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Smallest unit of a living organism, (biology) the basic structural and

functional unit of all organisms.

generalized cell
Plasma Membrane
Cell Organelles

The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of
the cell.

nuclear envelope (nuclear membrane)

Layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell,
separates nucleus from cytosol, composed of 2 bilipid layers,
covered with nuclear pores through which substances are able to
move into and out of the nucleus

nuclear pores
Structures in the nuclear envelope that allow passage of certain
materials between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Sites where ribosomes are assembled.

Long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense
to form chromosomes.

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the

plasma membrane
Thin flexible barrier that regulates what enters and exits the cell;
composed of two layers of lipids.

Tiny finger-like projections that greatly increase the cell's surface
area for absorption so that the process occurs more quickly.

membrane junctions
Tight junction; Desmosome; Gap junction

tight junctions
They connect the plasma membranes of adjacent cells in a sheet,
preventing molecules from leaking between the cells.

Prevents cells from being subjected to mechanical stress.

gap junctions
Allows chemical molecules to pass through junctions, commonly
seen in the heart and between embryonic cells.

Cellular material outside the nucleus.

a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component
in cell membranes

Semitransparent fluid that suspends the other elements.

Metabolic machinery of the cell. Carries out specific functions of the

Not functioning units, but instead are chemical substances that may
or may not be present depending on the specific cell type.

Tiny threadlike or sausage shaped organelles with a wall that
consists of a double-membrane placed side by side. Carries out
reactions for ATP.

Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses
the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis
of ATP.

Sites where protein synthesis occurs. Mostly in rough ER.

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous
with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosomestudded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.

rough ER
A network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cell's
cytoplasm; covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins
and secretory proteins.

smooth ER
Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help
detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells) involves adding hydroxyl
groups to drugs to make soluble and easier to flush from body

golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages
proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum

transport vesicles
A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules
produced by the cell.

secretory vesicles
carries proteins to the cell membrane so that they can be released
into the extracellular fluid

cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain
materials in the cell

Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide,
and other harmful chemicals

free radicals
Chemicals that harm the body's tissues by starting destructive chain
reactions in the molecules of the body's cells.

Converts excess hydrogen peroxide to water.

A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate
filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety
of mechanical and transport functions.

intermediate filaments
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice
as thick as microfilaments

Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the

are hollow tubes, like plumbing pipes that maintain the shape of the
cell and serve as tracks for organelles to move along within the cell

two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear

short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of
microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid
over the cell's surface

whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement

Young, actively mitotic cell that forms the fibers of connective

erythrocyte (red blood cell)

the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate body's
principal means of delivering oxygen to the body tissues via the

Cells that connect body parts

Fibroblast - lies along the cable-like fibers that it secretes. Abundant
in rough ER and a large golgi apparatus, to make and secrete the
protein building blocks of these fibers

Cell that covers and lines body organs

Epithelial cell - Hexagonal shape, this shape allows epithelial cells
to pack together in sheets. Abundant in intermediate filaments that
resist tearing.

Cells that move organs and body parts

Skeletal muscle and Smooth muscle cells - These cells are
elongated and filled with abundant contractile filaments, so they can
shorten forcefully and move the bones or change the size of
internal organs.

Cell that stores nutrients

Fat cell - Produced by large lipid droplet in its cytoplasm.

Cells that fight disease

Macrophage (a phagocytic cell). This cell extends long pseudopods
("false feet") to crawl through tissue to reach infection sites.

Cell that gathers information and controls body functions

Nerve cell (neuron) - This cell has long processes for receiving
messages and transmitting them to other structures in the body.
The processes are covered with an extensive plasma membrane,
and a plentiful rough ER is present to synthesize membrane

Cells of reproduction
Oocyte (Female) - Largest cell in the body, egg contains many
copies of all organelles for distribution to the daughter cells that
arise when the fertilized egg divides to become an embryo.
Sperm (male). This cell is long and streamlines, built for swimming
to the egg for fertilization.

