Sie sind auf Seite 1von 556

Additional Maths 360 solutions

(Unofficial) [29 Sept 2014]


Visit sleightofmath.com for up-to-date pdf and video solutions.
Authors:
Daniel and Samuel from Sleight of Math
Disclaimer:
Sleight of Math has no affiliations with the publisher of Additional Maths 360 i.e. Marshall Cavendish

Table of Contents
Ex 1.1 ......................................................................................................... 3

Ex 6.1 ................................................................................................... 143

Ex 1.2 ......................................................................................................... 9

Ex 6.2 ................................................................................................... 149

Ex 1.3 .......................................................................................................20

Ex 6.3 ................................................................................................... 153

Ex 1.4 .......................................................................................................29

Ex 6.4 ................................................................................................... 162

Rev Ex 1..................................................................................................35

Rev Ex 6 .............................................................................................. 167

Ex 2.1 .......................................................................................................42

Ex 7.1 ................................................................................................... 174

Ex 2.2 .......................................................................................................51

Ex 7.2 ................................................................................................... 180

Ex 2.3 .......................................................................................................55

Ex 7.3 ................................................................................................... 184

Ex 2.4 .......................................................................................................60

Ex 7.4 ................................................................................................... 189

Rev Ex 2..................................................................................................63

Ex 7.5 ................................................................................................... 193


Rev Ex 7 .............................................................................................. 196

Ex 3.1 .......................................................................................................67
Ex 3.2 .......................................................................................................72

Ex 8.1 ................................................................................................... 202

Ex 3.3 .......................................................................................................78

Ex 8.2 ................................................................................................... 209

Ex 3.4 .......................................................................................................81

Rev Ex 8 .............................................................................................. 224

Ex 3.5 .......................................................................................................86
Ex 3.6 .......................................................................................................91

Ex 9.1 ................................................................................................... 233

Rev Ex 3..................................................................................................98

Ex 9.2 ................................................................................................... 242


Rev Ex 9 .............................................................................................. 252

Ex 4.1 .................................................................................................... 103


Ex 4.2 .................................................................................................... 108

Ex 10.1 ................................................................................................. 259

Rev Ex 4............................................................................................... 114

Ex 10.2 ................................................................................................. 266


Ex 10.3 ................................................................................................. 272

Ex 5.1 .................................................................................................... 118

Rev Ex 10............................................................................................ 280

Ex 5.2 .................................................................................................... 127


Rev Ex 5............................................................................................... 138

Ex 11.1 ................................................................................................. 288


Ex 11.2 ................................................................................................. 291
Ex 11.3 ................................................................................................. 298
Rev Ex 11............................................................................................ 319

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

Additional Maths 360 solutions


(Unofficial) [29 Sept 2014]
Visit sleightofmath.com for up-to-date pdf and video solutions.
Authors:
Daniel and Samuel from Sleight of Math
Disclaimer:
Sleight of Math has no affiliations with the publisher of Additional Maths 360 i.e. Marshall Cavendish
Ex 12.1 ................................................................................................. 326

Ex 18.1 ................................................................................................. 495

Ex 12.2 ................................................................................................. 330

Ex 18.2 ................................................................................................. 503

Rev Ex 12 ............................................................................................ 339

Ex 18.3 ................................................................................................. 509


Ex 18.4 ................................................................................................. 512

Ex 13.1 ................................................................................................. 347

Rev Ex 18............................................................................................ 517

Ex 13.2 ................................................................................................. 356


Ex 13.3 ................................................................................................. 366

Ex 19.1 ................................................................................................. 523

Rev Ex 13 ............................................................................................ 376

Ex 19.2 ................................................................................................. 530


Rev Ex 19............................................................................................ 535

Ex 14.1 ................................................................................................. 383


Ex 14.2 ................................................................................................. 390

Ex 20.1 ................................................................................................. 539

Ex 14.3 ................................................................................................. 396

Rev Ex 20............................................................................................ 548

Ex 14.4 ................................................................................................. 400


Rev Ex 14 ............................................................................................ 407
Ex 15.1 ................................................................................................. 410
Ex 15.2 ................................................................................................. 418
Ex 15.3 ................................................................................................. 421
Ex 15.4 ................................................................................................. 423
Rev Ex 15 ............................................................................................ 430
Ex 16.1 ................................................................................................. 436
Ex 16.2 ................................................................................................. 445
Rev Ex 16 ............................................................................................ 454
Ex 17.1 ................................................................................................. 460
Ex 17.2 ................................................................................................. 470
Ex 17.3 ................................................................................................. 479
Rev Ex 17 ............................................................................................ 488

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.1
2(a)

Ex 1.1
1(a)

y = 2x + 1
(1)
2
y = x + 2x 3 (2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x + 1
= x 2 + 2x 3
2
x 4
=0
(x + 2)(x 2) = 0
x = 2
or x = 2
y|x=2 = 2(2) + 1
y|x=2 = 2(2) + 1
= 3
=5

1(b)

y=2+x
y = 2x 2 5x 6

y=2x
2x 2 + xy + 1 = 0
sub (1) into (2):
2x 2 + x(2 x) + 1
2x 2 + 2x x 2 + 1
x 2 + 2x + 1
(x + 1)2
x = 1
y|x=1 = 2 (1)
(1,3)

2(b)

(1)
(2)

y = 1 3x
x2 + y2 = 5

(1)
(2)

=5
=5
=0
=0
=0
or

x=1

y|x=2 = 1 3 ( )

y|x=1 = 1 3(1)

11

= 2

5
2 11

2x + y = 4
y
= 4 2x (1)

( ,
5

2(c)

(1, 2)

3x + 2y = 1
2y
= 1 3x
y

13x
2

(1)

3x 2 + 2y 2 = 11 (2)
sub (1) into (2):
3x 2 + 2 (
3x 2 + 2 (

13x 2

2
16x+9x2
4

= 11
)

= 11

6x 2 + (1 6x + 9x 2 ) = 22
15x 2 6x 21
=0
5x 2 2x 7
=0
(5x 7)(x + 1)
=0
x=

or x = 1

y|x=7 =

7
5

13( )

=
7

2
8
5

( , )

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=3

x=

y 2 4x = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
(4 2x)2 4x
=0
2
(16 16x + 4x ) 4x = 0
4x 2 20x + 16
=0
2
x 5x + 4
=0
(x 1)(x 4)
=0
x=1
or x = 4
y|x=1 = 4 2(1)
y|x=4 = 4 2(4)
=2
= 4

=0
=0
=0
=0

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 + (1 3x)2
x 2 + (1 6x + 9x 2 )
10x 2 6x 4
5x 2 3x 2
(5x + 2)(x 1)

sub (1) into (2):


2+x
= 2x 2 5x 6
2
2x 6x 8 = 0
x 2 3x 4
=0
(x + 1)(x 4) = 0
x = 1
or x = 4
y|x=1 = 2 + (1)
y|x=4 = 2 + (4)
=1
=6
1(c)

(1)
(2)

sleightofmath.com

y|x=1 =

13(1)
2

=2
(1,2)

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3

x2

Ex 1.1

+ =3

(1)

x + y= 8
y
=8x

(2)

5(ii)

Perimeter
2x + 2y
x+y
y

sub (2) into (1):


x2
4

(8x)

(3x 2 ) + (32 4x) = 36


3x 2 4x 4
=0
(3x + 2)(x 2)
=0
2
3

4(i)

4x + 4y = 32
x+y
=8
y
=8x

(1)

x 2 + y 2 = 34

(2)

4(iii) sub (1) into (2):


x 2 + (8 x)2
= 34
2
2
x + (64 16x + x ) = 34
2x 2 16x + 30
=0
2
x 8x + 15
=0
(x 3)(x 5)
=0
x=3
or
x=5
y|x=3 = 5
y|x=5 = 3
the length of the sides are 3cm & 5cm
5(i)

= 60
= 60
= 30
= 30 x (2)

sub (2) into (1):


x(30 x)
= 216
2
(30x x )
= 216
2
x 30x + 216 = 0
(x 12)(x 18) = 0
x = 12
or
y|x=12 = 30 (12)
= 18
12 m by 18 m

x = or x = 2

4(ii)

(1)

=3

Area = 216
xy = 216

Area = xy
Perimeter = 2x + 2y

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

6(a)

x = 18
y|x=18 = 30 (18)
= 12

3x 2y = 1
2y
= 3x 1
y

3x1
2

(1)

(x 2)2 + (2y + 3)2 = 26


sub (1) into (2):
(x 2)2

+ [2 (

3x1
2

) + 3]

(2)
2

= 26

x 2 4x + 4 + (3x 1 + 3)2 = 26
x 2 4x + 4 + (3x + 2)2
= 26
2
2
(9x
x 4x + 4 +
+ 12x + 4) = 26
10x 2 + 8x + 8
= 26
10x 2 + 8x 18 = 0
5x 2 + 4x 9
=0
(5x + 9)(x 1) = 0
x=

or

y|x=9 =

9
3( )1
5

sleightofmath.com

2
16
5

x=1
y|x=1 =

3(1)1
2

=1

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

Ex 1.1

x 2 2xy + y 2 = 1
x 2y
2y

=2
= x + 2

= x1

7(a)

(1)

xy + 20 = 5x

(1)

x 2y 3 = 0
2y
= x + 3

(2)

= x

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


1

x 2 2x ( x 1) + ( x 1)
2

x x + 2x
2x
1 2
x
4
1 2
x
4
2

sub (2) into (1):

=1

+x

=0

y|x=0 = (0) 1

2
1 2
x
2
2

= 1

2
13
2

x + 20

y|x=5 = (5)

=0

= 3
7(b)

= x + 1 (1)

(5,1)

2
5

y|x=8 = (8)

=1

= (4) 1

3y x = 3
3y
=x+3
y

= 5x

x 13x + 40
=0
(x 5)(x 8)
=0
x=5
or x = 8

x = 4
y|x=4

2
3

=0
=0
or

( x 2 x) +20 = 5x

=1
=1

x ( x ) + 20

=1

+x+1

x + 4x
x(x + 4)
x=0

6(c)

2
1
+ ( x 2 x + 1)
4
1 2
+( x x + 1)
4

2
5

(8, )
2

2x y = 4
y
= 2x + 4
y
= 2x 4

(1)

2x 2 + 4xy 3y = 0

(2)

3y

=2

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2

1
3

3( x+1)
2

x+3

1
1

=2

2x
(x + 3)
2x
x 3
x3
0
2x 2 + 5x + 3
(2x + 3)(x + 1)
3

x=

= 2x(x + 3)
= 2x 2 + 6x
= 2x 2 + 6x
= 2x 2 + 5x + 3
=0
=0
or

3
1

y|x=3 = ( ) + 1
2

sub (1) into (2):


2x 2 + 4x(2x 4) 3(2x 4)
2x 2 + (8x 2 16x) 6x + 12
(10x 2 16x)
6x + 12
10x 2 22x + 12
5x 2 11x + 6
(5x 6)(x 1)

=2

=
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

x=

or

5
6

y|x=6 = 2 ( ) 4

x = 1

y|x=1 = (1) + 1
3
2

5
8
5

( , )

=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0

x=1
y|x=1 = 2(1) 4
= 2
(1, 2)

sleightofmath.com

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(c)

Ex 1.1

3x + y = 1
y
= 1 3x

9
4

By Pythagoras Theorem,
(4x)2 + (3x)2 = 152
16x 2 + 9x 2 = 225
25x 2
= 225
2
x
=9
x = 3 or x = 3 (rej)

(x + y)(x + 2y) = 3
(2)
(1)
(2):
sub
into
[x + (1 3x)][x + 2(1 3x)] = 3
(1 2x)(x + 2 6x)
=3
(1 2x)(2 5x)
=3
(5x 2)(2x 1)
=3
2
10x 9x + 2
=3
2
10x 9x 1
=0
(10x + 1)(x 1)
=0
x=

y|x= 1 = 1 3 (
10

=
(
8

2x
y

10

y|x=1 = 1 3(1)

13
10
13

(1, 2)

10 10

(1)

3x y = 2
3x 2 = y
y
= 3x 2 (2)
sub (2) into (1):
2x

10(i)

= 2

+ =3

3x2
2

Width = 4(3) = 12 inch


Height = 3(3) = 9 inch

or x = 1

10

(1)

3x2

=3

x
2

2x + (3x 2)
= 3(3x 2 2x)
2x 2 + (9x 2 12x + 4) = 9x 2 6x
11x 2 12x + 4
= 9x 2 6x
2
2x 6x + 4
=0
2
x 3x + 2
=0
(x 1)(x 2)
=0
x=1
or x = 2
y|x=1 = 3(1) 2
y|x=2 = 3(2) 2
=1
=4
A(1,1)
B(2,4)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

By Pythagoras Theorem,
x 2 + y 2 = 52
x 2 + y 2 = 25
(1)
10(ii) y x = 1
y
=x+1
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
x 2 + (x + 1)2
= 25
2
2
x + (x + 2x + 1) = 25
2x 2 + 2x + 1
= 25
2x 2 + 2x 24
=0
2
x + x 12
=0
(x + 4)(x 3)
=0
x = 4
or
x=3
y|x=4 = (4) + 1
y|x=3 = (3) + 1
= 3
=4
10(iii) length cannot be negative,
x = 3, y = 4

sleightofmath.com

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.1

11(i) x 2 + xy + ay = b
at {x = 2, y = 1}
(2)2 + (2)(1) + a(1) = b
6+a
=b
b
=a+6
(1)
2ax + 3y = b
at {x = 2, y = 1}
2a(2) + 3(1) = b
4a + 3
=b
sub (1) into (2):
4a + 3 = 6 + a
3a
=3
a
=1
b|a=1 = 7

12(i) 1st eqn


12x 2 5y 2 = 7
At (1, p),
12(1)2 5(p)2 = 7
12 5p2
=7
2
5p
= 5
p2
=1
p
= 1

(2)

2nd eqn
2p2 x 5y = 7
At (1, p),
2p2 (1) 5(p) = 7
2p2 5p 7 = 0
(2p 7)(p + 1) = 0

11(ii) Put a 1, b = 7 into both equations,


x 2 + xy + y = 7
(1)

= x + (2)

3
7

x + x ( x + )
2
x + ( x 2 + x)
3
3
1 2
7
x + x
3
3
1 2
5
7
2

x + x+

3
1 2
x
3
2

3
5

3
14

+ x

or p = 1

p = 1 (common sol)

(1)

2x 5y = 7
5y
= 2x + 7

sub (2) into (1):


2

12(ii) At p = 1,
12x 2 5y 2 = 7

2x + 3y = 7
3y
= 2x + 7
y

p=

y
2

3
2

3
7

3
2

3
7

= x

+ ( x + ) = 7
+ ( x + ) = 7

sub (2) into (1):

+ ( x + ) = 7

12x 2 5 ( x )

=7

12x 2 5 (

=0

x + 5x 14 = 0
(x + 7)(x 2) = 0
x = 7
or
x = 2 (taken)
2

y|x=7 = (7) +
=7
{x = 7, y = 7}

7 2

x2

25

12x 2 x 2 +

28

56 2
x
5

49

56 2
x
5

28
5
28
5

(2)

x
x

=7

28
25

x+
49
5

=0

(2x + 3)(x 1)

=0

or

x = 1 (taken)

y|x=3 = ( )
2

=7

=0

2x 2 + x 3

x=

) =7

=7

5
84

49

25

= 2
3

( , 2)
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.1

13(i)

14(ii) If k = 1,

(7 20)2 + (6 + 10)2 = 200

r
Total surface area = 32
2r 2 + 2rh
= 32
2
r + hr
= 16 [shown] (1)
13(ii) h = 4 + r
sub (2) into (1):
r 2 + (4 + r)r = 16
2r 2 + 4r
= 16
2
2r + 4r 16 = 0
r 2 + 2r 8 = 0
(r + 4)(r 2) = 0
r = 4
or
(rej r > 0)

y
r=2
h|r=2 = 4 + (2)
=6

) + 10]

(7x 20) + (20 21x)

(x2.86)2
(2.02)2

=0

49x 2 112x + 60

=0

(112)(112)2 4(49)(60)
2(49)

112784
98

or x =
7

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

5 2
62 (y+ )
3
5 2
(y+ )
3
200
62

=1
2

5
3

(y( ))

=1

2
200
( 2 )
6
2

5
3

(y( ))
(

=1

200

102
)
6

(y(1.67))

=1

=1

(2.36)2
20
7

, )
3

horizontal radius =

200
72

200

490x 2 1120x + 600

centre (

= 200
= 200

5 2

20 2
7
2
102
(
)
7

= 200

490x 1120x + 800

6
10

(x )

= 200

10
1021( )
7

20 2
7
2
200
( 2 )
7

(2)

(49x 2 280x + 400)


+(400 840x + 441x 2 )

(x )

(7x 20)2 + [(10 21x) + 10]2 = 200

y|x=10 =

) + 62 (y + ) = 200

20 2
(x )
7
200
72

(1)

1021x

20 2

72 (x

sub (1) into (2):

x=

Ellipse
(7x 20)2 +(6y + 10)2 = 200

200

10

, )

= x+

20
72 (x )
7

Ellipse
(7x 20)2 + (6y + 10)2 = 200

x=

Line
21x + 6y = 1
6y
= 21x + 1

1021x

(7x 20)2 + [6 (

20

= +

(2)

14(i) If k = 10,
Line
21x + 6y = 10
6y
= 10 21x
y

y|x=6 =

vertical radius =

62

Using the graphing calculator to plot curves, the


line and ellipse dont intersect.
Hence, there are no solutions
=

11228
98

14(iii) Geometrically, a line and ellipse can only intersect


twice at most.

6
7

1021( )
6

4
3

sleightofmath.com

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2
4(i)

Ex 1.2
1(a)

3x 2 + 9x
=1
2
3x + 9x 1 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 9, c = 1
Roots: &
Sum of roots

1(b)

Sum of roots

b
a

(1)
(3)

=
3

1 2

=( )

2(ii)

b
a

(4)

=4

(1)

(2)

2+2

= (4 )

+ =

5(i)
b
a

= (1)

2(3)
(1)

(3)

= (1) = 3
(1)

=
=

=1

= 6

33
2

x 2 4x + c = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = c
Roots: & ( + 2)

b
a
(4)
(1)

2 + 2
=4
2
=2

=1
+2 =3
5(ii)

Sum of roots = + =

2 + 2

40x 138x + 119 = 0


i.e. a = 40, b = 138, c = 119
Roots: & are heights of two men

= 2

Sum of roots

Average height =

33

= + ( + 2) =

(2 1)(2 1)
= 4 2 2 +1
= 4 2( + ) +1
= 4(1) 2(3)
+1
= 11

2(2)

=+ =

2(+)

(2)

( )2 = 2 2 + 2
= (2 + 2 ) 2

=2

= (1)

x + 3x + 1 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 3, c = 1
Roots: &

(2)
(4)

Product of roots =

(1)

=4

Sum of roots

2(2)

2
1

=+ =

Product of roots =

( + )2
= 2 + 2 + 2
( + )2 2 = 2 + 2
2 + 2
= ( + )2 2

4x + 2x 2
= 3x 2 + 2
x 2 4x + 2 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = 2
Roots: &
Sum of roots

(9)

= (3) = 3

4(ii)

2(i)

=+ =

Product of roots =

=+ =

Product of roots =

2x 2 x 4 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 4
Roots: &

69
20

b
a

=
69
40

Product of roots
c
= ( + 2) =
a

( + 2) = c
1(1 + 2)
=c =1
c
=3

(138)
(40)

69
20

6(a)

Roots: = 2 & = 5
Sum of roots
= + = (2) + (5)
Product of roots =
= (2)(5)

=7
= (10)

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 7x + 10
=0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

Ex 1.2

Roots: = 1 & = 3
Sum of roots
= + = (1) + (3) = 2
Product of roots =
= (1)(3)
= 3

8(i)

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 2x 3
=0
7(i)

Sum of roots

1st equation
2x 2 4x + 5 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 4, c = 5
Roots: &

= 5

= p
=

= 42

=+ =

Product of roots =

c
a

b
a

(4)

(5)

= (2)

(2)

=2
=

From (1):
5 = p
p
=

(1)

c
a

=q

(2)

(3)

= + 4

Product of roots = (4)

8(ii)
Sum of roots

x 2 + px + q = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = p, c = q
Roots: & 4

sub (3) into (2):


2nd equation
Roots: ( 1) & ( 1)
Sum of roots
Product of roots
= ( 1) + ( 1)
= ( 1)( 1)
= ( + ) 2
=
+1
(2)
=
2
= ( + ) +1
5
=0
= ( ) (2)
+1

4p2

4p
9(i)

3
2

x (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
3

2x 2 + 3
7(ii)

2x 2 x 2 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 2
Roots: &
=+ =
=

b
a

=
=

(1)

(2)
(2)
(2)

1
2

= 1

=0
2 + 2
= ( + )2 2()

3rd equation
Recall + = 2,

= 25q [shown]

Product of roots =

=0

Sum of roots

x 2 0x +

=q

25

4 ( p) = q

1 2

=( )

2(1)

2
1

Roots: 2 & 2

=2
4

Sum of roots
= 2 + 2 = 2( + ) = 2(2) = 4

9(ii)

2 +2

(2 )

4
= (1)
= 2

1
4

Product of roots
= (2)(2) = 4()

= 4 ( ) = 10

9(iii)

4 + 4

= (2 + 2 )2 22 2
= (2 + 2 )2 2()2

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 4x + 10
=0

1 2

= (2 )
4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

49
16

2(1)2

10

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

Ex 1.2

x2
= (k 1)x + k
2
(1
x + k)x k = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (1 k), c = k
Roots: & ( + 3)

12(i)

Sum of roots
= + ( + 3) =

Sum of roots

2 + 3
k

=k1
= 2 + 4

=+ =

Product of roots =

a
(1k)

2 + 3

3
2

3
2

=3

(1)

2nd equation
(1)

Roots:

&

Sum of roots =

Product of roots
c
= ( + 3) =
( + 3) =

1st equation
2x 2 3x + 6 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 3, c = 6
Roots: &

a
(k)

22 +22

2[(+)2 2]

(1)

2(2 +2 )

3 2
2[( ) 2(3)]
2

5
2

Product of roots = ( ) ( ) = 4

= k
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
( + 3)
= (2 + 4)
2
+ 3
= 2 4
2
+ 5 + 4
=0
( + 1)( + 4) = 0
= 1
or
= 4
+3=2
+ 3 = 1
(rej negative roots)

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
5

x 2 ( ) x +4

=0

x2 + x
2

2x +5x

+4

=0

+8

=0

12(ii) 3rd equation


3

Recall + = , = 3
2

10(ii) Put = 4 into (1):


k|=4 = 2(4) + 4
= 4
11

Roots: (3 + ) & ( + 3)
Sum of roots
= (3 + ) + ( + 3)
= 4 + 4
= 4( + )

3x 2 3kx + k 6 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 3k, c = k 6
Roots: &

= 4( )
2

Sum of roots

=+ =

Product of roots =
2 + 2

( + ) 2
k

2 (

k6
3

=
=

c
a

b
a

=
=

(3k)

(3)
(k6)
(3)

=6
=k
=

k6
3

20
3
20
3
20

3 2

= 3 [( ) 2(3)]
2

3k 2 2k + 12
= 20
2
3k 2k 8
=0
(3k + 4)(k 2) = 0
k=

4
3

Product of roots
= (3 + )( + 3)
= 32 + 10 + 32
= 3(2 + 2 )
+10
= 3[( + )2 2] +10

75
4

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

or k = 2

x 2 (6)x +

75
4

4x 2 24x +75

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+10(3)

sleightofmath.com

=0
=0

11

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(i)

Ex 1.2

1st equation
2x 2
= 8x + 3
2x 2 8x 3 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 8, c = 3
Roots: &

13(iii) 4th equation


Recall + = 4, =

=+ =

Product of roots

b
a

=
=

(8)
(2)
3

Sum of roots
= ( ) + ( )
=0

=4

Product of roots
= ( )( )
= (a )2
= [( + )2 4]

2nd equation
1
2

&

= [(4)2

Sum of roots =
=

(+)2 2()
()2

2 +2
2 2
3
2

(4)2 2( )

4 ( )]
2

= 22

3 2
( )
2

Product of roots = ( 2 ) ( 2 ) = ()2 =

Roots: ( ) & ( )

Sum of roots

Roots:

1
3 2
( )
2

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 (0)x + (22) = 0
x 2 22
=0

76
9

14(i)

2x 2 71x + 615 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 71, c = 615
Roots: & are base and height

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
76

x2 ( ) x + ( )

=0

Sum of roots = + =

9x 76x +4 = 0

Product of roots =

c
a

71

2
615
2

71

= 307.5

13(ii) 3rd equation


Recall

+ = 4, =

Roots:

2 & 2

Area = = 307.5

3
2

71

Perimeter = 2( + ) = 2 ( ) = 71
2

Sum of roots = 2 + 2
= ( + )

14(ii)

= ( ) (4) = 6

Base

Product of roots
3 3

27

= (2 )(2 ) = ()3 = ( ) =

) =0

8x 2 + 48x 27

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

Base

Perimeter is not valid because


the height is not the side of the quadrilateral

27
8

Height

Area is valid because


area = base height

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 (6)x + (

Height

=0

sleightofmath.com

12

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 1.2

kx 2 + (k 1)x + 2k + 3 = 0
i.e. a = k, b = (k 1), c = (2k + 3)
Roots: & 2
Sum of roots
= + (2) =
3

1st equation
x 2 3x 2 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 3, c = 2
Roots: &

b
a
k1

Sum of roots

Product of roots =

1k
k
1k
3k

(1)

2nd equation
x 2 6x + p = 0
i.e. a2 = 1, b2 = 6, c2 = p

(2)

Roots:

Product of roots
c
= (2) =
2

a
2k+3
k

2(
2(

3k
k2 2k+1

9k2
2k2 4k+2
9k2
2

=
=
=

2k+3

= +

k
2k+3

1
16

k+k

k(+)

k
2k+3

&

c
a

=
=

2
1

=3
= 2

b2
a2
6
1

=6
= 4

or k = 2

=6

k(3)
(2)

2k 4k + 2
= 18k 2 + 27k
16k 2 + 31k 2 = 0
(16k 1)(k + 2) = 0
k=

Sum of roots

sub (1) into (2):


1k 2

=+ =

Product of roots

rej k is a
(
)
non zero integer

c2

a2
(p)

= ( )( ) =

k2

k2

= (1)
=p

k2
(2)

=p

=
=

k2

k = 4

2
(4)2
2

= 8

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

13

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

17(a) 3x 2 + kx + 96 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = k, c = 96
Roots: & 2

18

5x 2 102x + 432 = 0
i.e. a = 5, b = 102, c = 432
Roots:
& are lengths of the two shorter sides of a

Sum of roots
= + 2 =

Sum of roots

a
k

9
k

=k
= 9

Product of roots =

3
k

=
=

(102)
(5)

102
5

432
5

2 + 2

By Pythagoras Theorem,
Hypotenuse = 2 + 2

a
96
3

2
= 32
2

= 16
= 4 or = 4 (rej positive roots)
k|=4 = 9(4)
= 36
2

Product of roots
c
= (2) =
2

=+ =

1 432

)= 43.2cm2

Perimeter = + + 2 + 2
= + + ( + )2 2
=(

17(b) p + q = 13
pq = 6
Roots: p2 & q2
Sum of roots
= p2 + q2 = 13
Product of roots = p2 q2
= (pq)2 = 62

Area = () = (

102
5

) + (

102 2
5

) 2(

432
5

= 36cm

= 36

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 13x + 36
=0
(x 4)(x 9)
=0
x=4
or x = 9
p2 = 4
p2 = 9
p = 2
p = 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

14

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

19(a) 2x 2 + px + 24 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = p, c = 24
Roots: &

19(b) 1st equation


3x 2 x + 2 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 2
Roots: &

=4

= + 4 (1)

Sum of roots

=+ =

Product of roots =

Sum of roots
=+

( + 4) + =

(1)

(3)

1
3

2
3

b
a
p

2nd equation
Roots: 2 & 2

2
p
2
p

2 + 4

= 4 8

Sum of roots = 2 + 2
= ( + )2 2()

1 2

=( )

2 ( )

Product of roots
c
=
=

a
24

11
9

( + 4)
= 12
2 + 4
= 12
2
+ 4 12 = 0
( + 6)( 2) = 0
= 6
or
p|=6 = 4(6) 8
= 16
(rej p < 0)

2 2

Product of roots = 2 2 = ()2 = ( ) =


x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 (

11
9

)x +

=0

9x 2 + 11x + 4
=2
p|=2 = 4(2) 8

20(i)

= 16

=0

1st equation
4x 2 x + 36 = 0
i.e. a = 4, b = 1, c = 36
Roots: 2 & 2
= 2 + 2 =

Sum of roots

2 2

Product of roots =

c
a

b
a

=
=

(1)

(4)
(36)
(4)

1
4

=9

2nd equation
Roots:

1
2

&

1
2

Sum of roots

2
1

2 +

Product of roots = ( 2 ) ( 2 ) =

2 +2
2 2
1
2 2

=
=

1
4

( )
(9)
1

1
36

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x2
2

1
36

x+

1
9

36x x + 4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

=0
=0

15

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

20(ii) 3rd equation:


2

Recall + = ,
4

21(ii) 2nd equation


Roots: ( + 2) & ( + 2)

2 2

=9

Roots: &
Sum of roots
=+

Product of roots
=

= ( +

= 9
= 3

+ 2

= ( ) + 2

2 2

)2

Sum of roots
= ( + 2) + ( + 2)
= ( + ) + 4
b

= [a( + 2)( + 2)]


a
1

+4

= (4a 2b + c)
a

x 2 (SOR)x

Product of roots
= ( + 2)( + 2)

+ (POR)

a
1

=0

x 2 ( + 4) x + [ (4a 2b + c)] = 0

For = 3:

25

SOR = + 2(3) =

x + ( 4) x

+ (4a 2b + c)
a

ax 2 + (b 4a)x + (4a 2b + c)

=0
=0

For = 3:
1

23

4
5

24

SOR = + 2(3) =

(rej)

SOR = , POR = 3
2

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
5

x 2 ( ) x + 3

=0

=0

2x 5x + 6
21(i)

1st equation
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
Roots: &
Sum of roots

=+ =

Product of roots =

b
a

a( + 2)( + 2) = a( + 2 + 2 + 4)
= a[ + 2( + ) + 4]
c

= a [( ) + 2 ( ) + 4]
= c 2b + 4a
= 4a 2b + c [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

16

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

1st equation
4x 2 + kx
=1
4x 2 + kx 1 = 0
i.e. a = 4, b = k, c = 1

22(ii) 3rd equation


k

Recall + = ,
Roots:

=+ =

Product of roots =

b
a

=
=

k
4
1

Sum of roots

= 5( + )

9
9
=
1
+ 2( + ) + 4 ( ) + 2 ( k) + 4
4
4
36
=
15 2k

= 5 ( )
4

= k
4

Product of roots

x2

= (2 + 3)(3 + 2)
2

= 6 + 13 + 6

23(i)

+13

k2 + )

Sum of roots

x 2 + kx
4

8x + 10kx

=+ =

Product of roots =

x (SOR)x +(POR)
x ( k) x

) =0
= 0

1st equation
2x 2 + 4x + 5 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 4, c = 5
Roots: &

152k

13

2
2

)x +(

+13

= k

152k

=0
36

(15 2k)x +(3k 48)x +36

2)

k 2

483k

= 6 [( ) 2 ( )] +13 ( )

(SOR)x +(POR)

x2

= 6[( + )2 2]

3 + 6 + 3 + 6
3( + ) + 12
=
+ 2( + ) + 4 + 2( + ) + 4

16

+2

3
3
9
)(
)=
=(
( + 2)( + 2)
+2 +2

= 5 + 5

= 6(

Product of roots

= (2 + 3) + (3 + 2)

= 6( +

+2

&

k
3 ( ) + 12
48 3k
4
=
=
1
k
( ) + 2 ( ) + 4 15 2k
4
4

2nd equation
Roots: (2 + 3) & (3 + 2)

Sum of roots
3
3
3( + 2) + 3( + 2)
=
+
=
( + 2)( + 2)
+2 +2

Roots: &
Sum of roots

3
+ ( k2
8

=0
1

Roots:

+3k 2

4
2

= 2

23(ii) 2nd equation

)=0

+ k2

&

=0
Sum of roots

=0

= +

Product of roots = ( ) ( ) =

=
=

2
5
2

1
5
2

=
=

4
5

2
5

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
4

x 2 ( ) +
2

5x + 4 + 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

=0
=0

17

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.2

23(iii) 1st equation


ax 2 + bx + c = 0
Roots: &
Sum of roots

25

=+ =

Product of roots =

b
a

Sum of roots

=+ =

2nd equation
Roots:

&

2x 2 kx + k
=2
2
2x kx + k 2 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = k, c = (k 2)
Roots: &

+ =

Sum of roots

= +

Product of roots = ( ) ( ) =

=
=

a
c
a

=
=

c
a

b
a
k
2

= 2 + 2

a
c

Product of roots
c
= =
=

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

a
k2
2

x 2 ( ) x + ( )

=0

sub (1) into (2):

cx 2 bx

=0

+a

(1)

(2)

(2+2)2
2

= + 1
24(i)

x(2 x)
=3
2
x 2x + 3 = 0
is root
2 2 + 3 = 0
2 = 2 3

If < 0, < 0
LHS = > 0
RHS = + 1 < 0
LHS RHS
both roots cannot be negative

(1)

(1) :
3 = 22 3
(2)
(1)
(2):
sub
into
3 = 2(2 3) 3
3 = (4 6) 3
3 = 6 [shown]
24(ii) Roots: &
Sum of roots

=+ =

Product of roots =

c
a

b
a

=
=

(2)

(3)
(1)

(1)

=2
=3

Following the same manipulation in (i)


3 = 6
3 + 3 = ( 6) + ( 6)
= ( + ) 12
= (2) 12
= 10

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

18

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


26

Ex 1.2

x 2 + 4(c + 2)
= (c + 4)x
2
(c
x + 4)x + 4(c + 2) = 0
i.e. A = 1, B = (c + 4), C = 4(c + 2)
Roots: a & b
Sum of roots
=a+b

a+b

B
A
(c+4)
1

a+b
=c+4
2
(a + b)
=c+4
2
2
a + 2ab + b = c 2 + 8c + 16

(1)

Product of roots
= ab =
ab =
ab

C
A
4(c+2)
1

= 4c + 8

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


a2 + 2(4c + 8) + b2 = c 2 + 8c + 16
a2 + (8c + 16) + b2 = c 2 + 8c + 16
a2 + b2
= c2
sides are related by pythagoras theorem,
it is a right angle triangle
& 90 is the largest angle

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

19

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.3
2(c)

Ex 1.3
1(a)

y = 3(x 1)2 1
turning pt (1, 1)
shape

= 3( 1)2 1
2

(1, 1)

y|x=0 = 2
y intercept = 2
1(b)

y = 2(x + 1)2 3
turning pt (1, 3)
shape
y|x=0 = 5
y intercept = 5

1(c)

(2,1)

y = 3(x 2)2
turning pt (2,0)
shape

3(a)
(2,0)

12
y = 3(x 2)2

Quadratic equation
px 2 6x + p = 0
i.e. a = p, b = 6, c = p
Discriminant
For equal real roots:
b2 4ac
=0
(6)2 4(p)(p) = 0
36 4p2
=0
2
p 9
=0
(p + 3)(p 3) = 0
p = 3 or p = 3

Quadratic equation
5x 2 x 2 = 0
i.e. a = 5, b = 1, c = 2

3(b)

Quadratic equation
3x 2 + 2x p = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 2, c = p
Discriminant
For two distinct real roots:
b2 4ac
>0
(2)2 4(3)(p) > 0
4 + 12p
>0
12p
> 4

Quadratic equation
9x 2 + 6x + 1 = 0
i.e. a = 9, b = 6, c = 1
Discriminant
b2 4ac = (6)2 4(9)(1)
=0
2 Real Roots

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

Quadratic equation
(x 2)2
= 6
2
x 4x + 4 = 6
x 2 4x + 10 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = 10
Discriminant
b2 4ac = (4)2 4(1)(10)
= 24
<0
0 Real Root

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (1)2 4(5)(2)
= 41
>0
2 Real roots
2(b)

2(d)

1
= ( + 2)2 + 1
4
2

y|x=0 = 2
y intercept = 2

2(a)

y = (x + 2)2 + 1

y|x=0 = 12
y intercept = 12

5
= 2( + 1)2 3

turning pt (2,1)
shape

1(d)

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (1)2 4(3)(1)
= 11
<0
0 Real Root

(1, 3)

Quadratic equation
x 2 + x + 1 = 2x 2
3x 2 + x + 1 = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 1

sleightofmath.com

>
3

20

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(c)

Ex 1.3

Quadratic equation
2x 2 + 3x + 2p = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 3, c = 2p

4(c)

Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
0
2
(3) 4(2)(2p) 0
9 16p
0
16p
9
p
3(d)

9
16

Discriminant
For no x intercepts:
b2 4ac
<0
2
(2) 4(p)(3) < 0
4 12p
<0
12p
>4

5(a)

4(a)

1
16

Quadratic curve
y = 4x 2 4x p
i.e. a = 4, b = 4, c = p

k
5(b)

>
2

Quadratic Inequality
3x 2 + 6x + k 1 is always negative
i.e. a = 3, b = 6, c = k 1
2 conditions
(i) a < 0
3 < 0
(ii) b2 4ac
(6)2 4(3)(k 1)
36 + 12(k 1)
36 + 12k 12
12k
k

Quadratic curve
y = 9x 2 px + 1
i.e. a = 9, b = p, c = 1
Discriminant
For one x intercept:
b2 4ac
=0
(p)2 4(9)(1) = 0
p2 36
=0
(p + 6)(p 6) = 0
p = 6 or p = 6

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

Quadratic Inequality
2x 2 + 2x + k is always positive
i.e. a = 2, b = 2, c = k

(ii) b2 4ac
<0
(2)2 4(2)k < 0
8k
>4

Discriminant
For two x intercepts:
b2 4ac
>0
2
(4) 4(4)(p) > 0
16 + 16p
>0
p
> 1
4(b)

2 conditions
(i) a > 0
2>0

Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
<0
2
(1) 4(p)(4) < 0
1 + 16p
<0
<

>

Quadratic equation
px 2 x 4 = 0
i.e. a = p, b = 1, c = 4

Quadratic curve
y = px 2 2x + 3
i.e. a = p, b = 2, c = 3

sleightofmath.com

<0
<0
<0
<0
< 24
< 2

21

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(c)

Ex 1.3

Quadratic Inequality
y = 2x 2 + x 2k lies entirely above x axis
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 2k

7(b)

2 conditions
(i) a > 0
2>0

<

1
16

Discriminant
For curve to meet x axis:
B 2 4AC
0
2
(2) 4(3)(c 1) 0
4 12(c 1)
0
4 12c + 12
0
16
12c

13
(2,1)

does not cut x axis


discriminant < 0
negative
7(c)

2
1

= (x 4)2
2

turning pt (4,0)
shape
f(0) = 8
y intercept = 8

= ()

+3
+3

= 2[(x 1)2 12 ] +3
= 2(x 1)2
turning pt (1,5)
shape

+8

= [(x 4)2 42 ] +8

= 2(x 2 2x)

+8

2
1
2
1

f(x) = 2x 2 + 4x

f(x) = x 2 4x
= [x 2 8x]

7(a)

Quadratic equation
y = 3x 2 2x + c 1
i.e. A = 3, B = 2, C = c 1

+13
+13
+13
+1

f(0) = 13
y intercept = 13

= ()

(ii) b2 4ac
<0
(1)2 4(2)(2k) < 0
1 + 16k
<0
k

f(x) = 3x 2 12x
= 3(x 2 4x)
= 3[(x 2)2 22 ]
= 3(x 2)2
turning pt (2,1)
shape

+5

(4,0)

cuts x axis once


discriminant = 0
zero

f(0) = 3
y intercept = 3

(1,5)
3

= ()

cuts x axis twice


discriminant > 0
positive

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

22

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(d)

Ex 1.3

f(x) = 4x 2 8x
= 4[x 2 + 2x]
= 4[(x + 1)2 12 ]
= 4(x + 1)2
turning pt (1, 1)
shape

5
5
5
1

8(c)

Discriminant
For two unequal real roots:
b2 4ac
>0
(1)2 4(2)(1 p) > 0
1 8(1 p)
>0
1 8 + 8p
>0
8p
>7

f(0) = 5
y intercept = 5

(1, 1)
5
= ()

8(d)

does not cut x axis


b2 4ac < 0
negative
8(a)

Quadratic equation
3x 2
= 2x + p 1
2
3x 2x + 1 p = 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 2, c = 1 p
Discriminant
For distinct real roots:
b2 4ac
>0
2
(2) 4(3)(1 p) > 0
4 12(1 p)
>0
4 12 + 12p
>0
12p
>8
p

Quadratic equation
p(x + 1)(x 3)
= x 4p 2
2
p(x 2x 3)
= x 4p 2
px 2 2px 3p
= x 4p 2
2
px (2p + 1)x + p + 2 = 0
i.e. a = p, b = (2p + 1), c = p + 2
Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
[(2p + 1)]2 4(p)(p + 2)
(4p2 + 4p + 1) 4p(p + 2)
(4p2 + 4p + 1) 4p2 8p
4p + 1
4p
4p

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
< 1
>1

>

1
4

Quadratic equation
x 2 + p2
= 3px 5
2
2
x 3px + p + 5= 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 3p, c = p2 + 5

Quadratic equation
x 2 2kx + k 2
=3+x
2
2
(2k
x
+ 1)x + k 3 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (2k + 1), c = 3
Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
0
2
2
[(2k + 1)] 4(1)(k 3) 0
(4k 2 + 4k + 1) 4(k 2 3) 0
4k 2 + 4k + 1 4k 2 + 12
0
4k + 13
0

Discriminant
For equal real roots:
b2 4ac
=0
2
2
(3p) 4(1)(p + 5) = 0
9p2 4p2 20
=0
2
5p 20
=0
p2 4
=0
(p + 2)(p 2)
=0
p = 2 or p = 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

>

>
9

8(b)

Quadratic equation
(x + 1)(2x 1) = p 2
2x 2 + x 1
=p2
2
2x + x + 1 p = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 1 p

k
least value of k is

sleightofmath.com

13
4

13
4

23

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

11

Ex 1.3

Quadratic equation
2x 2 + p
= 2(x 1)
2x 2 + p
= 2x 2
2
2x 2x + 2 + p = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 2, c = 2 + p

12(b) Quadratic inequality


kx 2 + 1
> 2kx k for all real values of x
kx 2 2kx + k + 1> 0
i.e. a = k, b = 2k, c = k + 1
2 conditions
(i) a > 0
k>0

Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
(2)2 4(2)(2 + p)
4 8(2 + p)
1 2(2 + p)
1 4 2p
2p

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<3

> [shown]

(ii) b2 4ac
<0
2
(2k) 4(k)(k + 1) < 0
4k 2 4k(k + 1)
<0
2
2
4k 4k 4k
<0
4k
<0
4k
>0
k
>0

3
2

Quadratic equation
px 2 + 3px + p + q = 0
i.e. a = p, b = 3p, c = p + q

13(a) Line & curve


y = kx 5
x 2 = 2y + 1

Discriminant
For two equal real roots:
b2 4ac
=0
2
(3p) 4(p)(p + q) = 0
9p2 4p2 4pq
=0
2
5p 4pq
=0
p(5p 4q)
=0

(1)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


x2
= 2(kx 5) + 1
2
x
= 2kx 10 + 1
2
x 2kx + 9 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 2k, c = 9
Discriminant
For line to be tangent to curve:
b2 4ac
=0
2
(2k) 4(1)(9) = 0
4k 2 36
=0
2
k 9
=0
(k + 3)(k 3)
=0
k = 3 or k = 3

p = 0 (rej p 0) or p = q [shown]
5

12(a) Quadratic inequality


3x 2 3x > x + k for all real values of x
3x 2 4x k > 0
i.e. a = 3, b = 4, c = k
2 conditions
(i) a > 0
3>0
(ii) b2 4ac
<0
(4)2 4(3)(k) < 0
16 12(k)
<0
12k
< 16
k

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

<
3

sleightofmath.com

24

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.3

13(b) Line & curve


x + 3y = k 1
3y
=k1x
y

k1x

13(d) Line & curve


y=x+k1

(1)

(y 1)2 = 4x

(2)

(1)

y 2 = 2x + 5

sub (1) into (2):


(x + k 1 1)2
= 4x
2
(x + k 2)
= 4x
2
[x + (k 2)]
= 4x
x 2 + 2(k 2)x + (k 2)2
= 4x
2
2
x + (2k 4)x +(k 4k + 4) = 4x
x 2 +(2k 8)x +(k 2 4k + 4) = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (2k 8), c = (k 2 4k + 4)

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(

k1x 2

3
(k1x)2
9

= 2x + 5
= 2x + 5

(k 1 x)2
= 18x + 45
(1)2 (x + 1 k)2 = 18x + 45
[x + (1 k)]2
= 18x + 45
2
x + 2(1 k)x + (1 k)2
= 18x + 45
2
2
x + (2 2k)x + (1 2k + k )
= 18x + 45
2
2
x + (16 2k)x +(k 2k 44) = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (16 2k), c = (k 2 2k 44)
Discriminant
For line to meet curve:
b2 4ac
0
(16 2k)2 4(1)(k 2 2k 44)
0
2
2
(4k + 64k + 256) 4k + 8k + 176 0
72k + 432
0
k
6
13(c) Line & curve
y = kx + 2
y 2 = 8x x 2

Discriminant
For line to not meet curve:
b2 4ac
(2k 8)2 4(1)(k 2 4k + 4)
22 (k 4)2 4(k 2 4k + 4)
(k 2 8k + 16) k 2 + 4k 4
4k + 12
4k
k
14(i)

(1)
(2)

(1)

y=xk

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


kx(x + 2)
=xk
2
kx + 2kx
=xk
2
kx + (2k 1)x + k = 0
i.e. a = k, b = (2k 1), c = k

sub (1) into (2):


(kx + 2)2
= 8x x 2
k 2 x 2 +4kx +4
= 8x x 2
(k 2 + 1)x 2 +(4k 8)x +4 = 0
i.e. a = (k 2 + 1), b = (4k 8), c = 4
Discriminant
For line to intersect curve at two distinct points:
b2 4ac
>0
2
2
(4k 8) 4(k + 1)(4) > 0
42 (k 2)2 42 (k 2 + 1)
>0
2
2
(k 2) (k + 1)
>0
(k 2 4k + 4) k 2 1
>0
4k + 3
>0
4k
<3
k

Line & curve


y = kx(x + 2)

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
< 12
>3

Discriminant
For curve to meet the line:
b2 4ac
0
2
(2k 1) 4(k)(k) 0
4k 2 4k + 1 4k 2 0
4k + 1
0
4k
1
1

14(ii) k = 1
4

<
4

14(iii) 1 is greater than 1 and it does not satisfy the


4

inequality to have any intersections,


0 intersections
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

25

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

Ex 1.3

Quadratic inequality
5x 2 + 20x + c
< 50 for all real values of x
5x 2 + 20x + c 50 < 0
i. e. A = 5, B = 20, C = c 50

17(i)

2 conditions
(i) A < 0
5 < 0
(ii) B 2 4AC < 0
(20)2 4(5)(c 50)
400 + 20(c 50)
400 + 20c 1000
20c
c
15(ii) y = 5x 2 + 20x
= 5(x 2 4x)
= 5[(x 2)2 22 ]
= 5(x 2)2
turning pt (2,40)
shape

