Phase diagram
Borzone et al. [82Bor1] have investigated the phase equilibria. Taken from there, Massalski [90Mas1] has
redrawn the phase diagram and, at last, the latter compilation has served as a source of information to
construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-Sn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are collected in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Sn

Table 1. Sm-Sn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Sm 5 Sn 3
Sm 4 Sn 3
Sm 5 Sn 4
Sm 11 Sn 10
Sm 2 Sn 3
SmSn 3

hex
cub
orth
tetr
tetr
cub

Mn 5 Si 3
Th 3 P 4
Ge 4 Sm 5
Ge 10 Ho 11

0.9089
0.915
0.8126
1.176
0.91
0.46866

AuCu 3

b [nm]

1.567

c [nm]

Ref.

0.6610

70Per1
70Per1
71For1
71For1
67Per1
65Har1

0.8290
1.732
1.54

Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of formation of intermediate phases have been determined experimentally by Palenzona et al.
[73Pal1] and Percheron et al. [68Per1]. Colinet et al. [84Col1] have compared the experimentally
obtained results with data calculated using Miedema's model [75Mie1]. All results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Sm-Sn. Calculated and experimentally determined enthalpies of formation of
intermediate phases (taken from Colinet et al. [84Col1]. All calculated H S values are
from [84Col1]).
H S [kJ g-atom1]

Phase

Ref.

calculated

experimental

Sm 3 Sn

47

56.0
56.3

73Pal1
68Per1

Sm 2 Sn
Sm 5 Sn 3
Sm 5 Sn 4
SmSn
Sm 2 Sn 3
Sm 3 Sn 5
SmSn 2
SmSn 3

61
66
73
75
71
68
63
49

63.6

68Per1

72.7

68Per1

References
65Har1
67Per1
68Per1
70Per1
71For1
73Pal1
75Mie1
82Bor1

Harris, I.R., Raynor, G.V.: J. Less-Common Met. 9 (1965) 7


Percheron, A.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 264 (1967) 2150
Percheron, A., Mathieu, J.C., Trombe, F.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 266 (1968) 848
Percheron, A.: Colloq. Int. C. N. R. S. 1 (1970) 165
Fornasini, M.L., Merlo, F.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 50 (1971)
186
Palenzona, A.: Thermochim. Acta 5 (1973) 473
Miedema, A.R., Boom, R., de Boer, F.R.: J. Less-Common Met. 41 (1975) 283
Borzone, G., Borsese, A., Ferro, R.: J. Less-Common Met. 85 (1982) 195

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Sn
84Col1
90Mas1

Colinet, C., Pasturel, A., Percheron-Gugan, A., Achard, J.C.: J. Less-Common Met. 102
(1984) 167
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Ta

Sm-Ta (Samarium-Tantalum)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Dennison et al. [66Den2]. The obtained partial phase diagram
has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter mentioned compilation information has been
taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-Ta. Partial phase diagram (Sm-rich part).

References
66Den2
90Mas1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966)
423
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Tb

Sm-Tb (Samarium-Terbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
To show qualitatively features of the diagram, Moffatt [86Mof1], on the basis of information taken
from Gschneidner jr. [85Gsc1], has constructed a speculative phase diagram. This has been redrawn by
Massalski [90Mas1] and from the latter source information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-Tb. Phase diagram.

References
85Gsc1
86Mof1
90Mas1

Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 114 (1985) 29


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1986)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Te

Sm-Te (Samarium-Tellurium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Sm-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

SmTe
Sm 3 Te 4
Sm 2 Te 3
Sm 4 Te 7
SmTe 2
Sm 2 Te 5
SmTe 3

cub
cub
orth
tetr
tetr
orth
orth

NaCl
Th 3 P 4
Sb 2 S 3
Cu 2 Sb
Nd 2 Te 5
NdTe 3

0.6595
0.9511
1.204
0.903
0.4337
0.4362
0.4339

CsCl

0.3656

High-pressure phase
SmTe
cub

b [nm]

0.334
4.323
2.588

c [nm]

Ref.

1.186
0.9195
0.8954
0.4362
0.4339

72Cha1
71Yar1
71Yar1
71Yar1
71Yar1
71Yar1
71Yar1
72Cha1

References
71Yar1
72Cha1

Yarembash, E.I., Tyurin, E.G., Reshchikova, A.A., Karabekov, A., Klinaeva, N.N.: Neorg.
Mater. 7 (1971) 661
Chatterjee, A., Singh, A.K., Jayaraman, A.: Phys. Rev. B 6 (1972) 2285

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Th

Sm-Th (Samarium-Thorium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Moffatt [78Mof1] has presented a speculative phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski
[90Mas1]. From there information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-Th. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of fcc (Th) solid solutions have been determined by Norman et al. [66Nor1]. The
results are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Th

Table 1. Sm-Th. Lattice parameters of


fcc (Th) solid solutions at 298 K
determined by Norman et al. [66Nor1].
at% Sm

a [nm]

0
10
20
30

0.50861
0.50856
0.50855
0.50852

References
66Nor1
78Mof1
90Mas1

Norman, M., Harris, I.R., Raynor, G.V.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966) 395
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Tl

Sm-Tl (Samarium-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Delfino et al. [83Del1, 90Del1] have investigated phase equilibria. The phase diagram reported there has
been the basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-Tl. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Tl

Table 1. Sm-Tl. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Sm 2 Tl
Sm 5 Tl 3
SmTl(r)
SmTl(l)
Sm 3 Tl 5
SmTl 3

hex
tetr
cub
tetr
orth
cub

InNi 2
Si 3 W 5
CsCl
AuCu
Pd 5 Pu 3
CuCu 3

0.545
1.235
0.383
0.5057
1.011
0.47125

b [nm]

0.8155

c [nm]

Ref.

0.679
0.6145

83Del1
83Del1
83Del1
83Del1
81Del1
83Del1

0.4322
1.044

Thermodynamics
Palenzona et al. [74Pal1] have determined the enthalpy of formation of SmTl 3 . It amounts to H S =
39.8 kJ g-atom1.

References
74Pal1
81Del1
83Del1
90Del1

Palenzona, A., Cirafici, S.: Thermochim. Acta 9 (1974) 415


Delfino, S., Saccone, A., Mazzone, D., Ferro, R.: J. Less-Common Met. 81 (1981) 45
Delfino, S., Saccone, A., Borzone, G., Ferro, R.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 503 (1983) 184
Delfino, S., Saccone, A., Palenzona, A., Ferro, R., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Tm

Sm-Tm (Samarium-Thulium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
On the basis of information concerning inter-rare-earth diagrams given by Gschneidner jr. [85Gsc1],
Moffatt [85Mof1] has drawn a speculative phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski
[90Mas1]. From there information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-Tm. Tentative phase diagram.

References
85Gsc1
85Mof1
90Mas1

Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 114 (1985) 29


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1985)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-U

Sm-U (Samarium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Haefling et al. [59Hae1] have determined the mutual solubility of the components in the liquid state. This
information has been taken by Massalski [90Mas1] to draw the phase diagram, which has been used to
construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-U. Phase diagram.

References
59Hae1
90Mas1

Haefling, J.F., Daane, A.H.: Trans. AIME 215 (1959) 336


Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-V

Sm-V (Samarium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
On the basis of thermodynamic data of the components, Smith et al. [90Smi3] have calculated the phase
diagram, which has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-V. Phase diagram at 105 Pa.

References
90Smi3

Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-W

Sm-W (Samarium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
The liquidus only between 0.0018 at% W and 0.02 at% W has been determined by Dennison et al.
[66Den2]. A partial phase diagram for concentrations < 0.02 at% W, reported by Pandian et al. [90Pan1],
has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-W. Partial phase diagram (Sm-rich part) at 1 atm.

References
66Den2
90Pan1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966)
423
Pandian, S., Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Y

Sm-Y (Samarium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, metallography, X-ray diffractography, hardness and density measurements,
Lundin et al. [67Lun1] have investigated phase equilibria. To calculate thermodynamic properties they
have performed Knudsen effusion analysis, too. The phase diagram reported by Gschneidner jr., et al.
[83Gsc3, 90Gsc1], has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of (Sm, Y) and (cph and Sm-type structure, respectively), have been determined
by Lundin et al. [67Lun1] and by Harris et al. [75Har1]. The results are plotted in Fig. 2.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Y

Fig. 2. Sm-Y. Lattice parameters for (Sm, Y), cph (open circles [67Lun1], solid circles [75Har1]) and Sm-type
(solid triangles [67Lun1], open triangles [75Har1]) solid solution.

Thermodynamics
In the cph region of solid solutions, Lundin et al. [67Lun1] have determined the vapor pressure of Sm.
From these primary results thermodynamic activities of both components in the solid state have been
calculated. The results obtained at T = 1173 K are plotted in Fig. 3.
From temperature dependence of thermodynamic activities, the authors [67Lun1] have determined
integral enthalpies of formation and integral entropies of formation of solid alloys at 1173 K. H S and
TS S are plotted in Fig. 4.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Y

Fig. 3. Sm-Y. Thermo-dynamic activities for solid solutions at 1173 K.

Fig. 4. Sm-Y. Integral enthalpy and entropy of formation for solid solutions at 1173 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Y

References
67Lun1
75Har1
83Gsc3
90Gsc1

Lundin, C.E., Yamamoto, A.S.: DRI-2437, Final Rep., Denver Research Institute,
University of Denver, Denver, CO (1967)
Harris, I.R., Raynor, G.V.: J. Less-Common Met. 43 (1975) 147
Gschneidner jr., K.A., Calderwood, F.W.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 4 (1983) 172
Gschneidner jr., K.A., Calderwood, F.W., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second
Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials
Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Zn

Sm-Zn (Samarium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Chiotti et al. [67Chi1] and Bruzzone et al. [70Bru1] have experimentally investigated phase equilibria and
structure of phases. On the basis of results reported by these two mentioned authors, Moffatt [84Mof1]
has drawn an assessed phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter
compilation information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sm-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Zn

Table 1. Sm-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

SmZn
SmZn 2
SmZn 3
Sm 3 Zn 11
Sm 13 Zn 58
Sm 3 Zn 22
Sm 2 Zn 17
SmZn 11
SmZn 12

cub
orth
orth
orth
hex
tetr
hex
hex
tetr

CsCl
CeCu 2
YZn 3
Al 11 La 3
Gd 13 Zn 58
Pu 3 Zn 22
Ni 17 Th 2
SmZn 11
Mn 12 Th

0.3622
0.4552
0.6725
0.4452
1.440
0.8856
0.9010
0.8974
0.8927

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.7299
0.4489
1.3179

0.7590
1.0199
0.8838
1.407
2.1175
0.8807
0.8918
0.5215

60Ian1
67For1
70Bru1
70Bru1
70Bru1
70Bru1
67Ian2
70Mas1
67Ian2

Thermodynamics
Chiotti et al. [67Chi1], by vapor pressure measurements, have determined the enthalpies of formation and
the entropies of formation of intermediate phases. The results are given in Table 2.
Integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys have been calculated by [67Chi1] from data for
compounds and estimated entropies of fusion. The resulting H L values are plotted in Fig. 2.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Zn

Table 2. Sm-Zn. Standard enthalpy and entropy of formation of Sm-Zn compounds taken from Chiotti et
al. [67Chi1].
H S [kJ g-atom1]

S S [J g-atom1 K1]

Phase

T [K]

SmZn

298
773
973
1173

69.5
80.4
82.5
84.6

1.09
18.2
20.6
22.6

SmZn 2

298
773
973
1173

116.4
138.2
142.4
146.5

6.91
41.2
46.0
50.0

SmZn 3

298
773
973
1173

141.1
173.3
180.0
186.3

6.61
57.9
65.3
71.2

SmZn 3.67 (Sm 3 Zn 11 )

298
773
973
1173

156.6
195.9
203.9
211.9

5.65
68.4
77.4
84.6

SmZn 4.5 (Sm 13 Zn 58 )

298
773
973
1173

173.3
221.9
231.5
241.1

4.14
81.2
92.2
101.1

SmZn 7.3 (Sm 3 Zn 22 )

298
773
973
1173

216.5
295.5
311.5
327.0

0.04
125.5
143.4
155.3

SmZn 8.5 (Sm 2 Zn 17 )

298
773
973
1173

235.7
327.8
345.8
363.8

2.01
147.5
168.2
185.1

Fig. 2. Sm-Zn. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Zn

References
60Ian1
67Chi1
67For1
67Ian2
70Bru1
70Mas1
84Mof1
90Mas1

Iandelli, A.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 29 (1960) 62
Chiotti, P., Mason, J.T.: Trans. AIME 239 (1967) 547
Fornasini, M.L., Merlo, F.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 43 (1967)
357
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 12 (1967) 333
Bruzzone, G., Fornasini, M.L., Merlo, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 22 (1970) 253
Mason, J.T., Sree Harsha, K.S., Chiotti, P.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 26 (1970) 356
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1984)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sm-Zr

Sm-Zr (Samarium-Zirconium)
Anon [59Ano1] has tried to alloy the components by liquid-phase sintering and by arc melting, but
without any success. He supposed that there are no intermediate phases existing in this system and that
less than 7.2 at% Zr are soluble in Sm.

References
59Ano1

Anon, I.: USAEC, USBM-U-647 (1959)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Sr

Sn-Sr (Tin-Strontium)
Phase diagram
The concentration range < 35 at% Sr has been investigated by Marshall et al. [81Mar1] (differential
thermal analysis, microprobe analysis, metallography and X-ray diffractography). The results obtained in
this range and phase equilibria reported by Widera et al. [81Wid1] (differential thermal analysis, X-ray
diffractography) at concentrations > 35 at% Sr, have been used by Massalski [90Mas1] to construct an
assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sn-Sr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Sr

Table 1. Sn-Sr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Sn 3 Sr
SnSr
Sn 3 Sr 5
SnSr 2

hex
orth
tetr
orth

CrB
Cr 5 B 3
Co 2 Si

1.200
0.5033
0.8565
0.8401

b [nm]
1.200
0.5378

c [nm]

Ref.

3.294
0.4493
1.6261
1.0078

81Wid1
67Rie1
78Bru1
78Bru2

References
67Rie1
78Bru1
78Bru2
81Mar1
81Wid1
90Mas1

Rieger, W., Parth, E.: Acta Crystallogr. 22 (1967) 919


Bruzzone, G., Franceschi, E., Merlo, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 60 (1978) 59
Bruzzone, G., Franceschi, E.: J. Less-Common Met. 57 (1978) 201
Marshall, D., Chang, Y.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 78 (1981) 139
Widera, A., Schfer, H.: J. Less-Common Met. 77 (1981) 29
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Ta

Sn-Ta (Tin-Tantalum)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Sn-Ta. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sn 3 Ta 2
SnTa 3

orth
cub

CuMg 2
Cr 3 Si

0.9801
0.5776

0.5628

1.9177

67Jou1
55Gel1

References
55Gel1
67Jou1

Geller, S., Matthias, B.T., Goldstein, R.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77 (1955) 1502
Jouault, F., Lecocq, P.: Coll. Int. CNRS (Paris), No. 157 (1967) 229

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Tb

Sn-Tb (Tin-Terbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram has been reported by Eremenko et al. [90Ere1]. Using
differential thermal analysis, metallographic observations, X-ray diffractography and electron
microscopy, Palenzona et al. [93Pal1] have redetermined the phase diagram. After discussion, Okamoto
[95Oka2] has drawn an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sn-Tb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Tb

Table 1. Sn-Tb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Sn 3 Tb
Sn 2 Tb
Sn 10 Tb 11
Sn 4 Tb 5
Sn 3 Tb 5
Sn 11 Tb 4

cub
orth
tetr
orth
hex
orth

AuCu 3
ZrSi 2
Ho 11 Ge 10
Sm 5 Ge 4
Mn 5 Si 3
Gd 4 Sn 11

0.4661
0.4404
1.160
0.8010
0.8947
0.4413

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.6301

0.4307
1.700
0.8141
0.6535
2.1937

72Mil1
66Ian1
71For1
71For1
66Pal1
88Kor1

1.541
0.4337

Thermodynamics
The standard enthalpy of formation of Sn 3 Tb 5 has been determined by direct synthesis calorimetry
(Meschel et al. [96Mes1]). The value reported is H S = 73.1 3.1 kJ g-atom1.

References
66Ian1
66Pal1
71For1
72Mil1
88Kor1
90Ere1
93Pal1
95Oka2
96Mes1

Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 40 (1966)
623
Palenzona, A., Merlo, F.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 40 (1966)
617
Fornasini, M.L., Merlo, F.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 50 (1971)
186
Miller, K., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 11 (1972) 1188
Koreskaya, O.E., Komarovskaya, L.P., Skolozdra, R.V.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 24
(1988) 1112
Eremenko, V.N., Bulanova, M.V., Martsenjuk, P.S.: Dopov. Akad. Nauk Ukr. RSR, Ser. B
(1990) 35
Palenzona, A., Manfrinetti, P.: J. Alloys Compounds 201 (1993) 43
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 102
Meschel, S.V., Kleppa, O.J.: J. Alloys Compounds 234 (1996) 137

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Tc

Sn-Tc (Tin-Technetium)
The phase diagram is not known.
From superconductivity investigations and lattice parameter determinations Alekseyevskiy et al.
[75Ale1] presume a solubility of up to 37 at% Sn in (Tc).

References
75Ale1

Alekseyevskiy, N.E., Balakhovskiy, O.A., Kirillov, I.V.: Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 40 (1975)
50; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (Engl Transl.) 40 (1975) 38

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Te

Sn-Te (Tin-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated rather often, for instance by Biltz [09Bil1], Kobayashi [11Kob1],
Le Bouteiller et al. [77Leb1], and Rakotomova et al. [81Rak1]. Hsieh et al. [83Hsi1] have optimized the
phase equilibria by thermodynamic calculations. On the basis of results reported by [83Hsi1] Sharma et
al. [86Sha1] have reported an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis to construct Fig. 1.
Included in Fig. 1 is the miscibility gap in supercooled liquid alloys calculated by Hsieh et al.
[83Hsi1]. The Sn-rich side of the phase diagram, as evaluated by Sharma et al. [86Sha1], is given in
Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the homogeneity range of SnTe as reported by Sharma et al. [86Sha1].

Fig. 1. Sn-Te. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Te

Fig. 2. Sn-Te. Partial phase diagram (Sn-rich part).