Common cell functions

metabolize, excrete, reproduce, grow, move, digestion, and

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

the substance that is dissolved in a solution

intracellular fluid
Solution containing small amounts of gases (oxygen and carbon
dioxide), nutrients, and salts in the water.

interstitial fluid
Fluid that continuously bathes the exterior of our cells.

selective permeability
a process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass
through while keeping others out

passive transport
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the
use of energy by the cell

active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy

molecules that scatter themselves throughout the available space

concentration gradient
an increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in
an area

simple diffusion
the random movement of molecules from an area of high
concentration to an area of low concentration

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through
protein channels

osmotic pressure
Tendency of a solution to hold water or "pull" water into it.

(used of solutions) having the same or equal osmotic pressure

a solution that contains more solutes, or dissolved substances.

The cells begin to shrink because water is in higher concentration
inside the cell, so it follows its concentration gradient and leaves the

Swelling because of fluid retention

When a fluid contains less solutes

Process by which water and solutes are forced through a
membrane by fluid or hydrostatic pressure (usually exerted by

pressure gradient
In filtration, the gradient actually pushes solute-containing fluid from
the higher pressure area to the lower pressure area.

solute pumping
Requires protein carriers that combine reversibly with the
substances to be transported across the membrane (uses ATP)

solute pumps
Pumps that uses ATP to pump substances across the membrane

sodium-potassium pump
Carries sodium ions out of and potassium ions into the cell for
normal transmission of impulses by nerve cells

bulk transport
exocytosis & endocytosis

Moves substances out of cells.

ATP-requiring process that takes substances into the cell.

A protective mechanism that eats bacteria/dead body cells, ect.

pinocytosis (fluid-phase endocytosis)

process the plasma membranes invaginates to form a tiny pit and
then its edges fuse around the droplet of extracellular fluid
containing dissolved proteins or fats; process by which certain cells
can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid

receptor-mediated endocytosis
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward
budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor
sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to
acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.

cell life cycle

series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until
it divides

Cell grows and carries on its usual metabolic activities

cell division
Cell reprodoces itself

division of nucleus

division of cytoplasm

Chromatin threads coil and shorten so that visible barlike bodies,
called chromosomes appear. Each chromosome is actually made
up of chromatid, held together by a small buttonlike body called a
centromere. The centrioles separate from each other and begin to
move toward opposite sides of the cell, directing the assembly of a
mitotic spindle (composed of thin microtubules) between them as
they move. By the end of prophase, the nuclear evolope and the
nucleoli have broken down and dissapeared.

chromosomes cluster and become aligned at the metaphase plate
so that a straight line of chromosomes is seen

centromeres that have held the chromatids togehter split. The
chromatids, now chromosomes, begin to move slowly apart, drown
toward opposite ends of the cell.

Essentially prophase in reverse. Chromosomes at opposite ends of
the cell unvoil to become threadlike chromatin again. The spindle
breaks down and disappears, a nuclear envelope forms around
each chromatin mass, and nucleoli appear in each of the daughter

cleavage furrow
Appears over the midline of the spindle, and it eventually squeezes
or pinches the original cytoplasmic mass into two parts. Thus, at the
end of cell division, two daughter cells exist.

DNA segment that carries the information for building one protein or
polypeptide chain.

fibrous proteins
major building materials for cells

globular proteins
do things other than build structures

biological catalyst that regulate chemical reactions in the cells.
(functional proteins)

messenger and decoder of the DNA to achieve the task of
specifying the structure of proteins to be built at the ribosomes.

small clover-leaf shaped molecules, type of RNA that carries amino
acids to the ribosome

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in
the nucleus to the ribosome

Transfer of information form DNA's base sequence into the
complementary base sequence of mRNA. Only DNA and mRNA are
involved with this.

Each 3-base sequence specifying a particular amino acid in the
DNA gene

a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or
RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino

translation (tRNA)
Base sequences translated into amino acid sequence.

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary
to an mRNA codon

Primary tissue types

Epithelium (covering), Connective (support), Nervous (control), and
Muscle (movement).

epithelium (Epithelial Tissue)

Lining/Covering and glandular tissue of the body.

apical surface
Body's exterior.

basement membrane
structureless material secreted by the cells

simple epithelium
one layer of epithelial cells

stratified epithelium
multi-layered epithelial cells.

squamous cell
Flattened cell like fish scales

cuboidal cell
Cube-shaped cells like dice

columnar cells
Cells shaped like columns

simple squamous epithelium

Single layer of thin squamous cells resting on a basement
membrane. Forms membranes where filtration or exchange of
substances by rapid diffusion occurs.

serous membranes (serosae)

The slick membranes that line the ventral cavity and cover the
organs in that cavity.

simple cuboidal epithelium

Layer of cuboidal cells resting on a basement membrane. Forms
the walls of the kidney tubules and covers the surface of the ovaries

simple columnar epithelium

Single layer of tall cells that fit closely together. Lines the entire
length of the digestive tract from the stomach to the anus

goblet cells
Produce lubricating mucus.