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (4)2 4(1)(1)
= 20
>0
intersects x axis twice

<0
<0
<0
< 600
< 30

17(ii) Quadratic curve


When p = 2:
y = x 2 + (2)x (2) + 3
= x 2 2x + 5
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 5

+20
+20
+20
+40

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (2)2 4(1)(5)
= 16
<0
y is always positive

y|x=0 = 20
y intercept = 20

17(iii) Quadratic curve


y = x 2 + px p + 3
i.e. a = 1, b = p, c = p + 3

(2,40)
20

= 5( 2)2 + 40

15(iii) Indeed as c = 20 < 30, the baseball does not reach


the height of 50m (at most 40m).
16(i)

k 2 4k + 12 = (k 2)2 22 + 12
= (k 2)2 +8 [shown]

16(ii) Quadratic equation


x 2 + kx
=3k
2
x + kx + k 3 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = k, c = k 3

Discriminant
For curve to be tangent to x-axis,
b2 4ac
=0
(p)2 4(p + 3) = 0
p2 + 4p 12
=0
(p + 6)(p 2) = 0
p = 6 or p = 2
At p = 6,
At p = 2,
2
y = x 6x + 6 + 3 y = x 2 + 2x 2 + 3
= x 2 6x + 9
= x 2 + 2x + 1
At y = 0,
x 2 6x + 9 = 0
(x 3)2
=0
x
=3
(3,0)

Discriminant
b2 4ac = k 2 4(1)(k 3)
= k 2 4k + 12
= (k 2)2 + 8
>0
(k 2)2 0
real for all real values of k
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

Quadratic curve
When p = 4:
y = x 2 + (4)x (4) + 3
= x 2 + 4x 1
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = 1

sleightofmath.com

At y = 0,
x 2 + 2x + 1 = 0
(x + 1)2
=0
x
= 1
(1,0)

26

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18(i)

Ex 1.3

Quadratic equation
f(x)
= g(x)
2
x + 6x 5
= 8x + c
2
x 2x 5 c = 0
i.e. A = 1, B = 2, C = 5 c

19(ii) Quadratic function


At C = 80:
1.2n2 14.4n + 53.7 = 80
1.2n2 14.4n 26.3 = 0
i.e. a = 1.2, b = 14.4, c = 26.3

Discriminant
For y = f(x) to intersect y = g(x):
B 2 4AC
0
(2)2 4(1)(5 c) 0
4 + 4(5 + c)
0
1+5+c
0
c
6

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (14.4)2 4(1.2)(26.3)
= 333.6
>0
Possible to reach 80 thousand dollars

18(ii) Quadratic inequality


f(x)
> g(x) for all real values of x
2
x + 6x 5
> 8x + c
2
x 2x 5 c > 0
i.e. A = 1, B = 2, C = 5 c

19(iii) Quadratic inequality


C
>x
1.2n2 14.4n + 53.7
>x
2
1.2n 14.4n + 53.7 x > 0
i.e. a = 1.2, b = 14.4, c = 53.7 x
2 conditions
(i) A > 0
1.2 > 0

(i) A > 0
1>0
(ii) B 2 4AC
(2)2 4(1)(5 c)
4 + 4(5 + c)
1 + (5 + c)
6+c
c
19(i)

(ii) b2 4ac < 0


(14.4)2 4(1.2)(53.7 x)
207.36 4.8(53.7 x)
43.2
53.7 + x
10.5 + x
x

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
< 6

<0
<0
<0
<0
< 10.5

Combine inequalities:
x < 10.5 and x > 0
0 < x < 10.5

Quadratic function
At C = 10:
1.2n2 14.4n + 53.7 = 10
1.2n2 14.4n + 43.7 = 0
i.e. a = 1.2, b = 14.4, c = 43.7

20(i)

Discriminant
b2 4ac = (14.4)2 4(1.2)(43.7)
= 2.7
<0
not possible to have a cost of production of 10
thousand dollars

y = 0.5t 2 + 7t + k
Height is 26m after 10s,
y|t=10
= 26
2
0.5(10) + 7(10) + k = 26
50 + 70 + k
= 26
k
=6

20(ii) y = 0.5t 2 + 7t + 6
y|t=0 = 6

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

27

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.3

20(iii) y
> 30
2
0.5t + 7t + 6 > 30
0.5t 2 7t + 24 < 0
t 2 14t + 48 < 0
(t 6)(t 8) < 0
+

22(ii)

=
=

+
8

22

20(iv) Axis of symmetry


= average of t intercepts

23

6+8
2

=7
Maximum point
= y|t=7 = 0.5(7)2 + 7(7) + 6 = 30.5
20(v) y = 0.5(t 7)2 + 30.5
(a)

20(v)
(b)

= 0.5 2 + 7 + 30.5
(7,30.5)

No.
The graphs have different domain.
1st: t 0
2nd : t
21

22(i)

23

2a

2a

(b)2 (b2 4ac)


4a2
4ac
4a2
c
a

[shown]

Yes?
Regardless b2 4ac is less than 0 or not,
LHS is proven to equal RHS
A:
B:
2
y
y = 0.3x + 3
= 0.2x 2 + 1.8

C:
y = 0.08x 2
+2.4

2.4

1.8

30

Comparing x-intercepts,
C
>A >B
30 > 10 > 3
C will send water the farthest

y
= 10
0.5x 2 + 2x + k
= 10
2
0.5x + 2x + k 10 = 0
x 2 4x 2k + 20
=0
(2k
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c =
+ 20)
For water jet to send water to height of 10 m,
b2 4ac
0
(4)2 4(1)(2k + 20) 0
16 4(2k + 20)
0
4 (2k + 20)
0
2 (k + 10)
0
2 + k 10
0
k
8

2a
bb2 4ac

b+b2 4ac

2a

23(iii) Compare modulus of coefficient of x 2 :


A
>B
>C
|0.3| > |0.2| > |0.08|
A will produce the narrowest path

b+b2 4ac

+ =

bb2 4ac

23(ii) Comparing y-intercepts,


A> C
>B
3 > 2.4 > 1.8
A will send water the highest

Incorrect.
He forgets to include m 0
m = 0 Linear equation
=

)(

23(i)

2a

10

(7,30.5)
6

b+b2 4ac

=(
=

6< t<8

bb2 4ac
2a

2b
2a
b

=
a

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

28

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.4
1(f)

Ex 1.4
1(a)

x2 4
0
(x + 2)(x 2) 0

(x 1)(x + 2) < 0

+ +
2 1

+
2

2 x 2

2 < x < 1
2

2
1

2
1(b)

(x + 3)(x 4) 0

2x 2 4x 3 > x
2x 2 5x 3 > 0
(2x + 1)(x 3) > 0

+ +
3 4

3 x 4

+
3

x < or x > 3
2

3
1(c)

3(a)

(2x + 3)(x 2) > 0


+

x(x 2)
<3
x 2 2x 3 < 0
(x 3)(x + 1) < 0
+ +
1 3

+
2

1 < x < 3

x < or x > 2
2

1(d)

3(b)

+ +
2 6

x(x 5) 0
+

x2
> 4x + 12
2
x 4x 12 > 0
(x 6)(x + 2) > 0

x < 2 or x > 6

+
5

3(c)

x 0 or x 5

4x(x + 1)
3
2
4x + 4x 3
0
(2x + 3)(2x 1) 0
+

0
1(e)

x 2 4x
x(x 4)
+

3(d)

0x4

+
1

0
0

(1 x)2
17 2x
2
x 2x + 1 17 2x
x 2 16
0
(x + 4)(x 4) 0
+ +
4 4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

x 4 or x 4

sleightofmath.com

29

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(e)

(x + 2)2
x 2 + 4x + 4
2x 2 36
x 2 18
(x + 18)(x 18)
+

Ex 1.4
< x(4 x) + 40
< 4x x 2 + 40
<0
<0
<0

6(b)

Discriminant
For two real roots:
b2 4ac
0
2
(2p) 4(9)(1) 0
4p2 36
0
p2 9
0
(p + 3)(p 3) 0

18 18
18 < x < 18
4

S = 600 + 520T 20T 2


S
> 3800
2
600 + 520T 20T > 3800
20T 2 520T + 3200 < 0
T 2 26T + 160
<0
(T 16)(T 10)
<0
+

10

6(c)

< 150
< 150
<0
<0

18

6(a)

5
18

Quadratic equation
px 2 2x + 2p + 1 = 0
i.e. a = p, b = 2, c = 2p + 1
Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
(2)2 4(p)(2p + 1)
4 4p(2p + 1)
1 2p2 p
2p2 + p 1
(2p 1)(p + 1)

C = 5x 2 38x + 222

+
3

p 3 or p 3

16

C
5x 2 38x + 222
5x 2 38x + 72
(5x 18)(x 4)

10 < T < 16
5

Quadratic equation
9x 2 + 2px + 1 = 0
i.e. a = 9, b = 2p, c = 1

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
>0

+
1
2
1

<x<4

p < 1 or p >
2

Quadratic equation
x 2 px + p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = p, c = p
Discriminant
For two distinct real roots:
b2 4ac
>0
(p)2 4(1)p > 0
p2 4p
>0
p(p 4)
>0
+

+
4

p < 0 or p > 4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

30

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(d)

Ex 1.4

Quadratic equation
2x 2 2px + p2 + p = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 2p, c = p2 + p
Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
(2p)2 4(2)(p2 + p)
4p2 8(p2 + p)
p2 2(p2 + p)
p2 2p2 2p
p2 2p
p2 + 2p
p(p + 2)

Quadratic equation
3kx 2 + (k 5)x
= 5x 2 + 2
2
(3k 5)x + (k 5)x 2 = 0
i.e. a = (3k 5), b = (k 5), c = 2
Discriminant
For no real roots:
b2 4ac
(k 5)2 4(3k 5)(2)
k 2 10k + 25 +8(3k 5)
k 2 10k + 25 +(24k 40)
k 2 + 14k 15
(k + 15)(k 1)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<0

+ +
15 1

+ +
2 0

15 < x < 1

2 p 0
9
7(a)

1st inequality
x 2 + ax
<b
2
x + ax b < 0
2nd inequality
2 < x < 4 is the solution:
k[x (2)](x 4) < 0
k(x + 2)(x 4)
<0
Compare x 2 : k = 1

Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
[(2p + 4)]2 4(p)(10 p)
4p2 + 16p + 16 4p(10 p)
p2 + 4p + 4 p(10 p)
p2 + 4p + 4 10p + p2
2p2 6p + 4
p2 3p + 2
(p 1)(p 2)

(x + 2)(x 4) < 0
x 2 2x 8
<0
Compare x: a = 2
Compare x 0 : b = 8
7(b)

Quadratic equation
px 2 p + 10
= 2(p + 2)x
2
px p + 10
= (2p + 4)x
2
px (2p + 4)x + 10 p = 0
i.e. a = p, b = (2p + 4), c = 10 p

1st inequality
2x 2 + a
> bx
2
2x bx + a > 0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

+
2

p 1 or p 2
2nd inequality
x < 2 or x > 3 is the solution:
k[x (2)](x 3) > 0
k(x + 2)(x 3)
>0
2
Compare x : k = 2

The opposite is true


p cannot lie between 1 and 2

2(x + 2)(x 3)
>0
2
2(x x 6)
>0
2
2x 2x 12
>0
Compare x: a = 12
Compare x 0 : b = 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

31

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

Ex 1.4

Quadratic equation
(p + 2)x 2 12x + 2(p 1) = 0
i.e. a = p + 2, b = 12, c = 2(p 1)
Discriminant
For real and distinct roots:
b2 4ac
(12)2 4(p + 2)[2(p 1)]
144 8(p + 2)(p 1)
18 (p2 + p 2)
p2 p + 20
p2 + p 20
(p + 5)(p 4)

12

(1)

2xy + 6 = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x(2x + c) + 6 = 0
4x 2 + 2cx + 6
=0
i.e. A = 4, B = 2c, C = 6
Discriminant
For line not to intersect curve:
B 2 4AC
<0
2
(2c) 4(4)(6)
<0
2
4c 4(4)6
<0
2
c 24
<0
(c + 24)(c 24) < 0
+

x 2 xy + y 2 = 1

(2)

Discriminant
For two distinct points:
B 2 4AC
(3k)2 4(3)(k 2 1)
9k 2 12(k 2 1)
3k 2 4(k 2 1)
3k 2 4k 2 + 4
k2 4
(k + 2)(k 2)

5 < x < 4
Line & curve
y = 2x + c

(1)

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 x(2x k) +(2x k)2
x 2 2x 2 + kx +(4x 2 4kx + k 2 )
x 2 + kx
+(4x 2 4kx + k 2 )
3x 2 3kx + k 2
3x 2 3kx + (k 2 1)
i.e. A = 3, B = 3k, C = k 2 1

>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

+ +
5 4

11

Line & curve


2x y = k
y = 2x k

=1
=1
=1
=1
=0

>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

+ +
2 2
2 < k < 2
13(i)

d
80
2
0.15v + v
80
2
3v + 20v 1600 0 [shown]

13(ii) (3v + 80)(v 20) 0


+

24 24

24 < c < 24

80

+
20

80
v 20
3

Max speed = 20ms 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

32

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.4

14

Compare x:

=6

Total surface area


2r 2 + 2r(6)
2r 2 + 12r 224
r 2 + 6r 112
(r + 14)(r 8)

Compare x 0 : 16 = 4k
k =4

> 224
> 224
>0
>0
>0

+ +
14 8

3(x 5)
3x 15
8
4

Quadratic equation
(k 6)x 2 8x + k = 0
i.e. a = (k 6), b = 8, c = k
Discriminant
For two distinct points:
b2 4ac
>0
2
(8) 4(k 6)(k) > 0
64 4(k 2 6k)
>0
16 k 2 + 6k
>0
2
k 6k 16
<0
(k 8)(k + 2)
<0

15
x(2x + 1)
>6
2
(i)(b) 2x + x 6
>0
(2x 3)(x + 2) > 0

+
2

(2)

= 12
17

(1)

sub (2) into (1):


p = (4 + 2(4))

r < 14 (rej r > 0) or r > 8


15
5x 7
(i)(a) 5x 7
2x
x

p = (4 + 2k)

+ +
2 8

2 < k < 8

3
2

For minimum point,


(k 6) > 0
k
>6

x < 2 or x >
2

3
2

Combine inequalities,
2 < k < 8 and k > 6
6<k< 8

15
(ii)
3

4 2
4 x < 2
16

or

18(a) x 2 + 2x < 0
x(x + 2) < 0

and x 2 x
>2
2
x x2
>0
(x 2)(x + 1) > 0
+ +
2 0
+ +
1 2
2 < x < 0
x < 1 or x > 2

x>
2

1st inequality
2x 2 + px + 16 < 0
2nd inequality
2 < x < k is solution
A(x 2)(x k)
Compare x 2 : A = 2
2(x 2)(x k)
2(x 2 2x kx + 2k)
2[x 2 (2 + k)x + 2k]
2x 2 4(4 + 2k)x + 4k

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2 1

<0

2 < x < 1
<0
<0
<0
<0

sleightofmath.com

33

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 1.4

18(b) x 2
4
2
x 4
0
(x + 2)(x 2) 0

and x 2 6
> 5x
2
x 5x 6 > 0
(x 6)(x + 1) > 0

+ +
2 2

+ +
258.36 258.03
258.36 x 258.03
19(iii) 1 + 2n + 3 n(n 1) 100 000
2

258.36 n 258.03
Largest integer satisfying the above inequality
258

+
4

0x4
20
4

3< x 4
18(d) x x 2 < 9
x
x2
x2 x 0
x(x 1) 0
+

x 2 2x 3 > 0
(x + 1)(x 3) > 0
+ > or x 3 > 0
x > 1 x > 3
3rd step is incorrect

and x 2
<9
2
x 9
<0
(x + 3)(x 3) < 0

We cannot indiscriminately distribute the same


inequality sign to both factors.

+ +
3 3

x 0 or x 1

100 000

3x 2 + x 199 998 0

18(c) 0 < x(x 3) x


0 < x(x 3)
and x(x 3) x
x 2 4x 0
+ +
x(x 4) 0
3
0

2(3)

x = 258.36 or x = 258.03

x 2 or x > 6

112 4(3)(199 998)

19(ii) 1 + 2x + 3 (x 1)x

x < 0 or x > 3

x=

x < 1 or x > 6

1 + 2x + (x 1)x = 100 000


2 + 4x + 3(x 1)x = 200 000
2 + 4x + 3x 2 3x = 200 000
3x 2 + x 199 998 = 0

+ +
1 6

x 2 or x 2

2 1

19(i)

Correct Solution
x 2 2x 3 > 0
(x + 1)(x 3) > 0

3 < x < 3

+ +
1 3

3 < x 0 or 1 x < 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

x < 1 or x > 3

sleightofmath.com

34

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1
A3(i)

Rev Ex 1
A1

x + 2y = 5
2y
= x + 5
y

= x+

(1)
Sum of roots

2x + y = 2xy
sub (1) into (2):

(2)

x+

5
5

x x+

2x 7x + 5
(2x 5)(x 1)
x=

5
2

or
1 5

2 2
5

y|x=5 = ( ) +

c
a

=
=

1
2
5
2

2 ( )

=5
4

=0
=0

1 2

= ( )

=0

a2 + 2 = ( + )2 2

= x 2 + 5x

2
7

=+ =

Product of roots =

2x + ( x + ) = 2x ( x + )
3

1st equation
2x 2 + x 5 = 0
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 5
Roots: & , where <

A3(ii) ( )2 = 2 2 + 2
= (2 + 2 ) 2

x =1
1

y|x=1 = (1) +

=2

=5
=

2 ( )

4
41

4
1

= 10
4

A2

Perimeter
2x + 2y = 36
x+y
= 18
y
= 18 x

(1)

A3(iii) = 41 or = 41
2

(rej < )
A3(iv) 2nd equation

Square of diagonal length


2

Recall + = ,
2

5
2

(x 2 + y 2 ) = 164
x2 + y2

= 164

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 +(18 x)2 164
=0
2
2
x +(x 36x + 324) 164 = 0
(2x 2 36x + 324) 164
=0
2
2x 36x + 160
=0
2
x 18x + 80
=0
(x 8)(x 10)
=0
x=8
or x = 10
y|x=8 = 18 (8)
y|x=10 = 18 (10)
= 10
=8
Dimensions are 8 m by 10 m

Roots: 2 & 2
Sum of roots = 2 + (2)
= 2( )
= 2 (

41
)
2

= 41

Product of roots = (2)(2)


= 4
5

= 4 ( ) = 10
2

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 (41)x +10 = 0
x2 + 41x +10

=0

35

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1

A4(a) Quadratic equation


x2 + 3
= 2x + p
x 2 2x + 3 p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 3 p
Discriminant
For real roots:
b2 4ac
(2)2 4(1)(3 p)
4 4(3 p)
1+p3
p

A5(a) x 2 5x + 3 > 5 4x
x2 x 2
>0
(x 2)(x + 1) > 0
+ +
1 2
x < 1 or x > 2

0
0
0
0
2

A4(b) Quadratic equation


2x 2 + 23x + p
= p(x 2 + 2)
2x 2 + 23x + p
= px 2 + 2p
(2 p)x 2 + 23x p = 0
i.e. a = 2 p, b = 23, c = p

1 2
A5(b) Quadratic inequality
3x 2 6x + c
> 4 for all real values of x
2
3x 6x + c 4 > 0
i.e. A = 3, B = 6, C = c 4
2 conditions
(i) A > 0
3>0

a
0
(2 p) 0
p
2
Discriminant
For distinct real roots:
b2 4ac
2

(23) 4(2 p)(p)


12 4(p2 2p)
12 4p2 + 8p
p2 2p 3
(p 3)(p + 1)

(ii) B 2 4AC
(6)2 4(3)(c 4)
36 12(c 4)
3 (c 4)
3c+4
7c
c
c

>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

+ +
1 3
1 < p < 3
Combine inequalities
1 < p < 3 and p 2
1 < p < 2 or 2 < p < 3

A6(i)

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
< 7
>7

Quadratic equation
x 2 + px + 8
=p
2
x + px + 8 p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = p, c = 8 p
Discriminant
b2 4ac = (p)2 4(1)(8 p)
= p2 32 + 4p
= p2 + 4p 32
= (p + 8)(p 4)
For equal roots:
b2 4ac
=0
(p + 8)(p 4)
=0
p = 8 or p = 4

36

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1

A6(ii) For distinct real roots:


b2 4ac
>0
(p + 8)(p 4) > 0

A7(b) Line & curve


y = px 3
(1)
2
y = 4x + 5
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
px 3
= 4x 2 + 5
2
4x px + 8 = 0
i.e. a = 4, b = p, c = 8

+ +
8 4
p < 8 or p > 4
A6(iii) For a positive & a negative root:
POR < 0

<0
c
<0

Discriminant
For line to intersect curve:
b2 4ac
0
2
(p) 4(4)(8)
0
2
p 128
0
(p + 128)(p 128) 0

8p <0
p
< 8
p
>8

+
2

A7(a) 2x 4x + 5
= 2(x 2 2x)
+5
2
2
= 2[(x 1) 1 ] +5
= 2(x 1)2
+3
turning pt (1,3)
y intercept = 5
shape

= 2( 1)2 + 3
5
(1,3)

p 128 or p 128
largest negative integer is 12
A8(i)

Discriminant
For line to be tangent to the curve:
B 2 4AC
=0
2
(6) 4(2)(5 c) = 0
36 8(5 c)
=0
36 40 + 8c
=0
8c 4
=0
2

=+ =

Product of roots =

1st equation
x 2 4x + 6 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = 6
Roots: &
Sum of roots

128 128

Line & curve


y = 2x 2 4x + 5 (1)
y = 2x + c
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x 2 4x + 5
= 2x + c
2
2x 6x + 5 c = 0
i.e. A = 2, B = 6, C = 5 c

c
a

b
a

=
=

6
1

4
1

=4
=6

2 + 2 = (2 + 2 )

= [( + )2 2]
= ( + )2 3 [shown]
A8(ii) 3 + 3 = ( + ) (2 + 2 )
= ( + ) [( + )2 3]
[42
= (4)
3(6)]
= 8
A8(iii) 2nd equation
Roots: 3 & 3
Sum of roots = 3 + 3 = 8
Product of roots = 3 3 = ()3 = (6)3 = 216
x 2 (SOR)x +POR = 0
x 2 (8)x +(216) = 0
x2 + 8x + 216
=0

37

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B1

Rev Ex 1
B2(b) 3 2x x 2 0
x 2 + 2x 3 0
(x + 3)(x 1) 0

x + 2y = 10
2y
= x + 10
1

= x+5
2

2y 7y + x = 1
sub (1) into (2):

+ +
3 1

(2)

3 x 1

(1)

2 ( x + 5) 7 ( x + 5) + x
2

=1

2 ( x 2 5x + 25) + ( x 35) + x
1

( x 2 10x + 50) + ( x 35)


1 2
x
2
1 2
x
2
2

11
2
11
2

=1

x + 15

=1

x + 14

=0

x 11x + 28
(x 4)(x 7)
x=4

=0
=0

y|x=4 = (4) + 5
=3

A(4,3)

3
2
3

b
a
2(p+1)

= 2p + 2
2p+2

(1)

a
p2 +p

2 ( ) (p + 1)
3
8
(p2
9
2

(2)
= p2 + p

+ 2p + 1)

d+c
cd

12
1

(1)

= 12

=1

= 23 [shown]

B3(ii) 2nd equation


Roots:

1
c

&

1
d

Sum of roots

= +

= 23

cd

Product of roots = ( ) ( ) =

= (1) = 1

=p +p

= (3) =

8p + 16p + 8
= 9p + 9p
2
p 7p 8
=0
(p + 1)(p 8) = 0
p = 1
or
p=8
|p=1 = 0
a|p=8 = 6
(rej roots are non zero)

2k
6

k
3
k
12

(1)

Product of roots

=p +p

=0

B4(a) 6x 2 2kx + k = 0
Roots: & 3
Sum of roots
= + 3 =

1
2

2p+2 2

+ =

x2 23x + 1

22
=p +p
sub (1) into (2):
3
2 2

(12)

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

Product of roots
c
= (2) =

2(

Product of roots = cd =

Sum of roots = c + d = =

B (7, )

= + 2 =

x 2 12x + 1 = 0
i.e. A = 1, B = 12, C = 1
Roots: c & d

B2(a) x 2 2(p + 1)x + p2 + p = 0


Roots: & 2
Sum of roots

1st equation

y|x=7 = (7) + 5

B3(i)

or x = 7

=1

k
6
k
6

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


k 2

3( )
12

k2
48
2

=
=

k
6
k
6

k
= 8k
k 2 8k = 0
k(k 8) = 0
k = 0 (rej k is positive) or k = 8

38

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1

B4(b) x 2
= 3x + 5
2
x 3x 5 = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 3, c = 5
Roots: &
Sum of roots

B5(a) Quadratic inequality


y = x 2 + 2(k 3)x 25 < 0 for all x
i.e. a = 1, b = 2(k 3), c = 25

=+

Product of roots =
1
2

=
=

=
=

b
a

c
a

2 +2
2 2
(+)2 2
()2
32 2(5)
(5)2

19
25

(1)

=
=

3
1
5
1

=3

2 conditions
(i) a < 0
1 < 0

= 5
(ii) b2 4ac
<0
[2(k 3)]2
4(1)(25) < 0
4(k 2 6k + 9) 4(25)
<0
2
(k 6k + 9) 25
<0
2
k 6k 16
<0
(k 8)(k + 1)
<0
+ +
1 8

Show = +
= 5
=

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


1
2
1
2

+
+

1
5 2
( )

25
4

25 +
4
4
4
4

=
=

19
25
19
25

= 192
= 192 25
= 19(3 + 5) 25
= 57 + 95 25
= 57 + 70

1 < k < 8
B5(b) y = (x 3)(x + 1)
(i)
= x 2 2x 3
= (x 1)2 12 3
= (x 1)2 4
turning pt (1,4)
shape
y intercept = 3

= ( 1)2 4
1

Method 2
is a root
2 = 3 + 5

(1)

(1) 2 :
4 = 33 + 52

(2)

(1, 4)

sub (1) into (2):


4 = 3(3 + 5) + 5(3 + 5)
4 = 9a2 + 15 + 15 + 25
4 = 92 + 30 + 25 (3)
sub (1) into (3)
4 = 9(3 + 5) + 30 + 25
4 = 27 + 45 + 30 + 25
4 = 57 + 70

39

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5(b) Quadratic equation
(x 3)(x + 1) = p
(ii)
x 2 2x 3
=p
2
x 2x 3 p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 3 p
Discriminant
For equal real roots:
b2 4ac
=0
(2)2 4(1)(3 p) = 0
4 +12 + 4p = 0
4p
= 16
p
= 4
Quadratic equation with =
x 2 2x 3 (4) = 0
x 2 2x + 1
=0
(x 1)2
=0
x
=1
B6(a) Quadratic equation
(x + 1)2
= h(x + 2)
2
x + 2x + 1
= hx + 2h
2
(2
x + h)x + 1 2h = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = (2 h), c = 1 2h
Discriminant
For real root x:
b2 4ac
0
2
(2 h) 4(1)(1 2h) 0
(h2 4h + 4) 4(1 2h) 0
(h2 4h + 4) 4 + 8h
0
2
h + 4h
0
h(h + 4)
0
+ +
4 0
h 4 or h 0
The opposite is true
h cannot lie between 4 and 0 if x is real

Rev Ex 1
B6(b) Line & curve
y = 3x + k
(1)
y2 = 1 x2

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(3x + k)2
= 1 x2
9x 2 + 6kx + k 2
= 1 x2
10x 2 + 6kx + k 2 1 = 0
i.e. a = 10, b = 6, c = k 2 1
Discriminant
For 2 distinct points:
b2 4ac
(6k)2 4(10)(k 2 1)
36k 2 40(k 2 1)
9k 2 10(k 2 1)
9k 2 10k 2 + 10
k 2 + 10
k 2 10
(k + 10)(k 10)
+

>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

10 10
10 < k < 10
Tangent
k = 10
B7(a) (1 + x)(6 x)
(x + 1)(x 6)
x 2 5x 6
x 2 5x 14
(x 7)(x + 2)

8
8
8
0
0

+ +
2
7
x 2 or x 7

40

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 1

B7(b) 2x(x + 2)
< (x + 1)(x + 3)
2
2x + 4x
< x 2 + 4x + 3
2
x 3
<0
(x + 3)(x 3) < 0

B8(ii) Discriminant
b2 4ac = (4)2 4(1)(28)
= 128
0
real roots

3 3

B8(iii) product of roots = = 28 < 0


one root is positive and the other is negative.
time can only be positive and the negative root
is rejected hence the rate is 40
mg/s only at one particular time

3 < x < 3
3 3
B8(i)

Quadratic equation
At r = 40:
(t 10)2 2(t 4)2
(t 2 20t + 100) 2(t 2 8t + 16)
(t 2 20t + 100) 2t 2 + 16t 32
t 2 4t + 68
t 2 + 4t 28

= 40
= 40
= 40
= 40
= 0 [shown]

B8(iv) r = t 2 4t
+68
2
= [t + 4t]
+68
2
2
= [(t + 2) 2 ] +68
= (t + 2)2
+72
turning pt (2,72)
shape
y intercept = 68

(2,72)
68

= ( + 2)2 + 72

41

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.1
4

Ex 2.1

(7 + 32)
1(a)

18 = 9 3
= 32

(5 25)

= (7)2 + 2(7)(32) +(32)

2
2

[(52 ) 2(5)(25) +(25) ]


1(b)

1(c)

1(d)

2(a)
2(b)

300 = 100 3
= 103

= 49 +422 +9(2) [25 205 +4(5)]

80 = 16 5
= 45

(45 205)

= 67 +422

45 +205

= 22 + 422 205

48 = 16 3
= 43

5(a)

6
3

42

=
=

23 + 53 33 = 43

3
63

+50

5(b)

2
23

2
23

6
2(3)

6
6

(2 + 5)(2 5)= (2)2 (5)


=4
5
= 1

5(c)

12
254

(1 27)

(1)2

2(1)(27) +(27)

=1
47
= 29 47
3(d)

(5 + 18)

=
=

(1 + 3)(2 3) = 1(2 3) +3(2 3)


= 2 3
+23 3
= 1 + 3

3(c)

=
3(b)

= 23

= 42 4 2 +25 2
= 42 22 +52
= 72
3(a)

= 67 +422

12
254

25+4
25+4

245+48
2

(25) (4)2
245+48
2016
245+48
4

= 65 + 12

+4(7)
6(a)

324
4+32

= (5)2 +2(5)18 +(18)

= 25 +1018 +18
= 43 +109 2
= 43 +10(32)

=
=

= 43 +302

324
4+32

432
432

32(432)

4(432)

2
(4)2 (32)

122 9(2)

16+122

169(2)
34+242
2

= 17 122

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

42

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

3+22
322

=
=
=
=
=

6(c)

8
(6+2)

3+22
322
(3)

Ex 2.1

3+22

+23(22)
2

(3) (22)
3

6(d)

3+22

+(22)

50 48

+46

18 12

+4(2)

34(2)

11+46

18 12
50 48

=
=
=
=
=

(6)

=
=

+(2)2

+26(2)

8
6

12(50 + 48)
2

(50) (48)

8
2

50 + 48

18(50 + 48)

5
1146

50 + 48

+ 46

+4

8
10 + 46
8
10 + 46

80 326
(10)2 (46)
80 326
100 16(6)

80 326
=
4

30 + 25 33

106 24
2

6 + 25 33

106
2

6 + (22.5 )(31.5 )
2

106

6 + (22 2)(33)
2

106

6 + 126

106

600 576
50 48

=
10 46
10 46

900 + 864

2
6 + 26
2

= 3 + 6
7(a)

= 20 86

x3 x = 2
x(3 1) = 2
x

=
=
=
=
=

2
31
2

3+1

31
3+1
23+2
2

(3) (1)2
23+2
31
23+2
2

= 3 + 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

7(b)

2x 3 = 5
2x 3 = 25

= 14

7(c)

21 x = 3
4(1 x) = 3

sleightofmath.com

1x

4
1
4

43

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(d)

8(a)

8 x = x 2
8x =x2
2x
= 10
x
=5

Ex 2.1
9(ii)

= 1800
= 100 18
= 1018
= 109 2

a + b3 = 2 3

= 10(32)
= 302

Equate rational terms:


a=2
Equate irrational terms:
b = 1
8(b)

8(c)

a + b7 = 47 12 7
= 12 + 37
Equate rational terms:
a = 12
Equate irrational terms:
b=3

Change in velocity = 302 202


= 102
10(i)
80 3
3 + 25
Total Length
= 2(square perimeter) +4(height)

a + b2 = 3(1 2) + 42
= (3 32) + 42
= 3 + 2
Equate rational terms:
a=3
Equate irrational terms:
b=1

9(i)

v|s=90 = 20(90)

v = 20s

= 2(4)(3 + 25)

+4(80 3)

= 8(3 + 25)

+416 5 12

= 24 + 165

+4(45) 12

= 24 + 165

+165 12

= 12 + 325

10(ii) Volume
= (square base)

(height)

= (3 + 25)

v|s=40 = 20(40)

(80 3)
2

= 800

= [(3)2 + 2(3)(25) + (25) ] (16 5 3)

= 100 8

= (9

= 108

+ 125

+ 20)

(45 3)

= 104 2

= (125 + 29)

(45 3)

= 10(22)

= 125(45 3)

+29(45 3)

= 48(5) 365

+1165 87

= 202

= 153 + 805
11(a) 412

3
3
2

= 44 3 3
3
= 4(23)
= 83

3
3
2

3
3

18
3
18
3

3
3

183
3

63

= 3
3
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

44

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(b)

4
2

=
=
=

4
2

2
2

42

128
3

642
3

2
42

Ex 2.1

82

3
82

3
8

= 22

2
3

= 22

2
3

12(b)

(273)

8
2

42
2

22
1

2
1
2

+ 2
2

= 2
6
11(c)

=
=

2
6

26

6
1

= 6
3

= 6
3

4
27
4
93
4

4
33

( 3
9

37

=
=
=

37
37
37

=
=
=
=

813
2

93

2
9

+ 3
2
+

93

2
9

5
43
5
23

=
)

5
23
53
2(3)

3
3

1
4(7)

127

+9

37127
1
37127

37+127

37+127

37+127

2
(37)2 (127)

37+127

1369144(7)
37+127

361
247
361

1
2

(27) +2(27)(3)+(3)2
1
4(7)

37+127
1
37+127

432

43+2
43+2

43+2
2

(43) (2)2
43+2

37127
(37)2 (127)
37127

37127
361

38

= 44 3 +39 2

= 4(23) +2(32)

= 83

+92

= 83

+92

(52 + 23)

= 83

+92

52 23

43+2

44

1369144(7)

13(a) (3 3)2

16(3)4

37127

5223
38
5223

52+23
52+23

38(52+23)
2

(52) (23)

38(52+23)
25(2)4(3)
38(52+23)
38

= 42 + 63

37127

= 412 +318

+9

3)
6

+127

+ 3
2

12(c) 6(42 + 33)

(32)

27

5
12

(27)

2(27)(3) +(3)2

3)

432

9 2

27

243
2

1
2

1
(27+3)

18

27

37

3(3)

= 6
3

43

33

= 6
3

12(a)

2
43+2
2
43+2

834
2

(43) (2)2

= 12 63

= 12 63

10 53

23

2+3

= 9 63 + 3
432
432

5
23

2+3

10+53
43

= 2 113

834
16(3)4
834
44

643
44
3
22

1
11

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

45

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(b)

s2 +1
s+2

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

(15)

Ex 2.1
15(b) 6 5x x = 2x
= x
6 5x
6 5x
= x2
x 2 + 5x 6 = 0
(x + 6)(x 1) = 0
x = 6 or x = 1 (rej)

+1

(15)+2
(125+5) +1
35
725
35

3+5
3+5

7(3+5)

25(3+5)

(3)2 (5)
21+75

15(c) x + 5 + x
=1
=1x
x + 5
x+5
= x 2 2x + 1
x 2 3x 4 = 0
(x 4)(x + 1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 4 (rej)

65+2(5)
95

11+5
4
11
4

14(i)

+ 5
4
4+

16

(4 +

= (5 4 3) (4 +
= (5 23)
= (5 23)

(4 +

6
3
6
3

63
3

)
3
3

=
=

(4 + 23)

= 8 + 23
14(ii) By Pythagoras Theorem,
Square of the length of diagonal
2

+ (4 +

10
40 5

40 + 5
40 + 5

400 + 50
2

20 + 25 2
40 5

20 + 52
35

4 + 2
7

+
[given]
7

83 4(3)

= (5 12)

10
405

(40) (5)

= 5(4 + 23) 23(4 + 23)


= 20 + 103

= x5 + 10

(40 5) = 10

5 12
Area = (5 12)

x40

6
3

= (5)2 2(5)12 + (12) + (16 +

48

3
48

36
3

= 25 1012 + 12

+ (28 +

= 37 104 3

+ (28 +

= 37 10(23)

+ (28 +

= 37 203

+(28 + 163)

48
3

483
3

3
3

Equate rational terms:


a=4
Equate irrational terms:
b=2

= 65 43
15(a) 2 + x x
=0
=x
2 + x
2+x
= x2
x2 x 2
=0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0
x = 1 (rej) or x = 2
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

46

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.1

17(a) 3 + a5 = b(3 5) 2(3 + 5)


= 3b b5

18

6 25

a + b7

= 3b 6
(b + 2)5
Equate rational terms:
3 = 3b 6
3b = 9
b =3
(1)
Equate irrational terms:
a = (b + 2) (2)
sub (1) into (2):
a = ((3) + 2)

=
=
=

17(b) a b7 = (2 + 7)(2 7) +7
= (2)2 (7)

=47
= 3 + 7
Equate rational terms:
a = 3
Equate irrational terms:
b = 1
= 1

+7
+7

324
2

(4)2 2(4)7 + (7)


324
16

87
324

+7

23 87
324
23 87

23 + 87
23 + 87

324(23 + 87)
2

(23)2 (87)

324(23 + 87)
529 64(7)

324(23 + 87)
81

Equate rational terms:


a = 92
Equate irrational terms:
b = 32

+b8
2

13

= 92 + 327

= (3)2 2(3)(22) + (22)

+b4 2

=9

+b(22)

= 17 122
= 17 +(2b 12)2
Equate rational terms:
a = 17
Equate irrational terms:
1 = 2b 12

18
47

= 4(23 + 87)

17(c) a + 2 = (3 22)2
122

18
47

=(
=

= 5

b=

a + b7 =

+ 4(2)

+2b2
19(a) (a + 32)(3 42)

= 18 + b2

a(3 2) +32(3 42) = 18 + b2


3a a2 +92 12(2)
3a 24 +(9 4a)2

= 18 + b2
= 18 + b2

Equate rational terms:


3a 24 = 18
3a
=6
a
=2
(1)
Equate irrational terms:
9 4a = b
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
9 4(2) = b
b
=1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

47

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19(b) (3 23)(4 + a3)
3(4 + a3)

Ex 2.1
= b 233

19(d)

23(4 + a3) = b 233

12 + 3a3
83 2a(3)
12 6a
+(3a 8)3
Equate rational terms:
12 6a = b
(1)

2+47

= 4 7

a+b7

2 + 47 = (4 7)(a + b7)

= b 233
= b 233

= 4(a + b7)
= 4a + 4b7
= 4a 7b
Equate rational terms:
2 = 4a 7b
4a = 7b + 2

Equate irrational terms:


3a 8 = 23
3a
= 15
a
= 5
(2)
sub (2) into (1):
12 6(5) = b
b
= 42

7b+2

Equate irrational terms:


4 = 4b a (2)
sub (1) into (2):
4 = 4b (

7b+2
4

= 6 43

a(5 33)

+b3(5 33)

= 6 43

16 = 16b 7b 2
9b = 18
b = 2

5a 3a3
+5b3 3b(3)
5a 9b
+(5b 3a)3
Equate rational terms:
5a 9b = 6

= 6 43
= 6 43

Put b = 2 into (1):

9b+6
5

a|b=2 =

20(i)

9b+6
5

= 4

(2 3) = (2)2 2(2)3 + (3)


+3

20(ii) 28 163= 4(7 43)


2

25b 27b 18 = 20
2b
= 2
b
=1

= 4(2 3)

The two square roots are 2(2 3)


i.e. 4 23 or 4 + 23

Put b = 1 into (1):


a|b=1 =

=4
43
= 7 43

sub (1) into (2):


5b 3 (

7(2)+2

=4

(1)

Equate irrational terms:


5b 3a = 4
(2)

a7 b(7)
+(4b a)7

(1)

19(c) (a + b3)(5 33)

7(a + b7)

9(1)+6
5

=3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

48

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.1

20(iii) 34 242 = c + d2

21(ii)
2

34 242 = (c + d2)

1
2

= (c)2 +2(c)(d2) +(d2)


= c 2 +2cd2
= c 2 + 2d2
Equate rational terms:
34 = c 2 + 2d2 (1)
Equate irrational terms:
24 = 2cd
c

12

10

+d2 (2)
+2cd2

62+73

= (

34

34d2

144
d2

602703
36(2)49(3)
602703
75
4

) + 2d2

+ 2d2

= 144 + 2(d2 )2

14

+
1

3+32
1
3+32

332
332

332
2

(3) (32)

332
15

2 + 3
5
15

3 2

R2

15

3 + 5 2

R2

= 3 + 2

c|d=3 =

= 4
=4

V = IR
= 56 [

1
10

(62 + 73)]

= 6(62 + 73)
2
= 312
= 34 3

+ 18
2

1
R2
1
R2

32

3+2

3+2
32

= a + 1 a
=

4 + 32 or 4 32

1
R2

3+2

R2

3
12

1
R2

=0

12

1
R2

32

(d2 )2 17d2 + 72

c|d=3 =

1
R2

1
R2

R2

R2

a+a+1

332
39(2)

=0

22(i)

2(d2 )2 34d2 + 144

(d2 9)(d2 8)
=0
2
2
d =9
d =8
d = 3 d = 22
(rej non-surds)

21(i)

6273

12 2
d

6273

602703

sub (2) into (1):


34

(62) (73)

(2)

1
(62+73)
10

1
R1

1
a + a + 1
1
a + a + 1

a a + 1
a (a + 1)

a a + 1
1

a a + 1
a a + 1

= a + 1 a [shown]

+ 9 2
2

22(ii)

1+2

= (2 1)

= 3(23)

+ (32)

= 63

21
2

2+3

1
3+4

+ +

1
8+9

Method of Difference
[
]
Telescopic Sum Concept

+(3 2)
+(4 3)
+
+(9 8)
= 9 1
=31
=2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

49

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


23

Ex 2.1

x 2 x 2 + 3x 2 + x 6 = 0
x 2 x 2

= 3x 2 + x 6

x2 x 2

= 9(x 2 + x 6)

x2 x 2

= 9x 2 + 9x 54

8x 2 + 10x 52

=0

4x 2 + 5x 26

=0

(4x + 13)(x 2) = 0
x=

13
4

(rej) or x = 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

50

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.2
2(b)

Ex 2.2

when y = 16:
3

2x 2 = 16
1(a)
1(b)

(23 32 )0 = 1
4

(23)

x2 = 8
2

= (8)3

x
x

= (23 )3
= 4

= 2 (3)
1
2

= 24 (3 )

= 16(3)2
= 144
1(c)

93 33
6

3(a)

16x = (24 )x
= (2x )4
= u4

3(b)

22x+3 = (22x ) (23 )


= (2x )2 (23 )
= 8u2

3(c)

4x1 = (22 )x1


= 22x2
= 22x 22

(32 )3 33

6
1

(27)3

6
1

(33 )3

6
3

6
1

=
2

1(d)

254

= (2x )2

53 56

= (52 )

1
4

1
3

1
6

1
3

1
6

=5

5 5

3(d)

1 1 1
52+3+6

=
= 51
=5
1(e)

33 30 93
2
273

30

33

42x = (22 )2x


= 212x
= (21 ) (2)2x
(2x )2
=2
(u)2
=2

(32 )3

2
(33 )3
1

33

= u2

5 5

1
2

33

4(a)

32

2
u2

2x 2y

= 23 2x 22

1 2
33+32

=
= 31

= 23+x2

=
3

2(a)

y=

4(b)

2x

42x+1
x

3
2x 2
3

y|x=9 = 2(9)2
3

21 (24x )

=2

= 2x

24x+2

21+4x

= 2x

+4x+2

1+4x

= 29x+1

= 2(32 )2
= 2(33 )
= 54

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(22 )2x+1

(16x )

sleightofmath.com

51

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(c)

4 x1

Ex 2.2
6(b)

8y

2( a)+( a)

32

1
22x2

25

3
5
y
2
2

2x+1

7(a)

(23 )

x+2

15
2

17 (2 )

7(b)

17
2

+a3 b 3 a3 b 3 + b

= a3
=a

172
2

2
7(c)

= 33

23

=3

2( 9 + 6 + 4)
3

= 27 + 18 + 12

18 12 8

= 27

=1

+ (4)(5)(52x )
5x+2
+ 4(52x+1 )

( 3 2)( 9 + 6 + 4)
= 3( 9 + 6 + 4)

7(d)

(a2 + 2a4 b 4 + b 2 )
1

(a2 2a4 b 4 + b 2 )
1

= [(a2 + b 2 ) + 2a4 b 4 ] [(a2 + b 2 ) 2a4 b 4 ]


1

= (a2 + b 2 )

(2a4 b 4 )

= (a + 2a2 b 2 + b)

2a2 b 2

=a+b

= 5x
(a)

5x+2
52x+2

= (a3 + b 2 ) b 2

x+2

( a3 + b 2 + b) ( a3 + b 2 b)

522x
+ 20(52x )

5x+2
5(52x+1 )

53x
52x+1

= (a3 + b 2 + b)(a3 + b 2 b)

52x+1

52x+1

17
2

(52 )1x
+ 3(52x )
+ 17(52x )

52x+1

=a+b

53x 251x
52x+1 + 3(25x ) + 17(52x )
53x

= a a3 b 3 + a3 b 3

23x+2

= 162

17(23x+1 )

= 162

= a3 (a3 a3 b 3 + b 3 ) +b 3 (a3 a3 b 3 + b 3 )

23x+6

= 162

(a3 + b 3 ) (a3 a3 b 3 + b 3 )

17(2)(23x )
3 2x+1
(22 )

=2

6(a)

= 3a9

1
4
2

3a3
a9

(8)

+ a3
a9

3 5
222x+2y2

8x+2 34(23x )

2a3
1

5(b)

(a2 )9

(23 )y

= 22y2x2
5(a)

+(a6 )

23y5

= 222x 2
=

2(a3 )

a2

= (22 )x1

1 2

1
3

12

( a )
4

12

a4

= (a2 ) (a4 )

a4

= a2
=a

a4

a3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

52

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8

(3) +(3)
33.5

Ex 2.2

+(3)

+32.5

12

+42(3) = 3k

+31.5

+423

= 3k

33 3 +32 3 +33

+423

= 3k

3(33 +32

+42)

= 3k

+3

2n1

P = (2 + 5)

2n
2n

3(81)

=3

1
2

(2 + 5)

2 + 5
(4 + 45 + 5)
2 + 5

(3 ) (34 ) = 3k
342

= 3k

33

11
6

17
6

5
2
5

2 )2

(23

= 2x 3y pz

3p

2 )2

x y z

=2 3 p

14(i)
(a)