Fig. 3. Sn-Te. Partial phase diagram (homogeneity range of SnTe).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of SnTe at normal pressure and at high pressure are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Te

Table 1. Sn-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

SnTe

cub

NaCl

0.6315

GeS

1.159
at 1.8 GPa

High pressure
SnTe(HP)
orth

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.
68Kab1

0.437

0.448

64Kaf1

Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys have been determined by Nakamura et al. [80Nak1], Rakotomova et
al. [81Rak1], and Blachnik et al. [83Bla1]. The results are in good agreement. The mean values of H L
have been reported by Sharma et al. [86Sha1]. These data have been taken to draw Fig. 4.
The same authors ([80Nak1, 81Rak1, 83Bla1]) have reported entropies of mixing of liquid alloys. The
mean values of S L , as given by Sharma et al. [86Sha1], are plotted in Fig. 5.
Using an EMF method, Rakotomova et al. [81Rak1] have determined thermodynamic activities of the
components in liquid alloys. The results at T = 1100 K are plotted in Fig. 6.
The enthalpy of formation of SnTe at 298 K has been determined several times. The results are listed
in Table 2.

Fig. 4. Sn-Te. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 1100 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Te

Fig. 5. Sn-Te. Entropy of mixing for liquid alloys at 1100 K.

Fig. 6. Sn-Te. Thermo-dynamic activities for liquid alloys at 1100 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Te

Table 2. Sn-Te. Enthalpy of formation of SnTe


at 298 K (taken from [94Cla1]).
Ref.

H S [kJ g-atom1]

74Mil1
64Hir1
66Rob1
94Cla1

30.95
29.70 1.25
30.33 0.20 (at 273 K)
30.38

References
09Bil1
11Kob1
64Hir1
64Kaf1
66Rob1
68Kab1
74Mil1
77Leb1
80Nak1
81Rak1
83Bla1
83Hsi1
86Sha1
94Cla1

Biltz, W., Mecklenburg, W.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 64 (1909) 226


Kobayashi, M.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 69 (1911) 6
Hirayama, C.: J. Chem. Eng. Data 9 (1964) 65
Kafalas, J.A., Mariano, A.N.: Science (Washington) 143 (1964) 952
Robinson, P.M., Bever, M.B.: Trans. AIME 236 (1966) 814
Kabalkina, S.S., Serebryanaya, N.R., Vereshchagin, L.F.: Sov. Phys. Solid State 10 (1968)
574
Mills, K.C.: "Thermodynamic Data for Inorganic Sulphides, Selenides and Tellurides",
London: Butterworths (1974)
Le Bouteiller, M., Martre, A.M., Farhi, R., Petot, C.: Metall. Trans. B 8 (1977) 339
Nakamura, Y., Himuro, S., Shimoji, M.: Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 84 (1980) 240
Rakotomova, J., Baron, M.C., Petot, C.: Metall. Trans. B 12 (1981) 461
Blachnik, R., Gather, B.: M. Metallkde. 74 (1983) 172
Hsieh, K., Wei, M.S., Chang, Y.A.: Z. Metallkd. 74 (1983) 330
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7 (1986) 72
Clavaguera-Mora, M.T., Comas, C., Clavaguera, N.: CALPHAD 18 (1994) 141

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Th

Sn-Th (Tin-Thorium)
Phase diagram
Cirafici et al. [83Cir1] have determined experimentally the phase equilibria (differential thermal analysis,
pyrometric determinations of melting, metallographic observations, X-ray diffractography). Hayes et al.
[48Hay1] have determined the solubility of Th in liquid tin upt to about 1200 K. On the basis of these
results Peterson et al. [89Pet2] have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the source of
information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sn-Th. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Th

Table 1. Sn-Th. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [83Cir1].
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Sn 3 Th
Sn 2 Th
Sn 4 Th 5
Sn 3 Th 5

cub
orth
hex
hex

AuCu 3
Si 2 Zr
Ga 4 Ti 5
Mn 5 Si 3

0.4719
0.4463
0.9643
0.9332

b [nm]

c [nm]

1.7062

0.4379
0.6445
0.6477

Thermodynamics
The enthalpy of formation of Sn 3 Th has been determined by Palenzona et al. [75Pal1] (differential
scanning calorimetry). The value reported amounts to H S = 162.3 kJ mol1.

References
48Hay1
75Pal1
83Cir1
89Pet2

Hayes, E.E., Gordon, P.: J. Metall. Ceram. 1 (1948) 130


Palenzona, A., Cirafici, S.: Thermochim. Acta 13 (1975) 357
Cirafici, S., Palenzona, A., Manfrinetti, P.: J. Less-Common Met. 90 (1983) 49
Peterson, D.E., Foltyn, E.M.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 10 (1989) 478

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Ti

Sn-Ti (Tin-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been determined several times, for isntance by Finlay et al. [54Fin1], Pietrokowsky
et al. [57Pie1], Eremenko et al. [62Ere1]. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations, Murray [87Mur1,
90Mur1] has constructed a phase diagram, which is in good agreement with the results of works
mentioned above. This assessed diagram has been taken as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.
The Ti-rich side of the system is given, in an enlarged version, in Fig. 2 (taken from [87Mur1]).

Fig. 1. Sn-Ti. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Ti

Fig. 2. Sn-Ti. Partial phase diagram (Ti-rich part).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Sn-Ti. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sn 5 Ti 6
Sn 5 Ti 6
Sn 3 Ti 5
SnTi 2
SnTi 3

orth
hex
hex
hex
hex

Nb 6 Sn 5
Ti 6 Sn 5
Mn 5 Si 3
InNi 2
Ni 3 Sn

1.693
0.922
0.8049
0.4653
0.5916

0.9144

0.5735
0.569
0.5454
0.570
0.4764

64Vuc1
64Vuc1
59Now1
57Pie1
52Pie1

Thermodynamics
Esin et al. [81Esi2] have experimentally determined enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys at 2000 K. The
results are plotted in Fig. 3.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Ti

Fig. 3. Sn-Ti. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 2000 K.

References
52Pie1
54Fin1
57Pie1
59Now1
62Ere1
64Vuc1
81Esi2
87Mur1
90Mur1

Pietrokowsky, P.: Trans. AIME 194 (1952) 211


Finlay, W.L., Jaffee, R.I., Parcel, R.W., Durstein, R.C.: J. Met. 6 (1954) 25
Pietrokowsky, P., Fink, E.P.: Trans. ASM 49 (1957) 339
Nowotny, H., Auer-Welsbach, B., Bruss, J., Kohl, A.: Monatsh. Chem. 90 (1959) 15
Eremenko, V.N., Velikanova, T.Ya.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 7 (1962) 1750
Vucht, J.H., Brunning, H.A., Donkersloot, H.C., Mesquita, A.H.: Philips Res. Rep. 19
(1964) 407
Esin, Yu.O., Valishev, M.G., Ermakov, A.F., Geld, P.V., Petrushevskii, M.S.: Zh. Fiz.
Khim. 55 (1981) 747; Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 55 (1981) 417
Murray, J.L., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Titanium Alloys", J.L. Murray (ed.),
Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio (1987)
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Tl

Sn-Tl (Tin-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Several authors have investigated phase equilibria. An assessed phase diagram has been constructed by
Massalski [90Mas1] mainly on the basis of a diagram reported by Nozato et al. [66Noz1]. This diagram
has been the basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sn-Tl. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The high-temperature phase SnTl has a tetragonal structure (AuCu-type) with lattice parameters a =
0.5112 nm and c = 0.4375 nm (Ellner et al. [75Ell2]).

Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic activities of the components in the liquid alloys have been determined several times. The
most recent work is that performed by Strozecka et al. [65Str1]. Hultgren et al. [73Hul1] have selected
most reliable values, which have been plotted in Fig. 2.
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Tl

Enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys have been determined calorimetrically by Wittig et al. [61Wit1].
The results are given in Fig. 3.
Excess entropies of mixing reported by Hultgren et al. [73Hul1] as obtained by evaluation of the
thermodynamic results present in the literature are given in Fig. 4.

Fig. 2. Sn-Tl. Thermo-dynamic activities for liquid alloys at 723 K.

Fig. 3. Sn-Tl. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 723 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Tl

Fig. 4. Sn-Tl. Excess entropy of mixing for liquid alloyss at 723 K.

References
61Wit1
65Str1
66Noz1
73Hul1
75Ell2
90Mas1

Wittig, F.E., Scheidt, P.: Z. Phys. Chem. 28 (1961) 120


Strozecka, H., Terpilowski, J.: Rocz. Chem. 39 (1965) 663
Nozato, R., Oshio, E., Hagiwara, H.: Osaka Prefect. Univ. Bull. 15 (1966) 137
Hultgren, R., Desai, P.D., Hawkins, D.T., Gleiser, M., Kelley, K.K.: "Selected Values of
Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Alloys", Am. Soc. Met., Metals Park, Ohio (1973)
Ellner, M., Predel, B.: Z. Metallkd. 66 (1975) 503
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Tm

Sn-Tm (Tin-Thulium)
Phase diagram
By differential thermal analysis, metallography, X-ray diffractography, and electron microscopy,
Palenzona et al. [93Pal1] have investigated the phase diagram at concentrations < 40 at% Tm. This
diagram (see Okamoto [95Oka4]) has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sn-Tm. Partial phase diagram (< 40 at% Tm).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Sn-Tm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sn 2 Tm
Sn 3 Tm 5

orth
hex

SiZr
Mn 5 Si 3

0.4357
0.8776

1.6062

0.4285
0.6411

66Ian1
66Pal1

Thermodynamics
Enthalpies of formation of intermediate phases are determined by Colinet et al. [84Col1]. The results are

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Tm

given in Table 2.
Table 2. Sn-Tm. Enthalpy of formation
of intermediate phases determined by
Colinet et al. [84Col1].
Phase

H S [kJ mol1]

Sn 3 Tm
Sn 2 Tm
Sn 3 Tm 5

40
52
57

References
66Ian1
66Pal1
84Col1
93Pal1
95Oka4

Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 40 (1966)
623
Palenzona, A., Merlo, F.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 40 (1966)
617
Colinet, C., Pasturel, A., Percheron-Gugan, A., Achard, J.C.: J. Less-Common Met. 102
(1984) 167
Palenzona, A., Manfrinetti, P.: J. Alloys Compounds 201 (1993) 43
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 201

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-U

Sn-U (Tin-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis, metallographic observations, X-ray diffractography, and electron
microscopy, Palenzona et al. [95Pal1] have investigated the phase diagram, which has been taken as a
basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sn-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-U

Table 1. Sn-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [95Pal1].
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Sn 3 U
Sn 7 U 3
Sn 2 U
SnU
Sn 4 U 5

cub
orth
orth
orth
hex

Cu 3 Au
Ce 3 Sn 7
ZrGa 2
ThIn
Ti 5 Ga 4

0.4610
0.4497
0.4430
1.0488
0.9327

2.4725
1.5456
0.9552

0.4509
0.4460
0.6213
0.6230

Thermodynamics
Alcock et al. [61Alc1] have reported the enthalpy of formation of Sn 3 U. It amounts to H S = 22 kJ gatom1 at 289 K, whereas Colinet et al. [88Col1] obtained by solution calorimetry the value H S = 35
kJ g-atom1.

References
61Alc1
88Col1
95Pal1

Alcock, C.B., Grieveson, P.: J. Inst. Met. 90 (1961-62) 304


Colinet, C., Bessoud, A., Pasturel, A., Mller, W.: J. Less-Common Met. 143 (1988) 265
Palenzona, A., Manfrinetti, P.: J. Alloys Compounds 220 (1995) 157

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-V

Sn-V (Tin-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
All available results of investigations of phase equilibria, especially those reported by Marchukova et al.
[73Mar1], have been taken by Smith [90Smi2] to draw an assessed phase diagram, which has been used
as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sn-V. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-V

Table 1. Sn-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sn 3 V 2
SnV 3
"SnV 3 "

orth
hex
cub

CuMg 2
Ni 3 Sn
Cr 3 Si

0.9498
0.5694
0.4953
at 20 at% Sn

0.5284

1.8675
0.4555

67Jou1
67Jou1
73Mar1

Thermodynamics
For Sn 3 V 2 Smith [81Smi1] has reported the enthalpy of formation to be H S = 12.7 3.0 kJ g-atom1.
By the same author the enthalpy of mixing of liquid alloys is given by the equation:
H L = x Sn x V ( 20.993 57.748(x V x Sn ) 3.279(x V x Sn ) 2 + 11.635(x V x Sn ) 3 ) kJ g-atom1.

References
67Jou1
73Mar1
81Smi1
90Smi2

Jouault, F., Lecocq, P.: Coll. Int. CNRS (Paris), No. 157 (1967) 229
Marchukova, L.V., Matveyeva, N.M., Kornilov, I.I.: Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1973)
157
Smith, J.F.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1981) 210
Smith, J.F., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-W

Sn-W (Tin-Tungsten)
The phase diagram is not known.
The solubility of W in liquid Sn obviously is rather low. Allen [67All1] found at 2273 K a solubility
of about 0.001 at% W.
Intermediate phases have not been found (see Nagender Naidu et al. [90Nag1]).

References
67All1
90Nag1

Allen, B.C.: Trans. AIME 239 (1967) 1026


Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Y

Sn-Y (Tin-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Palenzona et al. [93Pal1] applying differential thermal analysis, metallography, X-ray diffractography and
electron microscope observations, have redetermined the phase equilibria published by Schmidt et al.
[68Sch1]. Regarding results of this recent investigation, Okamoto [95Oka3] has constructed an assessed
phase diagram, which has been the basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sn-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Y

Table 1. Sn-Y. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Sn 3 Y
Sn 2 Y
Sn 10 Y 11
Sn 4 Y 5
Sn 3 Y 5

cub
orth
tetr
orth
hex

AuCu 3
ZrSi 2
Ge 10 Ho 11
Ga 4 Sm 5
Mn 5 Si 3

0.4666
0.4398
1.153
0.805
0.887

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.632

0.4304
1.691
0.805
0.6520

72Mil1
83Bor1
68Sch1
68Sch1
83Bor1

1.529

Thermodynamics
By direct synthesis calorimetry, the standard enthalpy of formation of Sn 3 Y 5 has been determined
(Meschel et al. [96Mes2]). The value reported is H S = 72.8 2.9 kJ g-atom1.

References
68Sch1
72Mil1
83Bor1
93Pal1
95Oka3
96Mes2

Schmidt, F.A., McMasters, O.D.: J. Less-Common Met. 15 (1968) 1


Miller, K., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 11 (1972) 1188
Borzone, G., Borsese, A., Ferro, R.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 501 (1983) 199
Palenzona, A., Manfrinetti, P.: J. Alloys Compounds 201 (1993) 43
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 104
Meschel, S.V., Kleppa, O.J.: J. Alloys Compounds 238 (1996) 180

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Yb

Sn-Yb (Tin-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been determined by Palenzona et al. [76Pal1]. The results have been the basis of an
assessed phase diagram (Palenzona et al. [91Pal1]). This latter diagram has been taken as a basis for
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sn-Yb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Yb

Table 1. Sn-Yb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Sn 3 Yb
SnYb
Sn 4 Yb 5
Sn 3 Yb 5
Sn 3 Yb 5
SnYb 2

cub
tetr
orth
hex
tetr
hex

AuCu 3
AuCuI
Gd 5 Si 4
Mn 5 Si 3
Cr 5 B 3
Ni 2 In

0.4682
0.4960
0.7822
0.947
0.7939
0.5371

b [nm]

1.5183

c [nm]

Ref.

0.4400
0.8280
0.690
1.4686
0.7063

65Har1
76Pal1
76Pal1
76Pal1
76Pal1
76Pal1

Thermodynamics
Chatillon-Colinet et al. [70Cha1], Percheron-Gugan et al. [73Per1], and Palenzona [73Pal1] have
determined by calorimetry the enthalpy of formation of Sn 3 Yb. The results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Sn-Yb. Enthalpy of formation of
Sn 3 Yb.
Ref.

H S [kJ mol1]

70Cha1
73Per1
73Pal1

176.15
176.15
191.88

References
65Har1
70Cha1
73Pal1
73Per1
76Pal1
91Pal1

Harris, I.R., Raynor, G.V.: J. Less-Common Met. 9 (1965) 7


Chatillon-Colinet, C., Percheron, A., Mathieu, J.C., Achard, J.C.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci.,
Ser. C 270 (1970) 473
Palenzona, A.: Thermochim. Acta 5 (1973) 473
Percheron-Gugan, A., Achard, J.C., Bacha, A., Chatillon, C., Mathieu, J.C.: Proc. 10th
Rare Earth Conf. Res., A.Z. Carefree, C.J. Kevane, T. Moeller, (eds.), Vol. II, (1973) 1046
Palenzona, A., Cirafici, S.: J. Less-Common Met. 46 (1976) 321
Palenzona, A., Cirafici, S.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 482

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Zn

Sn-Zn (Tin-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Heycock et al. [1897Hey1], Tamman et al. [33Tam1],
Schrmann et al. [61Sch3], and Vnuk et al. [81Vnu1]. Moser et al. [85Mos1, 90Mos1], using the results
from the above mentioned papers, have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis
to draw Fig. 1. The Sn-rich part of the phase diagram is given in Fig. 2 in an enlarged version (taken from
[85Mos1]).

Fig. 1. Sn-Zn. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Zn

Fig. 2. Sn-Zn. Partial phase diagram (Sn-rich part).

Thermodynamics
Investigations of thermodynamic properties of alloys have been performed by several authors using
different methods. Hultgren et al. [73Hul1] have selected optimal values, which have been taken to draw
Fig. 3 (activity isotherms), Fig. 4 (H L ) and Fig. 5 (S L,ex ).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Zn

Fig. 3. Sn-Zn. Thermo-dynamic activities for liquid alloys at 750 K.

Fig. 4. Sn-Zn. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 750 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Zn

Fig. 5. Sn-Zn. Excess entropy of mixing for liquid alloys at 750 K.

References
1897Hey1
33Tam1
61Sch3
73Hul1
81Vnu1
85Mos1
90Mos1

Heycock, C.T., Neville, F.H.: J. Chem. Soc. 71 (1897) 383


Tamman, G., Rocha, H.J.: Z. Metallkd. 25 (1933) 133
Schrmann, E., Traeger, H.: Arch. Eisenhttenwes. 32 (1961) 397
Hultgren, R., Desai, P.D., Hawkins, D.T., Gleiser, M., Kelley, K.K.: "Selected Values of
Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Alloys", Am. Soc. Met., Metals Park, Ohio (1973)
Vnuk, F., Ainsley, M.H.: J. Mater. Sci. 16 (1981) 1171
Moser, Z., Dutkiewicz, J., Gasior, W., Salava, J.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 6 (1985) 330
Moser, Z., Dutkiewicz, J., Gasior, W., Salawa, J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Zr

Sn-Zr (Tin-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated experimentally by McPherson et al. [53Mcp1]. The results are
taken by Abriata et al. [83Abr1, 90Abr1] to construct an assessed phase diagram, which has been used as
a basis to draw Fig. 1.
Abriata et al. [90Abr1] pointed out that there is need of redetermination, especially of the liquidus.
The phase equilibria in the range of (Zr)
(Zr) are given in an enlarged version in Fig. 2 (see
[83Abr1]).