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Rests on the basement membrane. However, some it's cells are
shorter than others and their nuclei appear at different heights
above the basement membrane. Mucus created in this epithelium
traps dusts and other debris.

stratified squamous epithelium

Most common epithelium in the body. It usually consists of several
layers of cells. The cells at the free edge are squamous cells.

stratified cuboidal epithelium

Two cell layers with at least the surface cells being cuboidal in
shape. Mostly found in large glands.

stratified columnar epithelium

Many columnar cells, basal cells vary in size and shape. Rare;
mostly found in ducts of large glands.

connective tissue
Connects body parts; found everywhere in the body. Protects,
supports, and binds together body tissues.

extracellular matrix
nonliving substance found outside the cells of connective tissues;
the ground substance in it allows for large amounts of water to flow
into it.

Major connective tissues

Bone, Cartilage, Dense Connective Tissue, Loose Connective
Tissue, and Blood

bone (osseus tissue)

Composed of bone cells sitting in cavities called lacunae and
surround by layers of very hard matrix that contains calciumsalts.
Has an exceptional ability to protect and support other body organs.

Less hard and more flexible than bone.

hyaline cartilage
Has abundant collagen fibers hidden by a rubbery matrix with a
glassy blue-white appearance.

Forms cushionlike disks between the vertebrae of the spinal

elastic cartilage
Found where a structure with elasticity is desired.

dense connective tissue (fibrous)

Has collagen fibers as its main matrix element, with rows of
fibroblasts that manufacture the building blocks of the fibers.

attach skeletal muscles to bones

connect bones to bones at joints, they are more stretchy and
contain more elastic fibers.

loose connective tissue

softer and have more cells and fewer fibers than any other
connective tissue type except blood.

areolar tisue
the most widely distributed connective tissue variety in the body, is
a soft pliable, "cobwebby" tissue that cushions and protects the
body organs. Provides a reservoir of water and salts for
surrounding tissues.

lamina propria
soft layer of arolar connective tissue that underlies all mucous
membranes. It's fluid matrix contains all types of fibers, which form
a loose network.

swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue

adipose tissue
areolar-tissue in which fat cells predominate.

reticular connective tissue

consists of a delicate network of interwoven reticular fibers
associated with reticular cells, which resemble fibroblasts.


formed by the reticular connective tissue, supports many free blood

cells (largely lymphocytes) in lymphoid organs.

blood (vascular tissue)

considered a connective tissue because it consists of blood cells,
surrounded by nonliving, fluid matrix called blood plasma.

muscle tissue
Highly specialized to contract or shorten to produce movement.

Types of muscle tissue

Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth

skeletal muscle
Striated, mostly voluntary (respiratory is involuntary), multinucleate
(more than one nucleus) so lots of DNA to code for protein
synthesis, tendon attaches muscle to bone

cardiac muscle
Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart

intercalated disks
Contain gap junctions that allow ions to pass freely from cell to cell,
resulting in rapid conduction of the exciting electrical impulse
across the heart.

smooth muscle (visceral)

No striations, the individual cells have a single nucleus and are
spindle shaped. Found in the walls of hollow organs such as the
stomach, bladder, uterus, and blood cells.

nervous tissue
a body tissue that carries electrical messages back and forth
between the brain and every other part of the body; irritability and
conductivity are two of it's major functional characteristics

Recieve and conduct electrochemical impulses form one part of the
body to another.

supporting cells
Insulate, support, and protect the delicate neurons, make up the
structures of the nervous system-the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells.

Involves repair by dense (fibrous) connective tissue, that is, by the
formation of scar tissue.

granulation tissue
Delicate pink tissue composed largely of new capillaries that grow
into the damaged area from undamaged blood vessels nearby.

abnormal mass of proliferating cells

enlargement of body tissue due to irritant or stimulation of cells

any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use)