(21 x 1 )r

u = 2x
v = yx
2x+1 +y 2 (y x2 ) = 11
2x 2 +y x
= 11
2u +v
= 11

= 2x 3y pz
1

(1)

,y = 3 ,z = 8

(2n )21

3(2n )

+4(2n+2 )

n)

n )22

3(2

+4(2

= 2n [21

+4(22 )]

= 2n (2

+16)

14(i)
(b)

(22 )

1
x+1
2

2x 22
4u

10(ii) 2n+1 3(2n ) + 4(2n+2 ) = 15(2n )


15 is a factor,
it is divisible by 15
4n
+5(4n+1 )
= 4n +5(4n )(4)
= 4n +20(4n )
= 4n +20(4n )
= 19(4)n

42x+1

2x+2

= 15(2n )

11

(22 32 p3 ) = 2x 3y pz

2n+1
=

(23 2 )8r

= 2244r x163r [shown]

3
2

2 2 32 p8
2

1 r

(8x 2 )8r ( )

= 2243r x162r (2r x r )

[shown]

2x

(24p2 )

(210 35 p5 )

11

13

=2 3 p

3 p

= 2x 3y pz
x y z

=2 3 p

13
2

x = 1 ,y = 2 ,z = 6
(144p2 )

= (5 2)(9 + 80)

x y z

p5

22 32 p 2

2 3 p

x=

(9 + 45) (2 5)
45

= (5 2)(9 + 165)

= 2x 3y pz

54p5

2 3 3 3 p4

10(i)

2 5

11

2 5

(36p6 )3

(24

= (5 2)(9 + 45)

(22 32 p6 )3

9(b)

9(a)

= (2 + 5) (2 + 5)

+51 y x = 4
1

+ yx
5
1
+ yx
5
1
+ yx
5
1

+ v
5

=4
=4
=4
=4

(2)

14(ii) 2(1) (2):


1

2v v = 22 4
5

9
5

22n+1
(22n )(2)
(22 )n (2)
4n (2)

= 18
= 10

(3)

sub (3) into (1):


2u + 10 = 11
u

=
2

19 is a factor,
it is divisible by 19
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

53

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(ii) ax = b y = (a)w

14(iii) (4y)x = 4x y x
= (2x )2 y x
= (u)2 v
1 2

Ex 2.2

ax = b y

(10)

=( )
2

a = bx

(1)

=
2

15(i)

a w

by = ( )

sub (1) into (2):

= bx

(1)

(2)
by

sub (1) into (2):

= [b

yz
( +z)
x

by = b
yz
y = +z

= z(

xy
y+x

= w ( 1)

= w(

yx

x
y+x

= (b x1 )

y
xy

= z ( + 1)

=( )

wy

= [(b ) b]
y
+1
x

bx

b y = b x w
wy
y =
w

y
x

b
b y = (ab)z

by

(2)

ax = b y

x
yx
x

=w
=

xy
yx

[shown]

=z
=

xy
y+x

[shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

54

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(d)

Ex 2.3
1(a)

Ex 2.3

32x = 27
32x = 33
2x = 3
3
x
=
2

1(b)

4x = 32
22x = 25
2x = 5

1(c)

3x

3
x
2

3(i)
1
3

= 2
1 x+2

( )

=3
3
= 31
2x 4 = 1
2x4

22x
2x1

2x+1

= 10
= 10
= 101
=1
1
=

2(c)

3(2x1 )
= 2x + 4
x )(21 )
3(2
= 2x + 4
3(2x ) ( )

= 2x + 4

(2x )

= 2x + 4

(2x )

=4

sub u = 3x :
u

= (23 )2x
= 263x

5(a)

4x 6 16x+1 = 0
2
4x 6
= 16x+1
2
4x 6
= (42 )x+1
2
4x 6
= 42x+2
x2 6
= 2x + 2
x 2 2x 8 = 0
(x 4)(x + 2) = 0
x = 4 or x = 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 4 3 ( )
u

u2
= 4u 3
2
u 4u + 3
=0
(u 3)(u 1) = 0
u=3
or u = 1
x
sub u = 3 :
sub u = 3x :
x
3 =3
3x = 1
3x = 31
3x = 30
x =1
x =0

= 82x

=5

3x = 4 3 ( x )

=0

3x = 4 3(3x )

x + 1 = 6 3x
4x

x2 + x 2

2x1

=2x

33x

2x = 8
2x = 23
x =3

4x

x2

32x+2

3(ii)

2(b)

= 32x

27x

2
=8
sub u = 2x :
u=8

(32 )x+2

4x (52x )
22x (52x )
102x
2x
x

=3

2(a)

3x

2
1

1(d)

2
=2
3
x = 3
x

3x

x = 2 or x = 1

(2) =

(x + 2)(x 1) = 0

9x+1

3x

sleightofmath.com

52x 6(5x ) +5 = 0
(5x )2 6(5x ) +5 = 0
sub u = 5x :
u2 6u + 5
=0
(u 1)(u 5) = 0
u=1
or
u=5
x
sub u = 5 :
sub u = 5x :
x
5
=1
5x = 5
5x = 51
5x = 50
x =1
x =0

55

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(b)

7(a)

22x 10(2x ) +16


(2x )2 10(2x ) +16
sub a = 2x :
a2 10a
+16
(a 2)(a 8)
a=2
or
sub a = 2x :
2x = 2
x =1

2x+1

Ex 2.3
=0
=0

7(b)

3x
9y

=0
=0
a=8
sub a = 2x :
2x = 8
2x = 23
x =3

3x
32y

3x2y

35x (32y ) =
5x+2y

= 33
= 33

= 2y + 3

(1)

2nd eqn
1
42x (26y ) =

2
= 3(2 + 2
22x 2
= 3(2x ) + 2
(2x )2 2
= 3(2x ) + 2
x
sub u = 2 :
2u2
= 3u + 2
2u2 3u 2 = 0
(2u + 1)(u 2) = 0
1
u=2
u=
or
2
sub u = 2x :
sub u = 2x :
2x = 2
1
2x =
2
2x = 21
x
(rej 2 > 0)
x = 1[shown]
5x (252y )
=1
x ((52 )2y )
5
= 50
x (54y )
5
= 50
5x+4y
= 50
x + 4y
=0
x
= 4y

= 27

x 2y = 3

x)

35x (9y )

1st eqn

24x+6y
= 22
4x + 6y = 2
sub (1) into (2):
4(2y + 3) + 6y
8y + 12 + 6y
14y
y

(2)

= 2
= 2
= 14
= 1

Put y = 1 into (1):


x|y=1 = 2(1) + 3
=1
8(i)

2 4m = (2 4m )n
1

= (2 22m )n
1

= (22m+1 )n

(1)

=2

2m+1
n

[shown]

9
1
32
2

3
=3
5x + 2y = 2

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


5(4y) + 2y = 2
18y
= 2
1
y
=
9

Put y =

1
9

into (1):
1

x|y=1 = 4 ( )
9

=
9

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

56

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 2.3

1st eqn
n
2 4m = 8
2m+1
n

9(c)

2
=2
2m+1

=3
n

2m+1

(1)

27m

= 10(3x )

(32 )x+1

+1

= 10(3x )

32x+2

+1

= 10(3x )

(32x )(32 ) +1

= 10(3x )

9(3x )2

= 10(3x )

+1

= 81

9u2

= 34

9u2 10u + 1 = 0

3
= 34
3m 2n 2 = 4
3m 2n
=6

(9u 1)(u 1) = 0

9n+1
33m
32n+2
3m2n2

u=
(2)

3m 2 (
3m (

2m+1

3
4m+2

9m 4m 2
5m
m

=6

u=1

sub u = 3x :
3x = 1
3x = 30
x =0

=6
9(d)

= 18
= 20
= 4

2(4)+1
3

sub u = 4 :
1
4x =
2

22x = 21
2x = 1
1
x
=

9(e)

2(3x )

= 34 3x

3(3x )

= 34

3x

= 33

=3

(9)

2x

3x+2

32x 3x+2

= 3x 9

(3 )2 (3 )(32 )

= 3 9

(3 )2 9(3 )

= 3 9

u2 10u + 9

=0

(u 9)(u 1) = 0
= 9
or
x
sub u = 3 :
3x = 9
3x = 32
x =2

10(a) 8x (4y )

5(7x )

=5

7x

=1

2 2 22y

7x

= 70

2 2 +2y

=0

3x

3x

3x
2

sleightofmath.com

= 1
sub u = 3x :
3x = 1
3x = 30
x =0

= 322
1

= 25 (22 )
1

= 252

+ 2y = 5

3x + 4y
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 3x 9

sub u = 3x :
x

= 2(7x ) + 3

7(7x ) 2 = 2(7x ) + 3

= 34 3x

(3 )2 10(3 ) + 9 = 0

sub u = 4 :
4x = 2
22x = 21
2x = 1
1
x
=

6(3x1 )

6(3x )(31 ) = 34 3x

2(16x )
= 5(4x ) 2
2(4x )
= 5(4x ) 2
x )2
2(4
= 5(4x ) 2
sub u = 4x :
2u2
= 5u 2
2
2u 5u + 2 = 0
(2u 1)(u 2) = 0
1
u=2
u=
or

7x+1 2

or

=3

= 10u

3x = 32
x = 2

Put m = 4 into (1):


n|m=4 =

+1

sub u = 3 :
1
3x =

sub (1) into (2):

9(b)

+1

sub u = 3x :

2nd eqn

9(a)

9x+1

1
2

= 11 [shown]

(1)
57

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(b)

3y

Ex 2.3

12

= (3x )

9x
3y

1 (3x )

=3

32x
y2x2

3
= 31+x
2
y 2x = 1 + x
y
= 2x 2 + x 1 [shown]
10(c) sub (2) into (1):
3x + 4(2x 2 + x 1)
3x + (8x 2 + 4x 4)
8x 2 + 7x 4
8x 2 + 7x 15
(8x + 15)(x 1)
x=

15
8

y|x=15 = 4
8

11

r2
4
r2
4
r2
4

32

3r x r

( x 2 )

3 x

9x2

9
2 6r

( )

2 6r

r 2 (3r ) ( )
9

2 6r

r 2 (3r ) ( )
9

6r

u2

x3

27
2

9
4(3x )
9

x 3r12

= kx 3

=k

2 6(3)

(1)

13

(27) ( )

=k

=k

4u

x 2 8x 2 = 7
8

x2

(2)

(3)2 (3(3) ) ( )

9
2 3

u
= 12u 27
2
u 12u + 27 = 0
(u 3)(u 9) = 0
u=3
u=9
sub u = 3x :
sub u = 3x :
3x = 3 or
3x = 9
x
1
3 =3
3x = 32
x=1
x=2
y|x=1 = 2(1) 3
y|x=2 = 2(2) 3
= 1
=1

= kx 3

x 2r12 = kx 3

Compare power of x:
3r 12 = 3
3r
=9
r
=3
sub (2) into (1):

27

Compare coefficient:

3x

sub u = 3x :
6r

(1)

= 4 ( ) 1

27
(3x )2

y|x=1 = 2

(3x)r

32x

x=1

= 16x
= 24x
= 24x
= 4x
= 4x 6
= 2x 3

2nd eqn
3y = 4(3x2 ) 1
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
32x3
= 4(3x2 ) 1
2x
3
3 3
= 4(3x 32 ) 1

= 11
= 11
= 11
=0
=0

or
5

(2)

1st eqn
64(4y )
26 (22y )
26+2y
6 + 2y
2y
y

=7

x2

sub u = x 2 :
8
u
=7
u

u2 7u 8 = 0
(u 8)(u + 1) = 0
u=8
or
u=1

=
3

sub u = x 2 :
3

x2 = 8
3

x 2 = 23
x = 22
x = 4
14

sub u = x 2 :
3

x2 = 1
x =1

No.
Counter example
when a = 1 & b = 1,
(1)x (1)y = (1)2 (1)5
LHS = RHS when x, y

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

58

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 2.3

Method 1 (Substitution)
x 3x 4
=0
sub u = x:
u2 3u 4
=0
(u 4)(u + 1) = 0
u=4
or
u=1
sub u = x:
sub u = x:
x = 4
x = 1
x = 16
x = 1 (rej)
Method 2 (Square both sides)
x 3x 4
=0
x4
= 3x x 4 > 0, x > 0
2
(x 4)
= 9x
x 2 8x + 16 = 9x
x 2 17x + 16 = 0
(x 1)(x 16) = 0
x = 1 (rej) or x = 16

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

59

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 2.4
2(c)

Ex 2.4
1(a)

1 x

y = 4x
base 4 > 1, graph slopes up

= 2( )
3

1(b)

= 4

1 x
y=( )
3
1
0 < base < 1, graph slopes down

2(d)

1(c)

=( )
3

1(d)

3(i)

y = ex
base e > 1, graph slopes up
=

y = 3(5.1)x
base 5.1 > 1, graph slopes up

= 3(5.1)

y = 50 000(1.04)x
y|x=0 = 50 000(1.04)0
= $50 000

3(ii)

y|x=5 = 50 000(1.04 )5
= $60 833

4(i)

y = 40(1.4)x

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


3

= 2(3 )
2

y = 2(3x )
= 2(31 )x

y = x
base > 1, graph slopes up

y|x=0 = 40(1.4)0
= 40

2(a)

y|x=6 = 40(1.4)6
= 301

4(iii)

y|x=24 = 40(1.4)24
= 128 568

5(i)

T = 90(0.98)x

y = 6ex
base e > 1, graph slopes up

= 6

2(b)

4(ii)

T|x=0 = 90(0.98)0
= 90

5(ii)

T|x=10 = 90(0.98)10
= 73.5

5(iii)

T|x=60 = 90(0.98)60
= 26.8

y = 2e
= 2(e1 )x
1 x

= 2( )
e

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


e

= 2
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

60

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6

Ex 2.4

y = 3(5x )
base 5 > 1, graph slopes up

9(ii)

y = 3(0.2)x
0 < base 0.2 < 1, graph slopes down

= 3(5 )
3

= 3(0.2)

y|x=10 = 45 000(1.02)10
= 54 855

y = 3(2x )
base 2 > 1, graph slopes up

= 3(2 )
6
3

=6

7(iii)

One intersection
One solution

8(i)

P = 600(2 + e0.2t )

y = 45 000(1.02)x
base 1.02 > 1, graph slopes up

= 45 000(1.02)

f(x) = 3(5x )
f(x) = 3(5x )
= 3(51 )x
= 3(0.2)x
y = f(x) and y = f(x) are reflection of each other
in the y-axis
7(i)
7(ii)

45 000

P|t=12 = 600(2 + e0.2(12) )


= 1254

8(iii)

t , e0.2t 0,
P 600(2 + 0) = 1200

9(i)

y = 45 000(1.02)

10(i)

C = 4.86e0.047t
C|t=0 = 4.86e0
= 4.86g/ml

10(ii) C|t=10 = 4.86e0.047(10)


= 3.04g/ml
10(iii) C|t=24 = 4.86e0.047(24)
= 1.57g/ml
10(iv) t , e(0.047t) 0,
C 0
10(v) C = 4.86e0.047t
= 4.86(e0.047 )t
= 4.86 (

P|t=0 = 600(2 + e0 )
= 1800
8(ii)

end of 2021:
x = 2021 2011
= 10

1
e0.047

0 < base

e0.047

< 1, graph slopes down

4.86

= 4.86 0.047

end of 2015:
x = 2015 2011
=4
y|x=4 = 45 000(1.02)4
= 48 709

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

61

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11

Ex 2.4
1 x

12(iv) m

y = 2x = (21 )x = ( )
1

405 ( ) = 80

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


2

2 t

3
2

= 8(2 )

13(i)

= 2

16

( )

( )
3
t

=( )
3
=4

3
2 t

y = 8(2x )
base 2 > 1, graph slopes up

( , 22)

= 80
2 t

81
2 4

V = Aekt
Initial value of the car is $60 000:
V|t=0
= 60 000
k(0)
Ae
= 60 000
A
= 60 000

y=2
(1)
y = 8(2x )
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x
= 8(2x )
22x = 8
22x = 23
2x = 3
3
x
=
(3)

Value of the car is $39 366 after 4 years:


V|t=4
= 39366
Aek(4)
= 39366
4k
60 000e
= 39366
A = 60 000
39 366
4k
e
=
(e

60 000
9 4

k 4

=( )

sub (3) into (1):


3
( )

V = 60 000 ( )
10

= 60 000(0.9)t [shown]

13(ii) V = 60 000(0.9)t
0 < base 0.9 < 1, graph slopes down

2 t

m = 405 ( )
3

2 0

m|t=0 = 405 ( )
3

= 405g
12(ii)

10

9 t

y = 2 2 = 21.5 = 22
3
( , 22)
12(i)

10
9

60 000

2 3

m|t=3 = 405 ( )
3

= 60 000(0.9)

= 120g
12(iii) Amount decayed in 3 years
= m|t=0 m|t=3
= 405 120
= 285g

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

62

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 2
A2(b)

Rev Ex 2
A1(i)

(5 2)x = 5 + 2
x

5+2

5+2

52

5+2
5+2

(5) +2(5)(2) +(2)2


(5)
5

(2)2

+45

+4

54

= 9 + 45
A1(ii) x

= 9 + 45

1
x
1
9+45
1

= 9 + 45

= 9 + 45

= 9 + 45

= 9 + 45

+9 45

9+45

945
945

945
(9)2 (45)

= 42

945

50

25 2

2
3
2

52

2
2

= 42

52

2
2

= 42

52

2
2

= 42

52

2
2

23
12

96
3

2
2

166
3

2
2

2
2

( 6 6
3
3

2
2

( 6 6
3
3

2
2

( 6 6
3
3

2
2

( 6 6
3
3

2
2

(106)

2
2

46
3

2
6

26

6
1

6
3

4
4

3216
2

= k3

323 33
2
323 33
2

= k3

= k3

3(21.5 )(31.5 )
2

3(22)(33)
2
186

= k3
= k3

= k3

+96)

= k3

+96)

= k3

= k3

512

= k3

5(4 3)

= k3

5(23)

= k3

103

= k3

k = 10

= 42

8116(5)

= 18
A2(a) 42

128
3

52

3
3
3

2
2

+
+
+
+
+

A3(a) x 2 7
=3
2
x 7
=9
2
x 16
=0
(x + 4)(x 4) = 0
x = 4 or x = 4

7
72
7
362
7
62
7
62
7
6(2)
7
12

2
2

A3(b) 2x + 3 4x
3 4x
3 4x
4x 2 + 4x 3
(2x + 3)(2x 1)

x = or x =
A3(c)

x
18x

=0
= 2x
= 4x 2
=0
=0
(rej)

1
3

3x
= 1 8x
2
9x
= 1 8x
2
9x + 8x 1 = 0
(9x 1)(x + 1) = 0
x=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

1
9

or x = 1 (rej)

63

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A3(d)

4x

A5(b) 4x1 + 16x


= 66
(4x )(41 ) + (42 )x = 66

= 2(2x1 )

8
22x

= 22 (2x1 )

23

1
4

1
x
2

2x3

= 66

4u2 + u 264
=0
(4u + 33)(u 8) = 0

5
2

u=

1st eqn
8 4y
23 22y
23+2y
3 + 2y
2x
x

= 66

sub u = 4 :
u
+ u2

(4x ) + (4x )2
x

=2

2x 3 = x

A4

Rev Ex 2

2x1

=2
= 22x1
= 22x1
= 2x 1
= 4 + 2y
=y+2

33

or

sub u = 4x :
4x =

u=8
sub u = 4x :

33

4x = 8

4
x

4x = 23
22x = 23
2x = 3

(rej 4 > 0)
(1)

x
2nd eqn
3y 3x

A6(i)

= 81
x

= 34
=4

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


y+2

y+

=4

A6(ii) m|t=2 = 300e0.85(2)


= 54.8mg
A6(iii) y = 300e0.85t
= 300(e1 )0.85t

y + + 1= 4
3

1 0.85t

=3

m = 300e0.85t
m|t=0 = 300e0
= 300mg

(3y ) (32 ) = 34
3y+2
x
y+

= 300 ( )
e

=2

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


e

Put y = 2 into (1):


x|y=2 = (2) + 2

=4
x)

A5(a) 2(4

x)

2(4

x+2

+4
+

(4x )(42 )

2(4x ) + 16(4x )
x)

18(4

= 9(4
= 9(

sub u = 4x :
18u

1
4 0.5
1
4

B1(a) x 8 x
(x 8)x

4
1

4x
x

= 41
= 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=3
=3

x 2 8x
=3
x 2 8x
=9
2
x 8x 9 = 0
(x 9)(x + 1) = 0
x = 9 or x = 1 (rej)

sub u = 4x :
=

A6(iv) p = 300 300e0.85t


= 300(1 e0.85t )

2
1

4x

= 9( )

300

0.5 )

= 300 0.85

sleightofmath.com

64

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 2

B1(b) 18 x 1 = 4
18 x 1 = 16
=2
x 1
x1
=4
x
=5
B1(c)

11+4
x
2

B3(i)

1
2
1
2

33 (32 )

(BC)h

114

=
=

x
2

3x
3

9
3x

=3

3+

x
B2

=x
=

B
C
(83 22)

92
8322

92
83 22

83 + 22
83 + 22

92(83 + 22)
2

92(83 + 22)
64(3) 4(2)

92(83 + 22)
184

83 + 22
2

= 46

(83) (22)

(32 )3
3+

(83 22)h = 46

h=

x = 7 or x = 7
=

= 46

(83 22)h = 92

x
= 11 4
2
x 7
=0
(x + 7)(x 7) = 0

B1(d) 27(3)x

Area

2
3

2
3

11
3
22
3

= 43 + 2

(a 65)(2 + b5)

B3(ii) By Pythagoras Theorem,

= 82

AC = ( BC)

a(2 + b5) 65(2 + b5) = 82

+ h2

2a + ab5 125 6b(5) = 82


2a 30b +(ab 12)5
Equate rational terms:
2a 30b = 82
a 15b = 41
a
= 15b 41

= [ (83 22)]

= 82

= (43 + 2)

+ (43 2)
+ (43 2)

(1)

[(43) + 2(43)(2) + (2) ]

+ [(43) 2(43)(2) + (2) ]


Equate irrational terms:
ab 12 = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
(15b 41)b 1 = 0
15b2 41b 12 = 0
(15b + 4)(b 3) = 0
b=

or

15

a|b= 4 = 15 (
15

) 41

15

= 45

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 16(3) + 86 + 2

+ (16(3) 86 + 2)

= 100
= 10
b=3
a|b=3 = 15(3) 41
=4

sleightofmath.com

Perimeter = AB +AC +BC


= 10 +10 +83 22
= 20 +83 22

65

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B4

At (3,4):

Rev Ex 2
= a(3)n 23
= a(3)n
= a(3)n
=a
= 33n

4
27
33
33n
a

At (9,220): 220
243
243
a(32n )

(1)

= a(9)n 23
= a(9)n
= a(32n )
= 243
(2)

At (1, k): k = a(1)n 23

B5(b) 9x + 10(3x )
(32 )x + 10(3x )
(3x )2 + 10(3x )
sub u = 3x :
u2 + 10u
u2 + u 12
(u + 4)(u 3)
u = 4 or
sub u = 3x :
3x = 4
(rej 3x > 0)

(3)

= 3x+2 + 12
= (3x )(32 ) + 12
= 9(3x ) + 12
= 9u + 12
=0
=0
u=3
sub u = 3x :
3x = 3
3x = 31
x=1
t

sub (1) into (2):


(33n )32n = 243
33+n
= 35
3+n =5
n
=2

B6(i)

Put n = 2 into (1):


a|n=2 = 332 = 3

B6(ii) | = 20 + 100(0.8)86
t=8
94.3

= 20 + 100(0.8)6
|t=0
=X
0

20 + 100(0.8)6
20 + 100(1)
X

Put a = 3, n = 2 into (3):


k = 3(1)2 23 = 20

B6(iii)

= 84

20 + 100(0.8)
x

x1 )

B5(a) 5 + 5 = 30(5
5x + 5 = 30(5x )(51 )

100(0.8)

5x + 5 = 30(5x ) ( )
5

5x + 5 = 6(5x )
sub u = 5x :
u + 5= 6u
5
= 5u
u
=1
sub u = 5x :
5x = 50
x =0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=X
=X
= 120C

t
6

= 84

t
6

= 64

(0.8)

t
6

= 0.64

(0.8)

t
6

= (0.8)2

=2

= 12s

t
B6(iv)

sleightofmath.com

t , 100(0.8)6 0
20C

66

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.1
3(b)

Ex 3.1
1(a)

Yes
Are exponents
Non-negative?
Integers?

= 15x 4 +5x 3 10x 2


+6x 3 +2x 2
4x
2
12x
4x +8
= 15x 4 + 11x 3 20x 2 8x + 8

True
True
4(a)

both conditions are met,


2
x 1 is a polynomial
3

1(b)

(2x 2 x + 1)(3x 2)
Coefficient of x 2
= (2)(2) + (1)(3)
= 7

Yes
Are exponents
Non-negative? True
Integers?
True

4(b)

both conditions are met,


4x 2 2x is a polynomial .
1(c)

(5x 2 + 2x 4)(3x 2 + x 2)

(x 2 + 3x + 2)(8x 2 5x 4)
Coefficient of x 2
= (1)(4) + (3)(5) +(2)(8)
= 4
15
+16
= 3

No
Are exponents
Non-negative? True
Integers?
False

4(c)

(2x 2 2x + 5)(x 2 3x + 1)

x has non-integer power of 2.

Coefficient of x 2
= (2)(1) + (2)(3) +(5)(1)
=2
+6
5
=3

both conditions are not met,


4x 3 + x + 3 is not a polynomial.
1(d)

No

4(d)

Are exponents
Non-negative? False
Integers?
True
3
x2

Coefficient of x 2
= (1)(6) + (2)(3)
= 6 6
= 12

has a negative power of 2.

both conditions are not met,


3
1 + 2 is not a polynomial.

5(a)

2(i)

Q(x) P(x) = (2x 2 3x + 2) (x 2 + x + 1)


= x 2 4x + 1

2(ii)

P(x) + 2Q(x) = (x 2 + x + 1) +2(2x 2 3x + 2)


= (x 2 + x + 1) +(4x 2 6x + 4)
= 5x 2 5x + 5

3(a)

(4x 3 x 2 + 7x 2)(2x 3 + 3x 2 + 6)

a(x 2) + b = 5 3x
sub x = 2:
a(2 2) + b = 5 3(2)
b
= 1
sub x = 0:
a(0 2) + b = 5 3(0)
2a + b
=5
2a + (1) = 5
a
= 3

b = 1

(7x 3)(2x 2 + 4x 1)
= 14x 3 +28x 2 7x
6x 2 12x +3
3
= 14x + 22x 2 19x + 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

67

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(b)

Ex 3.1

a(x 1) + b(x + 3) = 3x + 1

6(i)
(3x 2 + 2)

sub x = 1:
a(1 1) + b(1 + 3)= 3(1) + 1
4b
=4
b
=1

(5x + 10)
1

A(x) = (5x + 10)(3x 2 + 2)


2
1

= [5x(3x 2 + 2) +10(3x 2 + 2)]


2
1

sub x = 3:
a(3 1) + b(3 + 3) = 3(3) + 1
4a
= 8
a
=2
5(c)

= (15x 3 + 10x +30x 2 + 20)


2
1

= (15x 3 + 30x 2 + 10x + 20)


=

2
15 3
x
2

+ 15x 2 + 5x + 10

a(x 2) + b(x 4) = x + 2
Yes. Exponents are non-negative integers
sub x = 2:
a(2 2) + b(2 4)= 2 + 2
2b
=4
b
= 2

6(ii)

= (3x 2 + 2)2

sub x = 4:
a(4 2) + b(4 4)= 4 + 2
2a
=6
a
=3
5(d)

5(e)

= 3x 4 + 37x 2 + 100x + 104


P(x)
= (5x + 1) + (3x 2 + 2)
+3x 4 + 37x 2 + 100x + 104

a =4
b =0
c = 1
3 = c + d
3 = (1) + d
d=2

= 3x 2 + 5x + 3
+3x 4 + 37x 2 + 100x + 104
No because 3x 4 + 37x 2 + 100x + 104 will have
non-integer exponent

x 3 6x 2 + 14x 8 = (x 2)3 + ax

7(i)
(a)

sub x = 2:
(2)3 6(2)2 + 14(2) 8 = (2 2)3 + 2a
4
= 2a
a
=2
5(f)

7(i)
(b)

= a(2 2)2 + b(2 + 1)3 +

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2P(x)
[Q(x)]2
= 2(x + 1) (x 2 x + 1)2
= 2(x + 1) (x 2 x + 1)(x 2 x + 1)
Coefficient of x 2
= [(1)(1) +(1)(1) +(1)(1)]
= 3

= 27b + 8
= 27b
= 1

sub x = 1:
2(1)2 7(1) + 3
1)3 + (1)3
8
9
a

M(x) = P(x)Q(x)
= (x + 1)(x 2 x + 1)
Coefficient of x 2
= (1)(1) +(1)(1)
=0

2x 2 7x + 3 = a(x 2)2 + b(x + 1)3 + x 3


sub x = 2:
2(2)2 7(2) + 3
(2)3
19
27
b

+ (5x + 10)2

= (3x 4 + 12x 2 + 4) + (25x 2 + 100x + 100)

ax 3 x + 3 = 4x 3 + bx 2 + c(x 1) + d
Compare x 3 :
Compare x 2 :
Compare x:
Compare x 0 :

By Pythagoras Theorem
Hypotenuse

= a(1 2)2 + b(1 +

7(i)
(c)

= 9a 1
= 9a
=1

Q(x)[3x 2 + P(x)]
= (x 2 x + 1)(3x 2 + x + 1)
Coefficient of x 2
= (1)(1) +(1)(1) +(1)(3)
=1
1
+3
=3

sleightofmath.com

68

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(ii)

Ex 3.1
9(c)

Deg (M(x)) = 3
Deg [2P(x) [Q(x)]2 ] = 4
Deg [Q(x)[3x 2 + P(x)]] = 4

sub x = 2:
3(2)2 5(2) + 4 = a(2 2)2 + b(2 2) + c
6
=c
c
=6

8(i)

V(x) = (2x + 3)(3x 1) (2x + 5)


= (6x 2 + 7x 3) (2x + 5)

sub x = 0:
3(0)2 5(0) + 4
4
4

= 12x 3 +14x 2 6x
+30x 2 +35x 15
3
= 12x + 44x 2 + 29x 15
8(ii)

9(a)

A(x) = 2[(2x + 3)(3x 1) +(2x + 3)(2x + 5)


+(3x 1)(2x + 5)]
= 2[(6x 2 + 7x 3) +(4x 2 + 16x + 15)
+(6x 2 + 13x 5)]
= 2(16x 2 + 36x + 7)
= 32x 2 + 72x + 14

4
2b
b
9(d)

x 3 6x 2 x + c = (x 3)(ax 2 3x + b)
3

Compare x : a = 1
sub x = 3:
(3)3 6(3)2 3 + c = (3 3)(a(3)2 3(3) + b)
30 + c
=0
c
= 30
sub x = 0:
(0)3 6(0)2 (0) + c
b)
c
30
b
9(b)

= (0 3)(a(0)2 3(0) +
= 3b
= 3b c = 30
= 10

x 3 + cx 2 + x + 6 = (x + 1)(x 2)(ax + b)
Compare x 3 : a = 1
sub x = 0:
(0)3 + c(0)2 + (0) + 6 = (0 + 1)(0 2)(a(0) +
b)
6
= 2b
b
= 3
sub x = 2:
(2)3 + c(2)2 + 2 + 6
4c + 16
c+4
c

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

3x 2 5x + 4 = a(x 2)2 + b(x 2) + c


Compare x 2 : a = 3

= a(0 2)2 + b(0 2) + c


= 4a 2b + c
= 4(3) 2b + 6
a = 3, c = 6
= 18 2b
= 14
=7

x 3 + 3x 2 2x + 16 c(x + 2)
= ax 2 (x 1) + b(x 2)2 (x 1)
sub x = 1:
(1)3 + 3(1)2 2(1) + 16 c(1 + 2)
= a(1)2 (1 1) + b(1 2)2 (1 1)
18 3c
=0
3c
= 18
c
=6
sub x = 0:
(0)3 + 3(0)2 2(0) + 16 c(0 + 2)
= a(0)2 (0 1) + b(0 2)2 (0 1)
16 2c
= 4b
16 2(6) = 4b c = 6
4
= 4b
b
= 1
sub x = 2:
(2)3 + 3(2)2 2(2) + 16 c(2 + 2)
= a(2)2 (2 1) + b(2 2)2 (2 1)
32 4c
= 4a
32 4(6) = 4a c = 6
8
= 2a
a
=2

= (2 + 1)(2 2)(a(2) + b)
=0
=0
= 4

sleightofmath.com

69

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

yz 2

Ex 3.1

+( z)2 y

+(2 y)

+y 2 z 4

= yz 2 +(x 2 2z + z 2 )y +4 4y + y +y 2 z 4
= yz 2 + y 2zy + z 2 y +4 4y + y +y 2 z 4
= yz 2 +y 2yz + yz 2 +4 4y + y +y 2 z 4
= yz 2 +y 2yz
+yz 2
+4 4y
+y
+y 2 z 4
= yz 2 +(y + 4) (2yz + 4y) +yz 2 + y + y 2 z 4
Yes, all exponents of x are non-negative integers
Degree is 3
10(ii) x 3 z 2

+(x z)2 +(2x )

+ z 4

= x 3 z 2 +(x z)2 +4x 2 4x + +z 2


= x3z2
+(x z)2
+

+4x 2 4x
+z 2

= [x 3 z 2 + (x z)2 + 1] +4x 2 4x +z 2
= z 2 +[x 3 z 2 + (x z)2 + 1]

4x +4x 2

No, exponents of y include fractions. y has non integer exponent


10(iii) x 3 y

+(x )2 y

+(2x y)

+y 2
2

+y 2

+y 2

+y 2

= x 3 y +(x 2 2x + )y +(2x y)
= x 3 y +x 2 y 2xy + y +(2x y)
= x 3 y +x 2 y 2xy + y +(2x y)
= x 2 y +x 2 y
+y

2xy
2

+(2x y)

+y 2
2

= [x 2 y + y] +x 2 y + (2x y) 2xy
= y 2 +[x 2 y + y]

2xy

+y 2

+x 2 y + (2x y)

Yes, all exponents of z are non-negative integers


Degree is 4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

70

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

Ex 3.1

A(t) = t 3 + at 2 + p
B(t) = bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct + q

12(ii) (x a)(x b)(x c)


(b)
= (x 2 (a + b)x + ab)(x c)

Yes. Exponents of t are non-negative integers

= x 3 (a + b)x 2
+abx
cx 2
+c(a + b)x abc
3
2
(a
= x + b + c)x + [ab + c(a + b)]x abc
= x 3 (a + b + c)x 2 + (ab + ac + bc)x abc

11(ii) A(0) = 300


p = 300
B(0) = 0
q=0
11(iii) A(t) would decrease until it becomes empty at
zero.
A(t) cannot be negative
11(iv) 300 A(t)
300 (t 3 + at 2 + p)
t 3 at 2 p + 300
Sub p = 300, q = 0:
t 3 at 2 300 + 300
t 3 at 2

12(ii) (x a)(x b) (x z)
= (x a)(x b) (x x) (x z)
= (x a)(x b) (0)
(x z)
=0
13

= B(t)
= bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct + q
= bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct + q
= bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct + 0
= bt(t 2)2 + 2t 2 + ct

A = 3, B = 2, C = 5 and D = 2
3(x 1) 2(x 1)(x + 1) + 5x(x 2 1) 2
= 3( 1) 2( 1)( + 1)
+5( 2 1) 2

= 3 3 2 2 + 4

Compare t 3 : b = 1
t 3 at 2 = t(t 2)2

The graphs are not aligned therefore James


answers are wrong.

+2t 2 + ct

t 3 at 2 = t(t 2 4t + 4) +2t 2 + ct

3x 3 2x 2 + x 4
= A(x 1) + B(x 1)(x + 1) + Cx(x 2 1) + D

t 3 at 2 = t 3 4t 2 + 4t +2t 2 + ct
t 3 at 2 = t 3 2t 2 + (4 + c)t
at 2

Compare x 3 : C = 3

= 2t 2 + (4 + c)t

Compare t 2 : a = 2
a =2

sub x = 1:

D = 2

sub x = 1:

10
10
2A
A

Compare t: 4 + c = 0
c
= 4
12(i)
(a)

(x a)(x b) = x 2 (a + b)x + ab

sub x = 0:

= 2A + D
= 2A + (2)
=8
=4

D = 2

4 = A B + D
B =4A+D
= 4 (4) + (2)
A = 4, D = 2
= 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

71

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.2
2(b)

Ex 3.2
1(a)

1(b)

3x
+4
2
3x 2 9x
+6x
+2
(9x 2 6x)
12x
+2
(12x 8)
10
Quotient = 3x + 4
Remainder = 10
+3x
2x 2
3
2x +1 4x
+8x 2
(4x 3 +2x 2 )
6x 2
(6x 2

1(c)

+2
+7x 5

+8x
5x
4
x 2x 3 5x
2x 3
(5x 4 10x 3
8x 3
(8x 3
2

4x 2

+37
+6x 2
15x 2 )
+21x 2
16x 2
37x 2
(37x 2

4x

x 2
3x 2 )
+8x
2x 2
2 +2x)
(2x
6x
4
(6x +6)
10

2x 2 +2x 1 8x 4
+0x 3
(8x 4 +8x 3
8x 3
(8x 3

11
2

x 2
4x 2 )
+3x 2
8x 2
11x 2
(11x 2

+0x

+5

+0x
+4x)
4x +5
+11x 11)
2

15x + 21
2

+4x

8x 4 x 2 + 5
= (2x 2 + 2x 1) (4x 2 4x +

+4x
24x)
+28x 3
74x 111)
102x +108

+1
2x 2
3
2
x 2 2x
4x +x 2
(2x 3 4x 2 )
+x 2
(x 2)
0
2x 3 4x 2 + x 2 = (x 2)(2x 2 + 1)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+6
+8x

2(c)

Quotient = 5x 2 + 8x + 37
Remainder = 102x + 108
2(a)

+2x
x 2

3x 4 x 2 + 8x 4
= (x + 1)(3x 3 3x 2 + 2x + 6) 10

+7x
+3x)
4x
5
(4x +2)
7
2
Quotient = 2x + 3x + 2
Remainder = 7
2

3x 3
3x 2
x +1 3x 4
+0x 3
4
(3x +3x 3 )
3x 3
(3x 3

11

21

) 15x +

3(i)
Deg(Dividend)
= Deg(Divisor) +Deg(Q(x))
4
3
2
Deg (x + 2x 2x ) = Deg(x + 2) +Deg(Q(x))
2x + 4
(4)
= (1)
+Deg(Q(x))
Deg (Q(x))

=3

Deg(R(x)) < Deg(Divisor)


< Deg(x + 2)
<1
=0
2x
x3
4
3
x +2 x
+2x 2x 2
(x 4 +2x 3 )
2x 2
(2x 2

sleightofmath.com

+2
2x +4
2x
4x)
2x
+4
(2x +4)
0

72

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.2

3(ii)
Deg(Dividend)
= Deg(Divisor) +Deg(Q(x))
4
3
2
Deg (x + 2x 2x ) = Deg(x + 2) +Deg(Q(x))
2x + 4
(4)
= (2)
+Deg(Q(x))
Deg (Q(x))

=2

Deg(R(x)) < Deg(Divisor)


< Deg(x 2 + x + 3)
<2
+x
x2
2 +x +3 x 4
x
+2x 3
(x 4 +x 3
x3
(x 3

6
2x 2
+3x 2 )
5x 2
+x 2
6x 2
(6x 2

3(iv)
Deg(Dividend)

(4)

= (3)

Deg (Q(x))

=1

+Deg(Q(x))

Deg(R(x)) < Deg(Divisor)


< Deg(x 3 x 2 + x 1)
<3
2x +4
x
2x
+3x)
5x +4
6x 18 )
x
+22

4(a)

2x 2
+x 2
3x 2
3x 2

2x +4
x)
x
+3x +4)
4x +4

= (2x 2 1)(3x + 2)
= 6x 3 + 4x 2 3x 2

Dividend

=x2
+16x
6x
3
x 2 6x
+4x 2
(6x 3 12x 2 )
16x 2
(16x 2

+29
3x

3x
32x)
29x
2
(29x 58)
56

(2x 2 1)(3x + 2)
= (x 2)(6x 2 + 16x + 29) + 56

2x +4
2x
2x)
+0x +4
+0x +1)
3

x
+3
4
+x 1 x
+2x 3
(x 4 x 3
3x 3
(3x 3

Deg(R(x)) < Deg(Divisor)


< Deg(x 2 1)
<2
1
2x 2
x 2 )
x 2
+0x
x 2
(x 2

Divisor

=2

+2x
x2
2 +0x 1 x 4
x
+2x 3
(x 4 +0x 3
2x 3
(2x 3

+Deg(Q(x))

4
3
2
3
2
Deg (x + 2x 2x ) = Deg (x x ) +Deg(Q(x))
2x + 4
+x 1

3(iii)
Deg(Dividend)
= Deg(Divisor) +Deg(Q(x))
4
3
2
Deg (x + 2x 2x ) = Deg(x 2 1) +Deg(Q(x))
2x + 4
(4)
= (2)
+Deg(Q(x))
Deg (Q(x))

= Deg(Divisor)

4(b)

Dividend
Divisor

= 3x 3 x 2 + 2x + 3
= (x + 1)(x 1) = x 2 1

3x
1
3
+0x 1 3x
x 2
(3x 3 +0x
x 2
(x 2

+2x
3x)
+5x
+0x
5x

+3
+3
+1 )
+2

3x 3 x 2 + 2x + 2
= (x + 1)(x 1)(3x 1) + 5x + 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

73

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(c)
Dividend
Divisor

Ex 3.2
5(c)
Dividend = 6x 4 3x 3 28x 2 x 10
Divisor
= 3 2x = 2x + 3

= 10x 7x 4x + 8x + 7
= (x + 1)(2x 3) = 2x 2 x 3
x
+5
5x 2
2 x 3 10x 4
3
2x
7x
4x 2 +8x +7
(10x 4 5x 3
15x 2 )
3
2x
+11x 2 +8x
+3x)
(2x 3 +x 2
2
+5x +7
10x
2 5x 15)
(10x
10x +22
4

3x 3 3x 2 + 19 x

11x
4x
3
2x +1 8x
18x 2
(8x 3 +4x 2 )
22x 2
(22x 2

+6
+x

2
59
2

59
2

10

10
x +

Dividend = 8x 3 18x 2 + x + 6
Divisor
= 2x + 1
2

2x +3 6x 4
x
3x 3 28x 2
4
3
(6x 9x )
6x 3
28x 2
3
(6x 9x 2 )
x
19x 2
2
(19x + 57 x)

10x 7x 4x + 8x + 7
= (2x 2 x 3)(5x 2 x + 5) + 10x + 22
5(a)

59

No, there is a remainder


6

+6

+x
11x)
12x
+6
(12x +6)
0

217
4

177

4
217
4

2x 5 x 3 + x 2 4 = (x 2 x 2)Q(x) + ax + b
2x 5 x 3 + x 2 4 = (x 2)(x + 1)Q(x) + ax + b
sub x = 2:
64 8 + 4 4 = 2a + b
56
= 2a + b
b
= 56 2a

(1)

Yes, it is 4x 11x + 6
sub x = 1:
2 + 1 + 1 4 = a + b
4
= a + b
(2)
(1)
(2):
sub
into
4
= a + (56 2a)
3a
= 60
a
= 20

5(b)
Dividend = 6x 4 25x 3 + 5x 2 + 60x 36
Divisor
= (x 2)(3x 2) = 3x 2 8x + 4
3x
9
2x 2
2 8x +4 6x 4
+60x 36
3x
25x 3 +5x 2
4
3
2
(6x 16x
+8x )
3
+60x
9x
3x 2
3
2
12x)
(9x +24x
2
+72x 36
27x
(27x 2 +72x 36)
0

Put a = 20 into (1):


b|a=20 = 56 2(20)
= 16
7(i)

Deg(Q(x)) = 1

Yes, it is 2x 2 3x 9

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

74

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(ii)

Ex 3.2

x 4 2x 3 + ax 2 2
= x(x 1)(x + 1)Q(x) + 4x 2 + bx + c
sub x = 0:

c = 2

sub x = 1:

12+a2 =4+b+c
a3
=4+b2
a
=b+5

sub x = 1:

9
(i)(a)

(2)

Remainder = 4x 2 + bx + c
= 4x 2 + (2)x 2
= 4x 2 2x 2

8(ii)

32 24 + 1 = 2a 3
9
= 2a 3
a
=6

4x 3 6x 2 + 1
= (x 2)Q(x) + 6x 3
3
2
4x 6x 6x + 4 = (x 2)Q(x)
Q(x)

+16x
+0x 2

+26
6x

9
Remainder when P(x) + Q(x) is divided by x 2
(i)(b) = 3 + 47
= 50

4x 3 6x 2 + 1 = (x 2)Q(x) + ax 3
sub x = 2:

2x 3
+8x 2
x 2 2x 4
+4x 3
(2x 4 4x 3 )
8x 3
(8x 3

+0x 2
16x 2 )
6x
16x 2
2 32x)
(16x
26x
5
(26x 52)
47
Remainder when Q(x) is divided by x 2
= 47

Put b = 2 into (1):


a|b=2 = (2) + 5
=3

8(i)

+6
+4x

+4x
2x)
6x
9
(6x 12)
3
Remainder when P(x) is divided by x 2
=3

(1)

1+2+a2 =4b+c
a+1
=4b2
a
=1b
sub (1) into (2):
b + 5= 1 b
2b = 4
b
= 2

+x
3x 2
3
x 2 3x
5x 2
3
(3x 6x 2 )
x2
(x 2

Remainder of 2P(x) Q(x) is divided by x 2


= 2(3) 47
= 41

4x3 6x2 6x+4

+2x
4x 2
3
x 2 4x
6x 2
(4x 3 8x 2 )
2x 2
(2x 2

x2

2
6x

+4

6x
4x)
2x +4
(2x +4)
0

Q(x) = 4x 2 + 2x 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

75

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.2

9(ii)(a)
2

10(ii) For x = 7:
Dispenser capacity

3x
2
3
x 2 3x
5x 2
(3x 3 3x 2
2x 2
(2x 2

+4x 9
6x)
+10x 9
+2x +4)
8x
13
2
Remainder when P(x) is divided by x x 2
= 8x 13
x

+6x
2x 2
2 x 2 2x 4
x
+4x 3
4
(2x 2x 3
6x 3
(6x 3

+10
+0x 2
4x 2 )
+4x 2
6x 2
10x 2
(10x 2

Number of Bottles

5
11

6x
12x)
+6x 5
10x 20)
16x
+15
2
Remainder when Q(x) is divided by x x 2
= 16x + 15

2x+y

12

Remainder when 3P(x) + Q(x) is divided by x 2 x 2


= 3(8x 13) +(16x + 15)
= 24x 39 +16x + 15
= 40x 24
Dispenser capacity = (3x 4 + x 3 + 6x + 2)
Number of bottles = (x 2 + 1)
+x 3
3x 2
2 +0x +1 3x 4
+6x +2
x
+x 3 +0x 2
4
3
2
(3x +0x +3x )
+6x
x3
3x 2
3
2
+x)
(x +0x
2
+5x +2
3x
2 +0x 3)
(3x
5x +5