Fig. 1. Sn-Zr. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sn-Zr

Fig. 2. Sn-Zr. Partial phase diagram (> 80 at% Zr).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Sn-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sn 2 Zr
Sn 3 Zr 5
SnZr 4

orth
hex
cub

Si 2 Ti
Mn 5 Si 3
W3O

0.9573
0.846
0.565

0.5644

0.9927
0.578

53Now1
60Gra2
60Sch1

References
53Mcp1
53Now1
60Gra2
60Sch1
83Abr1
90Abr1

McPherson, D.J., Hansen, M.: Trans. ASM 45 (1953) 915


Nowotny, H., Schachner, H.: Monatsh. Chem. 84 (1953) 169
Gran, G., Anderson, S.: Acta Chem. Scand. 14 (1960) 11
Schubert, K., Anantharaman, T.R., Ata, K.O.K., Meissner, H.G., Ptzschke, M.,
Rossteutscher, W., Stolz, E.: Naturwissenschaften 47 (1960) 512
Abriata, J.P., Bolcich, J.C., Arias, D.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 4 (1983) 147
Abriata, J.P., Bolcich, J.C., Arias in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol.
3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-Te

Sr-Te (Strontium-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
The phase diagram has been determined by Luskova et al. [75Lus1]. Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it.
From the latter source information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sr-Te. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Only for SrTe crystallographic data are available. Its structure is cubic (NaCl-type) with lattice constant a
= 0.6659 nm (Zimmer et al. [85Zim1]). At high pressure (above 14 GPa) the same authors found another
modification of this phase. It is cubic of (CsCl-type) with lattice parameter a = 0.3708 nm.

References
75Lus1
85Zim1
90Mas1

Luskova, Yu.B., Vakhobov, A.H.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 11 (1975) 361
Zimmer, H.G., Winzen, H., Syassen, K.: Phys. Rev. B 32 (1985) 4066
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-Ti

Sr-Ti (Strontium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Solubility of Ti in liquid Sr has been investigated by Alidzhanov et al. [78Ali1]. Taking the reported
results, Murray [90Mur1] has drawn an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis of Fig. 1. The
Sr-rich side is given, in an enlarged version, in Fig. 2 (see [90Mur1]).
It should be pointed out that [90Mur1] recommends a reinvestigation of the phase equilibria of this
system.

Fig. 1. Sr-Ti. Phase diagram.

Fig. 2. Sr-Ti. Partial phase diagram (Sr-rich part).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-Ti

References
78Ali1
90Mur1

Alidzhanov, F.N., Vakhobov, A.V., Dushanbe, T.D.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1978)
223; Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1978) 177
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-Tl

Sr-Tl (Strontium-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Taking results of investigations by Bruzzone et al. [66Bru1, 78Bru1], Massalski [90Mas1] has drawn an
assessed phase diagram, which has been used as a basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sr-Tl. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermedite phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-Tl

Table 1. Sr-Tl. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Sr 3 Tl
Sr 5 Tl 3
SrTl
SrTl 2
SrTl 3

orth
tetr
cub
hex
tetr

2.3723
0.8635
0.4038
0.5074
0.4882

0.8073

Cr 5 B 3
CsCl
CaIn 2

0.5771
1.6389

66Bru1
78Bru1
66Bru1
64Ian1
66Bru1

0.8217
0.4843

References
64Ian1
66Bru1
78Bru1
90Mas1

Iandelli, A.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 330 (1964) 221


Bruzzone, G.: Ann. Chim. (Rome) 56 (1966) 1306
Bruzzone, G., Franceschi, E., Merlo, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 60 (1978) 59
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-U

Sr-U (Strontium-Uranium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Adda et al. [60Add1] found no intermediate phases.

References
60Add1

Adda, Y., Levy, V., Hadari, Z., Tournier, J.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 250 (1960)
536

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-V

Sr-V (Strontium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Smith et al. [90Smi3], in analogy to some other V-systems, expect a Sr-V diagram with extremely low
mutual solubility of the components. Further on, these authors, by thermodynamic modeling, have
calculated a phase diagram, which has been the basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sr-V. Phase diagram.

References
90Smi3

Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-W

Sr-W (Strontium-Tungsten)
The phase diagram is not known.
Nagender Naidu et al. [90Nag1], in a short review, mentioned the statement by Kremer [16Kre1] that
Ca and W cannot be alloyed. It is to assume that the same is true for Sr and W. Intermediate phases have
not been found.

References
16Kre1
90Nag1

Kremer, D.: Abh. Inst. Metallhuettenw. Elektrometall., Techn. Hochsch. Aachen 1 (1916) 7
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-Y

Sr-Y (Strontium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Nagibina et al. [77Nag1], using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, and metallographic
observations, have determined the phase diagram, which has been assessed by Massalski [90Mas1]. This
assessed diagram has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sr-Y. Phase diagram.

References
77Nag1
90Mas1

Nagibina, L.E., Vakhobov, A.V., Dzhurayev, T.D.: Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) 2 (1977)
162
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-Zn

Sr-Zn (Strontium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Bruzzone et al. [83Bru1] have investigated experimentally the phase equilibria (differential thermal
analysis, X-ray diffractography). Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn the phase diagram published there.
From the compilation by [90Mas1] information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Sr-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Sr-Zn

Table 1. Sr-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

SrZn
SrZn 2
SrZn 5 (l)
SrZn 5 (h)
SrZn 13

orth
orth
orth
hex
cub

FeB
CeCu 2
SrZn 5
CaCu 5
NaZn 13

0.8724
0.4777
1.3147
0.5549
1.2242

0.4607
0.7790
0.5312

0.6417
0.7865
0.6707
0.4283

82Mer1
83Bru1
83Bru1
83Bru1
83Bru1

References
82Mer1
83Bru1
90Mas1

Merlo, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 86 (1982) 241


Bruzzone, G., Merlo, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 92 (1983) 75
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Tb

Ta-Tb (Tantalum-Terbium)
Phase diagram
The phase diagram has been determined by Dennison et al. [66Den1], redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]
and from there information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-Tb. Partial phase diagram (Tb-rich part).

References
66Den1
90Mas1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 10 (1966)
108
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Tc

Ta-Tc (Tantalum-Technetium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Ta-Tc. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Ref.

TaTc
TaTc 5

cub
cub

CsCl
Mn

0.3172
0.9565

62Dar1
61Lam1

References
61Lam1
62Dar1

Lam, D.J., Darby, J.B., Downey, J.W., Norton, L.J.: Nature (London) 192 (1961) 744
Darby jr., J.B., Lam, D.J., Norton, L.J., Downey, J.W.: J. Less-Common Met. 4 (1962) 558

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Te

Ta-Te (Tantalum-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Only few phase equilibria have beend investigated by Chattopadhyay et al. [89Cha1]. The partial phase
diagram obtained by these authors has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1], and from there information
has been taken to construct Fig. 1.
In addition it should be mentioned that Ukrainskii et al. [59Ukr1] have done some investigations using
differential thermal analysis. They found a thermal effect at 1113 K in the TaTe phase. This latter phase
has a homogeneity range between 46 and 54.5 at% Te. The same authors ([59Ukr1]) found the TaTe 2
phase in the range between 60 and 66.7 at% Te. These findings have been taken into consideration in
Fig. 1.
For discussion of some discrepancies of results in the literature see Garg et al. [92Gar1].

Fig. 1. Ta-Te. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Te

Table 1. Ta-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

TaTe 2

mon

NbTe 2

1.931

0.9377

66Bro1

TaTe 4
TaTe 4
715 GPa

tetr
orth

TaTe 4

0.6514
0.3618

0.3651
= 134.22

0.6809
0.8685

64Bje1
68Bje1

1.3272

References
59Ukr1
64Bje1
66Bro1
68Bje1
89Cha1
90Mas1
92Gar1

Ukrainskii, Yu.M., Novoselova, A.V., Simanov, Yu.P.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 4 (1959) 148;
Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 4 (1959) 60
Bjerkelund, E., Kjekshus, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 7 (1964) 231
Brown, B.E.: Acta Crystallogr. 20 (1966) 264
Bjerkelund, E., Kjekshus, A.: Acta Chem. Scand. 10 (1968) 3336
Chattopadhyay, G., Bharadwaj, S.R., in: "Evaluated Phase Diagrams of Binary MetallTellurium Systems of the D-Block Transition Elements", Bhabha At. Res. Center, Bombay
(1989) 95
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Garg, S.P., Krishnamurthy, N., Venkatraman, M.: J. Phase Equilibria 13 (1992), Binary
Alloy Phase Diagrams Updating Service

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Th

Ta-Th (Tantalum-Thorium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated experimentally by McMasters et al. [61Mcm1], Ackermann et al.
[72Ack1, 72Ack2] and Saroja et al. [85Sar1], and other authors in earlier time. Reviews have been
published by Goldbeck et al. [72Gol1], Goldbeck [75Gol1] and more recently by Krishnan et al. [90Kri2,
89Kri2]. From the latter publication information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.
The phase equilibria at the Th-side in the neighbourhood of the (Th)
(Th) transformation has
been inserted in an enlarged version in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-Th. Phase diagram.

References
61Mcm1
72Ack1
72Ack2
72Gol1
75Gol1
85Sar1
89Kri2

McMasters, O.D., Larsen, W.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 3 (1961) 312


Ackermann, R.J., Rauh, E.G.: High Temp. Sci. 4 (1972) 272
Ackermann, R.J., Rauh, E.G.: High Temp. Sci. 4 (1972) 496
von Goldbeck, O., Livey, D.T., in: Tantalum: "Physico-Chemical Properties of Its
Compounds and Alloys", O. Kubaschewski, (ed.), IAEA, Vienna, Austria (1972) 41
von Goldbeck, O., in: "Thorium: Physico-Chemical Properties of its Compounds and
Alloys", O. Kubaschewski (ed.), Atomic Energy Review, Special Issue No. 5, IAEA,
Vienna, Austria (1975) 87
Saroja, A., Bhatt, Y.J., Garg, S.P.: J. Less-Common Met. 114 (1985) 291
Krishnan, R., Garg, S.P., Krishnamurthy, N.: J. Alloy Phase Diagrams 5 (1989) 27

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Th
90Kri2

Krishnan, R., Garg, S.P., Krishnamurthy, N., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second
Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials
Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Ti

Ta-Ti (Tantalum-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been determined experimentally by Summers-Smith [52Sum1], Maykuth et al.
[53May1], Rudy [69Rud1], Budberg et al. [67Bud1] and some others. A survey is given by Murray
[90Mur1]. From there information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-Ti. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of bcc (Ta, Ti) solid solutions have been determined by Summers-Smith [52Sum1].
The results are plotted in Fig. 2.
Lattice parameters of hexagonal (Ta, Ti) solid solutions have been measured by Mykuth et al.
[53May1]. The obtained data are used to draw Fig. 3.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Ti

Fig. 2. Ta-Ti. Lattice parameter for bcc (Ta, Ti) solid solution [52Sum1].

Fig. 3. Ta-Ti. Lattice parameters for cph (Ta, Ti) solid solution [53May1].

References
52Sum1
53May1
67Bud1
69Rud1
90Mur1

Summers-Smith, O.J.: J. Inst. Met. 81 (1952) 73


Maykuth, D.J., Ogden, H.R., Jaffee, R.I.: Trans. AIME 197 (1953) 231
Budberg, P.B., Shakova, K.K.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 3 (1967) 656; Russ. J.
Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 3 (1967) 577
Rudy, E.: "Compendium of Phase Diagrams Data", Air Force Materials Lab., WrightPatterson Air Force Base, OH, Rep. No. AFML-TR-65-2, Part V (1969)
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Tl

Ta-Tl (Tantalum-Thallium)
Phase diagram
The mutual solubility of the components is rather small (Villars et al. [82Vil1]). The phase diagram
published by the latter authors has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and from there information has
been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-Tl. Phase diagram.

References
82Vil1
90Mas1

Villars, P., Girgis, K.: Z. Metallkd. 73 (1982) 169


Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Tm

Ta-Tm (Tantalum-Thulium)
Phase diagram
Dennison et al. [66Den1] have investigated phase equilibria near the melting point of Tm. Massalski
[90Mas1] has redrawn the phase diagram and from the latter author information has been taken to draw
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-Tm. Partial phase diagram (Tm-rich part).

References
66Den1
90Mas1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 10 (1966)
108
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-U

Ta-U (Tantalum-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Results obtained by experimental investigations have been published by Schramm et al. [50Sch1],
Ackermann et al. [72Ack2] and Chiotti et al. [81Chi4]. Krishnan et al. [90Kri2] have constructed an
assessed phase diagram, which has been used as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-U. Phase diagram.

References
50Sch1
72Ack2
81Chi4
90Kri2

Schramm, C.H., Gordon, P., Kaufmann, A.R.: Trans. AIME 188 (1950) 195
Ackermann, R.J., Rauh, E.G.: High Temp. Sci. 4 (1972) 496
Chiotti, P., Akhachinskij, V.V., Ansara, I., Rand, M.H.: "The Actinide Binary Alloys",
IAEA, Vienna (1981) 181
Krishnan, R., Garg, S.P., Krishnamurthy, N., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second
Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials
Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-V

Ta-V (Tantalum-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been determined rather often. Smith et al. [83Smi1, 90Smi1], on the basis of all
results present in the literature, have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been used as a
basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-V. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The structure of TaV 2 is cubic (Cu 2 Mg-type) with lattice constant: a = 0.7160 nm (Guzei et al.
[70Guz1]).
Room temperature lattice parameters of bcc (Ta,V) solid solutions, taken from literature and smoothed
by Smith et al. [83Smi1] are plotted in Fig. 2.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-V

Fig. 2. Ta-V. Lattice parameter for bcc (Ta, V) solid solution.

References
70Guz1
83Smi1
90Smi1

Guzei, L.S., Sokolovskaya, E.M., Sokolova, I.G., Ronami, G.N., Kuznetsova, S.M.:
Moscow. Univ. Chem. Bull. (Engl. Transl.) 25 (1970) 39
Smith, J.F., Carlson, O.N.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 4 (1983) 284
Smith, J.F., Carlson, O.N., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-W

Ta-W (Tantalum-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
On the basis of results reported by Rudy [69Rud1], Krishnan et al. [87Kri1, 90Kri2] have constructed an
assessed phase diagram, which has been used as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-W. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of bcc (Ta, W) solid solutions have been determined by Buckle [46Buc1], Myers
[50Mye1], Schramm et al. [50Sch1], and Rudy [69Rud1]. The mean of the data reported by these authors,
as given by Krishnan et al. [87Kri1], is plotted in Fig. 2.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-W

Fig. 2. Ta-W. Lattice parameter for bcc (Ta, W) solid solution.

References
46Buc1
50Mye1
50Sch1
69Rud1
87Kri1
90Kri2

Buckle, H.: Metallforschung 1 (1946) 53


Myers, R.H.: Metallurgia 42 (1950) 3
Schramm, C.H., Gordon, P., Kaufmann, A.R.: Trans. AIME 188 (1950) 195
Rudy, E.: "Compendium of Phase Diagrams Data", Air Force Materials Lab., WrightPatterson Air Force Base, OH, Rep. No. AFML-TR-65-2, Part V (1969)
Krishnan, R., Garg, S.P., Krishnamurthy, N.: J. Alloy Phase Diagrams 3 (1987) 1
Krishnan, R., Garg, S.P., Krishnamurthy, N., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second
Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials
Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Y

Ta-Y (Tantalum-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Dennison et al. [66Den2] have determined the solubility of Ta in liquid Y in the temperature range
between 1799 K and 2356 K. Taylor et al. [65Tay1] stated that the solubility of Y in (Ta) is < 0.0001 at%
Y at 1858 K. The solid solubility of Ta in (Y) is < 0.1 at% Ta (Lunding et al. [61Lun3]).
Intermediate phases could not be found [66Den2]. These results are used by Massalski [90Mas1] to
construct a phase diagram, which has been the basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-Y. Phase diagram.

References
61Lun3
65Tay1
66Den2
90Mas1

Lundin jr., C.E., Klodt, D.T.: J. Inst. Met. 90 (1961) 341


Taylor, A., Hickam, W.M., Doyle, N.J.: J. Less-Common Met. 9 (1965) 214
Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966)
423
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Yb

Ta-Yb (Tantalum-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
Dennison et al. [66Den2] have reported solubilities of Ta in liquid Yb (between 1867 K and 1982 K). De
Boer et al. [79Deb1] have predicted the absence of intermediate phases. These statements have been used
by Moffatt [80Mof1] to construct a phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and,
also, has been taken as a basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-Yb. Phase diagram.

References
66Den2
79Deb1
80Mof1
90Mas1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966)
423
De Boer, F.R., Dijkman, W.H., Mattens, W.C.M., Miedema, A.R.: J. Less-Common Met.
64 (1979) 241
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1980)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Zn

Ta-Zn (Tantalum-Zinc)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Ta-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [68Cha1].
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ta 6 Zn 7
TaZn 2

hex
hex

Fe 7 W 6
MgZn 2

0.5035
0.504

2.7528
1.621

References
68Cha1

Chasanov, M.G., Schablaske, R.V., Johnson, I.: J. Electrochem. Soc. Jpn. 36 (1968) 192

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ta-Zr

Ta-Zr (Tantalum-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Experimental data concerning phase equilibria have been reported by Williams et al. [62Wil1], Pease et
al. [63Pea1], Harson et al. [66Har1] and Rudy [69Rud1]. Taking these results, Krishnan et al. [89Kri1,
90Kri1] have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ta-Zr. Phase diagram.

References
62Wil1
63Pea1
66Har1
69Rud1
89Kri1
90Kri1

Williams, D.E., Jackson, R.J., Larsen, W.L.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 224 (1962) 751
Pease, L.F., Brophy, J.H.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 227 (1963) 1245
Harson, D.P., Brukl, C.E.: USAF Rep. AFML-TR-65-2, Part II, Vol. III (1966)
Rudy, E.: "Compendium of Phase Diagrams Data", Air Force Materials Lab., WrightPatterson Air Force Base, OH, Rep. No. AFML-TR-65-2, Part V (1969)
Krishnan, R., Garg, S.P., Banerjee, S., Krishnamurthy, N.: J. Alloy Phase Diagrams 5
(1989) 125
Krishnan, R., Garg, S.P., Banerjee, S., Krishnamurthy in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Tc

Tb-Tc (Terbium-Technetium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Darby et al. [64Dar1] have investigated the intermediate phase TbTc 2 . Its structure is hexagonal (MgZn 2 type) with lattice constants: a = 0.5375 nm and c = 0.8843 nm.

