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The Rules for the use of every, each, all and whole.

Presented by:
Hader Alexi Castillo
Luis M. Santos

To:
Pablo Cesar Lozano

University Santiago de Cali (USC)


Course: Didactics of foreign languages
Santiago de Cali April, 2016

Contents

1. Abstract
2. Use of every and each.
2.1 Characteristics of every and each. (examples).
2.2 Composites or compound words
3. Use of all and whole.
3.1 Characteristics of all and whole. (Examples)
3.2 Idiomatics expressions.
4. Differences between every and all.
5. Rubrc 30-minutes lesson
6. Quiz for the class.

1. Abstract.
Every, each, all, whole
At first sight it seems that each of these words mean the same, but
it is not, as we will see soon.
Every

Cada (todos todas)

Each

cada (uno)

All

Todos

Whole

Entero

Look at this

The "rules" for the use of (all, every, whole, each) have so many
exceptions that one has to wonder if it's really worth learn them. As
with many other issues of grammar, it is to see many examples, look
out for them, memorize a few, and gradually go internalizing the use
of these words. Here are some general ideas to help in this process.

2. Use of every and each.

Every. Its used when all elements are executors or goal of an


action, but not in isolation, or when you dont want to emphasize
that each element of a group is the goal or executor of an action.
-There is a plane to New York every day.

Each. That is stresses that, each element of a group in isolation


may be the executor or goal of an action. When the fact that each
member of a group is the executor or goal of an action, is the central
claim of the phrase, you cannot replace each for every.

She was carrying a suitcase in each hand.

2. 1. Every and Each Characteristics

Every.
a) Every is only used as an adjective. If a noun pronoun is needed,
it uses the composite form.
b) Every, as an attribute of a plural noun is used only in connection
with less than ten numbers.
c) In any application and also in relation to ordinal numbers, every,
is in the singular.

Examples.
a) Every person should be able to live in freedom.
b) We meet with friends of ours every two or three days.
c) They meet only every second week.

Each.
a) a) Each can be used as an adjective and a noun. Very often
one is added.

b) Very often each is after the verb.


c) Each other expresses a mutual relationship.
d) In relation to the lower numbers to ten it means "cada uno"
Examples.
a) Each day she thinks about the future.
a) Each (one) got a medal in the competition.
c) The players were each in top form.
d) We did not talk to each other for months after our last fight.
e) The stamps cost 65 Cents each.

PAY ATTENTION TO THIS!


There is an idiomatic expression that can serve to better memorize
the use of these two pronouns.
For this task, everyone and each of us is necessary.

2.3. COMPOSITES OR COMPOUNDS WORDS

Like the other indefinite pronouns, you can also make compound
words using every, thereby converting the adjective every
inpronoun.

Examples
Compounds forms of Every
Tell me everything about your new boyfriend!
Everything
Everybody
Everyone
Everywhere
every time *

Todo

Did you meet everybody during your


todos, todasbusiness trip?
Everyone in the room wanted to see the
todo el mundo
guest of honour.
por todas partes
We tried to find him everywhere; he was just
en cualquierlost
momento
for hours.
Every time* I listen to this song, I get sad.

3. The use of all and whole

ALL.
In front of a plural all refers to a set of a number of countable nouns.
Before a noun in the singular means everything.

a) All can stand before a plural noun (all the Human Beings) or in
front of a pronoun object (all of them). In this case we must use the
preposition of.
b) As a noun, (all) only appears in relative s sentences.
c) In case there is an article (all) ahead of this article.

WHOLE.
Con sustantivos contables singulares utilizamos whole, que significa
entero. Por algn motivo muchos estudiantes de ingls no conocen
esta palabra, pero es sumamente comn! Se pronuncia exactamente
como hole (agujero); la w es muda.

d) Substituting all by whole, whole is before the article.


e) If using whole words that have no article must use the whole of.
f) Regarding the geographical notions (all) refers to the people,
whole refers to the region.

Examples
a) His friends all liked watching football. / They all liked watching
football.

a) She was mean to all of us, don't mind her!


b) All that remains is now in two boxes under my bed.
c) All the others said that rain is no fun; I really like it.
d) He was nervous all day (long). / He was nervous the whole day.
e) They were known for their good work in the whole of Berlin.
f) All of London knew about the latest scandal. / He knew the whole of
London very well.

PAY ATTENTION TO THIS!


To better feel the difference between all and whole, compares these
two sentences:
I read the whole book in one night.
I read all the books in one night.

3.1. Idiomatic expressions


When his children left home, he felt all alone.
I know nothing at all about history.
People from all over the world like to travel to this historic place to
see the ruins.
She thought he did not deserve her support; she gave it all the
same.
Above all, we had a lot of fun doing it.
We had all but fever.
Whether you take the green one or the blue one is all the same for
me.
This is Jenny all over.

All's well that ends well.


After all, she is a real expert in her field. (al fin y al cabo)
all day long / all (the) day

todo el da

all the better

todava mejor

all in all

a fin de cuentas

all of a sudden

de repente

first of all

al principio

at all events

en todo caso

all at once

inmediatamente

with all my heart

con todo mi corazn

4. Differences Between Every and All

EVERY
Use every with singular, countable nouns:
-I do exercise every day.
Every student in the class has a computer.
Every necklace in this store costs more than $1,000.

ALL
Use all with plural countable nouns OR with uncountable nouns to
mean 100% of many things:
All of this equipment is new.
= many pieces of equipment
All the students in the class have computers.
All the necklaces in this store are expensive.

Topic
(Common errors
in English.)
Activity

Approach

Rationale

Sources

Use of (every, each, all, whole,).


This activity is focused on detailing the correct use in various forms of
each of the words in the subject, describe their characteristics, compare
their differences and do exercise in order to help students clarify their
doubts about the most common mistakes when it is practiced the English.
The activity has a duration of 30 minutes, where this duet teachers will
make a detailed explanation of the meaning and timely use of each of the
four words to describe, using as support a slideshow but explaining each
point on the board, encouraging the participation of students letting them
questions about their knowledge or understanding of the subject before,
during and after being explained, we ensure that the class is understood
by a small quiz which does not take more than 3 minutes.
The "rules" for the use of (all, every, whole, each) have so many
exceptions that one has to wonder if it's really worth learn them. As with
many other issues of grammar, it is to see many examples, look out for
them, memorize a few, and gradually go internalizing the use of these
words. Thats why we think that its pretty much important for our
Students, so we can give them in a class the explanation they need to
learn about the small but important differences in each of these words.
http://www.hablamejoringles.com/all-every-y-whole/
http://www.curso-deingles.de/gramatica/capitulo28/28_7_every_each_all_whole.htm

5. Rubric (30-minutes lesson)

6. Answer the Quiz.


Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with every or each.

a. Almost _________ student failed the exam.


b. Not ________ good idea can become a reality.
c. We ________ had a chance to play the game.

Exercise 2. Choose the correct answer.


1.They spent ____________ time arguing.
a. all.
b. whole.
c. the.
d. the whole.

2.They argue _______ time.


a. all.
b. whole.
c. all the.

3. _______ people at the meeting were bored.


a. All.
b. Whole.
c. All the.
d. Whole the.

4.The ________ family was there.


a. all.
b. whole.