= 5(7) + 5
= 40 cm3

3x
4y
2
2x +y 6x
5xy
4y 2
2 +3xy)
(6x
8yx
4y 2
(8yx 4y 2 )
0
6x2 5xy4y2

9(ii)(b)
Remainder when Q(x) P(x) is divided by x 2 x 2
= (16x + 15) (8x 13)
= 8x + 28

10(i)

= (7)2 + 1
= 50

Capacity of each bottle = 3(7)2 + 7 3


= 151 cm3
Amount of drink left

6x

= 3(7)4 + (7)3 + 6(7) + 2


= 7590 cm3

= 3x 4y

5yx
3x 2
3
x +2y 3x
+yx 2
(3x 3 +6yx 2 )
5yx 2
(5yx 2

+7y 2
3y 2 x

y 3

3y 2 x
10y 2 x)
7y 2 x
y 3
(7y 2 x +14y 3 )
15y 3
Quotient = 3x 2 5yx + 7y 2
Remainder = 15y 3

Capacity of each bottle = 3x 2 + x 3


Amount of drink left = 5x + 5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

76

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13

Ex 3.2

3x 3 ax 2 bx + 72 = (x 2 + 5x + c)(dx + e)
Compare x 3 : d = 3
3x 3 ax 2 bx + 72
= (x 2 + 5x + c)(3x + e)
= 3x 3 +15x 2
+3cx
+ex 2
+5ex
+ce
3
2
= 3x + (15 + e)x +(3c + 5e)x +ce
Compare x 2 : a = 15 + e

(1)

Compare x:

(2)

b = 3c + 5e

Compare x 0 : 72 = ce
let c = 1, e = 72
Put e = 72 into (1):
a = 15 + 72
a = 87
Put c = 1, e = 72 into (2):
b = 3(1) + 5(72)
b
= 363
3x
+72
3
x +5x +1 3x
+87x 2
(3x 3 +15x 2
72x 2
(72x 2
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+363x +72
+3x)
+360x +72
+360x +72)
0

sleightofmath.com

77

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(ii)

Ex 3.3
1(a)

Ex 3.3

Let f(x) = x 4 4x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3
By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder
= g(2)

By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(1)
=1+4+31+3
= 10
1(b)

g(x) = 2x 3 bx 2 + 2ax 4
= 2x 3 (3a 5)x 2 +2ax 4

Let f(x) = [x(x 1)(1 2x)2 + x 2 3]

= 2(2)3 (3a 5)(2)2 +2a(2)

= 16 (3a 5)(4) +4a

= 16 12a + 20 +4a

= 32 8a
By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(2)
= 2(1)(9) + 4 3
= 19
1(c)

Let f(x) = [3(x + 4)2 (1 x)3 ]


By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(0)
= 3(4)2 1
= 47

Let f(x) = 8x 3 + ax 2 + bx 9
f(x) has remainder of 95 when divided by x + 2
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
= 95
64 + 4a 2b 9 = 95
4a 2b
= 22
4a
= 2b 22
a

Let f(x) = x + 3x kx + 4

(1)

=3

By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
=k
8 + 12 2k + 4 = k
3k
= 24
k
=8

4
3

27 + a + b 9
9

Let f(x) = x 4 + x 3 + 2ax 2 14a4

=3

a+ b

= 15

9a + 6b
3a + 2b

= 60
= 20

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


3(

By Remainder Theorem,
f(2a)
= 32
4
3
3
4
16a 8a + 8a 14a = 32
2a4
= 32
4
a
= 16
a = 2 or a = 2

b11
2

) + 2b

(3b 33) + 4b
7b
b

= 20
= 40
= 7
= 1

put b = 1 into (1):


a|b=1 =

4(i)

f(x) has remainder of 3 when divided by 2x 3


By Remainder Theorem,

f( )

b11

f(x) = ax 2 + bx 6

(1)11
2

= 6

By Remainder Theorem,
f(3)
=9
9a 3b 6 = 9
3b
= 9a 15
b
= 3a 5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

78

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

Ex 3.3

f(x) = x 3 + ax 2 + bx 3
f(x) has remainder of 27 when divided by x 2,
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
= 27
8 + 4a + 2b 3 = 27
4a
= 22 2b
a

11b
2

7(i)

(1)

f(x) has remainder of 3 when divided by x + 1,


By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)
=3
1 + a b 3 = 3
ab
=7
(2)

f(x) has a remainder of p + 5 when divided by


x2
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
=p+5
8 + 4a + 7
=p+5
4a
= p 10
(2)

sub (1) into (2):

sub (1) into (2):


8p 24 = p 10
7p
= 14
p
=2

11b
2

=7

11 b 2b = 14
3b
= 3
b
= 1

Put p = 2 into (1):


a|p=2 = 2(2) 6

Put b = 1 into (1):


a|b=1 =

= 2

11(1)
2

=6
6(ii)

f(x) = x 3 + ax 2 + 7
f(x) has remainder of 2p when divided by x + 1
By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)
= 2p
3
2
(1) + a(1) + 7 = 2p
1 + a + 7
= 2p
a
= 2p 6
(1)

7(ii)

f(x) = x 3 + 6x 2 1x 3

f(x) = x 3 2x 2 + 7
By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(p)
= f(2)
= (2)3 2(2)2 + 7
= 8 8 + 7
= 9

By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(1)
= (1)3 + 6(1)2 1(1) 3
= 3
8

Let f(x) = ax 3 + bx 2 + 2x + c
By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)
= 2f(1)
a + b + 2 + c = 2(a + b 2 + c)
a + b + 2 + c = 2a + 2b 4 + 2c
c
= 3a b + 6 [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

79

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9

Ex 3.3

Let f(x) = 2x 2 + 6x + 3

11(iii) P(x) (3x 2 x 2)


Remainder = ax + b
P(x) = (3x 2 x 2)Q(x) +ax + b
= (x 1)(3x + 2)Q(x) +ax + b

By Remainder Theorem,
f(p)
= f(2q)
2(p)2 + 6(p) + 3 = 2(2q)2 + 6(2q) + 3
2p2 6p + 3

10

p2 3p

= 4q2 + 6q

3p + 6q

= p2 4q2

3(p + 2q)

= (p + 2q)(p 2q)

p 2q

=3

1 +
a

= 20
= 20
= 20
= 20
=0
=0

12

=1

f(x) (x 2 + x 2)
Remainder = ax + b
f(x) = (x 2 + x 2)Q(x) +ax + b
= (x 1)(x + 2)Q(x) +ax + b

when f(x) is divided by x + 2, remainder is 2


By Remainder Theorem,
f(2) = 2
2a + b = 2
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2(4 b) + b = 2
8 + 2b + b
= 2
3b
=6
b
=2
a|b=2 = 4 (2)
=2

11(ii) P ( 2) = 2 a + b

= a

When f(x) is divided by x 1, remainder is 4


By Remainder Theorem,
f(1) = 4
a + b= 4
a
=4b
(1)

P(1)
=a+b
9352 =a+b
1
= a + b [shown] (1)

Remainder = ax +b
= (1)x +(2)
=x2

P(x) = 9x 3 3x 2 5x 2
= (x 1)(3x + 2)Q(x) + ax + b

Put a = 1 into (1):


1 = 1 + b
b = 2

f(x) = x 2 2x + p
g(x) = px 2 + x + 3
By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)g(1)
[(1)2 2(1) + p][p(1)2 + (1) + 3]
(p + 3)(p + 2)
p2 + 5p + 6
p2 + 5p 14
(p + 7)(p 2)
p = 7 or p = 2

11(i)

(1) (2):

= 8q2 + 12q + 3

3
2

= a + b [shown] (2)
3

Remainder = 2x + 2
13

f(x) = 4x 3 (x 2)5 x 2 + xx 7
f(x) is not a polynomial because not all exponents
are non-negative integers
3

xx has exponent of
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

80

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.4
3(ii)

Ex 3.4
1(a)

P(x) = 2x 4x + x 2
P(2) = 16 16 + 2 2
=0

+5x
2x 2
3
x 2 2x
+x 2
(2x 3 4x 2 )
5x 2
(5x 2

By Factor Theorem,
Yes
1(b)

+2
8x

8x
10x)
2x
4
(2x
4)
0

g(x) = 2x 3 + x 2 8x 4
= (x 2)(2x 2 + 5x + 2)
= (x 2)(2x + 1)(x + 2)

P(x) = 16x + 8x 6x 9
1

P ( ) = 2 + 2 + 3 9
2

= 6
0
By Factor Theorem,
No

4(a)

x 3 64 = x 3 43
= (x 4)[x 2 + x(4) + 42 ]
= (x 4)(x 2 + 4x + 16)

4(b)

27a3 + 125x 3
= (3a)3 + (5x)3

1(c)

P(x) = x 4 2x(x 2 8) 12x 2 + 11


P(3) = 81 2(3)(9 8) 12(9) + 11
= 10
0

= (3a + 5x)[(3a)2 3a(5x) + (5x)2 ]


= (3a + 5x)(9a2 15ax + 25x 2 )
4(c)

8 + 27x 3 = 23 + (3x)3
= (2 + 3x)[22 2(3x) + (3x)2 ]

By Factor Theorem,
No
2

= (2 + 3x)(4 6x + 9x 2 )

P(x) = 3x 4ax 4a

x + 2 is a factor of P(x)
By Factor Theorem,
P(2)
3(2)2 4a(2) 4a2
12 + 8a 4a2
a2 2a 3
(a 3)(a + 1)
a = 3 or a = 1
3(i)

4(d)

432x 3 2y 3
= 2(216x 3 y 3 )
= 2[(6x)3 y 3 ]
= 2(6x y)[(6x)2 + 6x(y) + y 2 ]

=0
=0
=0
=0
=0

= 2(6x y)(36x 2 + 6xy + y 2 )

g(x) = 2x 3 + x 2 + px 4
x 2 is a factor of g(x)
By Factor Theorem,
g(2)
2(2)3 + (2)2 + p(2) 4
16 + 4 + 2p 4
2p
p

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=0
=0
=0
= 16
= 8

sleightofmath.com

81

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(i)

Ex 3.4

f(x) = ax 3 + bx 2 5x + 2a
Quadratic factor: x 2 3x 4 = (x 4)(x + 1)
x 4 is a factor of f(x)
By Factor Theorem,
f(4)
=0
64a + 16b 20 + 2a = 0
66a + 16b
= 20
33a + 8b
= 10
x + 1 is a factor of f(x)
By Factor Theorem,
f(1)
=0
a + b + 5 + 2a= 0
a+b+5
=0
a
= 5 b

6(ii)

6(iii)

p = 2

f(x) = 2x 2 + 3px 2q
g(x) = x 2 + q

(2)

Put b = 7 into (2):


a|b=7 = 5 (7)
=2

2x
1
3
3x 4 2x
7x 2
(2x 3 6x 2
x 2
(x 2

(1)

x a is a factor of g(x)
By Factor Theorem,
g(a)
=0
a2 + q = 0
a2
= q

(2)

a = 0 (rej a 0) or a =
5x +4
8x)
+3x +4
+3x +4)
0

3p
4

(3)

Method 1
sub (3) into (1):
2 (

The third factor is (2x 1)


6(i)

x a is a factor of f(x)
By Factor Theorem,
f(a)
=0
2
2a + 3pa 2q = 0

sub (2) into (1)


2a2 + 3pa + 2a2 = 0
4a2 + 3pa = 0
a(4a + 3p)
=0

f(x) = 2x 3 7x 2 5x + 4

x2

=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0

(1)

sub (2) into (1):


33(5 b) + 8b = 10
165 33b + 8b = 10
25b
= 175
b
= 7

5(ii)

By Factor Theorem,
f(2)
(2p + 1)4 2p + 2p2
8p + 4 2p + 2p2
2p2 + 6p + 4
p2 + 3p + 2
(p + 1)(p + 2)
p = 1 or p = 2

2(
8

By Factor Theorem,
f(1)
=0
2
(2p + 1) + p + 2p = 0
2p2 + 3p + 1
=0
(2p + 1)(p + 1)
=0

9p2

9p2

f(x) = (2p + 1)x 2 + px + 2p2

3p 2

16

9p2
8
2

) + 3p (

)
9p2
4

9p2
4

2q

2q

2q

3p
4

) 2q = 0
=0
=0
=0

9p + 16q

= 0 [shown]

Method 2
sub (3) into (2):

p = or p = 1

3p 2

9p2
16

= q
= q

9p + 16q = 0 [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

82

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8

Ex 3.4
10(a) 2x 4 + 54x = 2x(x 3 + 27)
= 2x(x 3 + 33 )
= 2x(x + 3)[x 2 x(3) + 32 ]
= 2x(x + 3)(x 2 3x + 9)

Part I
f(x) = 3x 3 5ax 2 + ka2 x + 4a3 , a 0
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2a)
3(8a3 ) 5a(4a2 ) + ka2 (2a) + 4a3
24a3 20a3 2ka3 + 4a3
40a3 2ka3
2ka3 + 8a3
ka3 + 4a3
a3 (k + 4)
a = 0 (rej a 0) or k = 4

= 32a3
= 32a3
= 32a3
= 32a3
=0
=0
=0

10(b)
(1 + x)3 + 64
= (1 + x)3 + 43
= [(1 + x) + 4][(1 + x)2
(1 + 2x + x 2
= (x + 5)
= (x + 5)(x 2 2x + 13)

(1 + x)(4) + (4)2 ]
4 4x
+ 16)

f(x) = 3x 3 5ax 2 4a2 x + 4a3


Part II
Quadratic factor:
x 2 ax 2a2 = (x 2a)(x + a)

f(2a) = 3(2a)3 5a(2a)2 4a2 (2a) + 4a3


= 24a3 20a3 8a3 + 4a3
=0
By Factor Theorem, (x 2a) is a factor of f(x)
f(a) = 3(a)3 5a(a)2 4a2 (a) + 4a3
= 3a3 5a3 + 4a3 + 4a3
=0
By Factor Theorem, (x + a) is a factor of f(x)
x 2 ax 2a2 is a factor of f(x)
9

f(a) = a3 ba2 4b2 a + 4b3


f(2b) = (2b)3 b(2b)2 4b2 (2b) + 4b3
= 8b3 4b3 8b3 + 4b3
=0
By Factor Theorem,
(a 2b) is a factor of f(a)
when f(a) is divided by a + b,
By Remainder Theorem,
Remainder = f(b)
= (b)3 b(b)2 4b2 (b) + 4b3
= b3 b3 + 4b3 + 4b3
= 6b3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

83

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.4

10(c) (x + y)3 (x y)3


= [(x + y) (x y)] [(x + y)2
+ (x + y)(x y) + (x y)2 ]
2
2
= 2y
[x + 2xy + y
+x 2 y
+(x 2 2xy + y 2 )]
= 2y
[2x 2 + 2xy + (x 2 2xy + y 2 )]
= 2y(3x 2 + y 2 )
10(d) 1000x 3 y 6 = (10x)3 (y 2 )3
= (10x y 2 )[(10x)2 + 10x(y 2 ) + (y 2 )2 ]
= (10x y 2 )(100x 2 + 10xy 2 + y 4 )
11(i)

x 6 64 = ( 3 )2 82
= (x 3 + 8)(x 3 8)
= (x 3 + 23 )(x 3 23 )
= (x + 2)[x 2 x(2) + 22 ] (x 2)[x 2 + x(2) + 22 ]
= (x + 2)(x 2 2x + 4) (x 2)(x 2 + 2x + 4)

11(ii) x 6 64

= (x 2 + 4)2 4x 2

(x + 2)(x 2 2x + 4)(x 2)(x 2 + 2x + 4)

= (x 2 + 4)2 (2x)2

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x + 2)(x 2)

= [(x 2 + 4) + 2x][(x 2 + 4) 2x]

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x + 2)(x 2)

= (x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x 2 4 1)

=0

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x 2 5)

=0

(x 2 + 2x + 4)(x 2 2x + 4)(x 5)(x + 5) = 0


x = 5 or x = 5
12(i)

x 3 2x 3 + 3 = 0 has roots &


1

sub y = x 3 :
1

y 2 2y + 3 = 0 has roots 3 & 3


1

Sum of roots

= 3 + 3 =
1
3

Product of roots =

1
3

c
a

b
a

(2)

(3)

= (1)

(1)

=2
=3

12(ii) +
1

= (3 ) + (3 )
1

= (3 + 3 ) [(3 ) (3 ) (3 ) + (3 ) ] sum of cubes factorization


1

= (3 + 3 ) (3 3 3 + 3 )
2

= 2 (3 3 + 3 )
1

3 + 3 = 2, 3 3 = 3
1

= 2 [(3 + 3 ) 23 3 3]

a2 + b2 = (a + b)2 2ab

= 2[(2)2
2(3) 3]
= 2(4 6 3)
= 10

3 + 3 = 2, 3 3 = 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

84

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13

Ex 3.4

(2n + 1)3 (2n 1)3


= [(2n + 1) (2n 1)][(2n + 1)2
+ (2n + 1)(2n 1) + (2n 1)2 ]
2
(4n + 4n + 1 + 4n2 1
=2
+ 4n2 4n + 1)
= 2(12n2 + 1)
difference between the cube of two consecutive positive odd numbers
4
=

(2n + 1)3 (2n 1)3


4

2(12n2 + 1)
4

12n2 + 1
2

12n2 has to be an even number


12n2 + 1 has to be an odd number
(12n2 + 1) cannot be divisible by 2
difference between the cube of two consecutive positive
odd numbers can never be divisible by 4.
14

Difference in cubes
= (large cube) (small cube)
= a3 b3
red cuboid
= (a)(a b)(a)
= (a b)a2

green cuboid
= a(b)(a b)
= (a b)ab
blue cuboid
= (a b)(b)(b)
= (a b)b2

sum of cuboids
= (a b)a2 + (a b)ab + (a b)b2
= (a b)(a2 + ab + b2 )
Resultant Volume = sum of cuboids
a3 b3
= (a b)(a2 + ab + b2 ) [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

85

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.5
3(b)

Ex 3.5
1(a)

1(b)

2(i)

x 3 2x 2 4x + 8
)
(x 2)(
)
(x 2)(x 2
2
= (x 2)(x
4)
= (x 2)(x + 2)(x 2)
= (x + 2)(x 2)2
3

(x 3)(4x 3)(x + 2) = 0
x = 3 or x =

3x 10x + 9x 2
(x 1)(
)
2
)
(x 1)(3x
2
(x
1)(3x
+2)
= (x 1)(3x 2 7x +2)
= (x 2)(3x 1)(x 2)

f(x)
x 3 3x 2 4x
x 3 3x 2 4x + 12
(x 2)(
)
2
(x 2)(x
)
(x 2)(x 2
6)
2
(x 2)(x
x 6)

x 3 4x 2 + x + 6
(x 2)(
(x 2)(x 2
(x 2)(x 2
(x 2)(x 2 2x

or x = 2

3(d)

x(x + 3)(x 1)
x(x 2 + 2x 3)
x 3 + 2x 2 3x
x 3 + 2x 2 4x 8
(x 2)(
)
2
(x 2)(x
+4)
(x 2)(x 2 +4x +4)
(x 2)(x + 2)2
x = 2 or x = 2

(x 2)(x 3)(x + 2) = 0
x = 2 or x = 3 or x = 2
3(a)

x3 + 4
= x(x + 4)
3
x +4
= x 2 + 4x
3
2
x x 4x + 4
=0
(x 1)(
)
2
(x 1)(x
)
(x 1)(x 2
4) = 0
(x 1)(x + 2)(x 2)
=0
x = 1 or x = 2 or x = 2

= 12
= 12
=0

=0

3(c)

f(x) = x 3 3x 2 4x
f(x)
=0
2
x(x 3x 4) = 0
x(x 4)(x + 1) = 0
x = 0 or x = 4 or x = 1

2 (ii)

4x 3 + 18
= 7x 2 + 21x
4x 3 7x 2 21x + 18 = 0
(x 3)(
)
2
(x 3)(4x
)
2
(x 3)(4x
6)
(x 3)(4x 2 + 5x 6) = 0

=0
)
)
3)
3) = 0

=x+8
=x+8
=x+8
=0

=0
=0

P(x) = k[x (4)] [x (1)] [x (3)]


= k(x + 4)(x + 1)(x 3)
= 5(x + 4)(x + 1)(x 3)
coefficient of x 3 is 5
= 5(x 2 + 5x + 4)(x 3)
= 5(x 3 +5x 2 +4x
3x 2 15x 12)
= 5(x 3 +2x 2 11x 12)
= 5x 3 +10x 2 55x 60

(x 2)(x 3)(x + 1) = 0
x = 2 or x = 3 or x = 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

86

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(a)

x 3 9x 2 + 25x 21
=0
(x 3)(
)
(x 3)(x 2
)
2
(x 3)(x
+ 7)
2
(x 3)(x
6x + 7) = 0
x = 3 or x =
=

5(b)

2(1)
68

622
2

= 3 2

1 3
x
6
3

113
6

717
4

9(i)

+ x

= 35

= 210
=0

4(4)2 4(1)(30)
2(1)
416120
2

4104
2

(not real)

f(x) = 2x 3 + 9x 2 + 7x + 3
f(k)
=9
3
2
2k + 9k + 7k + 3 = 9
2k 3 + 9k 2 + 7k 6 = 0 [shown]

Let f(x) = 2x 3 x 2 + 3x + 2
1

= 35
1 2
x
2
2

2(2)

x = 7 or x =

(7)(7)2 4(2)(4)
74932

(x 7)(
)
(x 7)(x 2
)
(x 7)(x 2
+ 30)
(x 7)(x 2 +4x + 30) = 0

2x 3 + 6x 6
= (13x 6)(x 1)
3
2x + 6x 6
= 13x 2 19x + 6
3
2
2x 13x + 25x 12 = 0
(x 3)(
)
2
(x 3)(2x
)
(x 3)(2x 2
+ 4)
(x 3)(2x 2 7x + 4)
(x 3)(2x 2 7x + 4) = 0
x = 3 or x =

x 3x + 2x
x 3 3x 2 + 2x 210

2(3)
6

N(x) = x 3 x 2 + x
N(x)

(1)(1)2 4(3)(1)
11+12

y = P(x) cuts the x-axis at 2,1 & 2:


P(x) = k[x (2)][x (1)] [x (2)]
= k(x + 2)(x 1)(x 2)
P(x) passes through (0,12):
12 = P(0)
= k[(0) + 2][(0) 1][(0) 2]
= k(2)(1)(2)
= 4k
k=3
P(x) = 3(x + 2)(x 1)(x 2)

63628

3x 3 + 5x 2
= 3x + 2
3
2
3x + 5x 3x 2 = 0
(x + 2)(
)
(x + 2)(3x 2
)
(x + 2)(3x 2
1)
(x + 2)(3x 2 x 1) = 0

6(i)

(6)(6)2 4(1)(7)

x = 2 or x =

5(c)

Ex 3.5

9(ii)

2k 3 + 9k 2 + 7k 6 = 0

f ( ) = 2 ( ) + 2
(k + 2)(
(k + 2)(2k 2
(k + 2)(2k 2
(k + 2)(2k 2

=0
By Factor Thm, (2x + 1) is factor
6(ii)

2x 3 + 4
2x 3 + 4
2x 3 x 2 + 3x + 2

= (x 1)(x 2)
= x 2 3x + 2
=0

(k + 2)(2k 1)(k + 3) = 0
k = 2 or k =

(2x + 1)(
(2x + 1)(x 2
(2x + 1)(x 2
(2x + 1)(x 2 x
1

x = or x =

)
)
+ 2)
+ 2) = 0

1
2

or k = 3

(1)(1)2 4(1)(2)

)
)
3)
+5k 3) = 0

2(1)
118
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

17
2

(not real)
sleightofmath.com

87

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

Ex 3.5

y = 2x 3
(1)
(2
y = x)(5x + 6)
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x 3
= (2 x)(5x + 6)
3
2x + (x 2)(5x + 6) = 0
2x 3 + 5x 2 4x 12
=0
(x + 2)(
)
(x + 2)(2x 2
6)
2
(x + 2)(2x
+x 6) = 0
(x + 2)(2x 3)(x + 2)
x = 2

or

y|x=2 = 2(2)3

11(i)

+5x
x2
2 x 2 x 4
x
+4x 3
(x 4 x 3
5x 3
(5x 3

=0
x=

3
2
3 3

y|x=3 = 2 ( )
=

=0
=0

+6
x 2
2x 2 )
+x 2
5x 2
6x 2
(6x 2

( ,

16x 12
16x
10x)
6x 12
6x 12)
0

27
4

(x 2)(x + 1)(x 2 + 5x + 6) = 0
(x 2)(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) = 0
x = 2 or x = 1 or x = 2 or x = 3

3 27
2

=0
=0

= 16
(2, 16)

11(ii) P(x)
x 4 + 4x 3 x 2 16x 12
a = 4, b = 16
(x 2)(x + 1)Q(x)
(x 2 x 2)Q(x)

P(x) = x 4 + ax 3 x 2 + bx 12
P(x) is divisible by (x 2)
By Factor Theorem,
P(2)
=0
16 + 8a 4 + 2b 12 = 0
8a + 2b
=0
b
= 4a
P(x) is divisible by (x + 1)
By Factor Theorem,
P(1)
=0
1 a 1 b 12 = 0
a + b + 12
=0
a + (4a) + 12
=0
b = 4a
a
= 4

12(i)

f(x) = 2x 3 + ax 2 7a2 x 6a3


f(a) = 2(a)3 + a(a)2 7a2 (a) 6a3
= 2a3 + a3 + 7a3 6a3
=0
By Factor Theorem,
(x + a) is a factor of f(x)

12(ii) f(x)
=0
3
2
2
3
2x + ax 7a x 6a
=0
(x + a)(
)
(x + a)(2x 2
)
(x + a)(2x 2
6a2 )
(x + a)(2x 2 ax 6a2 ) = 0
(x + a)(2x + 3a)(x 2a) = 0
3

x = a or x = a or x = 2a
2

b|a=4 = 4(4) = 16
13(i)

x 2 (9 2x)
9x 2 2x 3
2x 3 9x 2 + 2
(2x 1)(
(2x 1)(x 2
(2x 1)(x 2
(2x 1)(x 2
4x
1

x = or x =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

)
)
2)
2) = 0

(4)(4)2 4(1)(2)

=2
=2
=0

2(1)
416+8
2

424
2

426
2

= 2 6

88

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.5

13(ii) x 2 (3 + 2x)(3 2x) = 2


x 2 (9 2x)
=2
1

x = or x = 2 + 6 or x = 2 6
2

(
14

rej 2x )
would not exist

15(iii) P(x) = 0 has only 1 real root


0 real roots in quadratic factor
b2 4ac
<0
2
a 4(2)(a)< 0
a2 8a
<0
a(a 8)
<0

Intersects x = 1 or x = 3 only
P(x) = k(x + 1)(x 3)2

+
0

+
8

0<a<8

P(x) passes through (1,16):


16 = P(1)
= k(1 + 1)(1 3)2
= k(2)(4)
2 =k

16

P(x) = 2(x + 1)(x 3)2


P(3) = 144
P(x) = k(x + 1)2 (x 3)

5 32x 2
5 32x 2
12x 3 + 32x 2 + 3x 5
(2x + 1)(
)
(2x + 1)(6x 2
)
(2x + 1)(6x 2
5)
2
(2x + 1)(6x +13x 5)

= 3x(4x 2 + 1)
= 12x 3 + 3x
=0

=0

(2x + 1)(2x + 5)(3x 1) = 0

y = P(x) passes through (1,16):


16 = P(1)
= k(1 + 1)2 (1 3)
= k(4)(2)
2 = k
P(x) = 2(x + 1)2 (x 3)
P(3) = 48
15(i)

5 1

2 3

x = , ,
17(i)

29.7

2 + 2
21

P(x) = 4x 3 + 2ax 2 2x 2 + ax a

Compare area,

1 3

1 2

1 2

A(x) = xy

P ( ) = 4 ( ) + 2a ( ) 2 ( ) + a ( ) a
=

1
2

+ a
2

1
2

+ aa
2

Compare width,

=0

x 2 + y 2 + y = 21

By Factor Theorem,
(2x 1) is a factor of P(x)
15(ii) P(x) (2x 1)(
(2x 1)(2x 2
(2x 1)(2x 2
= (2x 1)(2x 2

(1)

)
)
+a)
+ax +a)

x 2 + y 2
x2 + y2
42y

= 21 y
= 441 42y + y 2
= 441 x 2

441x2
42

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


1

A(x) = x (
=

441x2

2
42
x(441x2 )
84

17(ii) 21 is the width of rectangle and this results in no


leftover area for A(x)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

89

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(iii)

x(441x2 )

= 15

84

Ex 3.5
3
7

2)

x(441 x
= 1296
x 2 441x + 1296= 0
x

=
=

(441)(441)2 4(1)(1296)
2(1)
441189297
2

x = 2.96 or x = 438 (rej x < 21)

(12.4,42.4)

= ()

17(iv) A(x) = 42.4 cm2 is max area

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

90

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.6
2(a)

Ex 3.6
1(a)

3x+1
(x2)(x+5)

x2

x+2
(x+1)2

Cover-up rule:

x = 5:

+ (x+1)2

Cover-up rule:

x+5

x = 1:
x = 2:

A
x+1

7
=A
( )(7)
14
=B
(7)( )

1
( )2

A=1

Substitution:

B=2

x = 0:

=B

B=1

= +

A =1
3x+1

(x2)(x+5) =
1(b)

x2

x+5

x+2

(x+1)2 =

x2
A
B

+
(x + 2)(x + 1) x + 2 x + 1

2(b)

Cover-up rule:
4
=A
( )(1)
3
=B
(1)( )

x = 2:
x = 1:

1(c)

x2
(x+2)(x+1)

x+5
x2 +x

x+5

4
x+2

x(x+1)

A
x

3
x+1

x = 1:

1(d)

x+5
x2 +x

x+10
x2 4

x+1

x+10
x2 4

2
x+2

+ (x2)2

=A

A=4

x = 2:

32
(4)( )2

=C

C=8

x = 0:

x+1

44
(2)(4)

B = 4

2(c)

14+7x3x2
x2 (x+2)

= +

(x+2)(x2)2 =

A=5

A
x

4
x+2

B
x2

B = 3

4
8

x2

+ (x2)2

C
x+2

Cover-up rule:
A
x+2

8
=A
( )(4)
12
=B
(4)( )

B
x2

Substitution:

64
( )(16)

x = 0:

14
( )2 (2)

x = 2:

12
(4)( )

3
x2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=7

B=7

x2

Cover-up rule:

x = 2:

A
x+2

x2 8x+44

x+10
(x+2)(x2)

x = 2:

x = 2:

5
=A
( )(1)
4
=B
(1)( )

x2 8x+44
(x+2)(x2)2

B = 3

Cover-up rule:
x = 0:

+ (x+1)2

Cover-up rule:

A=4

1
x+1

A = 2

Substitution:

B=3

x = 1:

sleightofmath.com

18

C = 3

= + +

14+7x3x2
x2 (x+2)

=C

7
x2

x+2

A=0

91

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(d)

4x2 9x+7
x(x1)2

Ex 3.6
3(c)

x1

+ (x1)2

Cover-up rule:

7x2 9x+29
(x3)(x2 +4)

x3

Bx+C
x2 +4

Cover-up rule:

x = 0:

7
( )(1)

x = 1:

2
(1)( )2

=A
=C

65
( )(13)

A=7

x = 3:

C=2

Substitution:

=A

29
(3)(4)

x = 0:

A=5

A
3

C
4

C = 3

Substitution:
5
(2)(1)2

x = 2:

3(a)

4x2 9x+7
x(x1)2

x1

8x2 11x+5
(2x3)(x2 +1)

= + +

2x3

B = 3

(x3)(x2

Bx+C

3(d)

x2 +1

Cover-up rule:
13
2
13
)( )
4

x= :
2

x = 1:

3(b)

=A

(1)(2)

8x2 11x+5
(2x3)(x2 +1)

x(x2 +3)

3
A

2
2x3

C = 1

1
B+C

2x3

B=2

x2 +4

Bx+C
x2 +5

A=2

B=3

3x1
x2 +1

(x1)(x2

4(a)

x2 +3

=A

4(b)
Bx+C

x2 +3
2

= +

x(x2 +3)
2

Compare coefficients:
x 2 : 1 = 5 + B B = 4
x:
C=2
5

4x+2

x2 +3

= +

C
5

2B+C

= +

x1

4x
x2 +5

C=4
B = 1

Deg(numerator) = 1
Deg(denominator) = 2

Deg(numerator) = 1
Deg(denominator) = 2
Deg(numerator) < Deg(denominator),
the fraction is proper

4(c)

Deg(numerator) = 2
Deg(denominator) = 2
Deg(numerator) = Deg(denominator),
the fraction is improper

4x2 +3
x2 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+5)

A
1

Deg(numerator) < Deg(denominator),


the fraction is proper

A=5
5

20
(1)(9)

x = 2:

Bx+C

x2 +2x+15

x(x2 +3)

(1)(5)

x2 +5x+6

15
( )(3)

x2 +2x+15

x1

x = 0:

x + 2x + 15 = 5(x + 3)
+(Bx + C)x
2
= 5x + 15
+Bx 2 + Cx
= (5 + B)x 2 + Cx + 15

12
=
( )(6)

x = 1:

A=2

Cover-up rule:
x = 0:

5
x3

B+C

Substitution:

5
(3)(1)

x2 +2x+15

x2 +5x+6
(x1)(x2 +5)

Cover-up rule:

Substitution:
x = 0:

+4)

(2)(5)

7x2 9x+29

+ (x1)2

27

x = 1:

sleightofmath.com

4(x2 2)+11
x2 2

=4+

11
x2 2

92

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(d)

Ex 3.6

Deg(numerator) = 4
Deg(denominator) = 3

5(b)

x+3
(x2)(x2 4)

x2 (2x3)

x+3

1
2
3

2x 3x x

5(a)

x2 (2x3)

x+3
(x2)(x4)

+0x 2

= x+ +
A

x2

2x 2

+0x 2

x = 2:
x = 4:

7
(2)( )

x+3

(x2)(x4) =
=

1
( )(16)

=A

A=

x = 2:

5
(4)( )2

=C

C=

x = 0:
2x 2

15 2
x 2x2
4
x2 (2x3)

3
(2)(4)

= +

x4

A=

=B

x2
7

2(x4)

B=

5(c)

1
16(x+2)
A

Cover-up rule:

x = 2:

5
( )(8)

x+2

x2

7
2

1
16
5
4

2
1

16

1
16

x2

5
4
+ (x2)
2

1
16(x2)

5
4(x2)2

Bx+C
x2 +4

=A

A=

5
8

Substitution:

x4

x+3
(x2)(x2 +4)

5
2(x2)

x = 0:

3
(2)(4)

x = 1:

4
(1)(5)

x+3

(x2)(x2

+4)

=
=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

1
16

x+3

5
2

+ (x2)2

x = 2:

(x+2)(x2)2 =

=A

B
x2

Substitution:

15 2
x )
4
15 2
x
4

Cover-up rule:
5
( )(2)

+x 3

3
(x 4 2 x 3 )
5 3
x
2
5
( x 3
2

(x+1)(x3 2)

x+2

Cover-up rule:

2x3 3x2
5

x4 +x3 2x2

(x2)(x+2)(x2)

= (x+2)(x2)2

Deg(numerator) > Deg(denominator),


the fraction is improper
(x+1)(x3 2)

x+3

sleightofmath.com

=
5

8(x2)
5
8(x2)

C=

A
1

B+C
5

1
4

B=

5
8

5
1
8
4
x2 +4

5x+2
8(x2 +4)

93

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(a)

2x3 +15x2 +39x+33

(x+2)(x+3)

Ex 3.6

2x3 +15x2 +39x+33

2x
+5
3
x +5x +6 2x
+15x 2
(2x 3 +10x 2
5x 2
(5x 2
2

2x3 +15x2 +39x+33

6(c)

x2 +5x+6

+39x
+12x)
+27x
+25x
2x

6x3 5x2 19x+28


(2x+3)(x1)2

+33

+33
+30)
+3

2x

2x+3

= 2x + 5 + (x+2)(x+3)

(x+2)(x+3)

2x + 5 +

A
x+2

6x3 5x2 19x+28


(2x+3)(x1)2

x+3

6(b)

1
( )(1)

x = 3:

3
(1)( )

=A

2x3 +15x2 +39x+33


(x+2)(x+3)

4x3 4x2 16x+7


(x+1)(x2)

x2

(x+1)(x2)

6x3 5x2 19x+28


2x3 x2 4x+3

2x2 7x+19

= 3 + (2x+3)(x1)2
A
2x+3

B
x1

+ (x1)2

A = 1
Cover-up rule:

=B

B=3

= 2x + 5

1
x+2

25

25
4

x= :
3
x+3

x = 1:

4x3 4x2 16x+7

=A

10
(5)( )2

A=4

=C C=2

Substitution:

x2 x2

x = 0:

4x
x 2 4x 3
4x 2 16x +7
(4x 3 4x 2 8x)
8x +7

4x3 4x2 16x+7

6x3 5x2 19x+28


2x3 4x2 +2x+3x2 6x+3

3+

x = 2:

2x+1)

3
4x +3 6x 3
5x 2 19x +28
(6x 3 3x 2 12x +9)
2x 2 7x +19

Cover-up rule:

6x3 5x2 19x+28

= (2x+3)(x2

19
(3)(1)

6x3 5x2 19x+28


=
(2x+3)(x1)2

A
3

3+

B
1

4
2x+3

C
1
3

x1

B = 3
2

+ (x1)2

78x

= 4x + (x+1)(x2)
4x +

x+1

B
x2

Cover-up rule:
x = 1:

15
( )(3)

x = 2:

9
3( )

4x3 4x2 16x+7


(x+1)(x2)

=A

=B

= 4x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

A = 5
B = 3
5
x+1

3
x2

sleightofmath.com

94

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.6

6(d)

4x5 +2x4 +3x3 x2 x+1


x(x2 +1)

4x5 +2x4 +3x3 x2 x+1


x3 +x

+2x
4x 2
3
2 +x
5
+2x 4
x +0x
4x
5 +0x 4
(4x
2x 4
(2x 4

4x5 +2x4 +3x3 x2 x+1


x(x2 +1)

1
+3x 3
+4x 3 )
x 3
+0x 3
x 3
(x 3

x 2

x +1

x 2
+2x 2 )
3x 2 x
+0x 2 x)
3x 2 +0x +1

= 4x 2 + 2x 1 +

4x3 +12x2 x4

=x+3+
x+3+

Bx+C

x2 +1

x= :
=A

A=1

x= :
2

3x2 +1

x(x2 +1)

Bx+C

9(i)

x2 +1

3x 2 + 1 = (x 2 + 1) +(Bx + C)x
= x2 + 1

+Bx 2 + Cx

x(x2 +1)
6x2 21x+25
x(2x5)

4x

x2 +1

= 4x 2 + 2x 1 +

D
2x+1

1
=C
( )(2)
1
=D
(2)( )

C=
2

D=
2

a
3x2 +8x+1
x2 +2x+1

3
+2x +1 3x 2
(3x 2

+8x
+6x
2x

+1
+3)
2

6x2 21x+25
2x2 5x

2x2

3
21x +25
2x 5x 6x 2
2 15x)
(6x
6x +25
A=3
x(2x5)

h = 3 + (x+1)2
3+

6x2 21x+25

C
2x1

V = 3x 2 + 8x + 1
a = (x 2 + 2x + 1)

h=

Compare coefficients:
x 2 : 3 = 1 + B
B = 4
x: C = 0
4x5 +2x4 +3x3 x2 x+1

1
(2x 1)(2x + 1)

V = ah

= (1 + B)x 2 + Cx + 1

1
4x2 1

Cover-up rule:

Cover-up rule:
x = 0:

=x+3+

4x2 1

x(x2 +1)
A

x 4
x)
+0x 4
+0x 3)
1

A = 1, B = 3

3x2 +1

4x 2 + 2x 1 + +
1
( )(1)

x
+3
3
4x +0x 1 4x
+12x 2
3
(4x +0x 2
12x 2
(12x 2
2

=3+

9(ii)

x+1

+ (x+1)2

Cover-up rule:
x = 1:

4
( )2

=B

B = 4

6x+25
x(2x5)
B
C

3+ +
x

Substitution:
x = 0:

2x5

2
1

= +

A=2

Cover-up rule:
5

25
( )(5)
10

( )( )

x = 0:
x= :

5
2

=B

=C

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

h= 3 +

B = 5
C=4

10(i)

sleightofmath.com

2
x+1

(x+1)2

x 3 3x 2 + 4 = (x + 1)(x 2 4x + 4)
= (x + 1)(x 2)2

95

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 3.6

10(ii)
x 2 +3x
x 3x +0x +4 x 5 +0x 4
(x 5 3x 4
3x 4
(3x 4
3

10(ii)

x2 +8

11(ii)
2

x5 36x2 +53x+18

+9
+0x 3
+0x 3
+0x 3
9x 3
9x 3
(9x 3

36x 2
+4x 2 )
40x 2
+0x
40x 2
27x 2
13x 2

= (x 2 + 3x + 9) +

x3 3x2 +4

= (x 2 + 3x + 9) +
(x 2

+ 3x + 9) +

+53x
+12x)
+41x +18
+0x +36)
+41x 18

x = 2:

12
(3)( )2

=C

18

1(4)

x3 3x2 +4
13x2 +41x18
(x+1)(x2)2
A
B
x+1

x2

2
(4)( )

=B

B=

x2 +8

100x+250
x2 +5x

x+1

A
x4

5
x2

+ (x2)2

12(iii)

x = 2:

6
(6)( )

11(i)

2x+16

(x4)(x+2)
x+2
2(x+8)
2
+
(x4)(x+2)
x+2
2
1
2

2(

x4

4
x4
4
x4

4
x

)+

x+2

2
x+2

A=2

=B

x4

x+2
2

x+2

x2 +2

1
2

x+2
1

2(x+2)

1
2
1
2

x2

1
2(x2)

x+5

50
x

=A
=B

50
x+5

A = 50
B = 50

50
x
50

Time for to journey


Time for return journey

x+2

=A

x+8

(x4)(x+2) =

x2 +5x

x+5

Cover-up rule:
12
( )(6)

100x+250

x2 +2
1

12(ii) 50km

13(i)
x = 4:

x(x+5)
B

250
(5)( )

x 5 36x 2 + 53x + 18
x 3 3x 2 + 4
8
= (x 2 + 3x + 9)

x+8
(x4)(x+2)

x = 5:
B = 5

100x+250

250
( )(5)

11

(x2 4)(x2 +2)

x = 0:

x2

x = 2:

C=4

A=

Cover-up rule:

x+2

=A

A = 8

x2 +2

13x2 +41x18

12(i)

+ (x+2)(x2)

x2 +2
1

2
( )(4)

Substitution:
x = 0:

x2 +2

x = 2:

=A

Cover-up rule:

Cover-up rule:
72
( )9

x2 4
1

+53x +18

C
(x2)2

x = 1:

(x2 4)(x2 +2)

x 3 8 = (x)3 (2)3
= (x 2)[x + x(2) + 22 ]
= (x 2)(x 2 + 2x + 4)

B = 1
1

x+2

=1
=1
=1
=1
=1
=x4
=8

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

96

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(ii)

x2 +4
x3 8

Ex 3.6

x2 +4

= (x2)(x2
A

x2

14(iii)

2(3)
1

x2 +2x+4

2
1

3
1

3
1

4
1

=
+

Cover-up rule:
8
( )(12)

x = 2:

=A

A=

x = 0:

4
(2)(4)

x = 1:

5
(1)(7)

2
3

x3 8

x2
2

=
14(i)

1
(x+1)(x+2)

x+1

A
1

C=

B+C

B=

2
3

x2
3(x2 +2x+4)

1
( )(1)

x = 2:

1
(1)( )

(x+1)(x+2) =

15(i)

14(ii)

1
2(3)

++

4(5)

101(102)

1
101
1
102

2 102
25
81

5x2 3x+8
(x1)(x2 +4)
2

x1

3x+1
x2 +4

5x 3x + 8 = 2(x + 4) + (3x + 1)(x 1)

x+2

Compare constants:
8=81
8 = 7 [inconsistent]
A=1
15(ii)

=B

x+1

=A

101

Cover-up rule:
x = 1:

1
100
1

1
2
x
3
3
x2 +2x+4

3(x2)

A
2

3(4)
1

Substitution:

x2 +4

+2x+4)
Bx+C

B = 1
1

x+2

5x2 3x+8
(x1)(x2 +4)

x1

Bx+C
x2 +4

Cover-up rule:

x = 1:

10
( )(5)

=A

A=2

Substitution:
x = 0:

8
(1)(4)

x = 2:

22
(1)8

5x2 3x+8

(x1)(x2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

+4)

2B+C

= +

2
x1

3x
x2 +4

C
4

C=0
B=3

97

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 3
A3(i)

Rev Ex 3
A1(i)

g(x) = x 3 + ax 2 + x + 5
By Remainder Theorem,
g(2)
= 31
3
2
2 + a(2) + 2 + 5 = 31
8 + 4a + 2 + 5
= 31
4a
= 16
a
=4

Difference in volumes is 189 cm3 :


(x + 3)3 x 3 = 189
9(x 2 + 3x + 3) = 189
x 2 + 3x + 3
= 21
2
x + 3x 18 = 0
(x + 6)(x 3) = 0
x = 6
or x = 3
(rej x 0)
x+3=6

=c+5
=c+5
=c+5
=6

g(2)
8 + 4a + 2 + 5
15 + 4(4)
31
b
A2(i)

A4(a)

= 2(1)(2 b) + 2c + 5
= 2(2 b) + 2c + 5
= 2(2 b) + 2(6) + 5
= 2(2 b) + 17
= 5

1x2

7x+3
x2 1
7x+3
(x+1)(x1)
A
B
x+1

x1

x = 1:

10
( )(2)

x = 1:

4
(2)( )

7x3
1x2

x+1
2

=
=0
=0
=0
=0
=3

Cover-up rule:

f(1) = (1)3 + (k 2) (k 7) 4
= 1
+k 2
k + 7 4
=0
By Factor Theorem, (x + 1) is a factor of f(x)

A4(b)

1x

10x5
(x+1)(x2 +4)

A = 5

=B

B = 2

x1
5

x+1

=A

x+1

Bx+C
x2 +4

Cover-up rule:
15
=
( )(5)

x = 1:

f(x) = x 3 + (3 2)x 2 + (3 7)x 4


= x 3 + x 2 4x 4
(x + 1)(
)
2
(x + 1)(x
)
2
= (x + 1)(x
4)
(x
= + 1)(x + 2)(x 2)

A = 3

Substitution:
x = 0:

5
(1)(4)

= +

x = 1:

5
(2)(5)

= +

10x5

(x+1)(x2

the third factor (x 2)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

7x3

f(x) = x 3 + (k 2)x 2 + (k 7)x 4

A2(ii) By Factor Theorem,


f(2)
8 + (k 2)4 + (k 7)(2) 4
4k 8 2k + 14 12
2k 6
k

+ x2]
+ x2 )

A3(ii) x shorter side


x + 3 longer side

A1(ii) g(x) = x(x 1)(x b) + cx + 5


g(1)
1+a+1+5
1+4+1+5
c

(x + 3)3 x 3
= [(x + 3) x][(x + 3)2
+ (x + 3)x
2
(x + 6x + 9 + x 2 + 3x
=3
(3x 2 + 9x + 9)
=3
= 9(x 2 + 3x + 3)

sleightofmath.com

+4)