References
64Dar1

Darby jr., J.B., Norton, L.J., Downey, J.W.: J. Less-Common Met. 6 (1964) 165

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Te

Tb-Te (Terbium-Tellurium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Pardo et al. [67Par1] found the melting point of TbTe 3 to be 1143 K.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Tb-Te. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

TbTe
< 51 K
TbTe
> 51 K
Tb 2 Te 3
TbTe 2
Tb 7 Te 13
thin film
TbTe 3

hex

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

0.86127

cub

NaCl

0.61150

orth
tetr
cub

Sb 2 S 3
Cu 2 Sb
Po

1.2276
0.4334
0.31465

orth

NdTe 3

0.4310

c [nm]

Ref.

1.0602

78Hul1
78Hul1

0.8679

2.6037
0.8900

65Fla1
87Eli1
73Cha1

2.552

67Par1

References
65Fla1
67Par1
73Cha1
78Hul1
87Eli1

Flahaut, J., Laurelle, P., Pardo, M.P., Guittard, M.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1965) 1399
Pardo, M.P., Flahaut, J.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1967) 3658
Chander, R., Kumar, R., Sharma, B.B.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 17 (1973) K157
Hulliger, F., Stucki, F.: Z. Phys. B 31 (1978) 391
Eliseev, A.A., Orlova, I.G., Martynova, L.F., Pechennikov, A.V., Cherchernikov, V.I.:
Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 23 (1987) 1833

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Th

Tb-Th (Terbium-Thorium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallographic methods, and hardness measurements,
Badayeva et al. [67Bad1] have determined the phase diagram. It has been redrawn by Massalski
[90Mas1] and from the latter source information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tb-Th. Phase diagram.

References
67Bad1
90Mas1

Badayeva, T.A., Kuznetsova, R.I.: Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1967) 99


Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Ti

Tb-Ti (Terbium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Kubaschewski [83Kub2] has published a speculative phase diagram, which has been redrawn by
Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information has been taken as a basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tb-Ti. Tentative phase diagram.

References
83Kub2
90Mas1

Kubaschewski, O., Kubaschewski-von Goldbeck, O., in: "Titanium: Physico-Chemical


Properties of its Compounds and Alloys", K.L. Komarek (ed.) Atomic Energy Review,
Special Issue No. 9, IAEA, Vienna, Austria (1983) 156
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Tl

Tb-Tl (Terbium-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallographic examinations, and microprobe
analysis, Saccone et al. [88Sac1] have determined the phase diagram and Delfino et al. [90Del1] have
redrawn it. From the latter source information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tb-Tl. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Tl

Table 1. Tb-Tl. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Tb 2 Tl
Tb 5 Tl 3
Tb 5 Tl 3
Tb 5 Tl 3+x
TbTl
TbTl
Tb 3 Tl 5
TbTl 3

hex
hex
tetr
tetr
cub
tetr
orth
cub

Ni 2 In
Mn 5 Si 3
W 5 Si 3

0.5362
0.895
1.2126
0.8073
0.3760
0.353
0.999
0.4682

CsCl
AuCuI
Cu 3 Au

b [nm]

0.806

c [nm]

Ref.

0.6663
0.660
0.6135
1.4281

88Sac1
88Sac1
88Sac1
88Sac1
65Ian1
81Sek1
81Del1
88Sac1

0.424
1.035

References
65Ian1
81Del1
81Sek1
88Sac1
90Del1

Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 9 (1965) 1


Delfino, S., Saccone, A., Mazzone, D., Ferro, R.: J. Less-Common Met. 81 (1981) 45
Sekizawa, K., Chihara, H., Yasukochi, K.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50 (1981) 3468
Saccone, A., Delfino, S., Cacciamani, G., Ferro, R.: J. Less-Common Met. 136 (1988) 249
Delfino, S., Saccone, A., Palenzona, A., Ferro, R., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Tm

Tb-Tm (Terbium-Thulium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
On the basis of some common features of inter-rare-earth binary systems reported by Gschneidner jr.
[85Gsc1], Moffatt [86Mof1] has drawn a qualitative phase diagram. Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it.
From the latter source information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.
It should be mentioned that the two-phase regions are narrower as the thickness of the lines drawn.

Fig. 1. Tb-Tm. Phase diagram.

References
85Gsc1
86Mof1
90Mas1

Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 114 (1985) 29


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1986)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-V

Tb-V (Terbium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Smith et al. [89Smi2, 90Smi3] assume that the phase diagram of the Tb-V system should be similar to
that of the Gd-V and the Dy-V systems, for the atomic number of Gd is one above and that of Dy is one
below that of Tb. On this basis it should be expected no intermediate phase and a miscibility gap in the
liquid state. Estimating reasonable values of some thermodynamic data, Smith et al. [89Smi2, 90Smi3]
have calculated a phase diagram, which has been the basis to draw Fig. 1. The region near the
transformation point of (Tb)
(Tb) is given in an enlarged version in Fig. 2 (taken from Smith et al.
[89Smi2]).

Fig. 1. Tb-V. Phase diagram.

Fig. 2. Tb-V. Partial phase diagram (Tb-rich part).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-V

References
89Smi2
90Smi3

Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.),
ASM, Materials Park, Ohio (1989)
Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-W

Tb-W (Terbium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
The solubility of W in liquid Tb has been determined by Dennison et al. [66Den2]. Pandian et al.
[91Pan1] have used the results obtained by [66Den2] to draw a partial phase diagram, which has been the
basis for Fig. 1.
There are no intermediate phases existing in this system.

Fig. 1. Tb-W. Partial phase diagram (Tb-rich part).

References
66Den2
91Pan1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966)
423
Pandian, S., Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten
Alloys", S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase
Diagrams, The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Y

Tb-Y (Terbium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
The solidus has been determined experimentally by Markova et al. [67Mar2] (thermal analysis, X-ray
diffractography, metallographic methods, hardness and electrical resistance measurements). From results
obtained there, Gschneidner jr. et al. [83Gsc4] have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has
been used to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tb-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of cph (Tb, Y) have been determined by McWhan et al. [67McW1], Burgardt et al.
[79Bur1], Belovol et al. [75Bel1], Finkel et al. [67Fin1] and Cavin et al. [66Cav1]. Mean values of the
results for cph (Tb, Y) solid solutions are plotted in Fig. 2.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Y

Fig. 2. Tb-Y. Lattice parameters for cph (Tb, Y) solid solution.

Thermodynamics
Using a mass spectrometer, Naigovzin et al. [79Nai1] has investigated the partial vapor pressures.
Thermodynamic activities calcualted from the primary results are plotted in Fig. 3 (for liquid alloys at
1850 K).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Y

Fig. 3. Tb-Y. Thermodynamic activities for liquid alloys at 1850 K.

References
66Cav1
67Fin1
67Mar2
67McW1
75Bel1
79Bur1
79Nai1
83Gsc4

Cavin, O.B., Steele, R.M., Harris, L.A., Yakel, H.L.: ORNL-3970, Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.,
Oak Ridge, T.N. (1966)
Finkel, V.A., Vorobev, V.V.: Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53 (1967) 1913
Markova, I.A., Terekhova, V.F., Savitskii, E.M.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 3
(1967) 392; Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 3 (1967) 343
McWhan, D.B., Stevens, A.L.: Phys. Rev. 154 (1967) 438
Belovol, V.S., Finkel, V.A., Sivokon, V.E.: Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 69 (1975) 1734
Burgardt, P., Legvold, S., Beaudry, B.J., Harmon, B.N.: Phys. Rev. B 20 (1979) 3787
Naigovzin, I.A., Kutsev, V.S., Grachev, M.L., Chuprikov, G.E.: Zh. Fiz. Khim. 53 (1979)
2118; Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 53 (1979) 1210
Gschneidner jr., K.A., Calderwood, F.W.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 4 (1983) 175

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Yb

Tb-Yb (Terbium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Moffatt [81Mof1], on the basis of systematic considerations of heavy rare-earth alloys with Yb (see
Beaudry et al. [74Bea1]) has assumed no intermediate phases in the Tb-Yb system, but limited mutual
solubility of the components in the liquid state. The speculative phase diagram proposed has been
redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and, also, has been taken as a basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tb-Yb. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Burgardt et al. [79Bur1] have determined lattice spacings of Tb rich cph (Tb, Yb) solid solutions. The
results are plotted in Fig. 2.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Yb

Fig. 2. Tb-Yb. Lattice parameters for Tb-rich cph (Tb, Yb) solid solution. Circles [79Bur1].

References
74Bea1
79Bur1
81Mof1
90Mas1

Beaudry, B.J., Spedding, F.H.: Metall. Trans. 5 (1974) 1631


Burgardt, P., Legvold, S., Beaudry, B.J., Harmon, B.N.: Phys. Rev. B 20 (1979) 3787
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1981)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Zn

Tb-Zn (Terbium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Bruzzone et al. [70Bru1] have found intermediate phases at concentrations above 50 at% Zn. This taking
as a basis, Moffatt [86Mof1] has proposed a hypothetical phase diagram, which has been redrawn by
Massalski [90Mas1] and which, also, has been taken as a source of information to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tb-Zn. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Zn

Table 1. Tb-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

TbZn
TbZn 2
TbZn 3
Tb 3 Zn 11
Tb 6 Zn 23
Tb 13 Zn 58
Tb 2 Zn 17
TbZn 12

cub
orth
orth
orth
cub
hex
hex
tetr

CsCl
CeCu 2
YZn 3
Al 11 La 3
Mn 23 Th 6
Gd 13 Zn 58
Th 2 Zn 17
Mn 12 Th

0.3567
0.4481
0.6690
0.4408
1.269
1.431
0.89787
0.8884

b [nm]

c [nm]

0.7122
0.4411
1.2989

0.7576
1.0104
0.8825
1.407
1.31482
0.5200

Ref.
73Mor1
72Deb1
70Bru1
70Bru1
65Kuz1
70Bru1
87Oli1
67Ian2

References
65Kuz1
67Ian2
70Bru1
72Deb1
73Mor1
86Mof1
87Oli1
90Mas1

Kuzma, Yu.B., Kripyakevich, P.I., Frankevich, D.P.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 1 (1965)
1410
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 12 (1967) 333
Bruzzone, G., Fornasini, M.L., Merlo, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 22 (1970) 253
Debray, D., Sougi, M., Meriel, P.: J. Chem. Phys. 56 (1972) 4325
Morin, P., Laforest, J., Pierre, J., Shah, J.S.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B 277 (1973)
353
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1986)
Oliver, M., Sigrist, T., McAlister, S.P.: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 66 (1987) 281
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tb-Zr

Tb-Zr (Terbium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Assuming similarity of the Tb-Zr system to other (known) binary Zr-systems with a rare-earth element as
the second component, Moffatt [78Mof1] has drawn a speculative phase diagram, which has been
redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and, which also has been taken as a basis of information to construct
Fig. 1.
The solubility of Tb in (Zr) amounts to 3.5 at% Tb and in (Zr) 4.1 at% Tb at the peritectoid
temperature (see Elliott [65Ell2]).

Fig. 1. Tb-Zr. Tentative phase diagram.

References
65Ell2
78Mof1
90Mas1

Elliott, R.P.: "Constitution of Binary Alloys, First Supplement", New York: McGraw-Hill
(1965)
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-Te

Tc-Te (Technetium-Tellurium)
Phase diagram
Some of the phase equilibria have been investigated by Chattopadhyay et al. [89Cha1]. The results have
been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From there information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tc-Te. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Wildervanck et al. [71Wil1] have investigated the structure of TcTe 2 . It is monoclinic with lattice
constants: a = 1.2522 nm, b = 0.7023 nm, c = 1.3828 nm, = 101.26.

References
71Wil1
89Cha1
90Mas1

Wildervanck, J.C., Jellinek, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 24 (1971) 73


Chattopadhyay, G., Bharadwaj, S.R., in: "Evaluated Phase Diagrams of Binary MetallTellurium Systems of the D-Block Transition Elements", Bhabha At. Res. Center, Bombay
(1989) 95
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-Th

Tc-Th (Technetium-Thorium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
The intermediate phase Tc 2 Th has been investigated by Darby et al. [65Dar1]. Its structure is hexagonal
(MgZn 2 -type) with lattice parameters a = 0.5394 nm, c = 0.9222 nm.

References
65Dar1

Darby jr., J.B., Berndt, A.F., Downey, J.W.: J. Less-Common Met. 9 (1965) 466

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-Ti

Tc-Ti (Technetium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Investigations of phases and phase equilibria have been performed by Koch [76Koc1] and Darby et al.
[62Dar1]. Taking the results of these authors, Murray [82Mur2] has proposed a provisional phase
diagram, which has been the basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tc-Ti. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-Ti

Table 1. Tc-Ti. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [76Koc1]
Phase

at% Ti

Structure

Type

a [nm]

(Ti)
TcTi

50
50
15

cub
cub
cub

W
CsCl
Mn

0.3091
0.3083
0.9512

References
62Dar1
76Koc1
82Mur2

Darby jr., J.B., Lam, D.J., Norton, L.J., Downey, J.W.: J. Less-Common Met. 4 (1962) 558
Koch, C.C.: J. Less-Common Met. 44 (1976) 177
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1982) 466

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-U

Tc-U (Technetium-Uranium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Berndt et al. [65Ber1] have investigated the crystal structure of TcU 2 . It is monoclinic with lattice
parameters a = 1.3407 nm, b = 0.3271 nm, c = 0.5213 nm, and = 96.38.

References
65Ber1

Berndt, A.F., Dwight, A.E.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 233 (1965) 2075

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-V

Tc-V (Technetium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Koch et al. [68Koc1] have investigated the phase equilibria (X-ray diffractography, metallographic
methods, electrical resistivity measurements, microprobe analysis). Smith [89Smi1, 90Smi2] has redrawn
the phase diagram obtained by these authors. From there information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tc-V. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of CsCl-type intermediate phases and of (V) solid solutions are listed in Table 1
(data taken from Koch et al. [68Koc1]).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-V

Table 1. Tc-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% V

CsCl-type

40
50
60
65
65
70
80
100

(V)

Structure

Type

a [nm]

cub

CsCl

cub

0.3027
0.3020
0.3015
0.3015
0.3015
0.3015
0.3018
0.3029

References
68Koc1
89Smi1
90Smi2

Koch, C.C., Love, G.R.: J. Less-Common Met. 15 (1968) 43


Smith, J.F., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM,
Materials Park, Ohio (1989)
Smith, J.F., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-W

Tc-W (Technetium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Fig. 1 is a speculative phase diagram proposed by Nagender Naidu et al. [90Nag1, 91Nag1].

Fig. 1. Tc-W. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The -phase has a tetragonal structure (CrFe-type). Its lattice parameters are: a = 0.9480 nm, c = 0.4952
nm (Niemiec [63Nie1]).
From the same author lattice parameters of cph (Tc) and bcc (W) solid solutions are reported. The
results are plotted in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, respectively.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-W

Fig. 2. Tc-W. Lattice parameters for cph (Tc) solid solution.

Fig. 3. Tc-W. Lattice parameter for bcc (W) solid solution.

References
63Nie1
90Nag1
91Nag1

Niemiec, J.: Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Chim. 11 (1963) 311
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten Alloys",
S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams,
The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-Y

Tc-Y (Technetium-Yttrium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Darby et al. [64Dar1] found that Tc 2 Y is of hexagonal structure (MgZn 2 -type) with lattice parameters a =
0.5373 nm and c = 0.8847 nm.

References
64Dar1

Darby jr., J.B., Norton, L.J., Downey, J.W.: J. Less-Common Met. 6 (1964) 165

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-Zn

Tc-Zn (Technetium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
The phase diagram has been investigated by Chasanov et al. [64Cha1]. Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn
it and from there information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tc-Zn. Partial phase diagram (> 75 at% Zn).

Crystal structure
The intermediate phase TcZn 6 is of cubic structure with lattice constant a = 0.7588 nm [64Cha1].

References
64Cha1
90Mas1

Chasanov, M.G., Johnson, I., Schablaske, R.V.: J. Less-Common Met. 7 (1964) 127
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tc-Zr

Tc-Zr (Technetium-Zirconium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Tc-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [62Dar1].
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

TcZr
Tc 2 Zr

cub
hex

Mn
MgZn 2

0.9637
0.5219

0.8655

References
62Dar1

Darby jr., J.B., Lam, D.J., Norton, L.J., Downey, J.W.: J. Less-Common Met. 4 (1962) 558

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Th

Te-Th (Tellurium-Thorium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Te-Th. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Te 3 Th
Th 2 Th
Te 3 Th 2
TeTh

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

mon

0.614

1.044

60Gra1

hex
hex
cub

0.849
1.249
0.3838

0.431
= 98.4

0.901
0.4354

60Gra1
60Gra1
55Fer1

CsCl

References
55Fer1
60Gra1

Ferro, R.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 18 (1955) 641
Graham, J., McTaggart, F.K.: Aust. J. Chem. 13 (1960) 67

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Ti

Te-Ti (Tellurium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
After some previous investigations, which have been reported by Massalski [90Mas1], Cordes et al.
[94Cor1] have reinvestigated phase equilibria (differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography,
metallography, thermogravimetric measurements). The results obtained there have been used by Okamoto
et al. [96Oka1] to draw an assessed phase diagram. This diagram has been the basis of information for
drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Te-Ti. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Ti

Table 1. Te-Ti. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Te 2 Ti
Te 3 Ti 2

hex
mon

CdI 2
Cr 3 S 4

0.3773
1.434

Te 4 Ti 3

mon

Cr 3 S 4

1.436

Te 4 Ti 5

tetr

Te 4 Ti 5

1.0164

b [nm]
0.3850
= 118.0
0.3835
= 118.2

c [nm]

Ref.

0.6516
0.6840

65Gre1
62Raa1

0.6902

74Arn1

0.37720

61Gro1

Thermodynamics
Using Knudsen effusion method, Suzuki et al. [66Suz1] have studied the vaporization of solid alloys.
Thermodynamic data obtained from the evaluation of the results are given in Table 2. The data are related
to the reaction
Ti (s) + r Te (s) TiTe r (s).
Table 2. Te-Ti. Thermodyamic data of intermediate phases (from [66Suz1]; see [86Mur3]).
Phase

at% Te

Ti 2 Te
Ti 5 Te 4
TiTe
Ti 2 Te 3
Ti 4 Te 7
Ti 10 Te 19
TiTe 2

3235
39.845.1
46.857.6
59.060.9
61.864.3
65.5
66.7

T [K]
1523
1523
10231523
1023
7231023
723
723

H S [kJ mol1]
79.5 10
113.0 17
125.5 21
147.3 33
148.5 38
149.4 42
150.6 42

S S [J mol1 K1]
4.6 10
1.7 17
9.7 21
36.4 33
44.8 38
43.1 42
44.4 41

References
61Gro1
62Raa1
65Gre1
66Suz1
74Arn1
86Mur3
90Mas1
94Cor1
96Oka1

Gronvold, F., Kjekshus, A., Raaum, F.: Acta Crystallogr. 14 (1961) 930
Raaum, F., Gronvold, F., Kjekshus, A., Haraldsen, H.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 317 (1962)
91
Greenaway, D.L., Nitsche, R.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26 (1965) 1445
Suzuki, A., Wahlbeck, P.G.: J. Phys. Chem. 70 (1966) 1914
Arnaud, Y., Cherreton, M.: J. Solid State Chem. 9 (1974) 54
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7 (1986) 165
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Cordes, H., Schmidt-Fetzer, R.: J. Alloys Compounds 216 (1994) 197
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 17 (1996) 373

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Tl

Te-Tl (Tellurium-Thallium)
Phase diagram
On the basis of phase equilibria reported by Asadov et al. [77Asa1] and Wobst [71Wob1], Massalski
[90Mas1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram. This diagram is including the intermediate phase
TeTl 2 , which could not be confirmed by Dichi et al. [93Dic1] and by Oh et al. [93Oh1]. Fig. 1 has been
drawn on the basis of the phase diagram reported by Massalski [90Mas1] omitting the phase TeTl 2 .

Fig. 1. Te-Tl. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Tl

Table 1. Te-Tl. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Te 3 Tl 2

mon

Te 3 Tl 2

1.7413

0.7910

70Bha1

TeTl
Te 3 Tl 5
()

tetr
tetr

TeTl
Cr 5 B 3

1.2950
0.8929

0.6552
= 133.16

0.6175
1.2620

69Cru1
70Bha1

Thermodynamics
An assessment of thermodynamic data has been performed by Oh et al. [93Oh1]. From there enthalpies of
mixing have been taken to draw Fig. 2 (mean values of results of several experimental works).
Mean values of entropies of mixing from data present in the literature have been taken from Oh et al.
[93Oh1] to draw Fig. 3.
Thermodynamic activities of liquid alloys from literature have been evaluated by Oh et al. [93Oh1] to
get optimal data for the components. The reported activity isotherms for 900 K are drawn in Fig. 4.
Enthalpies of formation of intermediate phases have been collected from literature by Oh et al.
[93Oh1] (see Table 2).

Fig. 2. Te-Tl. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 950 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Tl

Fig. 3. Te-Tl. Entropy of mixing for liquid alloys at 873 K.

Fig. 4. Te-Tl. Thermodynamic activities for liquid alloys at 900 K.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Tl

Table 2. Te-Tl. Enthalpies of formation of intermediate phases (see Oh et al. [93Oh1]).


Phase

H S [kJ g-atom1]

Method

Ref.

Te 3 Tl 2

17.99
17.57
17.91

EMF
EMF
calculated

68Vas1
65Ter1
93Oh1

TeTl

21.92
21.76
22.53

EMF
EMF
calculated

68Vas1
65Ter1
93Oh1

19.53
21.62
26.78
27.06
24.13
26.17

calorimetry
calorimetry
EMF
EMF
EMF
calculated

1888Fab1
68Cas1
68Vas1
65Ter1
63Ter1
93Oh1

References
1888Fab1
63Ter1
65Ter1
68Cas1
68Vas1
69Cru1
70Bha1
71Wob1
77Asa1
90Mas1
93Dic1
93Oh1

Fabre, M.C.: Ann. Chim. Phys. 14 (1888) 110


Terpilowski, J., Zaleska, E.: Rocz. Chem. 37 (1963) 193
Terpilowski, J., Zaleska, E., Gawel, W.: Rocz. Chem. 39 (1965) 1367
Castanet, R., Bros, J.P., Laffitte, M.: J. Chim. Phys. 65 (1968) 1536
Vasilev, V.P., Nikolskaya, A.V., Gerassimov, V.Y., Kuznetsov, A.F.: Izv. Akad. Nauk
SSSR Neorg. Mater. 4 (1968) 1040
Cruceanu, E., Sladaru, S.: J. Mater. Sci. 4 (1969) 410
Bhan, S., Schubert, K.: J. Less-Common Met. 20 (1970) 229
Wobst, M.: Scr. Metall. 5 (1971) 583
Asadov, M.M., Babanly, M.B., Kuliev, A.A.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 13
(1977) 1407
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Dichi, E., Kra, G., Eholie, R., Legendre, B.: J. Alloys Compounds 194 (1993) 147
Oh, C.S., Lee, D.N.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 197

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Tm

Te-Tm (Tellurium-Thulium)
Phase diagram
By X-ray diffractography Eliseev et al. [76Eli2] have determined the range of existence of intermediate
phases. The partial phase diagram reported there has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the
latter compilation information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Te-Tm. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Tm

Table 1. Te-Tm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Te 3 Tm
Te 5 Tm2
Te 2 Tm
Te 3 Tm2
TeTm
TeTm
15 GPa

orth
orth
tetr
orth
cub
hex

NdTe 3
Nd 2 Te 5
Cu 2 Sb
S 3 Sc 2
NaCl
NiAs

0.4274
0.444
0.4240
1.2096
0.6337
0.407

2.534
4.497

0.4274
0.444
0.8831
2.5656

67Par1
76Eli2
70Can1
65Fla1
72Cha1
84Ush1

0.8552

0.684

References
65Fla1
67Par1
70Can1
72Cha1
76Eli2
84Ush1
90Mas1

Flahaut, J., Laurelle, P., Pardo, M.P., Guittard, M.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1965) 1399
Pardo, M.P., Flahaut, J.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1967) 3658
Cannon, J.F., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 1639
Chatterjee, A., Singh, A.K., Jayaraman, A.: Phys. Rev. B 6 (1972) 2285
Eliseev, A.A., Zinchenko, K.A., Zemlyanukhina, V.M., Nguen, C.T.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 21
(1976) 2603; Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 21 (1976) 1431
Usha Devi, S., Singh, A.K.: Solid State Commun. 52 (1984) 303
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-U

Te-U (Tellurium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been reported by Ellert et al. [75Ell1], later on by Moffatt [79Mof1] and from there
the phase diagram has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. Okamoto [93Oka1] has shown that mostly
on the basis of more recent investigations by Boehme et al. [92Boe1] some changes are necessary. The
assessed phase diagram given by Okamoto [93Oka1] has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Te-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-U

Table 1. Te-U. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Te 5 U
Te 3 U

orth
mon

Te 5 U
S 3 Ti

1.7915
0.6090

0.4220
1.0302

84Noe1
71Bre1

Te 2 U
Te 12 U 7
Te 3 U 2
Te 4 U 3
TeU
TeU 10

orth
hex
orth
cub
cub
cub

Te 2 U
Se 12 Th 7
S 3 Sb 2
Th 3 P 4
NaCl
Cu

0.41617
1.2309
1.171
0.931
0.6163
0.488

1.0407
0.4226
= 98.0
0.61276

1.3965
0.4242
1.222

70Han1
71Bre1
86Slo1
76Slo1
54Fer1
73Tud1

0.436

References
54Fer1
70Han1
71Bre1
73Tud1
75Ell1
76Slo1
79Mof1
84Noe1
86Slo1
90Mas1
92Boe1
93Oka1

Ferro, R.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 275 (1954) 320


Haneveld, A.J.K., Jellinek, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 21 (1970) 45
Breeze, E.W., Brett, N.H., White, J.: J. Nucl. Mater. 39 (1971) 157
Tudja, M., Ban, Z.: Croat. Chem. Acta 45 (1973) 371
Ellert, G.V., Sevastyanov, V.G., Slovyanskikh, V.K.: Zh. Neorg. Khim. 20 (1975) 221;
Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.) 20 (1975) 120
Slovyanskikh, V.K., Rozanov, I.A., Gracheva, N.V.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl. Transl.)
21 (1976) 1383
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1979)
Noel, H.: Mater. Res. Bull. 19 (1984) 1171
Slovyanskikh, V.K., Kuznetsov, N.T., Gracheva, N.V.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl.
Transl.) 31 (1986) 762
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Boehme, D.R., Nichols, M.C., Smyder, R.L., Matheis, D.P.: J. Alloys Compounds 179
(1992) 37
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 129

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-V

Te-V (Tellurium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Mostly from results reported by Terzieff et al. [86Ter1] and Montigne [68Mon1], Smith [89Smi1] has
constructed an assessed partial phase diagram. This diagram is limited especially to higher temperature
due to experimental difficulties. It has been taken as a source of information to construct Fig. 1.
The more complicated phase equilibria in the range between 32 at% V and 48 at% V are given in an
enlarged version in Fig. 2.

Fig. 1. Te-V. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-V

Fig. 2. Te-V. Partial phase diagram (3248 at% V).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Te-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.
Phase

Structure

Type

Te 2 V 1+x

mon

TeV 1x
Te 4 V 3

hex
mon

Te 8 V 5

mon

1.2874

Te 4 V 5

mon

1.348

CdI 2
Cr 3 S 4

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.8984

0.35947
= 134.62

0.9069

84Bro1

0.6582
1.2636

84Bro1
86Ter1

1.263

68Bru1

1.382

58Gro1

0.3638
0.6543

0.3680
= 90.82
0.7580
= 90.82
0.3913
= 93.58

Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic activities of tellurium within the Te 4 V 3 phase have been reported by Krachler et al.
[92Kra1]. The natural logarithm of the aTeS values are plotted in Fig. 3 as a function of concentration Te
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-V

for 1073 K.

Fig. 3. Te-V. Thermodynamic activi-ty for Te in (Te4V3) solid solution at 1073 K.

References
58Gro1
68Bru1
68Mon1
84Bro1
86Ter1
89Smi1
92Kra1

Gronvold, F., Hagberg, O., Haraldsen, H.: Acta Chem. Scand. 12 (1958) 971
Brunie, S., Chevreton, M.: Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 91 (1968) 422
Montigne, E.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 362 (1968) 329
Bronsema, K.D., Bus, G.W., Wiegers, G.A.: J. Solid State Chem. 53 (1984) 415
Terzieff, P., Ipser, H., Wachtel, E.: J. Less-Common Met. 119 (1986) 1
Smith, J.F., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys", J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM,
Materials Park, Ohio (1989)
Krachler, R., Ipser, H.: J. Alloys Compounds 184 (1992) 95

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-W

Te-W (Tellurium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
Knop et al. [56Kno1] mentioned only one intermediate phase in this system. A provisional phase diagram
has been reported by Nagender Naidu et al. [92Nag1], which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Te-W. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of tungsten ditelluride are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-W

Table 1. Te-W. Lattice parameters of orthorhombic Te 2 W (CdI 2 -type) [92Nag1].


a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.3490
1.4028
0.6282

0.6277
0.3495
0.3496

1.407
0.6270
1.4073

56Kno1
62Bri1
66Bro2

References
56Kno1
62Bri1
66Bro2
92Nag1

Knop, O., Haraldsen, H.: Can. J. Chem. 34 (1956) 1142


Brixner, L.H.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 24 (1962) 257
Brown, B.E.: Acta Crystallogr. 20 (1966) 268
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P.: Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams Updating Service,
Supplement (1992)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Y

Te-Y (Tellurium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Pardo et al. [66Par1] reported that the phases Te 3 Y and Te 5 Y 2 are melting peritectically. Miller et al.
[59Mil1] found the melting point of Te 3 Y 2 at 1798 K. According to Brixner [60Bri1] the melting point of
TeY is above 1273 K. On the basis of this information, Chattopadhyay et al. [89Cha1] have constructed a
partial phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation
information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Te-Y. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Y

Table 1. Te-Y. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Te 3 Y
Te 2 Y
10 GPa, 1473 K
Te 3 Y 2
TeY

orth
tetr

NdTe 3
Cu 2 Sb

0.4303
0.4291

2.549

0.4303
0.8912

67Par1
70Can1

orth
cub

S 3 Sc 2
NaCl

1.2224
0.6114

0.8642

2.592

65Dis1
63Fla1

References
59Mil1
60Bri1
63Fla1
65Dis1
66Par1
67Par1
70Can1
89Cha1
90Mas1

Miller, J.F., Reid, F.J., Himes, R.C.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 106 (1959) 1043
Brixner, L.H.: J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 15 (1960) 199
Flahaut, J., Domange, L., Guittard, M., Pardo, M.P., Patrie, M.: C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad.
Sci. 257 (1963) 1530
Dismukes, J.P., White, J.G.: Inorg. Chem. 4 (1965) 970
Pardo, M.P., Flahaut, J.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. C 263 (1966) 1058
Pardo, M.P., Flahaut, J.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (1967) 3658
Cannon, J.F., Hall, H.T.: Inorg. Chem. 9 (1970) 1639
Chattopadhyay, G., Bharadwaj, S.R., in: "Evaluated Phase Diagrams of Binary MetallTellurium Systems of the D-Block Transition Elements", Bhabha At. Res. Center, Bombay
(1989) 95
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Yb

Te-Yb (Tellurium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
The phase diagram has been determined by Abrikosov et al. [70Abr1] and redrawn by Massalski
[90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Te-Yb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Abrikosov et al. [70Abr1] has included only one intermediate phase in the phase diagram: TeYb. Its
structure is cubic (NaCl-type) with lattice parameter a = 0.6361 nm (Chatterjee et al. [72Cha1]).
By annealing samples at 1100 K, Slovyanskikh et al. [85Slo1] found two more intermediate phases:
Te 2 Yb and Te 3 Yb 2 . Te 2 Yb is tetragonal (Cu 2 Sb-type) with lattice parameters a = 0.421 nm and c = 0.882
nm. Te 3 Yb 2 is of orthorhombic structure (S 3 Sc 2 -type) with lattice parameters: a = 1.270 nm, b = 0.898
nm and c = 2.693 nm.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Yb

References
70Abr1
72Cha1
85Slo1
90Mas1

Abrikosov, N.Kh., Zinchenko, K.A., Eliseev, A.A.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 6 (1970)
1021
Chatterjee, A., Singh, A.K., Jayaraman, A.: Phys. Rev. B 6 (1972) 2285
Slovyanskikh, V.K., Kuznetsov, N.T., Gracheva, N.V.: Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (Engl.
Transl.) 30 (1985) 1077
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Zn

Te-Zn (Tellurium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
The assessed phase diagram reported by Sharma et al. [87Sha1] has been taken as a basis to construct
Fig. 1. It is in good agreement with experimental results obtained by Kobayashi [12Kob1], Kulwicki
[63Kul1], Carides et al. [64Car1] and Steininger et al. [70Ste2].

Fig. 1. Te-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The crystal structure of TeZn is cubic (ZnS-type) with lattice parameter a = 0.6126 nm (Holland et al.
[68Hol1]).

Thermodynamics
Experimentally determined enthalpies of formation of TeZn have been assessed by Mills [74Mil1]. The
value reported is H S = 59.7 kJ g-atom1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Zn

References
12Kob1
63Kul1
64Car1
68Hol1
70Ste2
74Mil1
87Sha1

Kobayashi, M.: Int. Z. Metallogr. 2 (1912) 65


Kulwicki, B.M.: Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1963)
Carides, J., Fischer, A.G.: Solid State Commun. 2 (1964) 217
Holland, H.J., Beck, K.: J. Appl. Phys. (New York) 39 (1968) 3498
Steininger, J., Strauss, A.J., Brebrick, R.F.: J. Appl. Phys. (New York) 117 (1970) 1305
Mills, K.C.: "Thermodynamic Data for Inorganic Sulphides, Selenides and Tellurides",
London: Butterworths (1974)
Sharma, R.C., Chang, Y.A.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 8 (1987) 14

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Zr

Te-Zr (Tellurium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography and isopiestic mehtod, Sodeck et al. [79Sod1] have
determined some phase equilibria. The results have been taken by Massalski [90Mas1] to construct a
partial phase diagram, which has been the basis for drawing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Te-Zr. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Te-Zr

Table 1. Te-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

Te 5 Zr

mon

Te 3 Zr

mon

S 3 Ti

0.589

Te 2 Zr
TeZr
Te 4 Zr 5
Te 3 Zr 4
Te 2 Zr 3
TeZr 3

hex
hex
tetr
tetr
hex
hex

CdI 2
NiAs
Te 4 Ti 5

0.3952
0.3982
1.0761
0.3687
0.3761
0.5354

CW
Be 3 Nb

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

1.495

0.398
= 96.7
0.393
= 97.8

3.129

85Sam1

1.010

79Sod1

0.6660
0.6700
0.3839
0.956
0.3856
2.335

58Mct1
58Mct1
79Sod1
59Hah1
59Hah1
88Mat1

References
58Mct1
59Hah1
79Sod1
85Sam1
88Mat1
90Mas1

McTaggart, F.K., Wadsley, A.D.: Aust. J. Chem. 11 (1958) 445


Hahn, H., Ness, P.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 302 (1959) 136
Sodeck, H., Mikler, H., Komarek, K.L.: Monatsh. Chem. 110 (1979) 1
Sambongi, T., Biljakovic, K., Smontara, A., Guemas, L.: Synth. Met. 10 (1985) 161
Matkovic, T., Kesic-Racan, M., Matkovic, P.: J. Less-Common Met. 138 (1988) L1
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-Ti

Th-Ti (Thorium-Titanium)
Phase diagram
Using X-ray diffractography and metllographic methods, Carlson et al. [56Car1] have found no
intermediate phases and no detectable mutual solubility of the components in the solid state. Further on,
some liquidus points have been determined.
Murray [90Mur1], by thermodynamic calculations, has determined the phase diagram, which has been
taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-Ti. Phase diagram.

References
56Car1
90Mur1

Carlson, O.N., Dickinson, J.M., Lunt, H.E., Wilhelm, H.A.: Trans. AIME 206 (1956) 132
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-Tl

Th-Tl (Thorium-Thallium)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction experiments, Palenzona et al. [85Pal1] have
determined the phase diagram and Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn it. From the latter compilation
information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-Tl. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-Tl

Table 1. Th-Tl. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [85Pal1].
Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Th 2 Tl
Th 5 Tl 3
ThTl
Th 3 Tl 5
ThTl 3

tetr
hex
orth
orth
cub

Al 2 Cu
Mn 5 Si 3
ThIn
Pu 3 Pd 5
AuCu 3

0.7708
0.9388
1.0770
1.0249
0.4751

b [nm]

c [nm]

0.9932
0.8260

0.6212
0.6420
0.6554
1.0419

References
85Pal1
90Mas1

Palenzona, A., Cirafici, S., Canepa, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 114 (1985) 311
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-Tm

Th-Tm (Thorium-Thulium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Assuming similarity to Ho-Th, Er-Th and Lu-Th systems (as reported by Badayeva et al. [69Bad1]),
Moffatt [88Mof1] has sketched a hypothetical phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski
[90Mas1]. From both sources information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-Tm. Tentative phase diagram.

References
69Bad1
88Mof1
90Mas1

Badayeva, T.A., Kuznetsova, P.I.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1969) 156; Russ. Metall.
(Engl. Transl.) (1969) 101
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1988)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-U

Th-U (Thorium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been determined by Carlson [50Car1], Bentle [58Ben1], Murray [58Mur1] and
Badayeva et al. [72Bad3]. Peterson [85Pet2] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been
taken as the basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-U. Phase diagram.