3
x+1

B+C

C=7

3x+7
x2 +4

B=3

98

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A4(c)

x3
(x4)2

Rev Ex 3

x3

x
+8
3
x 8x +16 x
+0x 2
3
(x 8x 2
8x 2
(8x 2
2

x3
(x4)2

A6
f(x) = 4x 3 16x 2 9x + 40
(a)(i)
By Remainder Theorem,
f(4) = 4(4)3 16(4)2 9(4) + 40
=4

x2 8x+16

+0x
+16x)
16x
64x
48x

+0
+0
+128)
128

A6
f(x) = x
(a)(ii) x = 4 is a root
4x 3 16x 2 9x + 40
4x 3 16x 2 10x + 40
2x 3 8x 2 5x + 20
(x 4)(
)
(x 4)(2x 2
)
(x 4)(2x 2
5)
2
(x 4)(2x
5)

48x128
(x4)2
A
B
+ (x4)2
x4

=x+8+
x+8+

Cover-up rule:
x = 4:

48(4)128
( )2

B = 64

Substitution:
x = 0:

128
16

A
4

B
16

=x
=0
=0

=0

(x 4) (x + ) (x ) = 0
A = 48

x = 4 or x =
x3

(x4)2 = x + 8 +
A5(i)

48
x4

64

+ (x4)2

A6(b) P(x) = x 3 + 2x 2 y 5xy 2 6y 3

x 3 + 3x 2 6x 8
=0
(x 2)(
)
2
(x 2)(x
)
(x 2)(x 2
+ 4)
2
(x 2)(x
+5x + 4) = 0
(x 2)(x + 4)(x + 1)
=0
x = 2 or x = 4 or x = 1

P(2y) = (2y)3 + 2(2y)2 y 5(2y)y 2 6y 3


= 8y 3 + 8y 3 10y 3 6y 3
=0
By Factor Theorem, (x 2y) is a factor of P(x)
P(x) (x 4)(
)
2
(x 4)(x
)
(x 4)(x 2
+ 3y 2 )
(x 4)(x 2 +4xy + 3y 2 )
= (x 2y)(x + 3y)(x + y)

A5(ii) f(x) = 22x 3 + 15x 2 4x 6


(a)
g(x) = 2 + 14x 12x 2 5x 3
By Remainder Theorem,
f(a)
= g(a)
22a3 + 15a2 4a 6
= 2 + 14a 12a2 5a3
27a3 + 27a2 18a 8 = 0 [shown]

The other 2 factors are (x + 3y) & (x + y)

A5(ii) (3a)3 + 3(3a)2 6(3a) 8 = 0


(b)
sub y = 3a:
y 3 + 3y 2 6y 8 = 0
y=2
y = 4
y = 1
sub y = 3a:
sub y = 3a: sub y = 3a:
3a = 2
3a = 4
3a = 1
a=

2
3

a=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

4
3

a=
3

sleightofmath.com

99

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A7

Rev Ex 3

f(x) (x 2 x 2)
Remainder = ax + b
f(x) = (x 2 x 2)Q(x) + ax + b
= (x + 1)(x 2)Q(x) + ax + b
f(x) has a remainder of 5 when divided by x + 1
By Remainder Theorem,
f(1) = 5
a + b = 5
b
=a5
(1)
f(x) has a remainder of 7 when divided by x 2
By Remainder Theorem,
f(2)
=7
2a + b = 7
(2)
sub (1) into (2)
2a + (a 5) = 7
3a
= 12
a
=4
b|a=4 = (4) 5
= 1

B2(a) y = x(16x 19)


(1)
3
y = 4x 6
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
x(16x 19)
= 4x 3 6
16x 2 19x
= 4x 3 6
4x 3 16x 2 + 19x 6 = 0
(x 2)(
)
2
(x 2)(4x
)
2
(x 2)(4x
+ 3)
(x 2)(4x 2 8x + 3) = 0
(x 2)(2x 1)(2x 3) = 0
x = 2 or x =

Sub back x = a2 & y = b2 :


g(a) = (a2 4b2 )(a2 + 3b2 )
= (a + 2b)(a 2b)(a2 + 3b2 )
B3(i)

B1(b) f(x) = 3(x + 2)5 + (x + k)2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=0
=0
=0
=0

Sub x = a2 & y = b2 :
g(a) = x 2 xy 12y 2
= (x 4y)(x + 3y)

1+14 =A5
A
=3

By Remainder Theorem,
f(1)
=7
5
2
(k
3(1) + 1) = 7
k 2 2k + 1
=4
2
k 2k 3
=0
(k 3)(k + 1)
=0
k = 3 or k = 1

With k = 12,
g(a) = a4 a2 b2 12b4

4 = (1)(1) + B
B = 5

Remainder = Ax + B
= 3x 5

or x =

g(2b)
16b4 (2b)2 b2 + kb4
16b4 4b4 + kb4
b4 (12 + k)
b = 0 or k = 12

B1(a) x 3 + x 4 = (x 2 + x 1)(x 1) + Ax + B

x = 1:

B2(b) g(a) = a4 a2 b2 + kb4

Remainder = ax + b
= 4x 1

x = 0:

B3(ii)

81x 3 + 24y 3
= 3[(3x)3 + (2y)3 ]
= 3(3x + 2y)[(3x)2 (3x)(2y) + (2y)2 ]
= 3(3x + 2y)(9x 2 6xy + 4y 2 )
81x3 +24y3
9x2 6xy+4y2

3(3x+2y)(9x2 6xy+4y2 )
9x2 6xy+4y2

= 3(3x + 2y)

sleightofmath.com

100

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B4(i)
(a)

2x2 7x+14
(x+2)(x4)

Rev Ex 3

2x2 7x+14

B5(a) Let f(x) = x 2 + 5px + p2 + 5

x2 2x8
2(x2 2x8)3x+30

=2

f(x) is divisible by x + 2
By factor Theorem,
f(2)
=0
(2)2 + 5p(2) + p2 + 5 = 0
4 10p + p2 + 5
=0
2
p 10p + 9
=0
(p 9)(p 1)
=0
p = 1 or p = 9
f(x) is not divisible by x + 3

(x+2)(x4)
303x
+ (x+2)(x4)
A
B

2+

x+2

x4

Cover-up rule:
x = 2:

36
( )(6)

x = 4:

18
(6)( )

B4(i)
(b)

2x2 7x+14
(x+2)(x4)

42
(2x5)(x+1)2

A = 6

=B

=2

=A

B=3

6
x+2

3
x4

2x5

By Factor Theorem,
f(3)
9 + 5p(3) + p2 + 5
p2 15p + 14
(p 14)(p 1)
p 14 or p 1
p= 9

+ (x+1) + (x+1)2

Cover-up rule:
5

42

( )( )

x= :

7 2
2

x = 1:

=A

42
(7)( )2

24

A=

=C

B5
(b)

C = 6

Substitution:
42
A
B C
=
+ +
(5)(1)2
5
1
1
12

x = 0:

42

(2x5)(x+1)2 =
B4(ii)

2x4 7x2 +14


(x2 +2)(x2 4)

24
7(2x5)

=2
=2
2

6
x2 +2
6
x2 +2
6
x2 +2

12

(x+1)2

3
x2 4
3

A
x+2

B
x2

Cover-up rule:
x = 2:

3
( )(4)

x = 2:

3
(4)( )

2x4 7x2 +14


(x2 +2)(x2 4)

=A

A=

=B

=2
=2

B=
6
x2 +2
6
x2 +2

+
+

x 2 (x + 3)
= 10x + 24
3
2
x + 3x
= 10x + 24
x 3 + 3x 2 10x 24 = 0
(x 3)(
)
2
(x 3)(x
)
2
(x 3)(x
+ 8)
(x 3)(x 2 +6x + 8) = 0
(x 3)(x + 2)(x + 4) = 0
x = 3 or x = 2 or x = 4

7(x+1)

+ (x+2)(x2)
+

3
4

x+2
3

4(x2)

3
4

u = 4
sub u = 3x :
3x =

3
4

x2

B5(b) 9x (3x + 3)
= 10(3x ) + 24
(32 )x (3x + 3) = 10(3x ) + 24
(i)
(3x )2 (3x + 3) = 10(3x ) + 24
sub u = 3x :
u2 (u + 3) = 10u + 24
u=3
u = 2
x
sub u = 3 :
sub u = 3x :
3x = 3
3x = 2(NA)
4 (NA)
x=1

3
4(x+2)

B5
25x 2 (5x + 3) = 50x + 24
(b)(ii) (5x)2 (5x + 3) = (10)5x + 24
sub y = 5x
y 2 (y + 3) = 10y + 24
y=3
or y = 2
or y = 4
5x = 3
5x = 2
5x = 4
x=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

0
0
0
0

sleightofmath.com

3
5

x=

2
5

x=
5

101

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B6(i)

f(x) = a[x (1)][x (3)][x (k)]


= a(x + 1)(x 3)(x k)
= 2(x + 1)(x 3)(x k)
highest power term is 2x 3

Rev Ex 3
B7(i)

f(x) g(x)
(x 4 x 3 7x 2 + x + 6)
(x 4 2x 3 10x 2 + 5x + 18)
x 3 + 3x 2 4x 12
(x 2)(
)
(x 2)(x 2
)
(x 2)(x 2
+ 6)
2
(x 2)(x +5x + 6)
(x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
x = 2 or x = 2 or x = 3

By Remainder Theorem,
f(4)
= 20
2(5)(1)(4 k) = 20
4k
=2
k
=2
B6(ii) f(x) = 2(x + 1)(x 3)(x 2)
f(2) = 2(1)(5)(4)
= 40

f(x) = x 4 x 3 7x 2 + x + 6
g(x) = x 4 2x 3 10x 2 + 5x + 18
=0
=0
=0

=0
=0

B7(ii) f(x) g(x)= 0


f(x)
= g(x)
f(2)
f(2)
f(3)

= g(2) = 12
= g(2) = 0
= g(3) = 48

By Factor Theorem:
(x + 2) is a factor of f(x) & g(x)
= 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

102

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


Ex 4.1
1(a)

|5 9| = |4|
=4

1(b)

|3 1| = |2 |
= (2 )
=2

1(c)

2|5| |8| = 2(5) 8


= 2

2(i)

Given: y = |x 2 8x + 2|

Ex 4.1
4(ii)

y = 18:
2|3 x| + 4 = 18
|3 x|
=7
3 x= 7
or 3 x = 7
x
= 4
x
= 10

5(a)

|x 4| = 6
x 4 = 6 or
x = 10

5(b)

|2x + 3| = 5
2x + 3 = 5
2x + 3 = 5
2x
=2
2x
= 8
x
=1 x
= 4

5(c)

|x 2| + 3 = 5
|x 2|
=2
x 2= 2
x 2= 2
x
=4 x
=4

6(a)

y = |f(x)|

y|x=1 = |(1)2 8(1) + 2|


= |5|
=5
2(ii)

y|x=1 = |(1)2 8(1) + 2|


= |11|
= 11

2(iii)

y|x=2 = |(2)2 8(2) + 2|


= |10|
= 10

3(a)

x 4 = 6
x
= 2

(1,4)

|2 2| +| 1|

(3,5)

(2,3)

= 2 2 +(1)
= 3 2
3(b)

|2 5|

= (2 5) +3 5
= 5 2
=1
3(c)

2|6 3|

+|3 5|
+3 5

6(b)

y = |f(x)|

+|3 6|

(1,4)

= 2(6 3) +[(3 6)]


= 2(6 3) +(6 3)

4(i)

6(c)

y = |f(x)|

= 3(6 3)

= 36 33

3
1

Given: y = 2|3 x| + 4
O

y|x=8 = 2|3 (8)| +4


= 2|5|
+4
[
]
= 2 (5) +4
= 2(5)
+4
= 14

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

103

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(d)

Ex 4.1

y = |f(x)|

10

7(a)

c
<0
c > 0
6 c> 6
>0
|6 c| = 6 c

y = |x 3| for 0 x 4
y
(1,4)
3

f(c) = (6 c) c 2
= 6 c c2

(4,1)

(3,0)

f(x)
|6 x| x 2

7(b)

y = |x + 2| for 3 x 3
(3,5)

(2,0) O

y = |3x 5|

x=
9

=0
=0

For x < 0,
6 x x2
=0
2
x +x6
=0
(x + 3)(x 2) = 0
x = 3 or x = 2 (rej x < 0)

(3,1)

f(x) = |6 x| x 2
f(c) = |6 c| c 2

5
3

f(x) = x + 2 |3 2x|
f(a) = a + 2 |3 2a|
a
>2
2a < 4
3 2a < 1
<0
|3 2a| = (3 2a)

11(a) 2|x + 1| + 3 = 9
2|x + 1|
=6
|x + 1|
=3
x + 1 = 3 or x + 1 = 3
x
=2
x
=2

11(b) 11 2|x + 3| = 1
2|x + 3|
= 10
|x + 3|
=5
x + 3 = 5 or
x + 3= 5
x
=2
x
=2
12(a) |2x 3| = x
2x 3 = x or
x
=3
12(b) |5x 8| = 3x
5x 8 = 3x or
2x
=8
x
=4

2x 3 = x
x
=3

5x 8 = 3x
2x
=8
x
=4

f(a) = a + 2 [(3 2a)]


= a + 2 +(3 2a)
= 5 a [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

104

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 4.1
14(c) |x(x 2)| = 2x 3
x(x 2) = 2x 3 or
x 2 2x = 2x 3
x 2 4x + 3
=0
(x 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1 (rej) or x = 3

12(c) 4|x 6| 5x = 0
|x 6|
x 6=
x

=
5x
4

5x
4

or

x 6=
x

= 6

13

= 6

x
= 24
(rej x 0)

5x

x
= 24
(rej x 0)

14(d) Method 1
2|x| = x 2 4x

|x y| = |y 5|
2

|x|
y
>5
y5 >0
|y 5| = y 5

1
2

1
2
1

x y= y
3
2

=x+

2
1

x y= y
3

= x+

x2 4x
2

=x+

5
2

= x+

x2 4x
2

2x
= x 2 4x
x 2 6x = 0
x(x 6) = 0
x = 0 or x = 6

x = 6 or x = 6
15

y = |2x 6|

14(b) Method 1
|x|2 + x 2
=4
2
2
x +x
=4
2
2x
=4
2
x 2
=0
(x + 2)(x 2) = 0

6
3

x = 2 or x = 2
Method 2
|x|2 + x 2
=4
|x 2 | + x 2
=4
2
|x |
= 4 x2
x2
= 4 x 2 or x 2
2x 2 = 4
2x 2
2
x
=2
x2
x
= 2
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

or

Method 2
2|x|
= x 2 4x
2
4|x|
= (x 2 4x)2
4x 2
= (x 2 4x)2
4x 2
= x 4 8x 3 + 16x 2
x 4 8x 4 + 12x 2
=0
x 2 (x 2 8x 2 + 12) = 0
x 2 (x 2)(x 6) = 0
x = 0 or
x = 2 or x = 6
(rej)

14(a) |x 2 4| = 2
x2 4
= 2 or x 2 4
=2
2
2
x 6
=0
x 6
=0
(x + 6)(x 6) = 0
(x + 6)(x 6) = 0
x = 6 or x = 6

2
5

x2 4x

x y = (y 5)

2x
= x 2 4x
x 2 6x = 0
x(x 6) = 0
x = 0 or x = 6

|x y| = (y 5)
x y = (y 5) or

x(x 2)
= 2x 3
2
x 2x
= 2x 3
2
x 4x + 3
=0
(x 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1 (rej) or x = 3

15(i)

=4x
=4
=2
= 2

y = 2|x 3|
= |2x 6|

15(ii) y = |6 2x|
= |(2x 6)(1)|
= |2x 6||1|
= |2x 6|

sleightofmath.com

105

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 4.1

16(a) y = |1 x 2 |
= |(1 + x)(1 x)|

(2,3)
(0,1)

(1,0) (1,0)

17(ii) y = |2x 4|

16(b) y = |x 2 4|
= |(x + 2)(x 2)|

(0,4)

(2,0)

18(i)

16(c) y = |(x 1)(x 3)|

(5,8)

(2,1)

(1,0)
(3,0)

y = 2|x + c| 5
At (1,3):
3
= 2|(1) + c| 5
8
= 2|c 1|
|c 1| = 4
c 1 = 4 or c 1 = 4
c
=5
c
= 3

(2,0)

18(ii) y = |2x + 5|

17(i)

(4,0)

y = |2x 3|

16(d) y = |x 2 4x|
= |x(x 4)|

(2,4)

3
2

19(i)

y = |2x + c|
At (1,2),
2
= |2(1) + c|
2
= |2 + c|
|c + 2| = 2
c + 2 = 2 or c + 2 = 2
c
=0
c
= 4
c = 4

y = |3 kx|
(5,12):
12
= |3 k(5)|
|3 5k| = 12
3 5k = 12 or 3 5k = 12
5k
= 9
5k
= 9

At (0,4),
4 =
|2(0) + c|
|c| = 4
c = 4

k
19
(ii)(a)

=
5

(1,6)
3

O 1

= |3 3|
(5,12)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

106

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


|3 kx| = 3
19
(ii)(b) |3 3x| = 3
3|1 x| = 3
|1 x| = 1
1 x= 1
or
x
=0
20(i)

Ex 4.1
22
k = 0 or k > 4
(ii)(a)
22
k=4
(ii)(b)

1 x= 1
x
=0

22
0<k<4
(ii)(c)

= |2 5|
=+2

23(a) No.
It can be 0

5
2

23(b) |x| 0

5
2

23(c)

24

20(ii) 2 intersections
2 solutions
21(i)

y = |x 2 + 2x 3|
= |(x + 3)(x 1)|

= | 2 + 2 3|
(1,4)
3
=2

3 1

Method 2
x 2 |x| 2 = 0
|x|
= x2 2
x
= x 2 2 or x
= x2 2
x2 x 2
=0
x2 x 2
=0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0
x = 2 or x = 1
x = 2 or x = 1
(rej)
(rej)

21(ii) |x 1|

= |x+3|

|x 1||x + 3| = 2
|x 2 + 2x 3| = 2

25
x 2 = x
(i)(a) Not true
x 2 = |x|

Draw y = 2
4 intersections
4 solutions
22(i)

y = |x 2 6x + 5| for 1 x 7
= |(x 1)(x 5)|

(1,12)
(3,4)
5
1
5
|x 2

Method 1
x 2 |x| 2
=0
|x|2 |x| 2
=0
(|x| 2)(|x| + 1) = 0
|x| = 2
|x| = 2
or
or
x = 2
x = 2

25
x 2 = x
(i)(b) By definition, square root results in only positive
number
25(ii) |x|

(7,12)

6x + 5| = k

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

107

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 4.2
2(a)

Ex 4.2
1(a)

y = 3x
power of 5 is positive & odd (except for 1),
graph is similar to y = x 3

y = x4
(0 < power

1
4

< 1)

2(b)

1(b)

y = x3
2
(0 < power < 1)
3

y = 3x 4
power of 4 is positive & even,
graph is similar to y = x 2

O
2(c)

y = x2
3
(power > 1)
2

1(c)

y = 3 = 2x 3
x
power of 3 is negative & odd,
1
graph is similar to y =

2(d)

y = 3x 2
3
(power > 1)
2

1(d)

y = 4 = 2x 4
x
power of 4 is negative & even,
1
graph similar to y = 2
x
coefficient is negative,
reflect in x axis

O
2(e)

y = 3x 2
3
(power > 1)
2
coefficient 3 is negative,
reflect in x axis

108

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(a)

Ex 4.2

4(c)

y = x 3
1
(power < 0)

x = y 2
y=

O
3(b)

x2
1

(0 < power < 1)

y = x 3
2
(power < 0)
3

5(i)

O
3(c)

y=
3
(power < 0)

=
5(ii)

2
10

x2

5(iii)

4
3

5(iv)

410

x2

= 10
2

= (10)

= 2.5

1
4

y = 2
=

10

x2 =

10
2

(40)2

y = :

10

= 24
= 4

y = x 3

y|x=40 =

4(b)

10

y = 4x 2

10

x
10

= 2

4(a)

y = 2

3
x 2

2
10

x
10
1

x2
1

(0 < power < 1)


2

109

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6

Ex 4.2
9(b)

= 2 6

= 2 6

Reflection of each other in the x-axis


7

y=

y = 8x = 2x 3
1
(0 < power < 1)
3
coefficient 2 is negative, reflect in x-axis

= 2x 2

x
1
(power < 0)

2 = 2 3

9(c)

1 =

y=

32x2

2
2x5

= 2x 5

(power < 0)
5

1 sol
8

y=
1
(0 < power < 1)
3

10(i)

1 = 4 3

2 = 4 2

1
3
1
3

4x + x = 4

y = 2x + 1
(1)
1
y=
(2)
x
(1)
(2):
sub
into
1
2x + 1
=
x
2x 2 + x
=1
2x 2 + x 1
=0
(2x 1)(x + 1) = 0
1
x=
or
x = 1
2

4x
=4x
y1
= y2
1 sol
9(a)

1
4x 3

= 2( ) + 1

y|x=1

=2
10(ii)

= 1

y = 6x = 6x 2
1
(0 < power < 1)

= 2 + 1
1

(1, 1)

y|x=1 = 2(1) + 1

( , 2)
2

11(i)

5x 2

= 2x 6
1

5x 2 2x 6
1
6

=0

1
3

x (5x 2) = 0
1

x6 = 0
x =0

or

x6 = 0
x =0

110

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 4.2

11(ii) y|x=0 = 0
(0,0)
y|x=
22
5

8
125

12(iii) Sub P = 18:

= 5(

1
23 2

1
2

8
125

) = 5 ( 3)
5

21.5
51.5

=5

22
55

2(18)
L

36

36
L
36

= 2
I
= 36I 2
power of 2 is negative & even,
1
it is similar to y = 2

= 512
= 2 6
8 210
( ,
)
125
5

(0,0)

Note:
Verify which graph is higher at x-coordinates
8
bigger & smaller than
125

12(i)

210

=5

5
5
8 210

125

O
13(i)

2 = 4 5
I=

2P
L

O
L = 8:
2P

4
1

I = (8) = =

1 =

= P2
2

13(ii) 1 sol

(0 < power < 1)


2

12(ii) Sub P = 18:


I=

2(18)
L

36
L

= 6L2

(power < 0)
2

111

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14(i) y =

4
x

Ex 4.2
15(iii) 2x = 4x 12

for 0.5 x 4

x2 = 2

x 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0


y 5.66 4.00 3.27 2.83 2.53 2.31 2.14 2.00

= 23
2

y|

= 2(2)3 = 23

2
x=23
2
3

(2 , 23 )
16(i)

2x 3x 2
=0
(2x + 1)(x 2) = 0
1

x = 2
(rej x 0)
16(ii) y = 2x 2
y = 3x

or

x = 2
x =4

(1)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2x 2
= 3x
2x 3x 2 = 0
x=4
y|x=4 = 2(4) 2
=6
(4,6)

= 2 2
= 3

(4,6)

O
2

1
3x 2
1

y = 3x =
(0 < power < 1)
2

17(i)
14(ii) (1 x)x = 4
1x

At (8,1),

At (8,1),

1 = a 8

4
x

y=

1 = a(2)

1 sol
15(i)

y = a x

a=

1=

2x

b
2(8)

b = 16

1 = 2
1

2 = 4 2

1
4x 2

y=
1
(power < 0)
2

15(ii) 1 solution
112

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(ii)

Ex 4.2
17(iii) (8, 1)

(8,1) = 1 3
2

Symmetrical about O

113

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 4
A2(d) | 3x 1| = 3

Rev Ex 4

or
x 1 = 3
3
=4
x
x
= 43
x
= 64

A1(a) f(x) = |3x 1|


f(2) = |3(2) 1|
= |7|
=7

x 1 = 3
= 2
x
x
= (2)3
x
= 8
3

A3(a) y = |3x 2| for 2 x 1


f(2) = |3(2) 1|
= |5|
=5

(1,5)
(2,4)

f(x)
=3
|3x 1| = 3
3x 1 = 3
or
3x
=4
x

3x 1 = 3
3x
= 2

2
3

=
3

A3(b) y = |9 x 2 |
A1(b) g(x) =

|x 2

2x|

(0,9)

g(1) = |(1)2 2(1)|


= |1 2|
= |1|
=1

(3,0)

(3,0)

A3(c) y = |4x 2 1| for 1 < x < 1

g(3) = |(3)2 2(3)|


= |9 6|
= |3|
=3

(1,3)

( , 0)

x=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2
3

( , 0)
2

A3(d) y = |(2x + 1)(x 2)|

2x 3 = x
3x
=3
x
=1

( ,3 )

A2(b) |x + 1| = 2x 3
x + 1 = 2x 3 or x + 1 = (2x 3)
x + 1 = 2x + 3
x
=4
3x = 2

A2(c) |x 2 + 6| = 5x
x 2 + 6 = 5x or
x 2 5x + 6 = 0
(x 2)(x 3) = 0
x = 2 or x = 3

(1,3)

(0,1)
2

A2(a) |2x 3| = x
2x 3 = x or
x
=3

( , 0)

(2,0)

A4

(rej)

x2 + 6
= 5x
x 2 + 5x + 6 = 0
(x + 2)(x + 3) = 0
x = 2
or x = 3
(rej)
(rej)

sleightofmath.com

y = |x 2| 5
At x axis,
y
=0
|x 2| 5 = 0
|x 2|
=5
x 2 = 5 or
x
=7
P(7,0)

x 2 = 5
x
= 3
Q(3,0)

114

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5(i)

Rev Ex 4

A6(ii)
A6(iii)

y = 2x 3
1

(0 < < 1)
3

y=

16x

x 2

16
1

16 2 = | 16|
1
(25,9)
1 = 2 4
(25,4.5)

16

( < 0)

1
16

= 2

A5(ii) y = 2x 13

(1)

y=

16x
1 1

16

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2x

1
3

16
1

1 1

x 3+2 =
x

5
6

A6(iv) 2x 14 = |x 16|
2 solutions

1
3

B1(a)
|2x + 4| = x 2 + 1
2x + 4
= x 2 + 1 or
x 2 2x 3 = 0
(x + 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1 or x = 3

2x + 4
= (x 2 + 1)
x 2 + 2x + 5 = 0
x=
=

B1(b) |x 2 1| = x 2
x2 1 = x2
or
1
= 0 (NA)

=
= 26

y|x= 1 = 2(26 )

2x 4

or x =

1
2

=8

1
4

1
3

x
=4
x
= 44
x = 256

64

= 2(22 )

2x 4 3 = 5

2x 4 3 = 5 or

sub (3) into (1):

(NA)

B1(c) |2x 14 3| = 5
(3)

64

x=

6
5

x2

32

(25 )

2(1)
216

x 2 1 = x 2
2x 2
=1

= 25

x
x

(2)(2)2 4(1)(5)

2x 4
x

= 2

1
4

= 1

(NA

1
x4

0)

, )

64 2

1
A6
y = 2x 4
(i)(a)

y = 4:
1

2x 4 = 4
1

x4 = 2
x = 24
x = 16

B1(d)
|x 2| = x 4
= x 4 or x 2
= (x 4)
x 2
x x 2
=0
x + x 6
=0
2

(x) x 2 = 0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0

(x) + x 6 = 0
(x + 3)(x 2) = 0

x = 2
x =4

x = 3
(rej)

x = 1
(rej)

x = 2
x=4

1
A6
y|x=25 = 2(25)4
(i)(b)
4.5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

115

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B2(i)

Rev Ex 4
B3(b) 2x + 3y = 19
3y
= 19 2x

= |2 5|

5
4
5
2

=4

|x (
|x

B2(ii) y = |2x 5| (1)


y=4x
(2)

192x
3

19

| x

3
19

3
5

B3(a) 2x + y = 3
y
= 3 2x

y|x=1 = 4 (1)
=3
(1,3)

=3

=3

2x 5 = (4 x)
2x 5 = 4 + x
x
=1

y|x=28 =

B4(ii)

or

28
3
28
5

5
3
5
3

28
5

192( )

13
5

19

= 3

10
3

=2

x
y|x=2 =

192(2)
3

=5

B4(i)

(2)

+ x| = 3

3
5

(1)

)| = 3

3
3
19

=
y|x=2 = 4 (3)
=1
(3,1)

|x y| = 3
sub (1) into (2):

sub (1) into (2):


|2x 5| = 4 x
2x 5 = 4 x or
3x
=9
x
=3

192x

For unhealthy temperature,


|x 36.9| 0.9

(1)

= | 36.9|

y = |2x 1|
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
|2x 1| = 3 2x
2x 1 = 3 2x or 2x 1 = (3 2x)
4x
=4
2x 1 = 3 + 2x
2
= 0 (NA)
x
=1
y|x=1 = 3 2(1)
=1

36.9

= 0.9

36.0 36.9 37.8

|x 36.9|
= 0.9
x 36.9 = 0.9 and
x
= 36

x 36.9
x

= 0.9
= 37.8

For healthy temperature,


36 < x < 37.8
B5(i)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

|x 2 10x + 8| = 8
x 2 10x + 8 = 8 or
x 2 10x
=0
x(x 10)
=0
x = 0 or x = 10

x 2 10x + 8 = 8
x 2 10x + 8 = 8
x 2 10x + 16 = 0
(x 2)(x 8) = 0
x = 2 or x = 8

116

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5(ii)

Rev Ex 4
B6(b) y = 2x + 1

= | 2 10 + 8|

y=

(5,17)
8

5 17 5 + 17

2(1)

10217

(2)

2x + 1

(10)(10)2 4(1)(8)

1068

(1)

sub (1) into (2):

|x 2 10x + 8| = 0
x 2 10x + 8 = 0
x=

6
x

2x + x
=6
2x + x 6
=0
(2x 3)(x + 2) = 0

1010032
2

x = 2 or x = 2 (rej x 0)

= 5 17

x=

B5(iii) Solutions for x in (i) are the x-coordinates of the


intersection points between the graph in (ii) and
the line y = 8

9
4
9

sub x = into (1):


4

y|x=9 = 2 + 1 = 2 ( ) + 1 = 4

B6(a)

( , 4)

2 =

1
2

= 6
1

1 = 2 = 2 2
(3,23)

y = 2x =

1
2x 2
1

(0 < power < 1)


2

y=

= 6x 2

x
1
(power < 0)
2

y1 = 2x
y2 =

(1)

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2x =

6
x

x=3

(3)

sub (3) into (2):


y2 |x=3 =

6
3

6
3

3
3

63
3

= 23

(3,23)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

117

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.1

Ex 5.1
1(a)

2! 3! = (2 1)(3 2 1)
= (2)(6)
= 12

1(b)

6!
3!

6543!
3!

=654
= 120
1(c)

5!
5
( ) = (51)!(1)!
1
5!
=
4!

=5
1(d)

9!
9
( ) = (92)!(2)!
2
9!
=

7!2!
98
2

= 36
2(a)

2(b)

n
0
1
2
3
4
5

Binomial Coefficients
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
4
6
4
1
1
5
10
10
5
1

(1 2x)4
= [1 + (2x)]4
= 1 +(4)(2x)1
= 1 +(4)(2x)
= 1 8x

+(6)(2x)2
+(6)(4x 2 )
+24x 2

+(4)(2x)3
+(4)(8x 3 )
32x 3

+(1)(2x)4
+(1)(16x 4 )
+16x 4

(1 + 3x)5
= 1 +(5)(3x)1
= 1 +(5)(3x)
= 1 +15x

+(10)(3x)2
+(10)(9x 2 )
+90x 2

+(10)(3x)3
+(10)(27x 3 )
+270x 3

+(5)(3x)4
+(5)(81x 4 )
+405x 4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

+(1)(3x)5
+(1)(243x 5 )
+243x 5

118

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(a)

n
0
1
2
3
4
5
1
6
1
7
1
7
8
1
8
9
1
9
36
10 1
10
45
(1 + 2x)9
= 1 +(9)(2x)
= 1 +18x

3(b)

4(a)

Ex 5.1
Binomial Coefficients
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
1
4
6
4
5
10
10
6
15
20
15
21
35
35
28
56
70
56
84
126
126
120
210
252
210

+(36)(4x 2 )
+144x 2

1
5

1
6

21

1
7

28
84

1
8

36
120

1
9

45

1
10

+(84)(8x 3 ) +
+672x 3 +

(1 x 2 )10
= [1 + (x 2 )]10
= 1 +(10)(x 2 ) +(45)(x 4 )
= 1 10x 2
+45x 4

+(120)(x 6 ) +
120x 6 +

(1 + x)10
10 (x)1
)
1
+(10)(x)
+10x
+(

=1
=1
=1

10
+ ( ) (x)2
2
+(45)(x 2 )
+45x 2

10 (x)3
)
+
3
+(120)(x 3 ) +
+120x 3 +
+(

4(b)

(1 3x)8
= [1 + (3x)]8
8
8
8
=1
+ ( ) (3x)1 + ( ) (3x)2 + ( ) (3x)3 +
3
1
2
=1
+(8)(3x) +(28)(9x 2 ) +(56)(27x 3 ) +
=1
24x
+252x 2
1512x 3 +

4(c)

(1 2x 2 )7
= [1 + (2x 2 )]7
7
7
=1
+ ( ) (2x 2 )1 + ( ) (2x 2 )2
1
2
=1
+(7)(2x 2 )
+(21)(4x 4 )
=1
14x 2
+84x 4

4(d)

7
+ ( ) (2x 2 )3 +
3
+(35)(8x 6 ) +
280x 6 +

16

(1 x 3 )
2

16

= [1 + ( x 3 )]
2

1
2
1
1
16
16
= 1 + ( ) ( x 3 ) + ( ) ( x 3 )
2
2
1
2
1 3
1 6
= 1 +(16) ( x ) +(120) ( x )
2

= 1 8x 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+30x 6

3
1
16
) ( x 3 ) +
2
3
1
+(560) ( x 9 ) +

+(

70x 9 +

sleightofmath.com

119

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(i)

n
n!
n(n1)(n2)!
( )= (n2)!2! = (n2)!(21)
2
(

=
(

n(n1)

(n+1)!
(n+1)!
n+1
) = [(n+1)2]!(3)! = (n2)!(3)!
3

5(ii)

Ex 5.1

(n+1)(n)(n1)(n2)!
(n2)!(3.2.1)
(n+1)(n)(n1)

n
= 4( )
2

n+1
)
3

(n+1)(n)(n1)

= 4[

(n + 1)(n)(n 1)

n(n1)
2

= 12n(n 1)

(n)(n 1)[(n + 1) 12] = 0


(n)(n 1)(n 11)
=0
n=0
or n = 1
or n = 11
(rej n 2) (rej n 2)
6(i)

(1 + x) (1 x)

= (1 + x) [1 + (x)]

0
1
2
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
= [( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x)
+ ( ) (x) ]
0
3
5
1
2
4
0
1
2
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
[( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) + ( ) (x) ]
0
3
5
1
2
4

= [1
[1
= (1
(1

+(5)(x)
+(5)(x)

+(10)(x)

+(10)(xx)

+(5)(x 2 )

+(1)(x 2 x)]

+(10)(x)

+(10)(xx)

+(5)(x 2 )

+(1)(x 2 x)]

+5x
5x

+10x
+10x

+10xx
10xx

+5x 2
+5x 2

+x 2 x)
x 2 x)

=10x +20xx
6(ii)

+2x 2 x [shown]

(1 + 2) (1 2)
= 102
= 102
= 582

+20(2)2
+402

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+2(2)2 2
+82

sleightofmath.com

120

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(i)

(2 x) (1 + x)

Ex 5.1

8 1 0
8 1 3
8 1 1
8 1 2
= (2 x)[( ) ( x) + ( ) ( x) + ( ) ( x)
+ ( ) ( x) + ]
0 2
3 2
1 2
2 2
1
1 2
1
= (2 x)[1
+(8) ( x) +(28) ( x ) +(56) ( x 3 ) + ]
2

= (2 x)(1

+4x

+7x

+7x + )

= 2 +8x +14x 2 +14x 3


x
4x 2 7x 3 +
= 2 +7x +10x 2 +7x 3 +
7(ii)

Substitution
1.9 (1.05)8 = (2 0.1) (1 + 0.05)8
1

= [2 (0.1)] [1 + (0.1)]

= 2 +7(0.1) +10(0.1)2 +7(0.1)3 +


= 2 +0.7
+0.1
+0.007 +
2.807
8(i)

(1 + x)10 000
10 000 (x)0 10 000 (x)1
)
)
=(
+(
+
0
1
=1
+10 000x +

8(ii)

Substitution
(1.1)10 000 = [1 + (0.1)]10 000
= 1 + 10 000(0.1) +
= 1 + 1000 +
= 1001 +
> 1000
10 000
1.1
is larger

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

121

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(i)

Ex 5.1

(1 + x)20
20
20
20
= ( ) (x)0 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2 +
0
1
2
2
= 1 + 20x + 190x +

10(ii) (1 + 4x)6 (1 2x)14


= (1 + 24x + 240x 2 + )(1 28x + 364x 2 + )

Estimated amount (at r = 4, t = 5)


= 1 28x
+24x

) ]|

400

= 20 000 [(1 +
= 20 000 [1 + (

4t

= [20 000 (1 +

4
400
1

100

t=5,r=4
(45)

)]

20 000 [1 + 20 (

20

= 1 4x 68x 2 +

) + 190 (

100

+364x 2
673x 2
+240x 2 +

1
100

) ]

$24 380
9(ii)

E = 24 380
A = 20 000 [1 + (

)]

20

100

= 24 403.8008
AE
A

100%

(24 403. 8008) (24 380)


100%
(24403. 8008)
0.10%
=

9(iii)

Yes

10(i)
(a)

(1 + 4x)6
6
6
= ( ) (4x)0 + ( ) (4x)1
0
1

6
+ ( ) (4x)2 +
2

=1

+6(4x)

+15(16x 2 ) +

=1

+24x

+240x 2 +

10(i)
(b)

(1 2x)14
= [1 + (2x)]14
14
14
14
= ( ) (2x)0 + ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2
0
1
2
+
=1

+14(2x)

+91(4x 2 ) +

=1

28x

+364x 2 +

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

122

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

Ex 5.1

(1 x)6 = [1 + (x)]6
6
6
6
= ( ) (x)0 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2
0
1
2
=1
+6(x)
+15x 2
2
3
= 1 6x + 15x 20x +

6
+ ( ) (x)3 +
3
+20(x 3 ) +

11(ii) Method 1 (factorize & multiply)


(1 + x 2x 2 )6
= [(1 x)(1 + 2x)]6
= (1 x)6 (1 + 2x)6
6
6
6
6
= (1 6x + 15x 2 20x 3 + )[( ) (2x)0 + ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2 + ( ) (2x)3 + ]
0
3
1
2
= (1 6x + 15x 2 20x 3 + )[1
+(6)(2x) +(15)(4x 2 ) + (20)(8x 3 ) + ]
= (1 6x + 15x 2 20x 3 + )(1 + 12x + 60x 2 + 160x 3 + )

= 1 +12x +60x 2
6x 72x 2
+15x 2

+160x 3
360x 3
+180x 3
20x 3
= 1 + 6x + 3x 2 40x 3 +
Method 2 (substitution)
(1 + x 2x 2 )6
= [1 (x + 2x 2 )]6
= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15(x + 2x 2 )2

20(x + 2x 2 )3

= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15[x(1 2x)]2

20[x(1 2x)]3

= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15(x)2 (1 2x)2

20(x)3 (1 2x)3

= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15x 2 (1 2x)2

+20x 3 (1 2x)3

= 1 6(x + 2x 2 )

+15x 2 (1 4x + )

+20x 3 (1 + )

= 1 +6x 12x 2
+15x 2

60x 3
+20x 3 +

= 1 + 6x + 3x 2 40x 3 +

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

123

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12

Ex 5.1

(1 x)(1 + ax)6 = 1 + bx 2 +

14(i)
(1 x)4

(1 x)(1 + ax)6
6
6
6
= (1 x)[( ) (ax)0 + ( ) (ax)1 + ( ) (ax)2 +
0
1
2
= (1 x)[1 +(6)(ax) +(15)(a2 x 2 ) + ]
= (1 x)(1 +6ax +15a2 x 2 + )
+15a2 x 2
6ax 2

= 1 +6ax
x

Compare x 2 : 15a2 6a

+(4)(x 3 ) +(1)(x 4 )

= 1 4x

+6x 2

4x 3

+x 4

=b

1 2

15 ( ) 6 ( ) = b a =

13(i)

+(6)(x 2 )

S = y 4 4y 3 + 6y 2 4y + 1
= 1 4y + 6y 2 4y + 1
= (1 y)4

= 1 + (4)(x)

Sub y = 1 x 3 :

6a 1 = 0
a

4
4
4
4
= 1 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2 + ( ) (x)3 + ( ) (x)4
3
1
2
4

14(ii)
S = (1 x 3 )4 4(1 x 3 )3 + 6(1 x 3 )2 4(1 x 3 ) + 1

= 1 +(6a 1)x +(15a2 6a)x 2 +


Compare x:

= [1 + (x)]4

7
12

Sub back y = 1 x 3 :
S = [1 (1 x 3 )]4 = (x 3 )4 = x12

n
n
(1 2x)n = 1 + ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2 +
1
2
n
= ( ) (4x 2 ) +
2
n
=4 ( ) x2 +
2
n
Coefficient of x 2 = 4 ( ) [shown]
2

13(ii) Coefficient of x 2 = 24
n
4( )
= 24
2
n
( )
=6
2
n!
(n2)!2!

=6

n(n1)(n2)!
(n2)!2!