References
50Car1
58Ben1
58Mur1
72Bad3
85Pet2

Carlson, O.N.: USAEC Rep. AECU-3206 (1950)


Bentle, G.G.: Proc. U.N. Int. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, Geneva, Vol. 6, IAEA,
Vienna, Austria (1958) 156
Murray, J.R.: J. Inst. Met. 87 (1958) 94
Badayeva, T.B., Kuznetsova, R.I.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. 1 (1972) 196; Russ. Metall.
(Engl. Transl.) 1 (1972) 139
Peterson, D.E.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 6 (1985) 443

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-V

Th-V (Thorium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been determined by Levingston et al. [53Lev1], Komjathy [61Kom1], and Palmer et
al. [62Pal1], the latter authors using thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallographic methods and
measurements of electrical resistivity. The results obtained by these works have been taken by Smith et
al. [89Smi3] to construct an assessed phase diagram, which, at last, has been the basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-V. Phase diagram.

References
53Lev1
61Kom1
62Pal1
89Smi3

Levingston, H.I., Rogers, B.A.: USAEC Rep. No. AECD-3602 (1953)


Komjathy, S.: J. Less-Common Met. 3 (1961) 468
Palmer, P.E., McMasters, O.D., Larsen, W.L.: Trans. ASM 55 (1962) 301
Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., Peterson, D.E., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys",
J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM, Materials Park, Ohio (1989)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-W

Th-W (Thorium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
The solubility of W in liquid Th has been determined by Ackermann et al. [72Ack2] in the temperature
range between 1968 K and 2200 K. Ackermann et al. [72Ack1] have reported a eutectic at 0.012 at% W
and 1968 2 K. On the basis of these findings, Chiotti et al. [82Chi2] have drawn a partial phase
diagram, which has been the source of information to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-W. Partial phase diagram (Th-rich part).

References
72Ack1
72Ack2
82Chi2

Ackermann, R.J., Rauh, E.G.: High Temp. Sci. 4 (1972) 272


Ackermann, R.J., Rauh, E.G.: High Temp. Sci. 4 (1972) 496
Chiotti, P., Akhachinskij, V.V., Ansara, I., Rand, M.H.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 3
(1982) 104

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-Y

Th-Y (Thorium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Eash et al. [60Eas1] and Evans et al. [60Eva1] have determined parts of the phase diagram. Carlson et al.
[87Car1] and Massalski [90Mas1] discussed the experimentally obtained results in view of impurities in
the components used. The phase diagram accepted by Massalski [90Mas1] has been taken as a basis to
draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-Y. Phase diagram.

References
60Eas1
60Eva1
87Car1
90Mas1

Eash, D.T., Carlson, O.N.: Trans. ASM 52 (1960) 1097


Evans, D.S., Raynor, G.V.: J. Nucl. Mater. 4 (1960) 66
Carlson, O.N., Smith, J.F.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 8 (1987) 208
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-Yb

Th-Yb (Thorium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
Accepting the miscibility gap in the liquid state and the solid solubility in (Th) and (Tb) at 948 K as
reported by Evans et al. [61Eva1], Moffatt [78Mof1] has drawn a hypothetical phase diagram, which has
been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information has been taken to
construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-Yb. Phase diagram.

References
61Eva1
78Mof1
90Mas1

Evans, D.S., Raynor, G.V.: J. Less-Common Met. 3 (1961) 179


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-Zn

Th-Zn (Thorium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been investigated by Chiotti et al. [61Chi2] (thermal analysis, metallographic
observations). The phase diagram has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and from there information
has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-Zn

Table 1. Th-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Th 2 Zn
ThZn 2
ThZn 4
Th 2 Zn 17

tetr
hex
tetr
hex

Al 2 Cu
AlB 2
Al 4 Ba
Ni 17 Th 2

0.7614
0.420
0.4273
0.9032

0.5658
0.417
1.0359
0.8929

72Hav1
56Mak1
61Chi2
67Ian2

References
56Mak1
61Chi2
67Ian2
72Hav1
90Mas1

Makarov, E.S., Gudkov, L.S.: Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. (Engl. Transl.) 1 (1956) 511
Chiotti, P., Gill, K.J.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 221 (1961) 573
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 12 (1967) 333
Havinga, E.E., Damsma, H., Hokkeling, P.: J. Less-Common Met. 27 (1972) 169
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Th-Zr

Th-Zr (Thorium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been determined several times (see von Goldbeck [75Gol1]). Massalski
[90Mas1] has redrawn the results reported by Gibson et al. [58Gib1]. From this compilation information
has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Th-Zr. Phase diagram.

References
58Gib1
75Gol1
90Mas1

Gibson, E.D., Loomis, B.A., Carlson, O.N.: Trans. ASM 50 (1958) 348
von Goldbeck, O., in: "Thorium: Physico-Chemical Properties of its Compounds and
Alloys", O. Kubaschewski (ed.), Atomic Energy Review, Special Issue No. 5, IAEA,
Vienna, Austria (1975) 87
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-Tm

Ti-Tm (Titanium-Thulium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
A tentative phase diagram has been reported by Kubaschewski- von Goldbeck [83Kub1]. It has been
redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and from there it has been taken as a basis for constructing Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ti-Tm. Tentative phase diagram.

References
83Kub1
90Mas1

Kubaschewski-von Goldbeck, O., in: "Titanium: Physico-Chemical Properties of its


Compounds and Alloys", K.L. Komarek (ed.) Atomic Energy Review, Special Issue No. 9,
IAEA, Vienna, Austria (1983) 157
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-U

Ti-U (Titanium-Uranium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Buzzard et al. [53Buz1], Udy et al. [54Udy1], Knapton
[55Kna2], Adda et al. [61Add1] and Kimmel et al. [86Kim1]. After thorough discussion Murray
[90Mur1] has drawn an assessed phase diagram, which has been mostly the basis for drawing Fig. 1. It
should be mentioned that the phase equilibria in the solid state at concentrations > 60 at% U have been
taken from Kimmel et al. [86Kim1].

Fig. 1. Ti-U. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The intermediate phase TiU 2 has a hexagonal structure (AlB 2 -type) with lattice parameters a = 0.4828 nm
and c = 0.2847 nm (Knapton [55Kna2]).

References
53Buz1
54Udy1
55Kna2
61Add1
86Kim1

Buzzard, R.W., Liss, R.B., Fickle, D.P.: J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 50 (1953) 209
Udy, M.C., Boulger, F.W.: Trans. AIME 200 (1954) 207
Knapton, A.G.: J. Inst. Met. 83 (1955) 497
Adda, Y., Beyeler, M., Kirianenko, A., Maurice, F.: Mem. Sci. Rev. Metall. 58 (1961) 716
Kimmel, G., Landau, A., Sariel, J., Admon, U.: J. Less-Common Met. 121 (1986) 483

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-U
90Mur1

Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-V

Ti-V (Titanium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been determined several times. Murray [87Mur2, 90Mur1], after thorough
discussion of results present in the literature, has proposed an assessed phase diagram. It has been taken
as a basis to construct Fig. 1.
This diagram exhibits a miscibility gap in the (Ti, V) solid solution. Wei et al. [89Wei1] pointed out
that this miscibility gap, obviously is the result of contamination by oxygen (see [93Oka4]). Therefore,
Okamoto [95Oka5] preferred the diagram reported earlier by Murray [81Mur3]. At last, Hari Kumar et al.
[94Har1] has refined this diagram by thermodynamic modeling. The result has been accepted by
Okamoto [95Oka5] and has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 2. Obviously, there is some need of further
experimental work.

Fig. 1. Ti-V. Phase diagram.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-V

Fig. 2. Ti-V. Partial phase diagram (Ti-rich part).

Metastable phases
Starting from the bcc (Ti), metastable phases can be obtained.
By quenching Ti-rich (Ti) by martensitic transformation hexagonal ' can be formed. At higher Vconcentration (> 9 at% V) distorted hexagonal (orthorhombic) '' by a similar transformation can be
obtained. At last, at rather high V-concentrations (> 10 at% V) by quenching the bcc (Ti, V) is retained
at low temperatures as metastable phase. Decomposing (Ti) solid solutions, a hexagonal phase is
observed as an intermediate phase. The starting temperature of -formation is dependent on oxygen
contamination. For more details of metastable phase formations the reader is referred to the review given
by Smith et al. [89Smi3].
At high pressures the -phase became stable (see for instance Leibovitch et al. [81Lei1]).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-V

Table 1. Ti-V. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

at% V

Structure

Type

a [nm]

'

0 5

Mg

(Ti, V)

0100

cub

''

515

orth

11 50

hex

CrTi

0.2923
11 at% V
0.3033
at 95 at% V
0.2589
at 19 at% V
0.4604
at 6 at% V

b [nm]

0.4200

Thermodynamics
Valishev et al. [81Val1] have determined by high-temperature calorimetry integral enthalpies of mixing
of liquid alloys with concentrations up to 40 at% V at 2000 K. The results are plotted in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Ti-V. Enthalpy of mixing for liquid alloys at 2000 K.

References
81Lei1
81Mur3
81Val1
87Mur2
89Smi3
89Wei1

Leibovitch, Ch., Rabinkin, A., Taliankev, M.: Metall. Trans. A 12 (1981) 1513
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1981) 48
Valishev, Yu.O., Ermakov, M.G., Geld, A.F., Petrushevski, M.S.: Russ. Metall. (Engl.
Transl.) 2 (1981) 71
Murray, J.L., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Titanium Alloys", J.L. Murray (ed.),
Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio (1987)
319
Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., Peterson, D.E., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Vanadium Alloys",
J.F. Smith (ed.), ASM, Materials Park, Ohio (1989)
Wei, F., Flower, H.M.: Mater. Sci. Technol. 5 (1989) 1172

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-V
90Mur1
93Oka4
94Har1
95Oka5

Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 266
Hari Kumar, K.C., Wollants, P., Delaey, L.: CALPHAD 18 (1994) 71
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 202

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-W

Ti-W (Titanium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
Experimental work to clear up the phase equilibria has been done, among others, by Maykuth et al.
[53May1], Oleynikova et al. [71Ole1], Nowotny et al. [54Now1] and Rudy et al. [68Rud1]. Murray
[81Mur1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Murray [90Mur1].
From there information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ti-W. Phase diagram.

Metastable phases
Quenching bcc (Ti, W) alloys, metastable phases can be obtained.
In Ti-rich alloys cph ' is produced martensitically. At little higher W-contents orthorhombic '' can
be obtained. By decomposition of (Ti) can be formed as a transition phase.

Crystal structure
Structures of stable and metastable phases are listed in Table 1.
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-W

Lattice parameters of (Ti) solid solutions, as reported by Rudy et al. [68Rud1], are plotted in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Ti-W. Lattice parameter for bcc (Ti) solid solution [68Rud1].

Table 1. Ti-W. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [58Bag1].
Phase

at% W

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Ti
'

0100
02

cub
hex

W
Mg

'

25.5

orth

see Fig. 2
0.2883
at 1.3 at% W
0.2906

b [nm]

c [nm]

0.4716
0.4916

0.4669

References
53May1
54Now1
58Bag1
68Rud1
71Ole1
81Mur1
90Mur1

Maykuth, D.J., Ogden, H.R., Jaffee, R.I.: Trans. AIME 197 (1953) 231
Nowotny, W., Parth, E., Kieffer, E., Benesovsky, F.: Z. Metallkd. 45 (1954) 97
Bagariatskii, Yu.A., Tagunova, T.V., Nosova, G.I.: Coll. Prob. in Metallog. Phys. Met. 5
(1958) 210
Rudy, E., Windisch, St.: Trans. AIME 242 (1968) 953
Oleynikova, S.V., Nartova, T.T., Kornilov, I.I.: Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met. (1971) 192;
Russ. Metall. (Engl. Transl.) (1971)
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1981) 192
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-Y

Ti-Y (Titanium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Investigations of the phase equilibria have been done by Love [60Lov3], Bare et al. [61Bar1], Lundin et
al. [62Lun2] and Beaudry [68Bea1]. Using the results obtained and after thorough discussion, Murray
[90Mur1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ti-Y. Phase diagram.

References
60Lov3
61Bar1
62Lun2
68Bea1
90Mur1

Love, B.: U.S.A.F. WADD Tech. Rep. 60-74, Part 1 (1960) 60


Bare, D.W., Carlson, O.N.: Trans. ASM 53 (1961) 1
Lundin jr., C.E., Klodt, D.T.: Trans. AIME 224 (1962) 367
Beaudry, B.J.: J. Less-Common Met. 14 (1968) 370
Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-Yb

Ti-Yb (Titanium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
De Boer et al. [79Deb1], using their model, have estimated relatively high positive enthalpies of
formation of Ti-Yb alloys. On this basis Moffatt [80Mof1] has sketched a phase diagram with an
extensive miscibility gap in the liquid state. This diagram has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and,
also, has been taken as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ti-Yb. Phase diagram.

References
79Deb1
80Mof1
90Mas1

De Boer, F.R., Dijkman, W.H., Mattens, W.C.M., Miedema, A.R.: J. Less-Common Met.
64 (1979) 241
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1980)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-Zn

Ti-Zn (Titanium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Experimental determinations of phase equilibria are rather difficult for the melting point of Ti is at 1943
K and the boiling point of Zn at 1 atm amounts to 1180 K. Therefore only some parts of the phase
diagram are known.
Investigations have been performed by Gebhardt [41Geb1], Anderson et al. [44And1], Pelzel
[61Pel1], Heine et al. [62Hei1], Rennhack [66Ren1], Spittle [72Spi1] and Dobrev et al. [77Dob1]. After
discussion of results present in the literature, Murray [84Mur1] has proposed an assessed partial phase
diagram, which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ti-Zn. Partial phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-Zn

Table 1. Ti-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

Zn 15 Ti
Zn 3 Ti
Zn 2 Ti
ZnTi
ZnTi 2

orth
cub
hex
cub
tetr

0.77207
0.39322
0.5064
0.3146
0.3036

1.14497

1.17559

Cu 3 Au
MgZn 2
CsCl
MoSi 2

81Sai1
54Pie1
54Pie1
62Hei1
63Sch2

0.8210
1.06776

References
41Geb1
44And1
54Pie1
61Pel1
62Hei1
63Sch2
66Ren1
72Spi1
77Dob1
81Sai1
84Mur1

Gebhardt, E.: Z. Metallkd. 33 (1941) 355


Anderson, E.A., Boyle, E.J., Ramsey, P.W.: Trans. AIME 156 (1944) 278
Pietrokowsky, P.: Trans. AIME 200 (1954) 219
Pelzel, M.E.: Metall (Berlin) 15 (1961) 881
Heine, W., Zwicker, U.: Z. Metallkd. 53 (1962) 380
Schubert, K., Frank, K., Gohle, R., Moldonado, A., Meissner, H.G., Raman, A.,
Rossteutscher, W.: Naturwissenschaften 50 (1963) 41
Rennhack, E.H.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 236 (1966) 941
Spittle, J.A.: Metallography 5 (1972) 423
Dobrev, R., Dimova, V., Georgiev, I.: Materialozn. Tekhnol. 5 (1977) 40
Saillard, M., Develey, G., Becle, C.: Acta Crystallogr. B 37 (1981) 224
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 5 (1984) 52

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-Zr

Ti-Zr (Titanium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated several times (for instance: Farrar et al. [66Far1], Rudy [69Rud1],
Chatterji et al. [71Cha2] and Auffredic et al. [82Auf1]). Murray [81Mur2, 87Mur1, 90Mur1] has
discussed the results and, after thermodynamic modelling, has proposed an assessed phase diagram. Later
on, Hari Kumar et al. [94Har2] have reported an assessed phase diagram, which does not agree in any part
with that of Murray [87Mur1]. As an example it should be mentioned that the liquidus at the Zr-rich side
has been found by [94Har2] to be 40 K higher than that of [87Mur1, 90Mur1] (see [95Oka7]). The more
recent phase diagram by [94Har2] seems to be the more reliable one and therefore has been used as a
basis to draw Fig. 1. It should be pointed out that new experiments are necessary to clear up the
discrepancies.

Fig. 1. Ti-Zr. Phase diagram.

Metastable phases
In the whole concentration range (Ti) can be transformed martensitically into a metastable cph ' phase
(Huang et al. [70Hua1]).
At decomposition of (Ti) to (Ti), a metastable transient hexagonal phase can be observed
(Gridnev et al. [60Gri1]).

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-Zr

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of cph (Ti, Zr) are given in Fig. 2 (taken from Duwez [52Duw1]). The same authors
have determined lattice parameters of the (Ti, Zr) solid solutions, too. The results are given in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. Ti-Zr. Lattice parameters for cph (Ti, r) solid solution.

Fig. 3. Ti-Zr. Lattice parameter for bcc (Ti, Zr) solid solution.

References
52Duw1
60Gri1
66Far1
69Rud1
70Hua1
71Cha2
81Mur2
82Auf1
87Mur1

Duwez, P.: J. Inst. Met. 80 (1952) 525


Gridnev, V.N., Trefilov, V.I., Minakov, V.N.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 134 (1960) 1334;
Sov. Phys. Dokl. (Engl. Transl.) 5 (1960) 1094
Farrar, P.A., Adler, S.: Trans. AIME 236 (1966) 1061
Rudy, E.: "Compendium of Phase Diagrams Data", Air Force Materials Lab., WrightPatterson Air Force Base, OH, Rep. No. AFML-TR-65-2, Part V (1969)
Huang, Y.C., Suzuki, S., Kaneko, H., Sato, T.: Sci. Technol. Appl. Titanium Proc. Int.
Conf., R.I. Jaffee (ed.) (1970) 695
Chatterji, D., Hepworth, M.T., Hruska, S.J.: Metall. Trans. 2 (1971) 1271
Murray, J.L.: Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 2 (1981) 197
Auffredic, J.P., Etchessahav, E., Debuigne, J.: J. Less-Common Met. 84 (1982) 49
Murray, J.L., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Titanium Alloys", J.L. Murray (ed.),
Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio (1987)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Ti-Zr
90Mur1
94Har2
95Oka7

Murray, J.L., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Hari Kumar, K.C., Wollants, P., Delaey, L.: J. Alloys Compounds 206 (1994) 121
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 371

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-Tm

Tl-Tm (Thallium-Thulium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Assuming similarity to La-Tl, Ce-Tl and Pr-Tl systems, Moffatt [78Mof1] has sketched a tentative
phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information
has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tl-Tm. Tentative phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-Tm

Table 1. Tl-Tm. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Tl 3 Tm
TlTm
Tl 3 Tm 5

cub
cub
hex

Cu 3 Au
CsCl
Mn 5 Si 3

0.4657
0.3711
0.8798

c [nm]

Ref.

0.6495

66Pal2
65Ian1
69Fra1

References
65Ian1
66Pal2
69Fra1
78Mof1
90Mas1

Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 9 (1965) 1


Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 10 (1966) 290
Franceschi, E., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 18 (1969) 93
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1978)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-U

Tl-U (Thallium-Uranium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Johnson et al. [63Joh1] has determined the solubility of U in liquid Tl. At 1127 K it amounts to 0.133
at% U and at 673 K it is 4.610 5 at% U.

Crystal structure
The structure of Tl 3 U has been reported by Murasik et al. [73Mur1]. It is cubic (Cu 3 Au-type) with lattice
parameter a = 0.4688 nm.

References
63Joh1
73Mur1

Johnson, I., Chasanov, M.G.: Trans. ASM 56 (1963) 272


Murasik, A., Leciejewicz, J., Ligenza, S., Misiuk, A.: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 20 (1973) 395

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-V

Tl-V (Thallium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Miedema et al. [83Mie1], applying their model, stated that the enthalpy of formation of Tl-V alloys
should be positive. Mostly on this basis Smith et al. [90Smi3] have calculated a phase diagram, which has
been taken as a source of information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tl-V. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
No intermediate phase is existing in this system.

References
83Mie1
90Smi3

Miedema, A.R., Niessen, A.K.: CALPHAD 7 (1983) 27


Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-V

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-W

Tl-W (Thallium-Tungsten)
Nagender Naidu et al. [90Nag1] stated that there is no intermediate phase existing in this system and no
other information concerning phase equilibria is available.

References
90Nag1

Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-Y

Tl-Y (Thallium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated by Saccone et al. [89Sac1] using differential thermal analysis,
metallographic methods and X-ray diffractography. The phase diagram, as reported by Okamoto
[91Oka4], has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tl-Y. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-Y

Table 1. Tl-Y. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Tl 3 Y
Tl 5 Y 3
TlY
Tl 3 Y 5

cub
orth
cub
hex

Cu 3 Au
Pd 5 Pu 3
CsCl
Mn 5 Si 3

0.4680
0.9965
0.3751
0.8912

b [nm]

c [nm]

0.808

1.037
0.6705

Ref.
62Bru1
81Del1
62Bru1
69Fra1

References
62Bru1
69Fra1
81Del1
89Sac1
91Oka4

Bruzzone, G., Ruggiero, A.F.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 33
(1962) 465
Franceschi, E., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 18 (1969) 93
Delfino, S., Saccone, A., Mazzone, D., Ferro, R.: J. Less-Common Met. 81 (1981) 45
Saccone, A., Delfino, S., Cacciamani, G., Ferro, R.: J. Less-Common Met. 154 (1989) 99
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 255

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-Yb

Tl-Yb (Thallium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
Taking the experimental data reported by Sabirzyanov et al. [87Sab1] (differential thermal analysis, X-ray
examinations and metallographic observations) and the review given by Cirafici et al. [89Cir1], Delfino et
al. [90Del1] have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tl-Yb. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-Yb

Table 1. Tl-Yb. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Tl 3 Yb
TlYb
TlYb 2
Tl 3 Yb 8

cub
cub
orth
tricl

Cu 3 Au
CsCl
Co 2 Si
Tl 3 Yb 8

0.4613
0.3826
0.7217
0.9489
= 69.53

b [nm]

0.5270
0.9581
= 78.70

c [nm]

0.9821
0.9646
= 60.15

Ref.
64Ian1
65Ian1
89Cir1
89Cir1

References
64Ian1
65Ian1
87Sab1
89Cir1
90Del1

Iandelli, A.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 330 (1964) 221


Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 9 (1965) 1
Sabirzyanov, N.A., Yatsenko, S.P., Melekhov, L.Z.: J. Less-Common Met. 135 (1987) 87
Cirafici, S., Fornasini, M.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 143 (1989) 79
Delfino, S., Saccone, A., Palenzona, A., Ferro, R., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-Zn

Tl-Zn (Thallium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Experiments to clear up the phase equilibria have been performed by Vegesack [07Veg1] and by Seith et
al. [52Sei1]. Results from these two works have been used by Massalski [90Mas1] to draw an assessed
phase diagram. This diagram has been the basis of information necessary to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tl-Zn. Phase diagram.

References
07Veg1
52Sei1
90Mas1

Vegesack, A.V.: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 52 (1907) 30


Seith, W., Johnen, H., Wagner, J.: Z. Metallkd. 46 (1952) 773
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tl-Zr

Tl-Zr (Thallium-Zirconium)
The phase diagram is not known.

Crystal structure
Only one intermediate phase has been found: TlZr 4 . Its structure is cubic (Cr 3 Si-type) with lattice
parameter a = 0.5626 nm (Vielhaber et al. [67Vie1]).

References
67Vie1

Vielhaber, E., Luo, H.L.: Solid State Commun. 5 (1967) 221

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tm-U

Tm-U (Thulium-Uranium)
The phase diagram is not known.
Some data of solubility of Tm in liquid U are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Tm-U. Solubility of Tm in liqiud uranium.
at% Tm

T [K]

Ref.

0.098
0.056
0.035

1523
1498
1423

57Wil1
59Hae1
57Wil1

References
57Wil1
59Hae1

Wilhelm, H.A.: Nucl. Fuels Newsletter, WASH-704 (1957)


Haefling, J.F., Daane, A.H.: Trans. AIME 215 (1959) 336

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tm-V

Tm-V (Thulium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Assuming similarity to other Rare-Earth-V alloys, Smith et al. [90Smi3] have calculated the phase
diagram, which has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tm-V. Phase diagram at 105 Pa.

References
90Smi3

Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tm-W

Tm-W (Thulium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
Dennison et al. [66Den2] have determined the solubility of W in liquid Tm. On the basis of these results,
Pandian et al. [90Pan1] have drawn a partial phase diagram, which has been taken as a source of
information to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tm-W. Partial phase diagram (Tm-rich part).

References
66Den2
90Pan1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966)
423
Pandian, S., Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tm-Y

Tm-Y (Thulium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Moffatt [86Mof1] has assumed, basing on discussions by Gschneidner jr. [85Gsc1], similarity to Er-Y
system. He sketched a phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and which, also,
has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tm-Y. Phase diagram.

References
85Gsc1
86Mof1
90Mas1

Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 114 (1985) 29


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1986)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tm-Yb

Tm-Yb (Thulium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally obtained phase diagram is not known.
Moffatt [81Mof1] has assumed similarity to Gd-Yb and Lu-Yb systems (Beaudry et al. [74Bea1]). On
this basis he sketched the Tm-Yb phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and
which, also, has been taken as the main information to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tm-Yb. Phase diagram.

References
74Bea1
81Mof1
90Mas1

Beaudry, B.J., Spedding, F.H.: Metall. Trans. 5 (1974) 1631


Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1981)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tm-Zn

Tm-Zn (Thulium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
Moffatt [86Mof1] assumed similarity to Er-Zn system. Bruzzone et al. [70Bru1] reported intermediate
phases. From this information [86Mof1] has sketched a preliminary phase diagram, which has been
redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1], and also has been the basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tm-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tm-Zn

Table 1. Tm-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

TmZn
TmZn 2
TmZn 3
Tm6 Zn 23
Tm13 Zn 58
TmZn 5
Tm 2 Zn 17
TmZn 12

cub
orth
orth
cub
hex
hex
hex
tetr

CsCl
CeCu 2
YZn 3
Mn 23 Th 6
Gd 13 Zn 58
ErZn 5
Ni 17 Th 2
Mn 12 Th

0.3515
0.4433
0.6661
1.256
1.414
0.8833
0.8935
0.8852

b [nm]

c [nm]

0.6944
0.4330

0.7604
0.9997
1.394
0.9147
0.8752
0.5190

Ref.
65Ian1
67For1
70Bru1
66Kuz1
70Bru1
71For2
67Ian2
67Ian2

References
65Ian1
66Kuz1
67For1
67Ian2
70Bru1
71For2
86Mof1
90Mas1

Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 9 (1965) 1


Kuzma, Yu.B., Kripyakevich, P.I., Ugrin, N.S.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 2 (1966) 544
Fornasini, M.L., Merlo, F.: Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. Rend. 43 (1967)
357
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 12 (1967) 333
Bruzzone, G., Fornasini, M.L., Merlo, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 22 (1970) 253
Fornasini, M.L.: J. Less-Common Met. 25 (1971) 329
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1986)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Tm-Zr

Tm-Zr (Thulium-Zirconium)
Cheng Uy [63Che1] has not been able to prepare by arc melting Tm-Zr alloys.

References
63Che1

Cheng Uy, J.: Dissertation, Rensselaer Polytechn. Institute (1963), see: F. Shunk:
"Constitution of Binary Alloys, Second Supplement", New York: McGraw-Hill (1969)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

U-V

U-V (Uranium-Vanadium)
Phase diagram
On the basis of experimental results taken from Saller et al. [53Sal1], Peterson et al. [90Pet2] have drawn
an assessed phase diagram, which has been used as a source of information to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. U-V. Phase diagram.

References
53Sal1
90Pet2

Saller, H., Rough, F.A.: Trans. AIME 197 (1953) 545


Peterson, D.E., Smith, J.F., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

U-W

U-W (Uranium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
Experimental investigations of phase equilibria have been done by Ackermann et al. [72Ack2] and
Schramm et al. [50Sch1]. Using the results obtained by these authors, Pandian et al. [90Pan1] have
constructed a tentative phase diagram, which has been the basis of Fig. 1.
The melting point of U is raised a little by addition of W. The result, as Schramm et al. [50Sch1]
mentioned, is a peritectic at the U-rich side of the system.

Fig. 1. U-W. Tentative phase diagram.

References
50Sch1
72Ack2
90Pan1

Schramm, C.H., Gordon, P., Kaufmann, A.R.: Trans. AIME 188 (1950) 195
Ackermann, R.J., Rauh, E.G.: High Temp. Sci. 4 (1972) 496
Pandian, S., Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

U-Y

U-Y (Uranium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
The solubility of Y in liquid U has been determined by Wilhelm [57Wil1] and by Haefling et al. [59Hae1]
at temperatures < 1523 K. The results have been taken by Massalski [90Mas1] to draw a phase diagram,
which has been used as a basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. U-Y. Phase diagram.

References
57Wil1
59Hae1
90Mas1

Wilhelm, H.A.: Nucl. Fuels Newsletter, WASH-704 (1957)


Haefling, J.F., Daane, A.H.: Trans. AIME 215 (1959) 336
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

U-Yb

U-Yb (Uranium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
De Boer et al. [79Deb1] found, on the basis of their model, high positive enthalpies of formation, which
means that there are no intermediate phases existing in this system. Some parts of the liquidus have been
determined by Haefling et al. [59Hae1]. These findings have been used by Moffatt [80Mof1] to draw a
tentative partial phase diagram, which has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter
compilation information has been taken to construct the partial phase diagram in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. U-Yb. Tentative phase diagram.

References
59Hae1
79Deb1
80Mof1
90Mas1

Haefling, J.F., Daane, A.H.: Trans. AIME 215 (1959) 336


De Boer, F.R., Dijkman, W.H., Mattens, W.C.M., Miedema, A.R.: J. Less-Common Met.
64 (1979) 241
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1980)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

U-Zn

U-Zn (Uranium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography and vapor pressure measurements, combining
with data from literature, Chiotti et al. [75Chi1] have constructed a phase diagram, which has been
redrawn by Chiotti [90Chi2]. From the latter source information has been taken to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. U-Zn. Phase dia-gram under constrained vapor conditions.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

U-Zn

Table 1. U-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

U 2 Zn 17
U 2 Zn 17
UZn12

hex
hex
hex

Th 2 Zn 17
U 2 Zn 17
UZn12

0.8978
0.8962
0.8950

1.3160
0.8809
0.8902

61Vol1
61Vol1
71Mas1

Thermodynamics
By Zn-vapor pressure measurements Chiotti et al. [75Chi1] have determined thermodynamic activities of
the components in the liquid state. The results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. U-Zn. Thermodynamic activities of liquid alloys based on
vapor pressure measurements (Chiotti et al. [75Chi1]).
T [K]

at% Zn

aZnL

a UL

1123
1173
1223
1243
1215
1323
1323

97.41
95.45
91.33
89.47
83.70
20.00
80.00

0.965
0.947
0.864
0.681
0.645
0.663
0.663

0.00554
0.0164
0.084
0.876
0.884
0.956
0.956

References
61Vol1
71Mas1
75Chi1
90Chi2

Vold, C.L., Peterson, D.T.: Metallurgy. and Ceramics, Res. and Development, US-AEC
Report (1961) 5
Mason, J.T., Chiotti, P.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 27 (1971) 1780
Chiotti, P., Mason, J.T.: J. Less-Common Met. 40 (1975) 39
Chiotti, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

U-Zr

U-Zr (Uranium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated rather often. From results present in the literature, but mainly on
the basis of results obtained by Summers-Smith [54Sum1], Duffey et al. [58Duf1], and Zegler [62Zeg1],
Sheldon et al. [90She1] have constructed an assessed phase diagram. Okamoto et al. [91Oka1] pointed
out that this diagram is not correct in some regions. Ogawa et al. [91Oga1] has calculated a new phase
diagram. There remain still some difficulties in modelling of the phase equilibria (Okamoto [91Oka7]).
Thus Okamoto [92Oka2] recommends to reinvestigate experimentally this system.
Akabori et al. [92Aka1], a little later on, have determined the homogeneity range of the phase
(differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, electron probe micro analysis). Impurities of oxygen
and nitrogen stabilize the (U) and the (Zr) phases in comparison to the phase (Rough et al.
[56Rou1]). Okamoto [93Oka5] has drawn at last a new phase diagram, which has been the basis to
construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. U-Zr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The structure of at the stoichiometry of UZr 2 is cubic with lattice parameter a = 1.068 nm (Holden et al.
[56Hol1]).
Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

U-Zr

Thermodynamics
Using the Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, thermodynamic activities have been determined by
Maekawa et al. [92Mae1]. The results obtained are given in Table 1.
Table 1. U-Zr. Thermodynamic activity of uranium in
liquid alloys determined by Maekawa et al. [92Mae1].
a UL

T [K]

24.4 at% Zr
1873
1823
1773
1723
1673

0.62
0.64
0.68
0.71
(0.75)

39.3 at% Zr
0.47
0.48
(0.50)
(0.64)
(0.75)

References
54Sum1
56Hol1
56Rou1
58Duf1
62Zeg1
90She1
91Oga1
91Oka1
91Oka7
92Aka1
92Mae1
92Oka2
93Oka5

Summers-Smith, D.: J. Inst. Met. 83 (1954-55) 277


Holden, A.N., Seymour, W.E.: Trans. AIME 206 (1956) 1312
Rough, F.A., Austin, A.E., Bauer, A.A., Doig, J.R.: BMI-1092 Battelle Memorial Institute,
Columbus, OH (1956)
Duffey, J.F., Bruch, C.A.: Trans. AIME 212 (1958) 17
Zegler, S.T.: USAEC, ANL-6055 (1962)
Sheldon, R.I., Peterson, D.E., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Ogawa, T., Iwai, T.: J. Less-Common Met. 170 (1991) 101
Okamoto, H., Massalski, T.B.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 148
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 623
Akabori, M., Itoh, A., Ogawa, T., Kobayashi, F., Suzuki, Y.: J. Nucl. Mater. 188 (1992)
249
Maekawa, A., Suzuki, Y., Ohmichi, T.: J. Alloys Compounds 179 (1992) L 21
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 13 (1992), Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams Updating
Service
Okamoto, H.: J. Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 267

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

V-W

V-W (Vanadium-Tungsten)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been investigated rather often: Kieffer et al. [59Kie1, 59Kie2]; Baron et al.
[60Bar1]; Braun et al. [61Bra1]; Shank [73Sha1]; Rudy [69Rud2]; Koltygin et al. [75Kol1]; Rostoker et
al. [54Ros1]; Komjathy et al. [59Kom1, 61Kom1]; Semchyshen et al. [61Sem1]; English [61Eng1]; and
Gladyshevskii et al. [67Gla1]. Using the results of these works, Nagender Naidu et al. [90Nag2, 88Nag1]
have constructed a phase diagram, which has been the basis for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. V-W. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Lattice parameters of bcc (V, W) solid solutions are plotted in Fig. 2. The deviation from Vegard's law is
rather small.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

V-W

Fig. 2. V-W. Lattice parameter for bcc (V, W) solid solution. Open triangles [59Kie1, 59Kie2] solid triangles
[61Sem1], solid circles [62Rud1], open circles [69Rud2].

References
54Ros1
59Kie1
59Kie2
59Kom1
60Bar1
61Bra1
61Eng1
61Kom1
61Sem1
62Rud1
67Gla1
69Rud2
73Sha1
75Kol1
88Nag1

Rostoker, W., Yamamoto, A.: Trans. ASM 46 (1954) 1136


Kieffer, R., Sedlatschek, K., Braun, H.: J. Less-Common Met. 1 (1959) 19
Kieffer, R., Sedlatschek, K., Braun, H.: Z. Metallkd. 50 (1959) 18
Komjathy, S., Read, R.H., Rostoker, W.: WADC Tech. Rep. 59-483 (1959) 69pp.; also in:
J. Less Common Met. 3 (1961) 468
Baron, V.V., Efimov, Yu.V., Savitskii, E.M.: Russ. Metall. Fuels (Engl. Transl.) (1960) 45
Braun, H., Sedlatschek, K., in: "Powder Metallurgy", New York: Interscience Publ. Inc.
(1961) 645
English, J.J.: Defense Metals Information Center Report, Battelle Memorial Institute,
Columbus Ohio, Report No. 152 (1961) 1
Komjathy, S.: J. Less-Common Met. 3 (1961) 468
Semchyshen, M., Barr, R.Q.: Climax Molybdenum Comp. of Michigan, Final Rep. (1961)
1
Rudy, E., Benesovsky, F.: Monatsh. Chem. 93 (1962) 693
Gladyshevskii, E.J., Federov, T.F., Skolozdra, R.V., Gorshkova, L.V.: Poroshk. Metall. 7
(1967) 85
Rudy, E.: "Compendium of Phase Diagrams Data", Air Force Materials Lab., WrightPatterson Air Force Base, OH, Rep. No. AFML-TR-65-2, Part V (1969) 121
Shank, F.A.: "Structure of Binary Alloys", Second Edition, "Metallurgica" (1973) 749
Koltygin, V.M., Pikunov, M.V., Petukhova, A.S.: Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Tsvetn.
Metall. (1975) 126
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Siramamurthy, A.M., Vijayakumar, M., Rama Rao, P.: J. Alloy
Phase Diagrams 4 (1988) 191

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

V-W
90Nag2

Nagender Naidu, S.V., Srimamurthy, A.M., Vijayakumar, M., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary
Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials
Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

V-Y

V-Y (Vanadium-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
Investigations concerning phase equilibria have been done by Love [60Lov1], and Lundin et al. [61Lun4,
62Lun1]. The phase diagram has been constructed by Smith et al. [90Smi3]. This diagram is in good
agreement with the facts found by [60Lov1, 61Lun4, 62Lun1], and therefore it has been taken as a basis
for Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. V-Y. Phase diagram.