=6

n(n1)
2

=6

n(n 1)

= 12

n2 n

= 12

n2 n 12

=0

(n 4)(n + 3) = 0
n = 4 or n = 3 (rej n > 0)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

124

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

Ex 5.1

(1 + x)5 (1 4x)4
= (1 + x)5 [1 + (4x)]4
4
4
4
5
5
5
= [( ) (x)0 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2 + ] [( ) (4x)0 + ( ) (4x)1 + ( ) (4x)2 + ]
0
1
2
0
1
2
2)
2)
[
]
[
(5)(x)
(10)(x
(4)(4x)
(6)(16x
= 1
+
+
+
1
+
+
+]
2
2
(1 16x + 96x + )
= (1 + 5x + 10x + )

= 1 16x
+96x 2
+5x 80x 2
+100x 2 +
1 11x + 26x 2 [shown]
15(ii) Factor & multiply polynomials
(a)
(1 + x)5 (1 4x)5 = [(1 + x)5 (1 4x)4 ] (1 4x)
= [1 11x + 26x 2 + ] (1 4x)
= 1 11x
+26x 2
4x +44x 2 +
= 1 15x + 70x 2 +
15(ii) Substitute
(1 x)5 (1 + 4x)4 = [1 + (x)]5 [1 4(x)]4
(b)
1 11(x) +26(x)2
1 +11x

+26x 2

15(ii) Expand & substitute


(1 + x 2 )5 (1 2x)4 (1 + 2x)4 = (1 + x 2 )5 (1 4x 2 )4
(c)
= [1 + (x 2 )]5 [1 4(x 2 )]4
1 11(x 2 ) +26(x 2 )2
1 11x 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+26x 4

sleightofmath.com

125

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.1

16
28x 6 30x 4 1 = 0
sub x = 1 + h:
28(1 + h)6 30(1 + h)4 1
=0
6 (h)0
6 (h)1
6 (h)2
28 [( )
+( )
+( )
+]
0
1
2
=0
4
4
4
30 [( ) (h)0 + ( ) (h)1 + ( ) (h)2 + ] 1
0
1
2
28(1 + 6h + 15h2 + )
30(1 + 4h + 6h2 + ) 1

18(ii) Selective expansion


(1 + y)7
sub y = x(1 + x):
[1 + x(1 + x)]7
= 1 +7x(1 + x)
+21[x(1 + x)]2
+35[x(1 + x)]3 +35[x(1 + x)]4
+21[x(1 + x)]5 +7[x(1 + x)]6 +[x(1 + x)]7
(1 + x)4
= 35x 4
+21x 5 (1 + x)5
+7x 6 (1 + x)6
(1 + x)7 +
+x 7

=0

28 + 168h + 420h2
=0
30 120h 180h2 1 +
240h2 + 48h 3
80h2 + 12h 1
(20h 1)(4h + 1)
h=

20

or h = (rej root greater than 1)


4

root x = 1 +
17(i)

4
= 35x 4 [ ( ) (x)3 ]
3
5 [ (5) (x)2
+21x
]
2
6
+7x 6 [ ( ) (x)1 ]
1
7
7
[ ( ) (x)0 ] +
+x
0

0
0
0

1
20

= 1.05

= [35(4) + 21(10) + 7(6) + 1]x 7 +


= 393x 7 +

(1 + 2x)2n
2n
2n
2n
= ( ) (2x)0 + ( ) (2x)1 + + ( ) (2x)r
0
1
r
2n (2x)2n
++ ( )

2n

17(ii) 22n
= [1 + (1)]2n
=(

=(

2n (1)0
2n
2n
)
+ ( ) (1)1 + ( ) (1)2
0
1
2
2n
+ + ( ) (1)2n
2n
2n
)
0

coefficent of x 7 = 393
18(iii) 1st Observation
(1 + y)7
= 1 + 7y + 21y 2 + 35y 3 + 35y 4 + 21y 5 + 7y 6 +
y7

2n
2n
2n
+ ( ) + ( ) + + ( ) [proven]
1
2
2n

18(i)
(1 + y)7
7
7
7
7
= ( ) (y)0 + ( ) (y)1 + ( ) (y)2 + ( ) (y)3
0
3
1
2
7 (y)4
7 (y)5
7 (y)6
7
+( )
+( )
+( )
+ ( ) (y)7
5
6
4
7
2
3
4
5
= 1 + 7y + 21y + 35y + 35y + 21y + 7y 6 + y 7

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

All the coefficients of the terms from the 2nd term


onwards are divisible by 7
except the last term.
2nd Observation
Last Term of y
= [x(1 + x)]7
= x 7 (1 + x)7
7
7
7
7
( ) (x)0 + ( ) (x)1 + ( ) (x)2 + ( ) (x)3
0
3
1
2
= x7 [
]
7
7
7
7 (x)4
+( )
+ ( ) (x)5 + ( ) (x)6 + ( ) x 7
5
6
7
4
= x 7 [(1)x + (7)x 2 + (21)x 2 + (35)x 3 + (35)x 4
+ (21)x 5 + (7)x 6 + (1)x 7 ]

126

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.2

Ex 5.2
1(a)

(2 x)3
= [2 + (x)]3
= 23

3
3
3
+ ( ) (2)31 (x)1 + ( ) (2)32 (x)2 + ( ) (2)33 (x)3
3
1
2

=8

+(3)(4)(x)

+(3)(2)(x 2 )

+(x)3

= 8 12x + 6x 2 x 3
1(b)

(x + 2y)4
= x4

4
4
4
4
+ ( ) (x)41 (2y)1 + ( ) (x)42 (2y)2 + ( ) (x)43 (2y)3 + ( ) (x)44 (2y)4
3
1
2
4

= x4

+(4)(x 3 )(2y)

+(6)(x 2 )(4y 2 )

+(4)(x)(8y 3 )

+(16y 4 )

= x 4 + 8x 3 y + 24x 2 y 2 + 32xy 3 + 16y 4


1(c)

(2 + x 2 )5
= 25

5
5
5
5
5
+ ( ) (2)51 (x 2 )1 + ( ) (2)52 (x 2 )2 + ( ) (2)53 (x 2 )3 + ( ) (2)54 (x 2 )4 + ( ) (2)55 (x 2 )5
3
5
1
2
4

= 25

+(5)(16)(x 2 )

+(10)(8)(x 4 )

+(10)(4)(x 6 )

+(5)(2)(x 8 )

+x10

= 32 + 80x 2 + 80x 4 + 40x 6 + 10x 8 + x10


2(a)

x 5

(4 ) = [4 + ( x)]

1
1
5
+ ( ) (4)51 ( x)
2
1

= 45

= (1024) +(5)(256) ( x)
2

2
1
5
+ ( ) (4)52 ( x)
2
2

3
1
5
+ ( ) (4)53 ( x) +
2
3

+(10)(64) ( x 2 )

+(10)(16) ( x 3 )

= 1024 640x + 160x 2 20x 3 +


2(b)

12

( + x2 )
2

1 12
2

=
=
2(c)

1
2x

12 1 121 (x 2 )1
12 1 122 (x 2 )2
+( )( )
+( )( )
2
1
2 2

=( )
1

+(12) (

4096
1
4096

2x 2 ) = [

1
2x

3
512

1 8
1
1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

x4 +

55
128

+(66) (

1
1024

) (x 4 )

1
8x5

12 1 123 (x 2 )3
)( )
+
3 2

+(220) (

) (x 6 )

512

x6 +

+(8) (

256x8
256x8

) (x 2 )

8 1 81 (2x 2 )1
8 1 82 (2x 2 )2
+( )( )
+( )( )
1 2x
2 2x

2x

33
512

+ (2x 2 )]

=( )
=

x2 +

1
2048

+(

1
128x7

7
4x2

) (2x 2 )

+(28) (

1
64x6

) (4x 4 )

8 1 83 (2x 2 )3
+( )( )
+
3 2x
+(56) (

1
32x5

) (8x 6 ) +

14x +

sleightofmath.com

127

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(a)

Ex 5.2

For (x + 2y)5

5
Tr+1 = ( ) (x)5r (2y)r
r
3(b)

3(c)

Tr+1
4(a)

1 13
2y

= [3x 2 + (

1
2y

13

For coefficient of x 3 ,

1 r

13
= ( ) (3x 2 )13r ( )
2y
r

r=6

6(a)

10 (2)106 (x)6
)
6
= (210)(16)(x 6 )
= 2260x 6

(rej)

18

For ( x 2 )

For term independent of x,


3r 18 = 0
r
=6

r=3

Term independent of x
18
= ( ) (1)6 (x)0
6
= (18 564)(1)(x)0
= 18 564

9
4th term = ( ) (3x)93 (2)3
3
= (84)(729x 6 )(8)
= 489 888x 6
For (y 2x)10 = [y + (2x)]10

6(b)

10 (y)10r (2x)r
)
r

For middle term,

r=

10
2

= [x 1 + (x 2 )]18

18 (x 1 )18r (x 2 )r
)
r
18
(1)r x 2r
= ( ) x r18
r
18
= ( ) (1)r
x 3r18
r

For (3x 2)9 = [3x + (2)]9

Tr+1 = (

Tr+1 = (

9
Tr+1 = ( ) (3x)9r (2)r
r

4(c)

2r = 6 r = 3
1 3
15
10
Coefficient of x 6 = [( ) ( ) ] = ( )
4
8
3

7th term = (

For 4th term,

r=

For coefficient of x 6 ,

4(b)

2r = 3

Coefficient of x 3 = 0

10
= ( ) (2)10r (x)r
r

For 7th term,

10

= [1 + ( x 2 )]

)]

For (2 + x)10
Tr+1

10

r
1
10
) ( x 2 )
4
r
1 r
10
= ( ) ( ) (x 2 )r
4
r
1 r
10
= ( ) ( ) x 2r
4
r

10 (2x)10r (3)r
)

For (3x 2

x2

Tr+1 = (

For (2x 3)10 = [2x + (3)]10


Tr+1 = (

For (1

For (x +

1
2x2

12

= [x + (2 x2 )]

12 12r
)x
r
12
= ( ) x12r
r
12 1 r
= ( )( )
r 2

Tr+1 = (
=5

10
Middle term = ( ) (y)105 (2x)5
5
= (252)(y 5 )(32x 5 )
= 8064x 5 y 5

For middle term,

( x 2 )

12

1 r

( ) x 2r
2

x123r
r=

12
2

=6

12 1 6 (x)123(6)
)( )
6 2
231
=
6

Middle term = (

16x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

128

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7

Ex 5.2

(px 3)n
= [px + (3)]n
n
= ( ) (px)n0 (3)0
0
= (px)n

n
+ ( ) (px)n1 (3)1 +
1
+(n)(px)n1 (3) +

= pn x n

3npn1 x n1 +

= 512x 9
qx 8 + [given]
Compare 1st term: Compare 2nd term:
3npn1 x n1 = qx 8
pn x n = 512x 9
3(9)291 x 91 = qx 8
n =9
n = 9, p = 2
8 )x 8
27(2
= qx 8
pn = 512
q
= 6912
n = 9,
p9
= 512
p
=2
8(i)

x 7
(2 )
2

7
1
= [2 + ( x)]
2
1
1
7
= (2)7 + ( ) (2)71 ( x)
2
1
1
= 128 +(7)(64) ( x)
2
2

2
1
7
+ ( ) (2)72 ( x)
2
2
1 2
+(21)(32) ( x )
4

3
1
7
+ ( ) (2)73 ( x) +
2
3
1 3
+(35)(16) ( x ) +
8

= 128 224x + 168x 70x +


8(ii)

(1.995)7 = (2 0.005)7
= (2

0.01 7
2

= 128 224(0.01) + 168(0.01)2 70(0.01)3 +


125.7767
9(i)

(1 2x)9 = [(1) + (2x)]9


9
9
=1
+ ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2 +
1
2
=1
+(9)(2x)
+(36)(4x 2 ) +
= 1 18x + 144x 2 +
5
5
+ ( ) (2)51 (x)1 + ( ) (2)52 (x)2
1
2
= 32 +(5)(16)(x)
+(10)(8)(x 2 )
= 32 + 80x + 80x 2 +

(2 + x)5 = 25

9(ii)

(1 2x)9 (2 + x)5 = (1 18x + 144x 2 + )(32 + 80x + 80x 2 + )

= 32 +80x
+80x 2
576x 1440x 2
+4608x 2 +
= 32 496x +3248x 2 +

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

129

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

Ex 5.2

(2x 1)6
= [(2x) + (1)]6
6
6
6
= (2x)6
+ ( ) (2x)61 (1)1 + ( ) (2x)62 (1)2 + ( ) (2x)63 (1)3
3
1
2
= (64x 6 ) +(6)(32x 5 )(1)
+(15)(16x 4 )(1)
+(20)(8x 3 )(1)
= 64x 6
192x 5
+240x 4
160x 3 +

10(ii) (2x 1)6 (x 2 2x + 3)


= (64x 6 192x 5 + 240x 4 160x 3 + )(x 2 2x + 3)
= (192x 5 )(3) +(240x 4 )(2x) +(160x 3 )(x 2 ) +
= 576x 5
480x 5
= 1216x 5 +

160x 5 +

Coefficient of x 5 = 1216
11(i)

( 2x)

= [ + (2x)]

1 5

5 1 51 (2x)1
+( )( )
1 2
1
+(5) ( ) (2x)

=( )
=
=

2
1

32
1
32

5 1 52 (2x)2
+( )( )
2 2
1
+(10) ( ) (4x 2 )

16

5 1 53 (2x)3
+( )( )
+
3 2
1
+(10) ( ) (8x 3 ) +
4

x + 5x 20x +
8

11(ii) Expansion
1

(1 + ax + 3x 2 ) ( 2x)
2

= (1 + ax + 3x 2 ) (
= 5x 2
5a 2
x
8
3
+ x2
32
5a

= (5
163
32

x + 5x 2 20x 3 + )
8

20x 3
+5ax 3

=(

1
32

15 3
x +
8
3
) x 2 + (5a
32

5a
8

) x2

20

+ (5a

175
8

15
8

) x3 +

) x3 +

Coefficients
Coefficient of x 2 =
(

163

32
5a

5a
8

[given]
13
2

Coefficent of x
= 5a

32
9
4

= 5 ( )
4
265
8

45

175
9

13

175
8

a=

9
4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

130

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

Ex 5.2

For (x + my)8
8
Tr+1 = ( ) x 8r (my)r
r

13(iii) For constant term,

Constant Term = (

12(ii) if m = 2:
8
(a)
Tr+1 = ( ) x 8r (2y)r
r
8 8r r r
= ( )x
2 y
r
8
= ( ) 2r x 8r y r
r

14(i)

For (x 3

2 10
x2

k r
9
Tr+1 = ( ) x 9r ( )
x
r
9 9r (kx 1 )r
= ( )x
r
9 9r r r
= ( )x k x
r
9 r 92r
= ( )k x
r
For coefficient of x 3 , For coefficient of x 3 ,
9 2r = 3
9 2r = 3
2r = 6
2r = 6
r
=3
r
=3

r=5
8 5
= ( )2
5
= 1792

= 1512x 5 y 3

Coefficient of x 3
Coefficient of x 3
9
9
= ( ) k3
= ( ) k3
3
3
3
= 84k
= 84k 3
Equate coefficients
Coefficient of x 3 = Coefficient of x [given]
84k 3
= 126k 4
2k 3
= 3k 4
3
4
2k 3k
=0
3
k (2 3k)
=0

= 1512x 5 y 3
= 1512x 5 y 3
= 1512x 5 y 3
= 1512
= 3
= [x 3 + (2x 2 )]10

10 (x 3 )10r (2x 2 )r
)
r
10
= ( ) x 303r (2)r x 2r
r
10 (2)r
=( )
x 305r
r

k = 0 (rej k is positive)or k =

Tr+1 = (

13(i)

Specific coefficients
k 9

For term (1512x 5 y 3 ),


r=3

13

= 13 440

For (x + ) ,

8 8r (my)r
12(ii) Recall: T
r+1 = ( ) x
r
(b)

T4
8
( ) x 83 (my)3
3
8
( ) x 5 m3 y 3
3
56m3 x 5 y 3
56m
m

10 (2)6 305(6)
)
x
6

For coefficient of x 3 y 5 ,
Coefficient of x 3 y 5

30 5r = 0
5r
= 30
r
=6

For term in x10 ,

Term in x10

30 5r = 10
5r
= 20
r
=4
10 (2)4 10
=( )
x = 3360x10
4

13(ii) For coefficient of 1 ,


5

30 5r = 5

5r
r
Coefficient of

1
x5

=(

= 35
=7

10 (2)7
)
= 15 360
7

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

131

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.2

14(ii) Put k = 2,
3

(1 6x

2)

2
3

(x + )
x

= (1 6x 2 )[(term in x 3 ) + (term in x 5 ) + ]
[to be continued]
Specific terms
2

For (x + 3 ) = [x + ( x 1 )] ,
x

r
2
9
Tr+1 = ( ) x 9r ( x 1 )
3
r
9 9r 2 r r
( ) x
= ( )x
3
r
r
9 2
= ( ) ( ) x 92r
r 3

For term in x 3 , 9 2r = 3
2r
=6
r
=3
2 3

Term in x 3 = 84 ( ) x 3 =
3

224 3
x
9

For term in x 5 , 9 2r = 5
2r
=4
r
=2
2
2
9
Term in x 5 = ( ) ( ) x 5 = 16x 5
2 3
Expansion
(1 6x

2)

2
3

(x + )
x

= (1 6x 2 ) (

224 3
x
9

+ 16x 5 + )

= (1)(16x 5 ) + (6x 2 ) (
=

400 5

x
3

224 3
x )
9

Coefficient of x 5 =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

400
3

sleightofmath.com

132

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

Ex 5.2

x n

(2 )
2

= [2 + ( x)]

0
1
n
n
1
1
= ( ) (2)n0 ( x) + ( ) (2)n1 ( x)
2
2
0
1
1

2
n
1
+ ( ) (2)n2 ( x) +
2
2
n(n1)

= 2n

+n(2n1 ) ( x)

= 2n

n(2n1 ) ( ) x

= 2n

n(2n1 )(21 )x

+n(n 1)(23 )2n2 x 2 +

= 2n

n(2n2 )x

+n(n 1)2n5 x 2 +

1
2

(2n2 ) x 2 +

n(n1) n2 2
2 x
8

15(ii) (1 + 2x) (2 x)n


2

= (1 + 2x)[2n n(2n2 )x +n(n 1)2n5 x 2 + ]


= 2n

n(2n2 )x
+(2n+1 )x

+n(n 1)2n5 x 2
(n)2n1 x 2 +

= 2n +[2n+1 n(2n2 )]x


= a + bx 2 + [given]

+[n(n 1)2n5 (n)2n1 ]x 2 +

Compare x:
2n+1 n(2n2 )
=0
n2
3
n2
(2 )2 n(2 ) = 0
2n2 (23 n)
=0
n
=8
15(iii) Compare x 0 :
a = 2n
= 28 n = 8
= 256
Compare x 2 :
b = n(n 1)2n5 (n)2n1
= 8(8 1)285 (8)281 n = 8
= 576

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

133

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16

Ex 5.2

Expansion
(1 + x)(a bx)12
= (1 + x)[(term in x 7 ) + (term in x 8 ) + ]
[to be continued]

17(i)

Specific terms
For (a bx)12 = [a + (bx)]12 ,
12 12r (bx)r
)a
r
12
= ( ) a12r (b)r x r
r

For coefficient of x 2 , r = 2
n
n
Coefficient of x 2 = ( ) 32 = 9 ( )
2
2
Equate coefficients
(Coefficient of x 3 ) = 6(Coefficient of x 2 )
n
n
27 ( )
= 6 9( )
3
2
n
n
( )
= 2 ( ) [shown]
3
2

Tr+1 = (

For term in x 7 ,

Find specific coefficients


For (1 + 3x)n
n
Tr+1 = ( ) (3x)r
r
n r r
= ( )3 x
r
For coefficient of x 3 , r = 3
n
n
Coefficient of x 3 = ( ) 33 = 27 ( )
3
3

r=7

12
Term in x 7 = ( ) a5 (b)7 x 7
7
= 792a5 b7 x 7

17(ii)

For term in x 8 , r = 8
12 4 (b)8 8
)a
x
8
= 495a4 b8 x 8

Term in x 8 = (

n!
(n3)!3!
n(n1)(n2)(n3)!
(n3)!3!
n(n1)(n2)
3!
(n)(n1)(n2)
6

Expansion
(1 + x)(a bx)12
= (1 + x)[(792a5 b7 x 7 ) + (495a4 b8 x 8 ) + ]
= 1(495a4 b8 x 8 ) + x(792a5 b7 x 7 ) +
= 495a4 b8 x 8
792a5 b7 x 8 +

n!

= 2 (n2)!2!
=2
=2
=2

n(n1)(n2)!
(n2)!2!
n(n1)
2!
(n)(n1)
2

(n)(n 1)(n 2)
= 6(n)(n 1)
(n)(n 1)[(n 2) 6] = 0
(n)(n 1)(n 8)
=0
n=0
or n = 1
or n = 8
(rej n 2) (rej n 2)

= (495a4 b8 792a5 b7 )x 8 +
Coefficient of x 8
= 0 [given]
4 8
5 7
495a b 792a b = 0
5a4 b8 8a5 b7
=0
5a4 b8
= 8a5 b7
a
b

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

134

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18(i)

Ex 5.2

(2 + p)5
5
5
5
+ ( ) (2)51 (p)1 + ( ) (2)52 (p)2 + ( ) (2)53 (p)3 +
3
1
2
2
= (32) +(5)(16)(p)
+(10)(8)(p )
+(10)(4)(p3 )
+
2
3
= 32
+80p
+80p
+40p
+
= 25

18(ii) (2 + x 2x 2 )5
= [2 + (x 2x 2 )]5
= 32 +80(x 2x 2 ) +80(x 2x 2 )2
= 32 +80(x 2x 2 ) +80(x 2 4x 3 + )
= 32 +80x
160x 2
2
+80x
320x 3
+40x 3 +
= 32 +80x
19

80x 2

+40(x 2x 2 )3 +
+40(x 3 + )

280x 3 +

(a + bx + cx 2 )4 = 81 + 216x + 108x 2 + dx 3 + [given]


(a + bx + cx 2 )4 = [a + (bx + cx 2 )]4
4
4
= a4 + ( ) (a)41 (bx + cx 2 )1 + ( ) (a)42 (bx + cx 2 )2
1
2

4
+ ( ) (a)43 (bx + cx 2 )3 +
3

= a4 + 4a3 (bx + cx 2 )

+6a2 (b2 x 2 + 2bcx 3 + )

+4a(b3 x 3 + ) +

= a4 + 4a3 bx +4a3 cx 2

+6a2 b2 x 2 +12a2 bcx 3

+4ab3 x 3 +

= a4 + 4a3 bx + (4a3 c + 6a2 b2 )x 2 + (12a2 bc + 4ab3 )x 3 +


= 81 + 216x + 108x 2 + dx 3 + [given]
Compare x 0 : a4 = 81
a = 3 or a = 3
Compare x:

(rej a > 0)

4a3 b = 216
a3 b = 54
a = 3,
(3)3 b = 54
b
=2

Compare x 2 : 4a3 c + 6a2 b2


= 108
3
2 2
2a c + 3a b
= 54
a = 3, b = 2,
2(3)3 c + 3(3)2 (2)2 = 54
54c + 108
= 54
c
= 1
Compare x 3 : 12a2 bc + 4ab3
=d
a = 3, b = 2, c = 1,
12(3)2 (2)(1) + 4(3)(2)3 = d
d
= 120

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

135

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


20(i)

For (2x 2

1 n
x

Ex 5.2
1

) = [2x 2 + (x 2 )]

21(i)

1 r
n
Tr+1 = ( ) (2x 2 )nr (x 2 )
r
1
n nr 2n2r
(1)r x 2r
= ( )2 x
r
5
n nr
= ( ) 2 (1)r x 2n2r
r

For (a + b)n ,
n
TR+1 = ( ) anR bR
R
For 2nd term, R = 1
n
2nd term: p = ( ) an1 b1 [given]
1
= nan1 b
For 3rd term: R = 2
n
3rd term: q = ( ) an2 b2 [given]
2

For term independent of x:


5

n!

2n r = 0

= (n2)!2! an2 b2

5
2

= 2n
5

n(n1) n2 2
a b
2

n!

= (n3)!3! an3 b3

For coefficient of x 7 x:
5

10 r = 7.5
2

For 4th term: R = 3


n
4th term: r = ( ) an3 b3 [given]
3

5 5r (1)r 2(5)52r
20(ii) T
x
r+1 = ( ) 2
r
5
5
= ( ) 25r (1)r x102r
r

n(n1)(n2)! n2 2
a b
(n2)!2!

= r

r is non negative integer,


smallest n = 5

5
2

n(n1)(n2)(n3)! n3 3
a b
(n3)!3!

n(n1)(n2) n3 3
a b
6

pr
q2

=1

nan1 b

Coefficient of x 7 x
5
= ( ) (2)51 (1)1
1
= (5)(16)(1)
= 80

n(n 1)(n 2) n3 3
[
a b ]
6
n(n 1) n2 2
[
a b ]
2

1 2
n (n 1)(n 2)a2n4 b4
6
=
1 2
n (n 1)2 a2n4 b 4
4
=

2(n 2)
[shown]
3(n 1)

21(ii) when p = 8, q = 24, r = 36:


(8)(36)
(24)2
1
2

=
=

2(n2)
3(n1)
2(n2)
3(n1)

3(n 1) = 4(n 2)
3n 3 = 4n 8
n
=5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

136

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 5.2

22
3

Given: a = 2 + 5 + 2 5
Prove: a3 = 4 3a
LHS
= a3
3

= [( 2 + 5) + ( 2 5)]
3

= ( 2 + 5)

31 3
1
32 3
2
3 3
3 3
( 2 5) + ( ) ( 2 + 5)
( 2 5)
+ ( ) ( 2 + 5)
1
2
3

+3 ( 2 + 5) ( 2 5)

= 2 + 5
3

+3 ( 2 + 5) ( 2 5)

33 3
3
3 3
( 2 5)
+ ( ) ( 2 + 5)
3

+2 5

= 4 +3 ( 2 + 5) ( 2 5) [( 2 5) + ( 2 + 5)]
3

= 4 +3( 4 5)

(a)

= 4 +3(1)

(a)

= 4 3

(a)

a = 2 + 5 + 2 5

= 4 3a
= RHS [proven]
a3
= 4 3a
3
a + 3a 4
=0
(a 1)( +
+ )
(a 1)(a2 +
+ )
2
(a 1)(a +
+ 4)
2
(a 1)(a + a + 4) = 0
a = 1 or a =

(1)(1)2 4(1)(4)
2(1)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

115
2

(rej discriminant < 0)

sleightofmath.com

137

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 5
A2(b)

Rev Ex 5
A1(i)
(a)

(1 + 3x)6
6
6
6
= 1 + ( ) (3x)1 + ( ) (3x)2 + ( ) (3x)3 +
3
1
2
= 1 + (6)(3x) +(15)(9x 2 ) +(20)(27x 3 ) +
= 1 + 18x + 135x 2 + 540x 3 +

A1(i)
(b)
(1 4x)5

For (x

2 12
x2

= [x + (2x 2 )]12

12 12r (2x 2 )r
)x
r
12
= ( ) x12r (2)r x 2r
r
12
= ( ) (2)r x123r
r

Tr+1 = (

For coefficient of x 3 ,
12 3r = 3
3r
= 9
r
=3

= [1 + (4x)]5
5
5
5
= 1 + ( ) (4x)1 + ( ) (4x)2 + ( ) (4x)3 +
3
1
2

Coefficient of x 3
12
= ( ) (2)3
3
= 1760

= 1 + (5)(4x) +(10)(16x 2 ) +(10)(64x 3 ) +


= 1 20x + 160x 2 640x 3 +
A1(ii)
(1 + 3x)6 (1 4x)5
= (1 + 18x + 135x 2 + )(1 20x + 160x 2 + )
= (1)(160x 2 ) +(18x)(20x)

+(135x 2 )(1) +

= 160x 2

+135x 2 +

360x 2

= 65x 2 +
Coefficient of x 2 = 65
A2(a)

x 8

For (1 + ) ,
2

8 x r
Tr+1 = ( ) ( )
r 2
8 1 r
= ( ) ( x)
r 2
8 1 r
= ( ) ( ) xr
r 2
For coefficient of x 3 ,
r=3
Coefficient of x 3
8 1 3
= ( )( )
3 2
=7

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

138

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A3(i)

Rev Ex 5

2 8

(x 2 )
x

2 8
= [x 2 + ( )]
x
= (x 2 )8

2 1
2 2
8
8
+ ( ) (x 2 )81 ( ) + ( ) (x 2 )82 ( )
x
x
1
2

= x16

+(8)(x14 ) ( )

2
x

2 3
8
+ ( ) (x 2 )83 ( )
x
3

+(28)(x12 ) ( 2 )

+(56)(x10 ) ( 3 )

= x16 16x13 + 112x10 448x 7 +


A3(ii)

2 8

(x 3 + 1)2 (x 2 )
x
= (x 6 + 2x 3 + 1)(x16 16x13 + 112x10 448x 7 + )
= (x 6 )(448x 7 ) +(2x 3 )(112x10 )
= (448x13 )
+(224x13 )
13
= 240x +

+(1)(16x13 ) +
+(16x13 ) +

Coefficient of x13 = 240


A4(i)

x n

(1 ) = [1 + ( x)]

0
1
n
n
1
1
= ( ) ( x) + ( ) ( x)
2
2
0
1
1

= (1)

+(n) ( x)

=1

nx

+(
+

A4(ii) (1 x)n = 1 + ax + 7x 2 +

2
n
1
+ ( ) ( x) +
2
2
n(n1)

) ( x2 ) +

n(n1) 2
x
8

[given]

Compare x 2 :
n(n1)

=7

8
2

n n
= 56
2
n n 56
=0
(n 8)(n + 7) = 0
n = 8 or n = 7 (rej n > 2)
A4(iii) Compare x:
1

n
2
1

=a

(8) = a
2

= 4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

139

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5(i)

Rev Ex 5

(1 + p)4
4
4
4
4
= ( ) (p)0 + ( ) (p)1 + ( ) (p)2 + ( ) (p)3
0
3
1
2
=1

+6p2

+4p

+4p3

B2

4
+ ( ) (p)4
4
4
+p

B2(i)

1 1

= [a2 x 2 + ( x 2 )]

For middle term,

r= =4
2

B2(ii) For coefficient of 1,


x

= 1 + 4x + 10x 2 + 16x 3 +

Coefficient of

A5(iii) (1.11)4 = [1 + (0.1) + (0.1)2 ]4


1 + 4(0.1) +10(0.1)2 + 16(0.1)3
1 + 0.4
+0.1
+0.016
1.516
B1(i)

x
)
a

8
Middle term = ( ) a1612 (1)4 x 44
4
= 70a4

= 1 +4x +4x 2 +6(x 2 + 2x 3 + ) +4(x 3 + ) +


= 1 +4x +4x 2
+6x 2 +12x 3
+4x 3 +

8r

= [(1) + (x + x 2 )]4
+4(x + x 2 )3 +

a2

1
1 1
8
( x 2 )
Tr+1 = ( ) (a2 x 2 )
a
r
1
1
8
= ( ) a162r x 2r4 (1)r ar x 2r
r
8
= ( ) a163r (1)r x r4
r

A5(ii)
(1 + x + x 2 )4
= 1 +4(x + x 2 ) +6(x + x 2 )2

For (

1
x

r=3

8
= ( ) a163(3) (1)(3)4
3
= (56)a7 (1)
= 56a7

(2 x)7
= [2 + (x)]7
7
7
= ( ) (2)70 (x)0 + ( ) (2)71 (x)1
0
1
7
+ ( ) (2)72 (x)2 +
2
= 128

+(7)(64)(x)
+(21)(32)(x 2 ) +
= 128 448x + 672x 2 +
B1(ii) 1.997 = (2 0.01)7
= 128 448(0.01) +672(0.01)2 +
= 128 4.48 +0.0672 +
123.587
B1(iii) (k x)(2 x)7
= (k x)(128 448x + 672x 2 + )
= k(672x 2 ) +(x)(448x) +
= 672kx 2 +448x 2 +
= (672k + 448)x 2 +
Coefficient of x 2 = 616 [given]
672k + 448
= 616
672k
= 168
k

=
4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

140

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 5

B3(i)
5

(2 + 3)
0
5
= ( ) (2)50 (3)
0

1
2
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
+ ( ) (2)51 (3) + ( ) (2)52 (3) + ( ) (2)53 (3) + ( ) (2)54 (3) + ( ) (2)55 (3)
3
5
1
2
4

= (32)

+(5)(16)(3)

+(10)(8)(3)

+(10)(4)(33) +(5)(2)(9)

+(1)(1)(93)

= (32 + 240 + 90) + (80 + 120 + 9)3


= 362 + 2093
B3(ii) (2 3)5 = 362 2093
5

Show: (2 3) =

1
(2+3)

5 (2+3)

LHS = (2 3)
B4(i)

(2+3)

5
5

(43)5
(2+3)

1
(2+3)

= RHS [shown]

(a x)(1 + 2x)n = 3 + 47x + bx 2 +


sub x = 0:
n

(a 0)(1 + 2(0)) = 3 + 47(0) + b(0)2


a

=3

B4(ii)
(3 x)(1 + 2x)n = 3 + 47x + bx 2 + [given]
(3 x)(1 + 2x)n

= (3 x) [1

n
n
+ ( ) (2x)1 + ( ) (2x)2 + ]
1
2
n(n1)
(4x 2 ) + ]
+ (n)(2x) +

= (3 x)(1

+ 2nx

= (3 x) [1

= 3 +6nx
x

+ 2n(n 1)x 2 + )

+6n(n 1)x 2
2nx 2

= 3 +(6n 1)x +(6n2 6n 2n)x 2 +


= 3 +(6n 1)x +(6n2 8n)x 2 +
= 3 +47x + bx 2 + [given]
Compare x:
(6n 1) = 47
6n
= 48
n
=8
B4(iii) Compare x 2 :
(6n2 8n) = b
6(8)2 8(8) = b n = 8
b
= 320

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

141

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5

Rev Ex 5

Expansion
(1 + ax)6 (2 + bx)5
6
6
= [1 + ( ) (ax)1 + ( ) (ax)2 + ]
1
2
5 (2)51 (bx)1
5
5
[2 + ( )
+ ( ) (2)52 (bx)2 + ]
1
2
= (1 + 6ax + 15a2 x 2 + )(32 + 80bx + 80b2 x 2 + )

+80b2 x 2
+480abx 2
+480a2 x 2 +
+(80b2 + 480ab + 480a2 )x 2 +

= 80bx
+192ax
= (80b + 192a)x

Equate coefficients
Coeff. of x = 112 [given]
80b + 192a = 112
b

=
=

112192a
80
712a

(1)

Coeff. of x 2
= 80 [given]
2
2
80b + 480ab + 480a = 80
b2 + 6ab + 6a2
=1
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
(

712a 2

5
144a2 +168a+49
25

+6a (
+

712a

5
42a72a2

) + 6a2 = 1

+6a2 = 1

(144a2 + 168a + 49)


210a 360a2 + 150a2

= 25

(144a2 + 168a + 49)


210a 210a2

= 25

66a2 42a
+24
11a2 +7a
+4
(11a + 4)(a + 1)

=0
=0
=0

a=

4
11

(rej a )

or

a = 1
b|a=1 =

712(1)
5

=1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

142

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.1
4(ii)

Ex 6.1
1(a)

Point:

D(1,4) or E(3,1)
(4)(1)

Gradient: mDE = (1)(3) =

A(4,5) B(6,9)
MAB = (

4+6 5+9

y (4)=

= (5,7)
1(b)

5+11 3+(7)

2(b)

C
= MAB
9+b (6)+b2
(3, 4) = ( 1 ,
)

3 =
2
a1 = 0
A(0,3)

4
13

A(9, 6) C(3, 4) B(b1 , b2 )

M
= MAB
a +6 a +7
(3,5) = ( 1 , 2 )
2
(a1 )+(6)

4
3

5(i)
A(a1 , a2 )

M(3,5) B(6,7)

[x (1)]

4
3

= x+

= (3, 2)
2(a)

y4 = x

A(5,3) B(11, 7)
MAB = (

y y1 = mDE (x x1 )

DE:

9+b1

(a2 )+(7)

and

5 =
a2 = 3

(6)+b2

3 =
and 4 =
2
2
b1 = 3
b2 = 2
B(3, 2)

5(ii)

M(2,6) B(4, 8) A(a1 , a2 )

Radius = |BC|
= [(3) 3]2 + [(2) (4)]2

M
= MAB
a +(4) a2 +(8)
(2,6) = ( 1
)
,
2
(a1 )+(4)

2 =
2
a1 = 0
A(0,20)
3(a)

and

= 40

(a2 )+(8)

6 =
a2 = 20

= 4 10
= 210

6(i)

A(2a, a) B(4a, 5a)


MAB = (

= 36 + 4

|AC| = (5 6)2 + [3 (4)]2

2a+4a a+5a

= 1 + 49 = 50

= (3a, 2a)
3(b)

|BC| = [5 (2)]2 + (3 4)2

A(2t, 5) B(4,1 2t)


MAB = (

= 49 + 1 = 50

(2t)+4 5+(12t)

|AC| = |BC|,
ABC is isosceles

= (t + 1,3 t)
4(i)

A(1,6) B(3,2)

C(5, 4)

6(ii)

MAB = (

6+(2) (4)+4
2

= (2,0)

D = MAB
=(

A(6, 4) B(2,4) C (5,3)

(1)+3 6+2

= (1,4)
E = MAC
=(

(1)+(5) 6+(4)
2

= (3,1)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

143

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(iii)

Ex 6.1

area of ABC

1
|AB||MAB C|
2

1 [6 (2)]2
(5 2)2 + (3 0)2

2 +[(4) 4]2
1

= 64 + 64
2

y = x 2 + 2x 3

9 + 9

1
12818
2
1
= 2304
2
1
= (48)
2

x=
=

= 24 unit 2

2
p2 +q2
2
2

442

= 2 2

y|x=2+2 = 1 2(2 + 2)

) = (5,1)

=5

4162

432

A(2 2, 3 + 22)

= (5,1)
2

2(1)

= 5 + 22

p2 +q2 p+q

(4)(4)2 4(1)(4)

y|x=22 = 1 2(2 2)

A(p2 , p) B(q2 , q)
MAB

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


1 2x
= x 2 + 2x 3
2
x + 4x 4 = 0

Points A & B
At A & B, 2x + y = 1 intersects y = x 2 + 2x 3.
2x + y = 1
y
= 1 2x
(1)

and

p + q = 10 (1)
sub (2) into (1):
p2 + (2 p)2
= 10
2
2)
(4
p + 4p + p = 10
2p2 4p 6
=0
2
p 2p 3
=0
(p + 1)(p 3)
=0

p+q
2

= 5 22
=1

B(2 + 2, 3 22)

q = 2 p (2)

p = 1
or
q|p=1 = 3
A = (p2 , p)
= ((1)2 , 1)
= (1, 1)

p=3
q|p=3 = 1
A = (p2 , p)
= ((3)2 , 3)
= (9,3)

B = (q2 , q)
= ((3)2 , 3)
= (9,3)

B = (q2 , q)
= ((1)2 , 1)
= (1, 1)

Midpoint of AB
MAB = (

(22)+(2+2) (5+22)+(522)

= (2,5)
9

B(2,5) C(c1 , c2 )

A(3,7)
MAC = (

(3)+(c1 ) (7)+(c2 )
2

MAC lies on x-axis (y = 0):


7+c2
2

c2

=0
= 7

MBC = (

(2)+(c1 ) (5)+(c2 )
)
,
2
2

MBC lies on y axis (x = 0):


2+c1
2

c1

=0
=2

C(2, 7)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

144

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

Ex 6.1

A(6,8) B(8, 4) C(2, 2)


Point M
M = MAB = (

6+8 8+(4)
2

12(i)

O(0,0) P(4, r) Q(q1 , q2 ) R(3,4)


For rhombus OPQR:
|OP|
= |OR|

) = (7,2)

(4 0)2 + (r 0)2 = (3 0)2 + (4 0)2

Point N
N = MBC = (
Line MN
Points:

8+(2) (4)+(2)

M(7,2) or N(3, 3)
(2)(3)

Gradient: mMN =

(7)(3)

= 9 + 16
16 + r 2
r2
=9
r = 3 or r = 3 (NA)

) = (3, 3)

12(ii) O(0,0) P(4,3) Q(q1 , q2 ) R(3,4)

5
4

MPR = (

y y1 = mMN (x x1 )

MN:

35

+2

12(iii) O(0,0) P(4,3) Q(q1 , q2 ) R(3,4)


MOQ

Point P
5

27

At P, MN (y = x
y
5

4
5

P(

27
5

) cuts x-axis (y = 0).

27
4
27

q2

=
2
=7

For parallelogram PQRS,


MPR
= MQS

27
5

M = MAC = (

1+6 3+2

2
1+6

, 0) N(3, 3)

A(3, 2) B(b, 3) C(6,2)


3+6 (2)+2
2

) =(

2
3+s1
2

3+s1 5+s2

and

s1 = 4
S(4,0)

2
3+2
2

s2

)
5+s

2
=
2
=0

D(7, d)
9

) = ( , 0)
2

=M

b+7 3+d

and

2 2
0+q2

13(a) P(1,3) Q(3,5) R(6,2) S(s1 , s2 )

By similar triangles (using x-coordinates)


MP: PN = (2 0) : [0 (3)]
= 2: 3

2
b+7

7 7

)=( , )

M(7,2) P (

2
7

q1 = 7
Q(7,7)

, 0)

11(ii) MBD

10(ii) Ratio :

11(i)

= MPR

0+q1 0+q2

2
0+q1

=0

=0
27

2 2

5
27
x
4
4

7 7

= x

=( , )

y (2)= ( ) [x (7)]
y

4+3 4+3

2
9
2

) = ( , 0)
2

and

b =2

3+d
2

=0

d = 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

145

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.1

13(b) P(1,3) Q(3,5) R(6,2) S(4,0) T(t1 , t 2 )

15(i)

T(t1 , t 2 ) lies on y = 2x:


t 2 = 2t1
T(t1 , 2t1 )
PT

M = MPR = (
N = MQS = (
15(ii) M

= (3 t1

)2

+ [5 (2t1

)]2

5(t1 )2 14t1 + 10
12t1
t1

= 5(t1 )2 26t1 + 34
= 24
=2

r4 7

6+0 (2)+s

s2

) = (3,

, )

) =(

2
0+d1

(1)+d1 6+d2

2
6+1
2

) =(

2
0+3
2

(1)+0 6+0

)
7

and

= 10

s2

s =9

0+b a+0

b a

) =( , )

2 2

b 2

a 2

b2
4

a2
4

0+d2
2
b 2

a 2

b 2

a 2

|AM| = (0 ) + (a )

|BM| = (b ) + (0 )

b2
4

b2
4

a2
4

a2
4

0+3 0+1

and

) =(

2
3+d1

|OM| = (0 ) + (0 )

2
6+d2

)
=

d2
d1
=4
D(4, 5)
Case 3
For parallelogram ACBD,
MAB
= MCD
2
(1)+0

s2

B(b, 0)

d1
=2
D(2,7)
Case 2
For parallelogram ABDC,
MAD = MBC

=3

M = MAB = (

0+d1 0+d2

and

16

d2 = 7

2
(1)+d1

, ) = (3,

D(d1 , d2 )

C(3,1)

(1)+3 6+1

2
(1)+3

=N

PQRS is a parallelogram

Case 1
For parallelogram ABCD,
MAC
= MBD

)=(

A(0, a)

A(1,6) B(0,0)

S(0, s)

15(iii) MPR = MQS ,

T(2,4)

R(r, 5)

(4)+r 2+5

r4 7

2
r4

(t1 )2 2t1 + 1
(t1 )2 6t1 + 9
=
+ 4(t1 )2 12t1 + 9
+4(t1 )2 20t1 + 25

Q(6, 2)

= QT

(1 t1 )2

+[3 (2t1 )]2

14

P(4,2)

and

d1
= 4
D(4,5)

17(i)

O(0,0)

P(2a, 0) Q(2b, 2c)

A = MOP = (

(0)+(2a) (0)+(0)

R(2d, 2e)

= (a, 0) [shown]

2
6+0
2

= 5

3+d1 1+d2
2

|OM| = |AM| = |BM|,


M is equidistant from the three vertices

0+1

B = MPQ

1+d2
2

=(

(2a)+(2b) (0)+(2c)

= (a + b, c) [shown]

d2 = 5

C = MQR = (

(2b)+(2d) (2c)+(2e)

= (b + d, c + e) [shown]
D = MRO = (

(2d)+(0) (2e)+(0)
2

= (d, e) [shown]
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

146

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.1

17(ii) A(a, 0) B(a + b, c) C(b + d, c + e) D(d, e)


MAC = (
MBD = (

a+(b+d) 0+(c+e)

2
2
(a+b)+d c+e

)= (

)= (

a+b+d c+e

2
2
a+b+d c+e
2

19
O(0,0) B(2,4)
(a)(ii) Let A be (x, y)

)
OA

MAC = MBD ,
ABCD is a parallelogram
18

C(0, n)

B(m, n)

A(m, 0)

MAC = (

0+m 0+n

2
2
m+0 0+n
2

x2 + y2
4x
x

= x 2 + y 2 4x 8y + 20
= 8y + 20
= 2y + 5
(1)

m n
2 2
m n

) =( , )
2 2

MOB = MAC ,
diagonals of rectangle OABC bisect each other

= OM
1)2

+ (y

(x 2 2x + 1)
+(y 2 4y + 4)

2)2

= (0 1)2 + (0 2)2
= 12 + 22

(x 2 2x) + (y 2 4y) + 5
(x 2 2x) + (y 2 4y)

=5
=0

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(2y + 5)2
2(2y + 5) +y 2 4y = 0
(4y 2 20y + 25) + (4y 10)
+y 2 4y = 0
(4y 2 16y + 15)
+y 2 4y = 0
5y 2 20y + 15 = 0
y 2 4y + 3
=0
(y 3)(y 1)
=0
y=3
or
y=1
x = 2(3) + 5
x = 2(1) + 5
= 1
=3
A(1,3)
or A(3,1)
C(3,1)
C(1,3)

19
As OABC is a square,
0+2 0+4
(a)(i) M
) = (1,2)
,
AC = MOB = (

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(x 2 4x + 4)
+y 2 8y + 16

x 2 + y 2

AM

) =( , )

= AB

(x 0)2
= (x 2)2 + (y 4)2
+(y 0)2

(x
MOB = (

M(1,2)

sleightofmath.com

147

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19(a)
(ii)

Ex 6.1
19
(a)
(iii)

(2,4)

19(b) M(1,2) (m + 1, m + 2)
A(1,3) (m 1, m + 3)
C(3,1) (m + 3, m + 1)


OB bisector of OB
Point:
MOB (1,2)
Gradient: mOB =

mOB

40
20

20

1
2

y y1 = mOB (x x1 )

OB :

y (2)= ( ) (x 1)

2
a+b

2
1

2
5

= x+

5
2

A (a1 , a1 + )
|AM|

= |OM|

(a1 1)2 + [( 1 a1 + 5) 2]
2

(a1 1)2 + [( a1 + ) 2]
1

1 2

(a1 1)2 + ( a1 + )

2
5

5
a a1 +
4 1
2
4
5
5
15
(a1 )2 a1
4
2
4
5(a1 )2 10a1 15
(a1 )2 2a1 3

(a1 + 1)(a1 3)
a1 = 1 or
1

a2 = (1) +
=3
A(1,3)
C(3,1)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

) = (2,6)

=2

(0 1)2
+(0 2)2

=5

and

2a+b+3
2

=6

2a + b + 3 = 12
2a + b
=9
b
= 9 2a (2)
sub (1) into (2):
b = 9 2(4 b)
b = 9 8 + 2b
b = 1 + 2b
b = 1
b = 1
a|b=1 = 4 (1)
=5
A(5,10)
B(1,2)

=5

(a1 )2 2a1 + 1
+ (a1 )2 a1 +

a + b= 4
a
=4b
(1)

Point A
A(a1 , a2 ) lies on OB :
1

= (2,6)

a+b 2a+b+3

y2 = x+

a2 = a1 +

A lies on y = 2x
A(a, 2a)
B lies on y = x + 3 B(b, b + 3)
MAB

M(1,2) (4,5)
A(1,3) (2,6)
C(3,1) (6,4)

=5
=5
=0
=0
=0
=0
a1 = 3
1

a2 = (3) +
=1
A(3,1)
C(1,3)

sleightofmath.com

148

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.2
3

Ex 6.2

P(1,2) Q(5,0)

R(7,4)

S(1,6)

1(a)

A(3,5) B(2,7)

(5)(7)

mAB = (3)(2)
tan =

1(b)

(2)(0)

mPQ = (1)(5) =

(6)(4)

mSR = (1)(7) =

A(4, 3) B(4,6)

mPS = (1)(1) = 2
(0)(4)

(4)(4)

mPQ = mRS and mPS = mQR ,


P, Q, R and S are vertices of a parallelogram

A(5, 4) B(7, 4)

A(1,0)

(1)(5)

B(4,2)

(0)(2)
6

C(0, 3) D(3, 1)

3
c

2
3

(3)(1)
(0)(3)

B(2,7)

(1)(c)

= (0)(1)
=

1c
1

=1c
=4

2
3

5(a)

Point:
A(1,3)
Gradient: line y = 4x 1,
m=4
Line:
y y1 = m (x x1 )
y (3)= (4)[x (1)]
y 3 = 4x + 4
y
= 4x + 7

5(b)

Point:

mAB = mCD ,
AB CD
A(1,5)

B(2, 5) C(1, c)

A,B,C lie on same straight line,


mAB
= mAC

57

(0)(2)

2(b)

A(0,1)

(4)(4)

mAB = (1)(4) =
mCD =

mQR = (5)(7) = 2

(3)(6)

tan = 0
= 0
2(a)

(2)(6)

tan
= 90

mAB =

21.8

mAB =

1(c)

C(0,4)

D(1,3)

(5)(7)

mAB = (1)(2) = 2
(4)(3)

A(0,1)

mCD = (0)(1) = 1
Gradient: line 2x + y = 3
y
= 2x + 3
m = 2

mAB mCD ,
AB is not CD

Line:

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

y y1 = m (x x1 )
y (1)= (2)[x (0)]
y 1 = 2x
y
= 2x + 1

149

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(c)

Ex 6.2

Point:

A(2,0)

Gradient:

line x + 3y = 12
3y
= 12 x

Line:

y
m=

= x+4

2nd line
dx + ey + f = 0
ey
= dx f

= m(x x1 )

y (0)= [x (2)]

5(d)

= x

=
b

A(2,0)

Gradient:

line BC,
m = mBC =

Line:

6(a)

Point:

8
36

6
3

d
e

[shown]

P(k 2 , 3k) Q(k, k 2) R(k, k + 2)S(1,1)


For PQ RS:
mPQ

y y1 = m (x x1 )
y (1)= (2)[x (3)]
y 1 = 2x 6
y
= 2x 5

= mRS

3k(k2)

k2 k
2k+2

k2 k
2(k+1)

(1,2)

k(k1)
k+1 2

( 1)

k+1 2k

y y1 = m(x x1 )
y (2)= (4)[x (1)]
y 2 = 4x 4
y
= 4x 2

(k+2)1
k1
k+1
k1
k+1
k1

=0

k1 k
k1

=0

(k + 1)(2 k) = 0
k = 1 or k = 2
9

6(b)

=2

Gradient: line y = 4x 3,
m=4
Line:

(2)4

Lines are parallel:


m1 = m2

A(3,1) B(3, 2) C(6,4)


Point:

= x

y y1

1st line
ax + by + c = 0
by
= ax cy
a
c
y
= x

P(a + b, a) Q(a b, 2a)

R(b, c)

y intercept: c = 3
Gradient:
line y = 3x + 4,
m=3

P, Q, R are collinear points,


mPQ
= mQR

Line:

(a+b)(ab)

(a)(2a)

y = mx + c
= 3x + 3

a
2b
2aba2
2b

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

(2a)(c)

= (ab)(b)
=

2ac
a2b

= 2a c
2aba2

= 2a

= 2a a +

=a+

a2
2b

2b
a2
2b

150

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

Ex 6.2

Gradient of AP:
3(5)
(2)p

mAP =

11(ii) Line
Point:

Gradient: Line 3x + 2y 6 = 0
2y
= 3x 6

Line & its gradient:


4x + 3y 5 = 0
3y
= 4x + 5
y

A(1, 1)

2p

= x+

y
m=

= x3
2

3
2

mline =

Line:

y y1

= m (x x1 )
3

y (1) = ( ) [x (1)]

AP line
mAP = mline
8
2p

24
p

= 8 + 4p
=4

10(ii) Line AP
Point:

12(i)
A(2,3) or P(4, 5)
8

mAP =

AP:

y y1 = mAP (x x1 )

2(4)

Gradient:

4
3

y3 =

4
3

(x + 2)

y3 = x
y

= x+

Point A
At A, x + y + 2 = 0 intersects 3x 2y + 1 = 0:
x+y+2 =0
y
= x 2 (1)
3x 2y + 1 = 0

= (x + 1)

y+1

= x

= x

2
3

2
3

2
5

A(3, 1) or P

Gradient:

AP y = 2x + 3,
mAP = 2

AP:

y y1 = mAP (x x1 )
y (1) = 2 (x 3)
y+1
= 2x 6
y
= 2x 7

12(ii) Point P
At P, AP (y = 2x 7) intersects y = 3x 11.
2x 7 = 3x 11
x
= 4
x
=4
y|x=4 = 2(4) 7
=1
P(4,1)

(2)
13(i)

sub (1) into (2):


3x 2(x 2) + 1 = 0
3x + 2x + 4 + 1
=0
5x
= 1
x
= 1 (3)
y|x=1 = (1) 2
= 1
A(1, 1)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

Line AP
Point:

y (3)= ( ) [x (2)]

11(i)

y+1

4
3

sleightofmath.com

Point B
B = (6 3,2)
= (3,2)

151

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(ii) Line BC
Point:
Gradient:

Ex 6.2

B(3,2) or C
BC 2y + x = 0
2y
= x

BC:

C or D(0,5)

Gradient:

CD

= x
2

mCD =

y y1 = mBC

y2 = x+

y 5 = (x 0)
2
1

= x+5

= x+
Point C
1

At C, CD (y = x + 5) meets BC (y = x + )

A(6,2)

1
2

AD BC,

2
3

x+5= x+

mAD = mBC =
AD:

Gradient:

y y1 = mCD (x x1 )

CD:

13(iii) Line AD
Point:

= x

(x x1 )

y (2)= (x 3)

2y x = 0
2y
=x

y
mBC =

13(iv) Line CD
Point:

2
1

2
17

y|x=3 = ( ) + 5

y y1 = mAD (x x1 )

4
3 17

y (2)= ( ) (x 6)
2

C ( ,
2

y2 = x+3

= x+5
2

Point D
At D, AD cuts y axis (x = 0):
y|x=0 = 5
D(0,5)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

152

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.3
4(ii)

Ex 6.3
1

A(3,7) B(6,1) C(20,8)


(7)(1)

mAB = (3)(6) =

(1)(8)

mBC = (6)(20) =

14

1
2

) ( )

= 1
= 1

2t t 2
= 15
t 2 2t 15 = 0
(t 5)(t + 3) = 0
t = 5 or t = 3

AB BC
A(2, 1) B(5,4) C(15, 2)
5
mAB =
mBC =

(1)(4)

(2)(5)
(4)(2)

3
6

(5)(15)

10

mBC =

a2
(3)1
210

=
=

( ) (k)= 1
2

a2
4

AB BC: (mAB )(mBC ) = 1


(

)( )

a2
6

= 1
= 1

2a4

6
2a
a

mBC =

20
19
0t
96

=
=

2
8
t
3

=
=

1st line & its gradient


y = ax + b
m1 = a

(1, 2) lies on y = ax + b
2 = a + b
(1)

1
4
t

lines are :
m1 m2 = 1
a (3) = 1

ABC = 90:
(mAB )(mBC ) = 1
1

=2

2nd line & its gradient


y 3x = 4
y
= 3x + 4
m2 = 3

= 4 2a
= 2
= 1

A(1,2) B(9,0) C(6, t)


mAB =

Lines are :
m1 m2 = 1

A(a, 3) B(2, 3) C(10,1)


3(3)

= x+1

2nd line
y kx + 4 = 0
y
= kx 4

AB BC
ABC = 90

mAB =

1st Line
x + 2y 2 = 0
2y
= x + 2
y

(mAB ) (mBC ) = ( ) ( ) = 1

4(i)

5
2tt2
15

(mAB )( mBC ) = (2) ( ) = 1

2t

2t

AC BC:
(mAC )(mBC ) = 1

= 2
7

(2)(t)

mAC = (1)(6) =

= (2)
3

( ) ( ) = 1
t
12

sub (2) into (1):

= 1

2 = ( ) + b

= 12

b =
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

153

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7

Ex 6.3

(4,5)

Point:

10

Gradient: Line x + 2y 4 = 0
2y = x + 4
1

y
m=

1
( )
2

= x+2
2

y 2 = 6x 32

=2

Point A
At A, y = x 1 intersects y = x 2 x
x1
= x2 x
x 2 2x + 1 = 0
(x 1)2
=0
x
=1

bisector of AB
AB bisector of AB

y|x=1 = (1) 1
=0
A(1,0)
Line
Point:
A(1,0)
Gradient: line y = x 1

11(i)

A(3,3) B(7,3)
AB bisector of AB
AB :

x=

3+7

Gradient:

mAB =

AB :

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (3) = 1(x 11)
y+3
= x 11
y
= x 14

2
1
mAB

=1

A(3,6) or F

Gradient:

F is foot of from A to BC,

AF:

1
mBC

1
(1)(7)
( (2)(6) )

1
2

y y1 = mAF (x x1 )
1

y 6 = ( 3)
2
1

2
1

2
15

y6 = x+
y

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

1
(2)(8)

( (6)(16) )

Line AF
Point:

mAF =

=5

) = (11, 3)

MAB = (

y y1 = m (x x1 )
y 0 = 1(x 1)
y
= x + 1

6+16 2+(8)

Point:

m = (1) = 1
Line:

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(8 x)2
= 6x 32
x 2 16x + 64 = 6x 32
x 2 22x + 96 = 0
(x 6)(x 16) = 0
x=6
or x = 16
y = 8 6 y = 8 16
=2
= 8
A(6,2)
B(16, 8)

y y1 = m(x x1 )
y 5 = 2 (x 4)
y
= 2x 3

Line:

Points A & B
At A & B, x + y = 8 meets y 2 = 6x 32:
x + y= 8
y
= 8 x (1)

sleightofmath.com

= x+

154

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(ii) Line BC
Point:

Ex 6.3

B(2, 1) or C(6,7)
(1)7

Gradient:

mBC =

BC:

y y1 = mBC (x x1 )
y (1) = 2 [x (2)]
y+1
= 2x 4
y
= 2x 5

26

=2

12(ii) Point P
At P, AP (y = 4x + 13) cuts x axis (y = 0).
y
=0
4x + 13 = 0
x
P(

15

).