References
60Lov1
61Lun4
62Lun1
90Smi3

Love, B.: U.S.A.F. WADD Tech. Rep. 60-74, Part 1 (1960) 61; 123; 215
Lundin jr., C.E., Klodt, D.T.: Trans. ASM 53 (1961) 735
Lundin jr., C.E., Klodt, D.T.: J. Inst. Met. 90 (1962) 341
Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

V-Yb

V-Yb (Vanadium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
An experimentally determined phase diagram is not known.
On the basis of a subregular solution model for liquid and solid alloys as well as taking some thermal
features of the pure components present in the literature, and using Miedema's model (for instance
Miedema et al. [81Mie1]), Smith et al. [90Smi3] have calculated a phase diagram, which has been used to
draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. V-Yb. Phase diagram at 1.013 bar.

References
81Mie1
90Smi3

Miedema, A.R., De Boer, F.R., Boom, R.: Physica B + C (Amsterdam) 103 (1981) 67
Smith, J.F., Lee, K.J., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B.
Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

V-Zn

V-Zn (Vanadium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Using the reports by Chasanov et al. [63Cha1], Schablaske et al. [63Sch1], Johnson et al. [65Joh1] and
Piotrowski [65Pio1], Smith [90Smi2] has constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been the
basis of Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. V-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are given in Table 1.
Table 1. V-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases [63Cha1].
Phase

at% Zn

Structure

Type

a [nm]

c [nm]

V 4 Zn 5
VZn 3

55.56
75

tetr
cub

0.8910
0.3848

0.3227

AuCu 3

References
63Cha1

Chasanov, M.G., Schablaske, R., Hunt, P.D., Tani, B.: Trans. AIME 227 (1963) 485

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

V-Zn
63Sch1
65Joh1
65Pio1
90Smi2

Schablaske, R., Tani, B., Homa, M., Larsen, R.: USAEC Rep. ANL-6687 (1963) 84
Johnson, I., Dillon, I.G.: USAEC Rep. ANL-7083 (1965) 102
Piotrowski, W.: Hutnik 32 (1965) 135
Smith, J.F., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

V-Zr

V-Zr (Vanadium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Using mainly the results reported by Rudy [69Rud3], Smith [90Smi2] has drawn an assessed phase
diagram, which has been taken as a basis to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. V-Zr. Phase diagram.

Metastable phases
Between 100 K and 130 K V 2 Zr transforms in a martensitic reaction (Kozhanov et al. [82Koz1]).
(Zr) transforms on quenching to a hexagonal phase with lattice parameters a = 0.502 nm and c =
0.300 nm (Hatt et al. [60Hat1]).
Splat cooling of alloys near 60 at% Zr results in amorphous alloys (Tenhover [80Ten1]).

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phase V 2 Zr are given in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

V-Zr

Table 1. V-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

V 2 Zr (l)
(< 121 K)
V 2 Zr (h)
(> 110 K)

hex
cub

Type

MgCu 2

a [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.534

1.248

78Law1

0.7448

79Rap1

References
60Hat1
69Rud3
78Law1
79Rap1
80Ten1
82Koz1
90Smi2

Hatt, B.A., Roberts, J.A.: Acta Metall. 8 (1960) 575


Rudy, E.: "Compendium of Phase Diagrams Data", Air Force Materials Lab., WrightPatterson Air Force Base, OH, Rep. No. AFML-TR-65-2, Part V (1969) 8 and 75
Lawson, A.C.: Phys. Rev. B 17 (1978) 1136
Rapp, O., Benediktsson, G.: Phys. Lett. A 74 (1979) 449
Tenhover, M.: Appl. Phys. 21 (1980) 279
Kozhanov, V.N., Pushkin, V.B., Romanov, Ye.P., Romanova, R.R., Syutkina, N.N.: Fiz.
Met. Metalloved. 53 (1982) 1090; Phys. Met. Metallogr. (Engl Transl.) 53 (1982) 41
Smith, J.F., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski
(editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

W-Y

W-Y (Tungsten-Yttrium)
Phase diagram
The liquidus at the Y-rich side of the system has been determined by Dennison et al. [66Den2]. Using the
results obtained there, Pandian et al. [91Pan1, 90Pan1] have proposed a partial phase diagram, which has
been used to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. W-Y. Partial phase diagram (Y-rich part).

References
66Den2
90Pan1
91Pan1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966)
423
Pandian, S., Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)
Pandian, S., Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten
Alloys", S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase
Diagrams, The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

W-Yb

W-Yb (Tungsten-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
The solubility of W in Yb has been determined by Dennison et al. [66Den2]. The results have been used
by Pandian et al. [90Pan1] to construct a preliminary phase diagram, which has been the basis for Fig. 1.
Results obtained by Dennison et al. [66Den2] are listed in Table 1.

Fig. 1. W-Yb. Partial phase diagram (Yb-rich part) at 1 atm.

Table 1. W-Yb. Solubility of W in liquid


Yb [66Den2].
T [K]

at% W

1628
1723
1859
1958
1981

< 0.00019
< 0.00019
0.00038
< 0.00019
0.00075

References
66Den2
90Pan1

Dennison, D.H., Tschetter, M.J., Gschneidner jr., K.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 11 (1966)
423
Pandian, S., Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams",
Second Edition, Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc.,
Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

W-Zn

W-Zn (Tungsten-Zinc)
The phase diagram is not known.
Kremer [16Kre2] has been not able to alloy W with Zn. Kster et al. [55Ks1] found no reaction
between Zn and W at temperatures up to 1623 K. Also, some other authors, as reported by Nagender
Naidu et al. [90Nag1], have not been successful in preparing W-Zn alloys.

References
16Kre2
55Ks1
90Nag1

Kremer, D.: Abh. Inst. Metallhuettenw. Elektrometall., Techn. Hochsch. Aachen 1 (1916) 9
Kster, W., Schmid, H.: Z. Metallkd. 46 (1955) 462
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

W-Zr

W-Zr (Tungsten-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been investigated several times, for instance by: Domagala et al. [53Dom1],
Geach et al. [53Gea1], Chang [69Cha1], Ackermann [72Ack1], Garg et al. [79Gar1], and some others.
The results published have been discussed and used to construct a phase diagram by Nagender Naidu et
al. [90Nag1, 91Nag1]. This diagram has been taken as a basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. W-Zr. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
The only one intermediate phase in this system is ZrW 2 . Its structure is cubic (MgCu 2 -type) with lattice
parameter a = 0.7612 nm at W-rich side and a = 0.7616 nm at Zr-rich side (Chang [69Cha1]).

References
53Dom1
53Gea1
69Cha1
72Ack1
79Gar1

Domagala, R.F., McPherson, D.J., Hansen, M.: J. Met. 5 (1953) 73


Geach, G.A., Slattery, G.F.: Trans. AIME 197 (1953) 747
Chang, Y.A.: J. Less-Common Met. 17 (1969) 325
Ackermann, R.J., Rauh, E.G.: High Temp. Sci. 4 (1972) 272
Garg, S.P., Ackermann, R.J.: Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 32 (1979) 62

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

W-Zr
90Nag1
91Nag1

Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition,
Vol. 3, T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio
(1990)
Nagender Naidu, S.V., Rama Rao, P., in: "Phase Diagrams of Binary Tungsten Alloys",
S.V. Nagender Naidu, P. Rama Rao (eds.), Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams,
The Indian Institute of Metals, Calcutta (1991)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Y-Yb

Y-Yb (Yttrium-Ytterbium)
Phase diagram
De Boer et al. [79Deb1] have predicted, using their model, positive enthalpies of formation of Y-Yb
alloys. This result has been used by Moffatt [80Mof1] to draw a schematic phase diagram, which has
been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From there information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Y-Yb. Phase diagram.

References
79Deb1
80Mof1
90Mas1

De Boer, F.R., Dijkman, W.H., Mattens, W.C.M., Miedema, A.R.: J. Less-Common Met.
64 (1979) 241
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1980)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Y-Zn

Y-Zn (Yttrium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
The phase equilibria have been determined by Chiotti et al. [63Chi1] and by Mason et al. [76Mas1].
Massalski [90Mas1] has redrawn the phase diagram from the last mentioned work. From there
information has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Y-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Y-Zn

Table 1. Y-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

YZn
YZn 2
YZn 3
Y 3 Zn 11
YZn 5
Y 2 Zn 17
YZn 12

cub
orth
orth
orth
hex
hex
tetr

CsCl
CeCu 2
YZn 3
Al 11 La 3
CaCu 5
Ni 17 Th 2
Mn 12 Th

0.3578
0.4504
0.6690
0.4388
0.5185
0.8991
0.8864

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.7143
0.4405
1.2929

0.7664
1.0111
0.8871
0.4382
0.8764
0.5205

73Mor1
64Sre1
68Mic1
70Bru1
64Lau1
65Kuz1
65Kuz1

Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic properties have been determined from vapor pressure measurements of Zn (Chiotti et al.
[63Chi1]). Standard enthalpies and entropies of formation of intermediate phases are listed in Table 2.
It should be mentioned that YZn 4 and YZn 11 occurring in Table 2 are not included in Fig. 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Y-Zn

Table 2. Y-Zn. Thermodynamic properties of intermediate phases (Chiotti et al. [63Chi1]).


Phase

T [K]

YZn

298
773
973
1173
298
773
973
1173
298
773
973
1173
298
773
973
1173
298
773
973
1173
298
773
973
1173
298
773
973
1173

YZn 2
YZn 2
YZn 3

YZn 4

YZn 5

Y 2 Zn 17

YZn 11

H 0 [kJ mol1]
89.9
100.7
102.7
104.9
143.9
165.5
169.8
163.7
158.3
190.8
197.2
203.4
174.7
218.0
226.5
235.0
200.9
255.1
265.7
276.3
533.8
718.0
754.1
790.1
266.3
385.5
408.8
432.1

S 0 [J mol1 K1]
15.1
32.2
34.7
36.6
24.3
58.6
63.6
57.4
15.7
67.0
74.5
80.4
11.4
80.0
89.6
97.6
21.9
107.2
119.7
129.4
76.6
367.6
399.6
442.5
21.1
209.3
236.1
257.9

References
63Chi1
64Lau1
64Sre1
65Kuz1
68Mic1
70Bru1
73Mor1
76Mas1
90Mas1

Chiotti, P., Mason, J.T., Gill, K.J.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 227 (1963) 910
Laube, E., Kusma, J.B.: Monatsh. Chem. 95 (1964) 1504
Sree Harsha, K.S., Ryba, E.: USAEC, Conf.-640 702-2 (1964) 9
Kuzma, Yu.B., Kripyakevich, P.I., Frankevich, D.P.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 1 (1965)
1410
Michel, D.J., Ryba, E.: Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 24 (1968) 1267
Bruzzone, G., Fornasini, M.L., Merlo, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 22 (1970) 253
Morin, P., Laforest, J., Pierre, J., Shah, J.S.: C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B 277 (1973)
353
Mason, J.T., Chiotti, P.: Metall. Trans. A 7 (1976) 287
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Y-Zr

Y-Zr (Yttrium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Phase equilibria have been investigated experimentally by Lundin [59Lun1], Love [60Lov2], Uy et al.
[61Uy1], Lundin et al. [62Lun2] and some others. Taking the results present in the literature, after
discussion, Palenzona et al. [90Pal1, 91Pal2] have constructed an assessed phase diagram, which has been
the basis for drawing Fig. 1.
By splat cooling cph metastable phases have been found at concentrations < 50 at% Zr (Wang et al.
[72Wan1, 74Wan1, 76Wan1]).

Fig. 1. Y-Zr. Phase diagram.

References
59Lun1
60Lov2
61Uy1
62Lun2
72Wan1
74Wan1
76Wan1
90Pal1

Lundin, C.E.: Rare Earth Symposium, Chicago, Annual Meeting Am. Soc. Met. (1959)
Love, B.: U.S.A.F. WADD Tech. Rep. 60-74, Part 1 (1960) 1
Uy, J.C., Lam, D.J., Ianiello, L.C., Proebstle, R.A., Lee, A.P., Loh, B.T.M., Burr, A.A.:
Final Rep. AT (30-1)-2159, Renselaer Polytechn. Inst., Troy, New York (1961)
Lundin jr., C.E., Klodt, D.T.: Trans. AIME 224 (1962) 367
Wang, R.: Metall. Trans. 3 (1972) 1213
Wang, R., Kim, Y.B.: Metall. Trans. 5 (1974) 1973
Wang, R.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 23 (1976) 135
Palenzona, A., Cirafici, S., in: "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Y-Zr
91Pal2

Palenzona, A., Cirafici, S.: J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 485

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Yb-Zn

Yb-Zn (Ytterbium-Zinc)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, X-ray diffractography, metallographic methods, and electrical resistivity
measurements, Mason et al. [68Mas1] have determined phase equilibria. The phase diagram reported
there has been redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1] and, also, has been taken to construct Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Yb-Zn. Phase diagram.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Yb-Zn

Table 1. Yb-Zn. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

YbZn
YbZn 2
Yb 3 Zn 11
Yb 13 Zn 58
Yb 2 Zn 17
YbZn 11

cub
orth
orth
hex
hex
tetr

CsCl
CeCu 2
Al 11 La 3
Gd 13 Zn 58
Ni 17 Th 2
BaCd 11

0.3629
0.4570
0.4421
1.432
0.9022
1.0637

Be 17 Ru 3
NaZn 13

1.4291
1.2172

Other reported phases


Yb 3 Zn 17
cub
YbZn 13
cub

b [nm]

c [nm]

Ref.

0.7290
1.3127

0.7562
0.8891
1.415
0.8798
0.6822

68Mas1
68Mas1
68Mas1
70Bru1
66Kuz1
67Ian2
70Bru1
67Ian2

References
66Kuz1
67Ian2
68Mas1
70Bru1
90Mas1

Kuzma, Yu.B., Kripyakevich, P.I., Ugrin, N.S.: Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.) 2 (1966) 544
Iandelli, A., Palenzona, A.: J. Less-Common Met. 12 (1967) 333
Mason, J.T., Chiotti, P.: Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 242 (1968) 1167
Bruzzone, G., Fornasini, M.L., Merlo, F.: J. Less-Common Met. 22 (1970) 253
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Yb-Zr

Yb-Zr (Ytterbium-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
De Boer et al. [79Deb1], using their model, estimated rather high positive enthalpies of formation of YbZr alloys. Moffatt [80Mof1] has used this statement to sketch a schematic phase diagram, which has been
redrawn by Massalski [90Mas1]. From the latter compilation information has been taken to construct
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Yb-Zr. Phase diagram.

References
79Deb1
80Mof1
90Mas1

De Boer, F.R., Dijkman, W.H., Mattens, W.C.M., Miedema, A.R.: J. Less-Common Met.
64 (1979) 241
Moffatt, W.G.: "The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams", Schenectady, N.Y.: General
Electric Comp. (1980)
Massalski, T.B. (editor-in-chief): "Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams", Second Edition, Vol. 3,
T.B. Massalski (editor-in-chief), Materials Information Soc., Materials Park, Ohio (1990)

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Zn-Zr

Zn-Zr (Zinc-Zirconium)
Phase diagram
Using thermal analysis, metallographic methods, and X-ray diffractography, Chiotti et al. [59Chi1] have
investigated the phase equilibria. Mainly from results by the above mentioned authors, as well as
regarding equilibria reported by Lustman et al. [55Lus1] and by Martin et al. [61Mar1], Dutkievich
[92Dut1] has constructed an assessed phase diagram under constrained vapor conditions to avoid
evaporation of Zn. This diagram has been the basis to draw Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Zn-Zr. Phase diagram.

Metastable phases
By vapor quenching Yasuda et al. [87Yas1] have found amorphous phases in the concentration range
between 20 and 70 at% Zr and a cph phase at < 10 at% Zr and > 75 at% Zr.

Crystal structure
Crystallographic data of intermediate phases are listed in Table 1.

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Zn-Zr

Table 1. Zn-Zr. Crystal structure and lattice parameters of intermediate phases.


Phase

Structure

Type

a [nm]

Zn 22 Zr
(not in Fig. 1)
Zn 14 Zr
Zn 6 Zr
Zn 3 Zr
Zn 2 Zr
ZnZr
Zn 2 Zr 3
ZnZr 2

cub

Mg 3 Zr 2 Al 18

1.4103

cub
tetr
tetr
cub
cub
tetr
tetr

Mg 3 Zr 2 Al 18

1.411
1.27
0.816
0.73958
0.5825
0.7633
0.3303

Cu 2 Mg
CsCl
Al 2 Gd 3
MoSi 2

c [nm]

Ref.
61Sam1

0.868
1.623
0.6965
1.126

61Sam1
59Chi1
65Ros1
54Pie1
61Dwi2
61Pet1
64Sch2

Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic activities aZrL of Zr in Zn-rich liquid alloys have been determined by Ivanovsky et al.
[67Iva1] using an EMF-method. The results are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Zn-Zr. Thermodynamic activities aZrL of
liquid alloys determined by Ivanovsky et al. [67Iva1].
aZrL [103]

at% Zr

T [K]

2.90

1123
1073
1023
973

3.950
2.121
1.059
0.473

0.50

1123
1073
1023
973

0.679
0.359
0.176
0.077

0.09

1123
1073
1023
973

0.124
0.065
0.031
0.014

References
54Pie1
55Lus1
59Chi1
61Dwi2
61Mar1
61Pet1

Pietrokowsky, P.: Trans. AIME 200 (1954) 219


Lustman, B., Kerze, K. (eds.): "The Metallurgy of Zirconium", New York: McGraw-Hill
(1955) 480
Chiotti, P., Kilp, G.R.: Trans. AIME 215 (1959) 892
Dwight, A.E.: Trans. ASM 53 (1961) 479
Martin, A.E.: J. Chem. Eng. Data 6 (1961) 596
Petersen, D.R., Rinn, H.W.: Acta Crystallogr. 14 (1961) 328

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5

Zn-Zr
61Sam1
64Sch2
65Ros1
67Iva1
87Yas1
92Dut1

Samson, S.: Acta Crystallogr. 14 (1961) 1229


Schubert, K., Meissner, H.G., Raman, A., Rossteutscher, W.: Naturwissenschaften 51
(1964) 287
Rossteutscher, W., Schubert, K.: Z. Metallkd. 56 (1965) 730
Ivanovsky, L.E., Petenev, O.S.: Tr. Inst. Elektrokhim. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ural. Filial. 10
(1967) 97
Yasuda, H., Sumiyama, K., Nakamura, Y.: Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. 28 (1987) 692
Dutkievicz, J.: J. Phase Equilibria 13 (1992) 430

Landolt-Brnstein
New Series IV/5