15

2x 5 = x +
5
2

13
4

P(

=5

, 0)

13
4

, 0) A(3,1)

PA: AQ = (

11(iii) Perpendicular distance AF


A(3,6) F(5,5)
13(i)

= 4 + 1
= 5 units

Line AB
Point:

AB:
A(3,1) or P

y y1
y1
y1
y

3) : (3 0)

:3

A(4,13) or B(9,3)
(13)(3)

Gradient: mAB =

Gradient: AP x 4y = 8
4y = x + 8

AP:

13

= 1: 12

|AF| = (3 5)2 + (6 5)2

mAP =

Q(0,13)

By similar triangles (using x-coordinates)


[diagram?]

Line AP
Point:

12(iii) Ratio :

25

y|x=5 = 2(5) 5
=5
F(5,5)

12(i)

13

Point Q
At Q, AP(y = 4x + 13) cuts y-axis (x = 0).
y|x=0 = 13
Q(0,13)

Point F
At F, BC (y = 2x 5) intersects AF
(y = x +

1
1
4

( )

= x2
4

= 4

13(ii) Line
Point:

(4)(9)

= 2

= mAB (x x1 )
= 2(x 4)
= 2x + 8
= 2x + 21

y y1
y 13
y 13
y

C(10,8)

Gradient: Line y 4x = 5
y
= 4x + 5

= mAP (x x1 )
= 4(x 3)
= 4x + 12
= 4x + 13

m=
Line:

1
4

y y1 = m (x x1 )
1

y 8 = (x 10)
4
1

4
1

2
21

y8 = x+
y

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

10
5

sleightofmath.com

= x+

155

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.3

13(iii) Point P
1

21

At P, y = x +
1

21

x+
7
4

meets AB (y = 2x + 21):

= 2x + 21

14(iii) Ratio :
A(3,1) M(4,3) D(2,6)
AM: MD
= (3 4)2 + (1 3)2

21

: [4 (2)]2 + (3 6)2

=6

= 5 : 45

y|x=6 = 2(6) + 21
=9
P(6,9)

= 5 : 9 5
= 5 : 35
=1

14(i)

Line DM
Point:
Gradient:

D(2,6)
DM AB (y = 2x 5)
1

mDM =

mAB

15(i)

AB bisector of AB

y 6 = [x (2)]
2
1

y6 = x1
2
1

= x+5

bisector of AB
A(5,4) B(3, 2)

y y1 = mDM (x x1 )

DM:

:3

5+3 4+(2)

) = (4,1)

Point:

MAB = (

Gradient:

mAB =

AB :

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )

1
mAB

1
(4)(2)

( (5)(3) )

1
6
2

( )

1
3

y 1 = (x 4)

14(ii) Point M
1

3
1

3
1

3
7

At M, DM (y = x + 5) intersects

y1 = x+

AB (y = 2x 5).

= x+

x + 5 = 2x 5
2
5

15(ii) Point P

= 10

At P, AB (y = x + ) intersects y = x + 5.

=4

3
4

x+ =x+5
1

y|x=4 = (4) 5

=3
M(4,3)

= 2

y|x=2 = (2) + 5
=3
P(2,3)

Point B
Let B be (b1 , b2 )
M

= MAB

(4,3) = (
4 =

3+b1 1+b2
2

3+b1
2

b1 = 5
B(5,5)

and

)
3 =

1+b2
2

b2 = 5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

156

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(i)

Ex 6.3

bisector of AB
A(5,2) B(3,6)
AB bisector of AB
MAB = (

Point:

18(i)

) = (4,4)

2
1

m=

AB :

y y1 = m (x x1 )

(2)(6)

((5)(3))

1
4
)
2

Point C
At C, BC(y = 5x + 6) cuts y axis (x = 0).
y|x=0 = 6
C(0,6)

2
1

y4 = x2
2
1

= x+2
2

16(ii) Point P
At P, AB cuts x-axis
(y = 0)
1
2

Point Q
At P, AB cuts y-axis
(x = 0)

18(ii) Line AC
Point:

BD is bisector of AC,
mAC =

x
= 4
P(4,0)

A or C(0,6)

Gradient:

y|x=0 = (0) + 2

x+2=0

y y1 = mBC (x x1 )
y (1)= (5) [x (1)]
y 1 = 5x + 5
y
= 5x + 6

BC:

y 4 = (x 4)

B(1,1) or C
BC y = 5x
mBC = 5

5+3 2+6

Gradient:

mAB

Line BC
Point:
Gradient:

=2
Q(0,2)

AC:

1
mBD

1
(1)(7)

((1)(8))

3
2

y y1 = mAC (x x1 )
3

y 6 = (x 0)

17(a) bisector of PQ
P(3,5) Q(5,9)
PQ bisector of PQ

2
3

y6 = x

3+5 5+9

MPQ = (

Gradient:

m=

PQ :

y y1 = m (x x1 )

1
mPQ

2
1

(5)(9)
((3)(5))

18(iii) Point A
1

At A, AC (y = x + 6) cuts x axis (y = 0):


3

=0
3

y 7 = (x 4)

x + 6= 0

y7 = x+2

2
3

2
1

) = (4,7)

Point:

2
3

= x+6

2
1

= 6

x
=4
A(4,0)

= x+9
2

17(b) Point
At point where y = 6x intersects

Midpoint of AC
A(4,0) C(0,6)

PQ (y = x + 9).
2

M = MAC = (

6x = x + 9

4+0 0+6
2

) = (2,3)

13
2

x= 9
=

18
13
18

y|x=18 = 6 ( )
13

13
108

Point (

13
18 108
13

13

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

157

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.3

18(iv) Area of quadrilateral


A(4,0) B(1,1) C(0,6) D(8,7)

20(i)

|AC| = (4 0)2 + (0 6)2


= 52 = 4 13 = 213

Line AB
Point:

A(1, 1) or B(5,3)

Gradient:

mAB =

AB:

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (1) = (1) [x (1)]
y+1
=x1
y
=x2

|BD| = [(1) 8]2 + (1 7)2


= 117 = 9 13 = 313

M = MAB = (
20(ii) Line PQ
Point:

Line CD
A(2,3) B(6,7) C(7, t)
MAB = (

Point:

2+6 3+7
2

) = (4,5)

CD:

y y1
y5
y5
y

mAB

(2)(6)

= (3)(7) = 4

= mCD (x x1 )
= (1)[x (4)]
= x + 4
= x + 9

(1)+(5) (1)+(3)
2

4
4

= 1

) = (3,1)

Gradient:

mPQ =

PQ:

y y1
y1
y1
y

1
mAB

1
1

= 1

= mPQ (x x1 )
= (1)(x 3)
= x + 3
= x + 4
Value of q
Q(7, q) lies on
PQ(y = x + 4),
(q) = (7) + 4
q = 3

20(iii) Area of quadrilateral APBQ


A(1, 1) P(0.5,3.5) B(5,3) Q(7, 3)

19(ii) Value of t
C(7, t) lies on y = x + 9:
(t) = (7) + 9
t =2

|AB| = (1 5)2 + [(1) 3]2

19(iii) Point D
C(7,2) D(d1 , d2 )

area of APBQ = |AB||PQ|

= 32 = 16 2 = 42
169

|PQ| = (0.5 7)2 + [3.5 (3)]2 =

4 =

7+d1 2+d2
2

7+d1
2

13
2

1
2
1

13

= (42) ( )

AB is bisector of CD,
MAB = MCD
(4,5) = (

=1

M(3,1) or P(p, 3.5) or Q(7, q)

Value of p
P(p, 3.5) lies on
PQ(y = x + 4),
(3.5) = (p) + 4
p
= 0.5

Gradient: CD is bisector of AB,


mCD =

(1)(5)

Midpoint of AB

Area of ABCD
1
= |AC||BD|
2
1
= (213)(313)
2
= 3(13)
= 39 unit 2
19(i)

(1)(3)

= 26

and

d1 = 1

5 =

2+d2
2

d2 = 8

D(1,8)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

158

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


21(i)

Ex 6.3


A(4,3) B(8, 3)
AB perpendicular bisector of AB

21(iii) C(p, q) lies on AB :


q = 2p 4
C(p, 2p 4)

C
A(4,3)

MAB B(8, 3)
C

Point:

MAB = (

(4)+(8) (3)+(3)

Gradient: mAB =
=
AB :

2
1
mAB
1
6
12

) = (2,0)

MAB = (

4+8 3+(3)

1
(3)(3)

|CMAB | = (p 2)2 + [(2p 4) 0]2

((4)(8))

= (p2 4p + 4) + (4p2 16p + 16)

=2

= 5p2 20p + 20

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y 0 = 2 (x 2)
y
= 2x 4

|AB| = [(4) 8]2 + [3 (3)]2


= 180 = 36 5 = 65

21(ii) Show
If (10,16) lies on AB (y = 2x 4),
(16) = 2(10) 4
16 = 16 [consistent]
(10,16) lies on AB

ABC area
1
2
1
2

=6

|CMAB ||AB|

35p2 20p + 205

=6

5p2 20p + 205

=2

25p2 100p + 100

=2

25p2 100p + 100

=4

25p2 100p + 96

=0

(5p 8)(5p 12)

=0

or

2p 4 =
8

4
5

C( , )

sleightofmath.com

=6

5p2 20p + 20(65) = 6

p=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

) = (2,0)

p=

12
5

2p 4 =
C(

4
5

12 4
5

, )
5

159

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.3

21(iii) Shoelace formula


A
C
B
C(p, q) lies on AB (y = 2x 4)
q = 2p 4
C(p, 2p 4)

22

P(0,4)

4
| |
2 3

4 8
||
3 3

p
2p 4
p
2p 4

4
||
3

Line PQ
Pt:
P(0,4) or Q

=6

Grad: mPQ =

4
||
3

= 12

|30p 60|

PQ:

= 12

5
12

C(

12 4

5
4

1
2

( )

=2

y y1 = mPQ (x x1 )
y (4)= (2) [x (0)]
y
= 2x + 4

Line PR
Pt:
P(0,4) or R

, ) or C ( , )
5

y|x=4 = 4
Q(4, 4)

2p 4 = 2 ( ) 4

2p 4 = 2 ( ) 4
=

1
ml3

Point Q
At Q, PQ meets y = x
2x + 4 = x
x
= 4

=2
or 5p 10 = 2
5p
=8

12

l1 : x = 0

|12 + (16p 32) + 3p


= 12
24 (3p) (8p + 16)|
|5p 10|
5p 10 = 2
5p
= 12

=6

8
3

l2 : y = x

l3 : y = x

ABC area
1

Grad: mPR =

1
ml2

= (1) = 1

PR: y y1 = mPR (x x1 )
y (4)= (1)[x (0)]
y
= x + 4
Point R
1

At R, PR meets y = x
2

x + 4 = x
2

= 4

=8

y|x=8 = (8)
2

= 4
R(8, 4)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

160

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


23(i)

Ex 6.3

AO = OC, (radius)
AOC is isosceles
BO = OC, (radius)
BOC is isosceles

23(ii) = AOC = OCA


= OBC = OCB
sum of s in

= 180

23(iii) A(1,0) B(5,2) C(a, b)

O = MAB = (
B

= 180

2 + 2

= 180

2( + )

= 180

= 90

ACB

= 90

AC BC

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

) = (3,1)

= radius

|OC|

= (diameter AB)

|OC|

= |AB|

1
2
1

3)2

+ (b

1)2

2
1

= (1 5)2 + (0 2)2
2
1

(a 3)2 + (b 1)2 = 20
2

AOC + OCA
= 180
+OBC + OCB
+ + +

|OC|

(a

1+5 0+2

(a 3)2 + (b 1)2

= (20)

(a 3)2 + (b 1)2

= 5 [shown]

Note:
Alternate approach is to use right angle triangle in
semicircle.
By Pythagoras Theorem, |AC|2 + |BC|2 = |AB|2 .
23(iv) At (2,3),
[(2) 3]2 +[(3) 1]2 = 5
(1)2
+22
=5
1 +4
=5
5
= 5 [consistent]
(2,3) lies on circle

sleightofmath.com

161

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.4
3(i)

Ex 6.4
1(a)

A(2,3) B(5,6) C(1,4)

ABC area

ABC area

=| |

1 2
= |
2 3

5
6

1
2

1
4

2
|
3

2
1

= (12)
2

A(5,2) B(1,6) C(2, 3)


ABC area
1 2
6 3

A, B and C are collinear

4(a)

O(0,0) A(4,1) B(6,4) C(2,4)

5
|
2

Area of OABC
=

1
2

2
4

2
4

0
|
0

3 6
5 2

4(b)
2
||
4

1
= |10 + 6 + 24
2
1
= |6|
2

1
(42)
2

= 21 unit 2

ABC area
1

4 6
1 4

= [0 + 16 + 24 + 0 0 6 (8) 0]

A(2,4) B(3,5) C(6,2)

=| |

1 0
|
2 0
1

1
(48)
2

= 24 unit 2
2(a)

4 0 (10)|

3(ii)

= [30 + (3) + (4) 2 (12) (15)]


=

5
||
2

= 0 unit 2

= 6 unit 2

5
2

2 1
0 2

1
|0 + (4) + (2)
2
1
= |0|
2

= [12 + 20 + (3) 15 (6) 8]

=|

5
2

1(b)

A(5, 2) B(2,0) C(1,2)

P(1,4) Q(4,2) R(1, 2) S(4,0)


Area of PQRS
1 1 4 1 4 1
|
|
2 4 2 2 0 4
1
= [2 + 8 + 0 + 16 (16) 2 (8) 0]
2
1
= (48)
2
=

12 30 4|

= 3 unit 2

= 24 unit 2
2(b)

A(4, 2) B(2,4) C(6,0)


ABC area
1

=| |
2

4
2

2 6
4 0

4
||
2

1
|16 + 0 + (12)
2
1
= |56|
2
=

4 24 0|

= 28 unit 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

162

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(i)

Ex 6.4

A(2, 3) B(3, 1) C(2,0) D(1,1) E(2, 1)

6(iii)

Area of ABC
1 2
3 2 2
|
= |
2 3 1 0 3
1
= [2 + 0 + (6) (9) (2) 0]
=

2
3

1
2
1
2

2
9

7(i)

unit 2

5(5) sin BAC

A(3,5)

| |
2

||

= 5 unit 2

= 11 unit 2

3
5

3
5

7(ii)

C(9, 1)

1
2

4
1

B(5,9) C(k, k + 2)

5
9

= 18

k
k+2

5
9

k
k+2

3
||
5

= 18

3
||
5

= 36

5 9
1 1

= 36

CF perpendicular distance of C from AB


Area of ABC = 18

Area of ABC
=| |

B(5,1)

A(4, 1)

2
5

|2k + 6|
=6
2k + 6 = 6 or 2k + 6 = 6
2k
=0
2k
= 12
k
=0 k
=6

Area of pentagon
3

|12k + 36|

= + +5

4
||
1

|AB||CF|

|CF|

= [4 + (5) + (9) (5) 9 (4)]


2
1

= |10|
2

= 5 unit 2
6(ii)

=5

|27 + (5k 10) + 5k


= 36
(25) 9k (3k + 6)|

6(i)

(AB)(AC) sin BAC = 5

Area of ABC

Area of ADE
1 2
1 2 2
|
= |
2 3
1 1 3
1
= [2 + 1 + 6 3 (2) (2)]

5(ii)

=5

sin BAC

Area of ACD
1 2
2 1 2
|
= |
2 3 0
1 3
1
= [0 + 2 + 3 (6) 0 2]
=

Area of ABC

unit 2

AC = 9 4
=5

8(i)

AB = (4 5)2 + [(1) 1]2

= 18

36
|AB|
36
80

=
=

36
[3(5)]2 +(59)2
36
516

36
45

9
5

= 5
5

A(2, t) B(3 + t, 2) C(3,4)


Area of ABC
1 2 3+t 3 2
|
= |
2 t
2
4 t
1
= (4 + 12 + 4t + 3t 3t t 2 6 8)

= 1 + 4
= 5 units [shown]

2
1

= (t 2 + 4t + 2) unit 2
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

163

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 6.4

Area of ABC = 2
1

(t 2 + 4t + 2) =

11(i)

Area of ABC
1 3 4
6 3
|
= |
2 4
2 1 4
1
= [6 + 4 + 24 (16) 12 (3)]
2
1
= (41)
2
= 20.5 unit 2

t 2 + 4t + 2
=5
2
t 4t + 3
=0
(t 1)(t 3)
=0
t = 1 or t = 3
9(i)

A(1,3) B(5,1) C(3, r)


Area of ABC
=4
1 1 5 3 1
|
|
=4
2 3 1 r 3
1
(1 + 5r + 9 15 3 r) = 4
2
1

(4r 8)

A(3,4) B(4,2) C(6, 1) D(p, 3)

=4

2r 4
2r
r

=4
=8
=4

11(ii) Area of ABCD


1 3 4
6 p 3
|
= |
2 4
2 1 3 4
1
= [6 + 4 + 18 + 4p (16) 12 (p) 9]
2
1
= (23 + 5p) unit 2
2

11(iii) (Area of ABCD) = 3(Area of ABC)


1
2

9(ii)

Area of ACB
=4
1 1 3 5 1
|
|
=4
2 3 r 1 3
1
(r + 3 + 15 9 5r 1) = 4
2
1

(4r + 8)

=4

2r + 4
2r
r
10(i)

12(i)

=9
= 3x + 9

= x

3
2

AD line mAD =

1
mline

= MBD

2+1 1+4

2
2+1

= 123
= 100
= 20

3x 2y
2y
mline =

A(2,1) B(b1 , b2 ) C(1,4) D(0,2)

= 3(20.5)

23 + 5p
5p
p

=4
=0
=0

MAC

(23 + 5p)

) =(

2
b1 +0
2

b1 +0 b2 +2
2

and

b1 = 3
B(3,3)

Line BC
Point:
Gradient:

2
1+4
2

b2 +2
2

b2 = 3

BC:

2
3

B(4,7) or C
BC AD
mBC = mAD =

10(ii) Area of rhombus


1 2 3 1 0 2
|
= |
2 1 3 4 2 1
1
= (6 + 12 + 2 + 0 3 3 0 4)

3
2

1
3
( )
2

2
3

y y1 = mBC (x x1 )
2

y (7)= ( ) (x 4)
3

3
2

3
29

y7 = x+

2
1

= (10)

= x+

= 5 unit

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

164

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(ii) Line DE
Point:

Ex 6.4
12(iv) Area of quadrilateral ABFD
1

D(3,3) or E

A (1, )
2

DE BC (y = x +

Gradient:

mDE =

mBC

1
2
3

( )

29
3

Area of ABFD
0
1 1 4
= | 1 7 29
2

3
2

3
2

15

= x+

=
13(i)

Point E
1

15

3
29

At E, DE (y = x +
2

(y = x +
3

x+

2
13
6

15
2

=1
29

=9
E(1,9)

104

unit 2


A(3a, 4a + 1), a > 0
B(0,1)
=5
1]2

A(3,5)
13(ii) Line BC
Point:

12(iii) Point F
2

At F, BC (y = x +
3

29

y|x=0 = (0) +
=

(3a
+ [(4a + 1)
=5
2
2
9a + 16a
= 25
2
25a
= 25
a2 1
=0
(a + 1)(a 1)
=0
a = 1 (rej a > 0) or a = 1

0)2

13

y|x=1 = (1) +

+ 0 + (1) 0 (29) 3]

|AB|

29

) intersects BC

= x+
=

3
2

116

= (

3 1
1|
3

1 208

y 3 = (x + 3)
3

= [7 +

y (3)= ( ) [x (3)]

y3 = x+

y y1 = mDE (x x1 )

DE:

29

F (0, ) D(3,3)

B(4,7)

29
3

B(0,1) or C

) cuts y-axis (x = 0)
Gradient: BC AB,
mBC =

29
3
29

1
mAB

(0)(3)

4
3

= (1)(5) =

3
4

F (0, )
3

y y1 = mBC (x x1 )

BC:

y 1 = (x 0)

Point A
A(a1 , a2 ) B(4,7)

29
3

a1 +0
2

a1

)=(

4+(3)
2

At C, BC (y = x + 1) cuts x-axis (y = 0)
4

4+(3) 7+3

and

=1

29
a2 +( )
3

a2

Point C

For Parallelogram ABFD,


MAF
= MBD
29

= x+1

F (0, ) D(3,3)

a1 +0 a2 +( 3 )

4
3

x + 1= 0

)
=
=

4
3

= 1

7+3
2
1

4
3

C ( , 0)
3

A (1, )
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

165

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 6.4

13(iii) bisector of AB
AB bisector of AB
MAB = (

Point:

13(iv) Area of quadrilateral ABCD

(3)+(0) (5)+(1)
2

A(3,5)

C ( , 0)

B(0,1)

) = ( , 3)

D(

11
2

, 0)

Area of ABCD
Gradient: mAB = mBC =

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )

AB :

3
4
3

4
3

8
33

= x+

11

55

= (3 + 0 + 0 +

y 3 = (x )
y3 = x+

= |

0 0 0)
3

1 175
(
)
2 6

= 14

7
12

unit 2

Point D
At D, AB cuts x-axis (y = 0).
y
=0
3

33

4
3

x+
x

x
D(

=0

=
11
2

33
8

11
2

, 0)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

166

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6
A2(ii) Point D
at k = 2:
A(3,1) B(5,3)

Rev Ex 6
A1(i)
A(2,1) B(10,6) C(a, 6)
AB

D on x axis:
D(d, 0)

= BC
10]2

[(2)
+ (1
169
169
a2 20a + 75
(a 5)(a 15)
a = 5 or a = 15

6)2

= (10 a)2 + [6 (6)]2


= (100 20a + a2 ) + 144
= 244 20a + a2
=0
=0

BD AC:
mBD mAC = 1
30
5d
3
5d

Let D be (d1 , d2 )
For ABCD is rhombus,
MAC
= MBD
(2)+a 1+(6)

2
(2)+a
2

d1

) =(

2
10+d1

and

= a 12

2
1+(6)
2

d2

A(k + 1,1) B(2k + 1,3)

36
3
3

mBD =

= 1
= 1

30
58

tan = 1
= 45

6+d2
2

= 11

a = 5: D(7, 11)
a = 15: D(3, 11)

A2(i)

14

Obtuse angle that BD makes with x-axis

10+d1 6+d2
2

3
=d5
d
=8
D(8,0)

A1(ii) A(2,1) B(10,6) C(a, 6)

C(6,4)

obtuse = 180 45
= 135
A3(i)

A(6,7)

B(0,1)

C(9,4)

|BC| = (0 9)2 + (1 4)2

C(2k + 2,2k)

= 81 + 9
A, B, C are collinear,
mAB
= mBC
(1)(3)
(k+1)(2k+1)
2
k
2

= 9 10
= 310 units

(3)(2k)

= (2k+1)(2k+2)
=

32k
1

= 2k 3

= 90

2
= 2k 2 3k
2k 2 3k 2 = 0
(2k + 1)(k 2) = 0
1

k = or k = 2
2

A3(ii) Area of ABC


1 6 0 9 6
|
= |
2 7 1 4 7
1
= (6 + 0 + 63 0 9 24)
2
1
= (36)
2
= 18
A3(iii) Area of ABC = 18
1
2
1
2

|AF||BC|

|AF|(310) = 18

|AF|

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

= 18

36
310

12
10

1210
10

610
5

167

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6

A4(a) y = ax + b
m1 = a

A5(i)

2x + y = 8
y
= 2x + 8
m2 = 2

Line BC
Point:

B(1, 3) or C

Gradient:

mBC =

BC:

y y1

1
2

= mBC (x x1 )
1

y (3) = ( ) [x (1)]
2

y = ax + b 2x + y = 8
m1 m2 = 1
a(2)
= 1
a

A5(ii) Line AC
Point:
Gradient:

y = ax + b on y axis (x = 0):
y = a(0) + b
=b
(0, b)

A4(b) AB: y = 3x +
1
BC: y = x 1
F(3,2)

= x

mAB

1
8
( )
4

1
2

C
F(3,2)

2
1

2
13

1
2

5
2

13

= x+

1
3
1
3

9
2

=9
1

13

y|x=9 = (9) +

Gradient: AF BC,
1

=2
C(9,2)

= (1) = 1

A5(iv) Height of triangle ABC


A(3,5) B(1, 3) C(9,2)
Equating area of ABC,
1

Point A
At A, AF intersects AB (y = 3x + 1)
x + 5 = 3x + 1
4x = 4
x
=1

|BC||AD|

|BC||AD|

=4

= |
2

=|

sleightofmath.com

3
5

3
5

9
2

3
|
5
3
|
5

[(1) 9]2
9 2 + 45
|AD| = [
]
2
(50) (27) 6
[(
]
+ 3) 2

125|AD|
55|AD|

= 60

|AD|

= 60

=
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

At C, AC intersects BC (y = x )

y=x1

y y1 = mAF (x x1 )
y (2)= (1)[x (3)]
y 2 = x + 3
y
= x + 5

= x+

A5(iii) Point C

mBC

y (5)= ( ) [x (3)]

y = 3x + 1

y y1 = mAC (x x1 )

mAF =

1
(3)(5)

((1)(3))

y5 = x+

Line AF
Point:
A or F(3,2)

y|x=1 = (1) + 5
A(1,4)

2
5

= x+

A(3,5) or C
BAC = 90,

AC:

AF:

2
1

y+3

mAC =

(0, b) lies on x + y + 3 = 0,
0+b+3 =0
b
= 3

12
5
125
5

168

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A6(i)

Rev Ex 6

AD: 3x + 2y = 6

B
AB: 5y + 6 = 3x

A6(ii) Line BC
BC x axis,
BC is y = 6
Point B
At B, BC (y = 6)cuts AD (5y + 6 = 3x),
5(6) + 6 = 3x
36
= 3x
x
= 12
B(12,6)
Line CD
Pt:
C or D(0,3)
Grad: CD AB,

Point A
At A, AD cuts x axis (y = 0):
3x + 2(0) = 6
3x
=6
x
=2
A(2,0)
Point D
At D, AD cuts y axis (x = 0):
3(0) + 2y = 6
y
=3
D(0,3)

mCD = mAB =
CD: y y1

5
3

0 =

2+e1 0+e2

2+e1

= x+3
5

Point C
At C, CD cuts BC (y = 6),

= MAE
,

= mCD (x x1 )
3

(0,3) = (

y (3)= [x (0)]

A6(ii) Point E
Let E be (e1 , e2 )
D

5
3

and

e1 = 2
E(2,6)

3 =

0+e2

x+3=6
x

=3

x
=5
C(5,6)

e2 = 6

Area of trapezium ABCD


Area of ABCD
1 2 12 5 0 2
|
= |
2 0 6 6 3 0
1
= (12 + 72 + 15 + 0 0 30 0 6)
2
1
= (63)
2
= 31.5 unit 2
B1(a) A(1,2) B(3,10) C(p, 8)
A, B and C lie on the same line:
mAB
= mBC
210
(1)3
8
4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

=
=

108
3p
2
3p
2

3p
p

=1
=2

3p

169

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B1(b) AC BC
mAC mBC
28
108

(1)p 3p
6
2

1p 3p
6
2

Rev Ex 6
B2(iii) :
3

= 1

A ( , 0) P(1, 1) B(0, 3)
2

= 1

By similar triangles
(using x-coordinates) [diagram?]

= 1
= 1

p+1 3p

AP: PB = ( 1) : (1 0)
2

12
= (p + 1)(p 3)
12
= p2 + 2p 3
2
p 2p 15 = 0
(p + 3)(p 5) = 0
p = 3 or p = 5
B2(i)

:1

= 1: 2
B3(i)

Point P
At P, x y 2 = 0 intersects 2x 5y 7 = 0.
xy2 =0
y
= x 2 (1)

Show =
A(2,6) B(6, 2) C(a, 8 3a)
8 3a < 0
3a < 8
a

2x 5y 7 = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
2x 5(x 2) 7 = 0
2x 5x + 10 7 = 0
3x
= 3
x
=1

>

8
3

Area of ABC

= 10

6
a
2
||
= 10
2 8 3a 6
2 6
a
2
|
|
= 20
6 2 8 3a 6
| 4 + (48 18a) + 6a
= 20
36 (2a) (16 6a)|
|8 4a|
= 20
8 4a = 20
or 8 4a = 20
4a
= 28
4a
= 12
a
= 7
a
=3
8
(rej a > )
3
Point C
C(3, 1)
1

| |
2

y|x=1 = (1) 2
= 1
P(1, 1)
B2(ii) Line AB
Point:
P(1, 1) or A or B
Gradient: mAB = 2
y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (1) = (2) [x (1)]
y+1
= 2x 2
y
= 2x 3
Point A
Point B
At A, AB cuts x-axis At B where cuts y-axis
(x = 0).
(y = 0).
y
=0
y|x=0 = 2(0) 3
2x 3 = 0
= 3
3
B(0, 3)
x
=
AB:

2
6

B3(ii) Line AB
Point:

A(2,6) or B(6, 2)
(6)(2)

mAB =

AB:

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (6)= (2)[x (2)]
y 6 = 2x + 4
y
= 2x + 10

(2)(6)

Gradient:

= 2

A ( , 0)
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

170

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6

B3(iii) Line (through C & to AB)


Point:
C(3, 1)

B4(iv) Line CD
Point:
C(8,2) or D
Gradient: CD AB,
(4)(9)

Gradient: line AB (y = 2x + 10)


m=

1
mAB

1
2

mCD = mAB = (2)(7) =

= m (x x1 )

y y1

y (1) = ( ) [x (3)]
2

2
1

2
5

y+1

= x

= x

B3(iv) Point F (Foot of )


C
A

2
5
2

x
x

y|x=3 = (3) 6
= 3
D(3, 3)

= 2x + 10
=

B5(i)

25
2

=5
1

y|x=5 = (5)

Show
P(1,0) Q(0,2) R(2,3)
|PQ| = [(1) (0)]2 + [(0) (2)]2
= 1 + 4 = 5

=0
F(5,0)
B4(i)

= mCD (x x1 )
= (1) [x (8)]
=x8
=x6

y y1
y (2)
y2
y

=1

B4(v) Point D
At D, BM (y = 3x 12) intersects CD (y = x 6).
3x 12 = x 6
2x
=6
x
=3

At F, y = x meets AB (y = 2x + 10).
1

CD:
Line:

|QR| = [(0) (2)]2 + [(2) (3)]2


= 4 + 1 = 5

Show =
A(2,4) B(7,9)

C(8,2)

|PQ| = |QR|,
PQR is isosceles

AB = [(2) (7)]2 [(4) (9)]2 = 50


BC = [(7) (8)]2 + [(9) (2)]2 = 50

B5(ii) Area of
1

area of PQR = | |

AB = BC [shown]

1
0

0
2

2
3

1
||
0

= |2 + 0 + 0 0 4 3|

B4(ii) Point M
M = MAC = (

(2)+(8) (4)+(2)

2
1

= |5|

) = (5,3)

=
B4(iii) Line BM
Point:

2
5
2

unit 2

B(7,9) or M(5,3)
(9)(3)

Gradient: mBM = (7)(5) = = 3


2

BM:

y y1 = mBM (x x1 )
y (9)= (3) [x (7)]
y 9 = 3x 21
y = 3x 12

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

171

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6

B5(iii) Line QS

B6(ii) Angle that BC makes with the positive x-axis


230

mBC = (12)12

R
Q

tan =
S

49.4

P
Point:
Q(0,2) or S
Gradient: QS PR (using kite property),
1

mQS =

mPR

1
(0)(3)
((1)(2))

1
3
( )
1

y y1 = mQS (x x1 )

QS:

1
3

B6(iii) Angle ACB


ACB =
= 69.4 49.4
= 20.0
B6(iv)

C(12,30)

y (2)= ( ) [x (0)]
3

y2 = x
3
1

= x+2
3

= x+2

Point D
D(d1 , d2 )
BC = BD:
B
= MDC

(1)

(12,2) = (

x y= 5
sub (1) into (2):

A(3, 10)

B5(iv) Point S
At S, QS (x + 3y = 6) intersects x y = 5.
x + 3y = 6
3y
= x + 6
1

3y
= x + 6
x + 3y = 6

B(12,2)

(2)

12 =
d1

d1 +12 d2 +30
2

d1 +12
2

and

2 =

= 36

d2 +30
2

d2 = 26

x ( x + 2) = 5
3

4
3
4
3

x2

=5

=7

D(36, 26)

B6(v) Line AD
Point:

21
4

A(3, 10) or D(36, 26)

1 21

y|x=21 = ( ) + 2
3

=
S(
B6(i)

tan =

AD:

y y1

, )
4

(10)30
(3)12
8

(10)(26)
(3)(36)

16
33

= mAD (x x1 )
16

y (10) = ( ) [x (3)]

Angle that AC makes with the positive x-axis


A(3, 10)

(12,30)
B(12,2) C(12,30)
mAC =

mAD =

21 1
4

Gradient:

(12,2)

69.4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

y + 10

33
16

48

33
16

33
282

33

x+
x

33

(3, 10)

sleightofmath.com

172

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 6

B6(vi) Angle ADB


mAD =
tan =

16
33
16
33

25.9
ADB =
= 29.4 25.9
23.5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

173

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.1
2(e)

Ex 7.1
1(a)

ln 4 + lg 6 2.16

1(b)

3 lg 2 ln 2 0.210

1(c)

ln 7.1
2 lg 5

1(d)

= log 2 (5 22)
Is base 2 > 0 ?
True
Is base 2 1 ?
True
Is input 5 2 > 0 ? True

1.40

lg 9ln 3
ln(e2 1)

Yes

0.0778
3(a)

2(a)

log x (5 2x)|x=2

log x (5 2x)|x=0.5
= log 0.5 (4)

32
log 3

Is base 0.5 > 0 ? True


Is base 0.5 1 ? True
Is input 4 > 0 ? True

3(b)

10n

=
1
9

1
9

= 2
=5

log10 5 = n
lg 5
=n

Yes
3(c)
2(b)

log x (5 2x)|x=3
= log 3 (1)

ex

=4

log e 4 = x
ln 4
=x

Is base 3 > 0 ?
True
Is base 3 1 ?
True
Is input 1 > 0 ? False

3(d)

2x

=p

log 2 p = x
No
2(c)

3(e)

log x (5 2x)|x=2.5
= log 2.5 (0)
Is base 2.5 > 0 ?
Is base 2.5 1 ?
Is input 0 > 0 ?

=y

log a y = 3
True
True
False

No
2(d)

a3

4(a)

53
4(b)

log x (5 2x)|x=1
= log1 (3)
Is base 1 > 0 ? True
Is base 1 1 ? False
Is input 3 > 0 ? True
No

log 5 125 = 3

lg 100
=2
log10 100 = 2
102

4(c)

sleightofmath.com

=x

log x 3 = 4
x4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 100

ln x = 2
log e x = 2
e2

4(d)

= 125

=3

174

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(e)

log 4 x = 2
4
x
x
y

log 2 = 3
3

=x
= 16
16
8

2
y

=y
=8

=b

6(a)

log 4 4 3 log 2 2 = 1 3(1)


= 2

6(b)

log 2 1 +4 log 5 5 = 0 +4(1)


=4

6(c)

(3 log 3 3)3 = [3 (1)]3


= 23
=8

6(d)

8(a)

3 logx x+2 2

3(1)+2 2

42 log5 1

42(0)
5 2

) =[

8(b)

=
6(e)

6(f)

7(a)

16

8(c)

8(d)

9(a)

=x
=8

ln x = lg 2
log e x = lg 2
=x
1.35

lg(3x) = 9
log10 3x = 9
109

= 3x

= (109 )

3.33 108

e2x

1
3

=k

log e k = 2x
ln k = 2x
9(b)

10x4 = 9
log10 9 = x 4
lg 9
=x4

log 2 x = 3
23
x

= e3
5.65 or 0.177

elg 2
x

log 2 (4 2 lg 10) = log 2 [4 2 log10 10]


= log 2 [4 2(1)]
= log 2 2
=1

= 100.61
4.07

(ln x)2 = 3
ln x = 3

x
x

log 2 (6 5 log 7 7) = log 2 [6 5(1)]


= log 2 (1)
=0

lg x
= 0.61
log10 x = 0.61

log e x = 3

=( )
4
25

x
x

log y b = 2

x1
=a
y2
x
=a
2
xy = (a)(b) = ab

=2

log x a = 1

log 4 8 = x
4x
=8
22x
= 23
2x = 3

=y

5(b)

7(c)

log 3 y = n
3n

5(a)

Ex 7.1

9(c)

x4

=2k

log x (2 k) = 4
7(b)

log x 9 = 2
x2
=9
x = 3 or x = 3
(rej)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

175

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(d)

em+5

=x2

Ex 7.1
12

log 3 p = a
p

log e (x 2) = m + 5
ln(x 2)
= m+5

= 3a

log 27 q = b
10(a) log 3 y = n + 1
3n+1

33b
a3b

= 3c

13(a) log 2 (2x + 1) = 3

=xy

2x + 1

= 23

2x

= 4y
13(b) log 3 (x 2 1)

log 4 y = a
= 4a

= 21+2a
= 21+2a
= 1 + 2a
= 3b 1 [shown]

7
8
7
16

=1

x2 1
= 31
2
x 4
=0
(x + 2)(x 2) = 0
x = 2 or x = 2

(1)

log 8 (2y) = b
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
log 8 [2(4a )] = b
log8 [2(22a )] = b
log 8 (21+2a ) = b
8b
23b
3b
2a

= 3c

3
= 3c
c = a 3b

10(d) log 2 (4y) = p + 1

= 3c

27b
3a

=k

102

11

p
q
3a

10(c) lg(x y)
= 2
log10 (x y) = 2

2p+1

= 27b

=y

10(b) ln k = x 3
log e k = x 3
x3

13(c)

log x (6x 8) = 2
x2
= 6x 8
x 2 6x + 8
=0
(x 2)(x 4) = 0
x = 2 or x = 4

13(d) log x 64 = 3
2

x2

= 64

3
2

= 26

x
x
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

= (26 )3
= 24
= 16

176

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.1

13(e) log 9 27 = x + 1
9x+1

15(b) log y x = 2

= 27

2x+2

= y2

3
2

(1)

=3

2x + 2 =

xy = 8
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
(y 2 )y = 8
y3
= 23
y =2

3
2
1

2x

2
1
4

14(a) ln 2 ln(4x)= 3
3

ln(4x)

log e (4x)

4x

= eln 2

x|y=2 = (2)2

ln 2
3

16

ln 2

=4

log 2 (log 3 x) = ln e

log 2 (log 3 x) = 1
log 3 x
= 21

3
ln 2

= e

18.9

= 32
=9

x
x

14(b) lg(x 2) = (lg 3)2


log10 (x 2) = (lg 3)2

17(a) For lg(x + 2) to be defined,


2

= 10(lg 3)

x2

= 2 + 10(lg 3)
3.69

x
x

x + 2> 0
x
> 2

17(b) For ln(x 2 2x) to be defined,


14(c) ln(4x) = lg 3 lg 5
log e 4x = lg 3 lg 5
4x

= elg 3lg 5

= e(lg 3lg 5)

0.349

x 2 2x
x(x 2)
+

17(c) For log x (3 x) to be defined,


x > 0, x 1 and 3 x > 0
3
>x
x
<3
0 < x < 3, x 1

15(a) log x 16 = 4
x4
= 16
x = 2 or x = 2 (rej) (1)

+
2

x < 0 or x > 2

14(d) lg(x 1) = lg(e2 1)


x 1 = e2 1
x
= e2
x
7.39

log 2 y = x
sub (1) into (2):
log 2 y = 2

>0
>0

(2)

18(a) ln(y + 1) x = 0
ln(y + 1)
=x
log e (y + 1) = x
y+1
y

= ex
= ex 1

= 22
=4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

177

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18(b) 2 lg y
lg y

Ex 7.1

=x2

20(ii) log 9 (31 + log x 16) = log 2 8

x2

log 9 (31 + log x 16) =

2
x2

log10 y =

log 9 (31 + log x 16) =

2
x2
2

= 10

= 102x1

= (9)2

31 + log x 16
31 + log x 16
31 + log x 16
log x 16

= (32 )2
= 33
= 27
= 4

x 4
x 4

= 16
= 24

= (24 )4
= 21

=x
=x4

= ln(x 4)

2
3

= log e (x 4)

2y

2
3

31 + log x 16

18(c) e2y + 4
e2y

18(d) ln(x + y) 4x = 0
ln(x + y)
= 4x
log e (x + y)
= 4x

= e4x
= e4x x

x+y
y
19

ln(x 2 + 1 e3 lg 10 )

21

For equal real roots:


b2 4ac
=0
2
(4) 4(1)(log 2 p) = 0
16
= 4 log 2 p
log 2 p
=4
p
= 24
p
= 16

=3

log e (x 2 + 1 e3 lg 10 ) = 3
x 2 + 1 e3 lg 10
x 2 + 1 e3(1)
x2

= e3
= e3
= 2e3 1

x
= 2e3 1
x
= 6.26
[textbook answer is wrong]
20(i)

p = log 2 8
3

p = log 2 22
3

p=
2

x 2 4x + log 2 p = 0
i.e. a = 1, b = 4, c = log 2 p

22(i)
(a)
(b)
(c)

lg 546
2.74
lg 12 458
4.10
lg 464 777 399 8.67

22(ii) Number of digits in integer k from lg k


lg k + 1 if lg k
={

lg k
if lg k
22(iii) Number of digits in 342 = lg 342
= 20.03
= 21
Number of digits in 732 = lg 732
= 27.02
= 27

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

178

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.1

22(iv)
As we use the base-10 numeral system,
The index of base 10 is very indicative of the number of
digits.
1 digit: k = 1 to 9
lowest k = 1 = 100
2 digits: k = 10 to 99
lowest k = 10 = 101
3 digits: k = 100 to 999 lowest k = 100 = 102
Observe that the lowest k for each digit range is always
10integer
Every integer increase in index results in increase in digits
but increase in index smaller than 1 will not result in
increase in digits and still be registered as the same
number of digits.
for k with lg k is an integer, the no. of digits is lg k + 1
1 digit: k = 100
no. of digits = lg 100 + 1 = 0 + 1 = 1
2 digit: k = 10 = 101
no. of digits = lg 101 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2
for k with lg k is a non-integer, the no. of digits is lg k
(round to the next higher integer)
1 digit: k = 5 100.699
no. of digits = lg 100.699 = 0.699 = 1
2 digit: k = 55 101.74
no. of digits = lg 101.74 = 1.74 = 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

179

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.2
4(a)

Ex 7.2
1(a)

1(b)

log 3 27 + log 3 = log 3 (27 )

4(b)

log5 4log2 10
log25 10

= log 6 (6)
=1

log 5 4 +2 log 5 3 3 log 5 2


= log 5 4 + log 5 32 log 5 23
23

= log 5
2

2(b)

lg

2 lg

75

3
5

+4 lg

3 2

3 4

75

8 3 4
( )
75 2
3 2
( )
5

= lg [

5(a)

= lg
2

+2 log 3 5 log 3

3(52 )
33

5(b)

= log 3 2025
3(a)

log 5 7 =

3 ln 3
ln 3

lg 4 lg 10

lg 5 lg 2
lg 10
lg 25

lg 4 lg 10
lg 5

lg 22
lg 5
2 lg 2
lg 5
2 lg 2
lg 5
2
lg 5

lg 2

1
lg 2
1
lg 2
1
lg 2

lg 25
lg 10

lg 52
1

lg 102
2 lg 5

1
2

lg 10

2 lg 5

1
2

lg 10

2 lg 5
1
2

4
1
2

y = 100x1.5
lg y = lg(100x1.5 )
= lg 100 + lg x1.5
= 1.5 lg x + lg 102
= 1.5 lg x +2
m = 1.5
X = lg x
c =2

1
27

= log 3 3 + log 3 52 log 3 33


= log 3 [

ln 3

=8

= lg ( ) lg ( ) + lg ( )

2(c)

= log 6 ( 2 )

= log 5 [

ln 33

=3

log 6 54
2 log 6 3
= log 6 54 log 6 32

4(32 )

ln 5

ln 3

54

2(a)

ln 27

ln 27

ln 3

log 2 8 = log 2 23
=3

= log 3 (3)
=1
1(c)

ln 5

log 3 5 log 5 27 =

ln 7
ln 5

y = 0.1(1000)x
y = (101 )(103 )x
y = 103x1
lg y = 3x 1

1.21
3(b)

log 1 5.3 =
2

m = 3
X= x
c = 1

ln 5.3
ln

1
2

2.41
6(a)

log a 8 2 log a 4
= log a 8 log a 42
8

= log a ( 2 )
4

= log a
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

180

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

2 log x 5 3 log x 2 + log x 4


= log x 52 log x 23 + log x 4
= log x [
= log x

6(c)

Ex 7.2

52 (4)
23

25
2

8(iv)

log a 3 = 0.477
log a 5 = 0.699
loga 25
loga 3a

=
=

loga 52
loga 3+loga a
2 loga 5
(0.477)+1

9
5a

log 4 3 = a
3
= 4a

= (4a )(4b )
= 4a+3b
9
2

= log a 9

log a 5a

= log a 32 (log a 5 + log a a)


= 2 log a 3 log a 5 log a a
= 2(0.477) 0.699 1
= 0.745
log 4 3 = a
log 4 5 = b

= 2(lg 3 + lg x)

(lg lg x 2 )

3
4

(lg 2 lg x)

= 2 lg 3 + lg x

lg + 2 lg x

= 3 lg x

+2 lg 3 lg

+ lg 32 lg
+ lg

= lg x

+ lg

2
9

= lg x

+ lg

log 4 20= log 4


5)
2
= log 4 2 + log 4 5
=1
+b

3
4

2
lg 22 +3 lg x
2
2 lg 2+3 lg x
2
2

32

+ lg 2

4
3

32 2
4
3

27

x = 10p

y = 10q

y2

lg 4+lg x3

lg y
=q
log10 y =

100x

lg 4x3
lg 100

+ lg 2 + lg x

lg x
=p
log10 y =

lg (

sleightofmath.com

+
+

(22

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

3x2

= 2 (lg 3 + lg x)

10(i)
8(ii)

+ log100 4x 3

lg

= lg x

log 4 45= log 4 (32 5)


= log 4 32 + log 4 5
= 2(log 4 3) + log 4 5
= 2a +b

2 lg 3x

= 3 lg x
8(i)

375 = 3 53

log a (5a ) = log a 5 + log a a


= 0.699 +2
= 2.699
log a

a+2b

log 4 5 = b
5
= 4b

2(0.699)
=
1.477
0.947

7(iii)

= log a 8a

7(ii)

log 4 42
log 4 (3 52 )
2
=
log 4 3 + log 4 52
2
=
log 4 3 + 2 log 4 5

a6
2

log4 75

23 (a6 )

log4 16

log 75 16 =

3 log a 2 4
+2 log a a3
= log a 23 log a a4 + log a (a3 )2
= log a [

7(i)

8(iii)

) = lg 100 + lg x lg y 2
1

=2

+ lg x

2 lg y

=2

+ p

2q

2
1
2

181

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.2

10(ii) lg(y x ) = x lg y
= 10p (q)
= q(10p )
11

14

log 8 5 =

ln K = ln a ln b + ln c
t

bc

ln K = ln (a c e
b

lg(y + 1) = lg
y+1

x
100
x

34

15(ii) lg(3 2) = lg [

(1)(m)
3(m)

1m
3m

3+2
3+2

1
3+2

= lg 1 lg(3 + 2)

15(iii) k = log 2 (9 + 5)
log 2 (9 5) = log 2 [(9 5)
= log 2 (

95
9+5

9+5
9+5

= (x + 2)3

= log 2 4 log 2 (9 + 5)

= 81(x + 2)3

3
2

or y = 9(x + 2)
(rej y > 0)

12(c) 3
+ log 2 (x + y)
3
log 2 2
+ log 2 (x + y)
log 2 8(x + y)
8(x + y)
8x + 8y
= x 2y
10y
= 7x
7

3+2

= 3 log 3 (x + 2)
= log 3 (x + 2)3

y2

10

3 lg 2

3 + 2
1
=
[shown]

= log 3 (x + 2)3

lg 10lg 2

32

34

= log 2 (x 2y)
= log 2 (x 2y)
= log 2 (x 2y)
= x 2y
16(i)

y = 3, x = 2:
log 2 (3 + 1) = 2 log 2 (2) + c
log 2 22
=2+c
2
=2+c
c
=0

log2 22
1
log2 22

2
1
2

log2 (9+5)
1

log2 22

log2 (9+5)
1
2

=4

2 log 2 (9 + 5)

=4

2k

= 2(2 k)

log 2 (y + 1) = 2 log 2 x + c

log 2 (y + 1)
log 2 (y + 1)
y+1
y

10
2
lg 23

lg( )

= lg(3 + 2)

y2

3
2

3 2 = (3 2)

x
100

y = 9(x + 2)

13

lg 8

100

y2

15(i)

t
bc

lg x
lg x

12(b) 2 log 3 y 4
log 3 y 2 log 3 34
log 3

[shown]

12(a) lg(y + 1) = 2
lg(y + 1) = lg 102

lg 5

t
bc

ln K = ln a ln b + ln c + ln e
ac t
e bc
b

m = lg 2

16(ii)

p
log a p
log a p
p
1
q

= aloga x
= log a aloga x
= log a x
=x

3 =3

1
log4 3

=3

1
1
log3 4

= 3log3 4 = 4

= 2 log 2 x
= log 2 x 2
= x2
= x2 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

182

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17

Ex 7.2

Method 1 (prime factorization)


(lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg 50 = (lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg(2 52 )
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 (lg 2 + 2 lg 5)
= (lg 5)2 + 2 lg 5 lg 2 + (lg 2)2
= (lg 5 + lg 2)2
= (lg 10)2
=1

1 2
18
un = (1 )
n
(ii)(a)
1 2

lg u4 = lg (1 )
4

= 2 lg [shown]
4

lg u
Method 2 (selective factorization)
(lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg 50
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg(5 10)
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 (lg 5 + lg 10)
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 (lg 5 + 1)
= (lg 5)2 + lg 2 lg 5 + lg 2
= lg 5 (lg 5 + lg 2) + lg 2
= lg 5 lg 10
+ lg 2
= lg 5
+ lg 2
= lg 10
=1
18(i)

998

998

999
999

999

lg + lg + lg + + lg
1

4
3

2
1

= lg [( ) ( ) ( ) (
= lg (

)(

+ lg

1000

= lg (1
= 2 lg (

1
10k

10k 1
10k

lg u2 + lg u3 + lg u4 + + lg u10k
18
(ii)(b)
1 2
1 2
3
= lg (1 ) + lg (1 ) +2 lg
2

+ + 2 lg
= 2 lg

1
2
1

= 2(lg

+2 lg
+ lg

2
3

+2 lg

+ lg

+ + 2 lg

+ + lg

4
10k 1

10k

= 2 lg [( ) ( ) ( ) (

10k 1
10k
10k 1
10k

10k 1
10k

)]

1
= 2 lg ( k )
10
= 2 lg(10k )
= 2(k)
= 2k

999
1000

)]

1000
3 )

= lg(10
= 3

(10k )

19

1
lg 0.301 < 0
2
When you multiply both sides of an inequality
with a negative number, switch the reverse the
inequality sign from 2nd line onwards

20

lg[(2)(5)] lg(2) + lg(5)

20(i)

x = 2, y = 5

20(ii) x = 2, r = 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

183

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.3

Ex 7.3
1(a)

log 5 (x + 1) = log 5 3
x+1
=3
x
= 2

1(b)

log 2 (x 1)
x1
3x
x

1(c)

2(a)

2(b)

3(a)

3(b)

= log 2 (4x 7)
= 4x 7
=6
= 2

3(c)

log 2 (x 1)2
=2
+ log 2 (x + 2)
2
2
(x
log 2 1)
= log 2 2 + log 2 (x + 2)
log 2 (x 1)2
= log 2 4(x + 2)
2
(x 1)
= 4(x + 2)
2
x 2x + 1
= 4x + 8
2
x 6x 7
=0
(x 7)(x + 1) = 0
x = 7 or x = 1

4(a)

log 3 x = 9 log x 3
log 3 x =

log 3 x + log 3 (x + 2)= 1


log 3 [x(x + 2)]
= log 3 3
x(x + 2)
=3
x2 + 2
=3
2
x + 2x 3
=0
(x + 3)(x 1)
=0
x = 3 (rej) or x = 1
log x 25 + log x 5
log x (125)
125
x

=3
= log x x 3
= x3
=5

9
log3 x

sub u = log 3 x:
u=

9
u

u2 = 9
u
=3
log 3 x = 3
x
x
4(b)

or

u
= 3
log 3 x = 3

= 33
= 27

= 33

1
27

log 3 x + 2 = 3 log x 3
3

log 3 x + 2 =

log3 x

3 log x 2 + log x 18 = 2
log x 23 + log x 18 = log x x 2
log x (23 18)
= log x x 2
log x 144
= log x x 2
144
= x2
x = 12 or x = 12 (rej)

sub u = log 3 x:

lg[(x + 2)(x 2)] = lg(2x 1)


(x + 2)(x 2) = (2x 1)
x2 4
= 2x 1
2
x 2x 3
=0
(x 3)(x + 1)
=0
x = 3 or x = 1 (rej)

u+2

3
u

u2 + 2u 3
=0
(u + 3)(u 1) = 0
u
= 3
or u
=1
log 3 x = 3
log 3 x = 1

= 33
=

1
27

=3

log 2 [(x 2)(8 x)] log 2 (x 5)= 3


log 2 [

(x2)(8x)

(x5)
(x2)(8x)

(x5)

= log 2 23
= 23

(x 2)(x 8)
= 8(x 5)
2
(x 10x + 16) = 8x 40
x 2 2x 24
=0
(x 6)(x + 4)
=0
x = 6 or x = 4 (rej)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

184

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

Ex 7.3

ln(3x y) = ln 36 ln 9

7(a)

36

ln(3x y) = ln ( )

2 log 5 x + (

3x y = 4
y
= 3x 4 (1)

2 log 5 x + (

(ex )2

2 log 5 x + (

=e

ey

e2xy
= e1
2x y = 1

= 55
2

log 2 x log 4 (x + 6) = 0
log 2 x = log 4 (x + 6)
=[
=[
=[

=2

= 5q p
= 5q 1

log2 (x+6)
2

]
]

= x + 6

=x+6
=0

x = 3 or x = 2 (rej)
7(c)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2 + 3q = 5q 1
2q
=3
3

log 5 (5 4x) = log 5 (2 x)


log 5 (5 4x) =

log5 (2x)

log 5 (5 4x) =

log5 (2x)

log 5 (5 4x) =

log5 (2x)

log5 5
1

log5 52
1
2

log 5 (5 4x) = 2 log 5 (2 x)

log2 22

(x 3)(x + 2) = 0

=2

1
p

log2 (x+6)

x2 x 6

=2

5qp

log2 4

= log 2 2

15q3p

log2 (x+6)

= log 2 x + 6

2p+2
= 24 (23q )
2p+2
= 24+3q
p + 2 = 4 + 3q
p
= 2 + 3q
(1)
log 2 6 log 2 (15q 3p) = 1

= log 5 55
= (55 )5
= 52
= 25

15q3p
6

= log 5 55

4 [(22 )2q ]

log 2 (

) = log 5 55

= log 5 55

= 16 (4 )

log5 52
log5 x

5
2

3
q
2

p+2

) = log 5 55

log5 25
log5 x

log 5 x

Put x = 3 into (1):


y|x=5 = 3(3) 4
=5
2

=5

log 5 x 2

7(b)

p+2

log5 x

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


2x (3x 4) = 1
x + 4
=1
x
= 3
x
=3

2 log 5 x + log 25 x

log 5 (5 4x) = log 5 (2 x)2


Put q =

3
2

into (1):
3

p|q=3 = 2 + 3 ( )
2

13
2

5 4x

= (2 x)2

5 4x

= 4 4x + x 2

x 2 + 1

=0

x2 1

=0

(x + 1)(x 1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

185

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(b)

log 9 y + log 3 y
log3 y

+ log 3 y

log3 9
log3 y

+ log 3 y
log3 32
1
log 3 y + log 3 y
2
3
log 3 y
2
3

Ex 7.3

= 2 log 3 x +3 log 3 2
= log 3 x

9(c)

+ log 3 2

= log 3 [(x 2 )(23 )]


= log 3 (8x 2 )

= log 3 (8x 2 )

log 3 3x + 1 = log 3 (2x)


3x + 1
= 2x
3x + 1
= 4x 2
4x 2 3x 1 = 0
(4x + 1)(x 1) = 0

y2

= 8x 2

= (8x 2 )3
2

2 4
(23 )3 x 3

4
22 x 3

log 3 (3x + 1) = log 3 (2x)

x = (rej) or x = 1

= (8)3 (x 2 )3

9(d)

3 log 4 x log16 x = 3.75


log 4 x 3

= 4x 3
log 4 (6 x) log 2 8

log 4 x 3

= log 9 3

log 4 x 3

log 4 (6 x) log 2 23 = log 9 92

log4 x

= log 4 43.75

log4 16
log4 x
log4

log4 x

= log 4 4

log 4 x 2

15

x2

= 44

log 4 (6 x)

6x

= 42

= (22 )2
= 27
= 122

15

= (22 ) 4

15

x2

= 22
2
15 5
2

= (2 )

= 23
=8

log 7 (9x + 38) log 7 (x + 2) = log 9 81


log 7 (
log 7 (

9x+38

= log 9 92

=2

x+2
9x+38
x+2
9x+38

x+2
9x+38

x+2
9x+38
x+2

9(e)

log 5 x log 25 (x + 10) = 0.5


log 5 x

= log 7 7
= 72

log 5 x

= 49

log 5 x

9x + 38
40x

= 49x + 98
= 60

15
4

( )

= log 4 4

x2
7

15
4

( )

2
7

log 7 (

15
4

( )

log 4 (6 x) 3

15
4

( )

= log 4 4

42

log 4 x 3 log 4 x 2 = log 4 4

9(b)

= log 3 (2x)

log3 32

9(a)

= log 3 (2x)

log3 9
log3 (3x+1)

= log 3 (8x 2 )

log 3 y 2

log 9 (3x + 1) = log 3 x + log 3 2


log3 (3x+1)

log5 (x+10)
log5 25
log5 (x+10)
log5 52
log5 (x+10)
2

log 5 x log 5 x + 10

log 5 (

x+10

x
x+10

x2
x+10

= log 5 50.5
= log 5 5
= log 5 5
= log 5 5
= log 5 5
= 5
=5

x2

= 5x + 50

x 2 5x 50

=0

(x 10)(x + 5)

=0

x = 10 or x = 5 (rej x > 0)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

186

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

Ex 7.3
+ log a (7x 10a)

2 log a x

=1

log a x 2

= log a a + log a (7x 10a)

1st eqn
log 2 (2y 3x) log 2 3 = 4 log 4 2

= log a [a(7x 10a)]

log 2 (

= a(7x 10a)

log 2 (

log a x
x
x

12

log 2 (

= 7ax 10a

x 2 7ax + 10a2 = 0

log 2 (

(x 2a)(x 5a) = 0

x = 2a or x = 5a
11

27 3lg x

= 91+lg(x20)

(33 )(3lg x )

= (32 )1+lg(x20)

33+lg x

= 32+2 lg(x20)

3 + lg x

= 2 + 2 lg(x 20)

1 + lg x

= 2 lg(x 20)

lg 10 + lg x

= lg(x 20)2

lg(10x)

= lg(x 20)2

10x

= (x 20)2

2y3x
3
2y3x
3
2y3x
3
2y3x
3

2y3x

= 4 (log 4 42 )

= 4( )

=2

= log 2 22

1
2

= 22

2y 3x
2y

= 12
= 3x + 12

= x + 6 (1)

3
2

2nd eqn
log 3 6 + log 3 (x + y)
log 3 6 + log 3 (x + y)
log 3 [6(x + y)]
6(x + y)
6x + 6y

= log 3 (x) + log 3 (1 x)


= log 3 [(x)(1 x)]
= log 3 (x 2 x)
= x2 x
= x2 x
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


3

10x

= x 40x + 400

6x + 6 ( x + 6)

= x 2 50x + 400

x 2 50x + 400

=0

6x + 9x + 36
= x2 x
15x + 36
= x2 x
x 2 16x 36
=0
(x 18)(x + 2)
=0
x = 18
or x = 2

= x2 x

(x 40)(x 10) = 0
x = 40 or x = 10 (rej)

y|x=2 = (2) + 6

(rej x > 0)

=3
12(ii) log 3 6 + log 3 (x + y) = log 3 (x 2 x)
x + y > 0 x2 x > 0
On top of x = 2, y = 3, the solution includes
3

x = 18, y|x=18 = (18) + 6 = 33


2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

187

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.3

13(i)
log 2 (x 3 + 1) 2 log 2 x = log 2 (x 2 x + 1) 2
log 2 (x 3 + 1) log 2 x 2 = log 2 (x 2 x + 1) log 2 22
log 2 (

x3 +1
x2

= log 2 (

x3 +1

x2
(x+1)(x2 x+1)

x2
x+1

x2

22

x = 2 22 or
(rej x > 0)

+ log a2 x

1
x

loga ( )
1
x

x2 x+1

loga ( )

22
x2 x+1

1
2

+ log a x

+ log a x

x
1 2

loga x
loga a2
loga x
2

+ log a4 x = c
+
+

loga x
loga a4
loga x
4

1
4

log a ( )
x

1 2

= log a ac

416+16
2

432
2

442
2

x = 2 + 22

(x 3

log a [(x 1 )2 x 4 ]

= log a ac

log a [(x 2 )x 4 ]

= log a ac

(x 2

13(ii) log 2
+ 1) log 2 x = log 2
x + 1) 2
3
2
log 2 (x + 1) 2 log 2 x = log 2 (x x + 1) 2
x = 2 22

log a (x 4 )

= log a ac

x 4
x
15

= log a ac

+ log a x 4 = log a ac

log a [( ) x 4 ]
=

= log a ac

= log a ac

2 log a ( ) + log a x

(4)(4)2 4(1)(4)
2(1)

log a ( ) + log a x
loga a

= x2
=0

4x + 4
x 2 4x 4
x=

x2 x+1

14

= ac
= a4c
2 log a b + 4 log b a = 9
2 log a b + 4 (

1
loga b

)=9

sub u = log a b:
2u +

=9

2u2 9u + 4 = 0
(2u 1)(u 4) = 0
u=

1
2

sub u = log a b:
log a b =
b
b

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

u=4
sub u = log a b:
log a b = 4

2
1
2

=a
= a

b
= a4
(rej a > b > 1)

188

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.4
3(ii)

Ex 7.4
1(a)

1(b)

4x

= 9(5x )

4 x

( )
5

5x = 9
lg 5x = lg 9
x lg 5 = lg 9

lg ( ) = lg 9
5

x lg ( ) = lg 9
5

lg 9

1.37

4e2x

lg 5

= 21

2x

=9

4 x

4(a)

21

2x

= ln

= ln

0.829

4
21

4
21

lg 9

0.985

2x . 3x
6x
lg 6x
x lg 6

= 10
= 10
= lg 10
=1

lg

4
5

1
lg 6

1.29
1(c)

4 72x
72x
72x
lg 72x
2x lg 7

=1
= 3
=3
= lg 3
= lg 3

0.282

4(b)

2x+1
= 3x
(2x )(21 ) = 3x
2x

3x
2 x

( )

lg 3

2 lg 7

2 x

lg ( )

3(i)

3x+1 12
3x+1
lg 3x+1
(x + 1) lg 3

=0
= 12
= lg 12
= lg 12

x+1

1.26

lg 3

x lg ( ) = lg
3

1
2
1
2

1
2
2
lg( )
3

lg

1.71

lg 12
lg 3
lg 12

2
1

= lg

1(d)

4(c)
1

3x+1
. 2x2
= 21
x
x
2
(3 )(3) (2 )(2 ) = 21
32

(3x )(2x )

= (3)(22 )

y = 5e

6x
lg 6x
x lg 6

= 28
= lg 28
= lg 28

y = 12:
5e0.2x = 12

0.2x

0.2x

= ln

= 5 ln

4.38

4x
5x
4 x

lg 6

1.86

12

e0.2x

lg 28

5
12
5

5(i)

9x 4
= 3x+1
(32 )x 4
= (3x )(3)
(3x )2 3(3x ) 4 = 0

5(ii)

(3x 4)(3x + 1) = 0
3x = 4
or 3x = 1 (rej)
lg 3x = lg 4
x lg 3 = lg 4

12
5

x)

= 9(5
=9

( ) =9
5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

lg 4

1.26

lg 3

189

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

6(ii)

7(a)

Ex 7.4
3

8x + 11(2x )

= 4x+2 20

(23 )x + 11(2x )
(2x )3 + 11(2x )
(2x )3 + 11(2x )
(2x )3 8(2x )2 + 11(2x ) + 20
sub u = 2x
u3 8u2 + 11u + 20
(u + 1)(u2 +
+ 20)

= (22 )x+2 20
= (22x )(23 ) 20
= 8(2x )2 20
=0

(u + 1)(u2 9u + 20) = 0
(u + 1)(u 5)(u 4) = 0
u = 1 or u = 5 or
sub u = 2x
sub u = 2x
x
2 = 1
2x = 5
(rej 2x > 0) x lg 2 = lg 5

=0

u
=4
sub u = 2x
2x = 22
x =2

7(d)

2.32

1
2

lg 2

sub y = ex :
ex =

1
2

(NA ex > 0)
ex
x

2y 7y + 3
1

y=

1
4

sub y = ex
ex =

8(a)

1
4
1

= ln

1.39

x 3 = e6x1
ln x 3 = ln e6x1
3 ln x = 6x 1
ln x = 2x

12
ex

sub y = ex
y

=7

12

a=2

b=

y2
= 7y 12
2
y 7y + 12 = 0
(y 3)(y 4)= 0
y = 3 or
y=4
x
sub y = e
sub y = ex
x
e =3
ex = 4
x = ln 3
x = ln 4
x 1.10
x 1.39

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=0
y = 3
y=9
sub y = ex
ex = 9
x = ln 9
x 2.20

y = 2 or

= 7 12ex
=7

2ex = 7ex 3

(2y 1)(y 3) = 0

y=2
sub y = ex :
ex = 2
x = ln 2
x 0.693

or

y=2
sub y = ex
ex = 2
x = ln 2
x 0.693

lg 5

e3x + 2ex
= 3e2x
(ex )3 + 2ex
= 3(ex )2
x
sub y = e
y 3 + 2y
= 3y 2
y 3 3y 2 + 2y = 0
y(y 2 3y + 2) = 0
y(y 1)(y 2) = 0
y=0
or y = 1 or
x
sub y = e
sub y = ex
x
e = 0 (NA) ex = 1
x =0

2ex = 7(ex )2 3
sub y = ex
2y = 7y 3

2e2x 3ex
=2
x )2
x
2(e
3e
=2
x
sub y = e
2y 2 3y
=2
2y 2 3y 2 = 0
(2y + 1)(y 2) = 0
y=

7(b)

7(c)

1
3

1
3

8(b)

xex
ln xex
ln x + ln ex
ln x + (x)
ln x

= 2.46
= ln 2.46
= ln 2.46
= ln 2.46
= x + ln 2.46

a=1
b = ln 2.46
0.9

sleightofmath.com

190

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(c)

Ex 7.4

(xex )2
x 2 e2x
x2
ln x 2
2 ln x
2 ln x

= 30ex
= 30ex
= 30e3x
= ln(30e3x )
= ln 30 + ln e3x
= ln 30 + (3x)

ln x

= x + ln 30

9(d)

3x 102x

= 4 20x2

(3)x (102 )x = 4 (20)x (20)2


(3)x (102 )

= 4(20)2

(20)x

a=
2

b = ln 30
2

(3)(102 )
(20)

=
=

lg(15)x

= lg

x lg 15

= lg

5x1 3x+2
= 10
(5x )(51 ) (3x )(32 ) = 10
=

15x

x lg 15

= lg
=

100
1
100
1
100

1
100

lg

lg 15

1.70

10
(51 )(32 )
50

(5x )(3x )

(15)x

1.70
9(a)

4
202

9
50
9

50
9

lg

lg 15

0.633
9(b)

22x 5x+1
=7
2
x
x
(2 ) (5) (5) = 7
(4)x (5)x

7
5
7

20

x lg 20

= lg

5
7
5

lg

7
5

lg 20

0.112
9(c)

4(32x )
4(32 )x
(32 )

= ex
= ex

ex
9 x

( )
e

9 x

=
=

1
4
1
4

ln ( )

= ln

x ln

= ln

e
9

1
4
1
4

1
4
9
ln
e

ln

1.16

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

191

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10

Ex 7.4

1st eqn
4x+3

= 32(2x+y )

(22 )x+3

= (25 )(2x+y )

22x+6

= 25+x+y

2x + 6

=5+x+y

=y1

(1)

2nd eqn
9x + 3y = 10

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


9y1 + 3y = 10
(32 )y1
32y2

+3y

= 10

+3y

= 10

(32y )(32 ) +3y


1

(3y )2 ( ) +3y

= 10

1
9

(3y )2

= 10

+3y 10 = 0

sub u = 3y
1 2
u
9

+ u 10

=0

u2 + 9u 90

=0

(u + 15)(u 6)

=0

u = 15 or

=6

3y = 15

3y

=6

(rej)

lg 3y = lg 6
y lg 3 = lg 6
lg 6

1.631

lg 3

x|y=1.631 (1.631) 1
0.631

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

192

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 7.5

Ex 7.5
1(a)

y = log 2 x
base = 2 > 1, graph slopes up

y
O

2(ii)

pH = lg(7.8 106 )
5.11
Blue

3(i)

T = 85(0.96)x
T|x=0 = 85(0.96)0
= 85C

3(ii)

T|x=15 = 85(0.96)15
46.1

3(iii)

T
= 30
85(0.96)x = 30

y = log 6 x
base = 6 > 1, graph slopes up
y
O

1(c)

pH = lg(5.6 107 )
6.25
Pink

1(b)

2(i)

y = log 0.2 x
0 < base 0.2 < 1, graph slopes down
y
O

1(d)

(0.96)x

x lg 0.96

= lg

25.5

17
6
17

lg

6
17

lg 0.96

4(i)

N = 100(1.65)t
N|t=0 = 100(1.65)0
= 100

4(ii)

N|t=4 = 100(1.65)4
741

4(iii)

N
100(1.65)t
(1.65)t
t lg(1.65)

= 400
= 400
=4
= lg 4

2.77

y = log 1 x
4
1

0 < base < 1, graph slopes down


4

y
O

1(e)

y = lg x
base = 10 > 1, graph slopes up
y
O

5(i)

R = 100e0.000427 9t
R|t=10 000 = 100e0.0004279(10 000)
= 100(1 e4.279 )
1.39g

5(ii)

1(f)

y = ln x
base = e > 1, graph slopes up

lg 4
lg(1.65)

= (100)
2

100e(0.0004279)t = 50
O

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

e(0.0004279)t

0.0004279t

= ln

1620 yrs

2
1
2

193

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

6(ii)

Ex 7.5

I = 0.87T
I|T=1.5 = (0.87)1.5
0.811

9(ii)

I
= 0.5
T
0.87
= 0.5
T lg 0.87 = lg 0.5

ln(t + 1)

ln e 6

t+1

e6

t
t

e6 1
7.72

13

lg 0.5

13

4.98 mm

lg 0.87

t= 8

13

ln(t + 1)

13

7(i)

S
62
75 6 ln(t + 1) 62
6 ln(t + 1)
13

= ln
= lg
x

9(iii)

S
= 75 6 ln(t + 1)
6 ln(t + 1) = 75 S
1

ln(t + 1) = (75 S)

(75S)

7(ii)
(a)

Range of values of x:
x>1

lg x > 0

Range of values of x:
0<x1

lg x 0

7(ii)
(c)

Range of values of x:
x>1

ln x > lg x

8(ii)

10(i)

A = 5000(1.04)t
A|t=5 = 5000(1.04)5
$6083

>

5000

t
9(i)

1500
1+1499e0.85(6)
1500
1+1499e5.1

0.4(1500)
1500

1+1499e0.85t
1500
5
3

1 + 1499e0.85t
1499e0.85t

2
3

e0.85t

2998

ln (
t

3
2998

3
)
2998

ln(

(1.04)

0.85

5000

S = 75 6 ln(t + 1) 0 t 12
S|t=4 = 75 6 ln(4 + 1)
= 75 6 ln(5)
= 75 6 ln 5
65.3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

600
1 + 1499e0.85t

600

lg 1.04

1+1499e0.85t

10(ii) y

= log1.04 (

(75S)

1500

y=

lg 1.6

= 5000(1.04)
=

= e6

(75S)

148

> 11.98

t = 12
8(iii)

= e6

y|t=6 =

A
> 8000
t
5000(1.04) > 8000
(1.04)t
> 1.6
t lg(1.04) > lg(1.6)
t

t+1

7(ii)
(b)

8(i)

ln(t + 1) = ln e6

0.85t
t

8.13

t
t= 9

8.13

194

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11

t = 2.35 ln (

Ex 7.5

T24.5
12.4

13(ii)

3.5 = Ce

t|T=28.8 = 2.35 ln (

28.824.5
12.4

3.5

12.4

2h 58min before 7:29am 4: 31am [verified]

log 4 x

29
60

4.3

[shown]
35

k = ln ( )
43

13(iii) T = T0 + Cekt
T0 = 24.5, C = 12.4, k 0.426:
T = 24.5 + 12.4e0.426t

2
1
2

x
x

3.5

k
0.426
t = 0, T = 36.9C (assumption of normal body
temperature of 36.9C at death in Q11)
36.9 = 24.5 + Ce0.426k(0)
36.9 = 24.5 + C
C = 12.4

2.97h 2h 58min

=1

29
60

=e

e60k =

7: 29am: T = 28.0C
t|T=28.0 = 2.35 ln (

Cekt1

29

2h 29min before 7:00am 4: 31am

=4
=2

T24.5

ln (

= 2 log 4
=1
x

1 2

t
14(i)

12(iii) 2 log x 4 1
0<x2
13(i)

= e0.426t

12.4
T24.5

12(ii) y = 2 log 4 x

29
)
60

4.3

28.024.5

k(t1 +

Ce

4.3
3.5

2.49h 2h29min

2 log 4 x

(2)

(2) (1):

7: 00am: T = 28.8C

12(i)

29
60

k(t1 + )

14(ii)

29
60

k(t1 + )

28.0 = 24.5 + Ce

= 0.426t
2.35 ln (

T24.5
12.4

C1 : y = 2 ln x [x > 0]
C2 : y = ln x 2
[x 2 > 0]
2
C3 : y = (ln x) [x > 0]
All different.
C1 C2 because of the different domain
C1 C3 Evident by algebriac observation
C2 C3 Evident by algebraic observation

T = T0 + Cekt
7: 00am T = 28.8C, T0 , 24.5C, t = t1
28.8 = 24.5 + Cekt1
4.3 = Cekt1
(1)
7: 29am T = 28.0C, T0 , 24.5C, t = t1 +

12.4

29
60

C3 : y = (ln x)2
C2 : y = ln x 2

C1 : y = 2 ln x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

195

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 7
A2(b) 2 log 5 x

Rev Ex 7
A1(a) log x 27 = 1.5
x1.5
= 27
3

= 33

x2

= (33 )
= 32
=9

x
x
x

A1(b) log 2 x log 8 x


log 2 x (
log 2 x (

log2 x

) = 12

1
64

A1(c) log 3 (x 2)
log 3 (x 2)
log 3 (x 2)
x2

2 log 5 x

=5(

log5 x
log5 52
log5 x
2
log5 x

=5( )
u

=3
log 3 (x + 4)
3
= log 3 3 log 3 (x + 4)
= log 3 (
=

= 52
= 25

1
2

=5

= 5

33

A3(a) log 3 (x 19)


x 19
x
x
x
lg x

x+4

=4
= 34
= 34 + 19
= 81 + 19
= 100
= lg 102
=2

33
x+4

A3(b) lg(x + 2) + 7 lg 2

(x 2)(x + 4) = 33
x 2 + 2x 8
= 27
2
x + 2x 35 = 0
(x + 7)(x 5) = 0
x = 7 or x = 5
(rej x 2 > 0)
A2(a) log 3 xy log 3 (x 1)
log 3 xy log 3 (x 1)
xy
log 3

=5(

= 12

= 26

x = 64 or

2 log 5 x

log5 25

2u2
= 5u 2
2
2u 5u + 2 = 0
(2u 1)(u 2) = 0
1
u
=2
u
=
or
2
log 5 x = 2
1
log 5 x =

(log 2 x)2 = 36
log 2 x
= 6
x

=5(

2u

) = 12

log2 23

2 log 5 x

sub u = log 5 x:

= 12

log2 8
log2 x

(log2 x)2

2
3

= 5 log x 25

x1
xy

x1

xy
y

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= log 3 9

+ lg(2x + 1)

lg(x + 2) + lg 27

= log 3 32 + lg(2x + 1)

lg[(x + 2)27 ]

=2

+ lg(2x + 1)

lg[(x + 2)27 ]

= lg 102

+ lg(2x + 1)

lg[128(x + 2)]

= lg[100(2x + 1)]

128(x + 2)

= 100(2x + 1)

= log 3 6x 1
= log 3 6x 2 log 3 3
= log 3 2x 2

32(x + 2)

= 25(2x + 1)

32x + 64

= 50x + 25

= 2x 2

18x

= 39

= 2x 2 (x 1)
= 2x(x 1)

A3(c) e2x + ex 6 = 0
(ex )2 + ex 6 = 0
sub u = ex :
u2 + u 6
=0
(u + 3)(u 2) = 0
u = 3
sub u = ex
ex = 3
(NA ex > 0)

sleightofmath.com

13
6

u=2
ex = 2
sub u = ex :
x = ln 2
x 0.693
196

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A4(i)

Rev Ex 7
A5(ii) P
> 90 000
0.07n
12 000e
> 90 000

log 2 x = a
= 2a

log 8 y = b
= 8b

x 2 y = (2a )2 (8b )
= 22a+3b
x

2a
8b

2a
23b

A6

= 2a3b

53b
2

2a3b
= 21
a 3b = 1

53b
2

>

> 28.78

0.07

log b (xy 2 )
=m
log b x + log b y 2 = m
log b x +2 log b y = m (1)

2nm
5

[shown] (3)

sub (3) into (1):


(

2nm

) + 2 log b y = m

2 log b y

=
9

=m+

2 log b y

a|b=7 =

log b y

Let P be the population of a town after n years


from the beginning of 1990
P = 12000e0.07n

log b

A5(i)

log b x

5 3b 6b = 2
9b
=7

15
2

(2)

) 3b = 1

ln

15

sub (2) into (1):


log b x +2(n 3 log b x) = m
log b x +2n 6 log b x = m
5 log b x = m 2n

sub (1) into (2):


(

> ln

(1)

= 0.5

0.07n

log b (x 3 y)
=n
log b x 3 + log b y = n
3 log b x + log b y = n
log b y
= n 3 log b x (2)

A4(ii) x 2 y
= 32
2a+3b
2
= 25
2a + 3b = 5
a

>

1990 + 28.78 = 2018

= 22a (33b )

15

e0.07n

1990 n = 0
2005 n = 2005 1990 = 15

y
x

m2n
5

6m2n
5
3mn
5

= log b y log b x
=

3mn

=[
=

2nm

5
5
(3mn)(2nm)
5

4m3n
5

log b xy = log b xy
P|n=15

2
1

= (log b x + log b y)

0.07(15)

= 12000e
34 292

2
1 2nm

= (

2
5
1 2m+n

= [
=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

2
5
2m+n
10

3mn
5

197

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 7
B1(c) log 2 x 2 log 2 (2x + 5) = 2

A7
y = 2 lg x
(i)(a)
y|x=4 = 2 lg 4
1.20

log 2 (

A7
y = 1.5
(i)(b) 2 lg x = 1.5
lg x = 0.75
log10 x = 0.75

A7
(ii)

x2

= 22

2x+5

=4

2x+5

x2

= 8x + 20

x 2 8x 20

=0

(x 10)(x + 2) = 0
x = 10 or x = 2
B1(d) log 2 x

y = 2 lg x
y
x

A7
(iii)

x10 = 10x
1
2

x (10 ) = 10

= log 2 22

2x+5

x2

= 100.75
5.62

x
x

x2

B2(i)

x
4

= 4 log x 2
1

log 2 x

= 4(

log 2

= 2

22 = 4 or

log2 x

1
4

log 2 x = p
log 4 y = q

x 1

= 1042

4
1

lg x

2 lg x

= x1

log 2 xy = log 2 x + log 2 y


= log 2 x +
= log 2 x +

= log 2 x +

y= x1
2

B1(a) log 9 (3+1 )


9x

= 3x+1
2

32x
= 3x+1
2x 2
=x+1
2
2x x 1
=0
(2x + 1)(x 1) = 0

=
=
=

43x + log 2 2
43x 3
43x
(22 )3x
26x
6x
x

=5
=5
=5
=8
= 23
= 23
=3

log2 x

log 4 y

log2 4
p
log2 22
p
2
p

log 4 y
log 4 y
q

B2(iii) log 4y = log2 4y = log2 [4(22q )]


x
log2 x

log2 [22 (22q )]

B2(iv) log 2 x = p

log2 (22+2q )
p

2+2q
p

log 4 y = q

y
= 4q
y
= 22q
x 2 y = (2p )2 (22q ) = 22p+2q
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

1
2

8
3

log4 4 2
log4 y

B2(ii) log 4 x = log 4 x log 4 y

x = or x = 1
B1(b) 43x + log (1)
2

log4 2
log4 y

= log 2 x +2 log 4 y
=p
+2q

= x2

log4 y

sleightofmath.com

= 2p

198

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 7

B3(a) 2x = 128(4y )
2x = 27 (22y )
2x = 27+2y
x = 7 + 2y
(1)
ln(4x + y) = ln 40 2 ln 2
ln(4x + y) = ln 40 ln 22
ln(4x + y) = ln 10
4x + y
= 10
(2)

B4(i)

ln 2 = a
ln 5 = b
1

ln 10e = ln 10e
3
1

= (ln 10 + ln e)
3
1

= [ln(2 5) + ln e]
3
1

= [ln 2 + ln 5 +1)
3
1

= (a + b +1)

sub (1) into (2):


4(7 + 2y) + y = 10
(28 + 8y) + y = 10
28 + 9y
= 10
9y
= 18
y
= 2

3
1

= (a + b + 1)
3

B4(ii) ln x = b2a
=
=

x|y=2 = 7 + 2(2)

=3

2
(ln 5)2(ln 2)
2
ln 5ln 22
2
ln 5ln 4
1

2
5

= ln
B3
lg(1 + 2x) lg x 2 = 1
lg(2 + 5x)
2
(b)(i) lg(1 + 2x) lg x = lg 10 lg(2 + 5x)
lg

1+2x

= lg

x2
1+2x

= lg

x2

= ln

10

x =

2+5x
10

2+5x

(2x + 1)(5x + 2) = 10x 2


10x 2 + 9x + 2 = 10x 2
9x + 2
=0
2

B3
3y+2
= 5y
y
2
(b)(ii) (3) (3 ) = (5)y
(3)y

(5)y
3 y

( )
5

3 y

lg ( )
5

1
32
1
9

= lg

y lg ( ) = lg
5

1
9
1
9

1
9
3
lg
5

lg

4.30

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

199

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5

Rev Ex 7

y = ln(2x + e2 )
At (0, h),
h = ln[2(0) + e2 ]
h = ln e2
h =2

B6(b) log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x) = log 3 (10 x) + 2 log 4 2


1

log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x) = log 3 (10 x) + 2 log 4 42


1

log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x) = log 3 (10 x) + 2 ( )


2

y = ln(2x + e2 )
At (k, 0),
0
= ln[2(k) + e2 ]
0
= log (2 + 2 )
0

1e2
2

y = eax
2

At (h, k) i.e. (2,


1e2
2
2

= log 3 (10 x) + 1
= log 3 (10 x) + log 3 3
= log 3 [3(10 x)]
= 3(10 x)
= 30 3x
= 10

5
4

e
= 2k + e
1
= 2k + e2
1 e2 = 2k

log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x)
log 3 5 + log 3 (4 + x)
log 3 [5(4 + x)]
5(4 + x)
20 + 5x
8x

1e2
2

).

= ea(2)

B6(c) 102x+1 +7(10x )


= 26
x
2
x
(10 ) (10) +7(10 )
= 26
x )2
x)
10(10
+7(10 26 = 0
sub u = 10x :
10u2 +7u 26
=0
(10u 13)(u + 2)
=0
13
u = 2
u=
or
10
10x = 2 (rej)
13
x
10 =
10

2
1 2
e
2
1
ln ( e2 )
2
1
1 2

sub x = lg a:

e2a

2a

= ln ( e )
2
1

2
1

2
1

= lg

13

e2 = e2a

lg a = lg
a

13
10

10

13
10

= (ln + ln e2 )
= (ln 21 + 2)
2
1

= ( ln 2 + 2)
2

= 1 ln 2
2

B6
m = 32e0.02t
(a)(i)
m|t=20 = 32e0.02(20)
21.5
1
B6
m
= m|t=0
2
(a)(ii)
1
0.02t
32e
= [32e0.02(0) ]
2

32e0.02t = 16
1

e0.02t

0.02t

= ln

= 50 ln

34.7

2
1
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

1
2

sleightofmath.com

200

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B7(i)

x 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2


y -1.61 -0.92 -0.51 -0.22 0.00 0.18

Rev Ex 7
B7(ii) xe2x

= e3
3

xe2x

= e2

ln(xe2x )

ln x + 2x =
ln x
B7(iii)

3
2

3
2
3

= 2x +

y = 2x +

3
2

B7(iv) Intersection pt (0.84,0.16)


x = 0.84
There is only 1 intersection
(and thus only 1 solution)
as both curves would not turn around.

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

201

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


1(b)

Ex 8.1
1(a)

Ex 8.1

Method 1 (No action)


xy = 3x 5
Y = 3X 5
m=3
c = 5

Y = X 2
m=1
c = 2
Method 2 (Divide by )
y = x 2 2x

Method 2 (Divide by x)
xy = 3x 5

y
x2
y

=3

= 5 ( ) + 3

xy
1

Y = 2X +1
m = 2
c=1

xy

Method 3 (Divide by y)
y = x 2 2x
1 =

y
3

xy

x2
y

= 1
=

= 2 ( ) + 1

y
3

x2

5y
5
3 1
1
5 y
5
3
1

Y = X

x2

=1 +

2x
y
2x
y

= 2 ( ) +1
y

Y = 2X +1
m=2
c=1

= ( )
5

1 =

x2

Method 3 (Divide by )
xy = 3x 5

xy
1

=1

Y = 5X +3
m = 5
c=3

Method 1 (Divide by x)
y = x 2 2x
y
= x 2

m=
5

1(c)

c=

Method 1 (Multiply denominator)


y

3
x2

xy 2y = 3
xy
= 2y +3
Y
= 2X +3
m=2
c=3
Method 2 (Swap y and )
y

x 2=

3
x2
3
y
3

+2

= 3 ( ) +2

y
1
y

Y
= 3X
m=3
c=2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

+2

202

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


1(d)

Ex 8.1

Method 1 (Multiply x)
5

3y = 2x

3xy= 2x 2

xy = x 2

3
2

xy = (x 2 )
3
2

Y = X
3

2(a)

y 2 = 2x + 3
Y = 2X + 3
2

5
3
5

m=
3

2(b)

c=
3

xy = 2y 2 5
Y = 2X 5

Method 2 (Divide by x)
3y

= 2x

3( )= 2

y
x
y

3
5

= ( 2)

= X

3 x
5

3
5

x2
5
3x2
2

3(a)

3
2
3

Method 1 (Divide by x)
xy 2 = 2x
+5y
y
2
y =2
+5
x

m=

= 5 ( ) +2
x

Y = 5X +2

Log both sides


y = 10 2x
lg y = lg(10 2x )
= lg 10
+ lg 2x
=1
+x lg 2
= lg 2 (x) +1
Y = (lg 2)X +1
m = lg 2
c=1

Method 2 (Divide by y)
xy 2 = 2x
+5y
x

xy = 2 ( ) +5
y

+5

Y = 2X
3(b)

Method 1 (Divide by x)
3xy= 5y 2x
y

3y = 5 ( ) 2
y

1(f)

c=
3

1(e)

-5

x
5

Log both sides


y = 5x 7
lg y = lg(5x 7 )
= lg 5 + lg x 7
= lg 5 +7 lg x
= 7 lg x + lg 5
Y = 7X + lg 5
m=7
c = lg 5

x
5 y
3 x
5

3
2

Y = X
3

Method 2 (Divide by y)
3xy= 5y 2x
x

2 ( )

3x = 5
5

2 x

( )

= ( ) +

3 y
2 x

3 y
2

3
5

Y = X
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= ( )

sleightofmath.com

+
3

203

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(i)

Ex 8.1

5
Non-linear eqn:
(c)(ii)

= 5x 2
3
2

lg y = lg (5x )
lg y = lg 5 + lg x

= (x + y) +2

3
2

y
x

lg y = lg 5 + lg x
2

lg 5

5(a)
(i)

3
lg x + lg 5
2
lg

(0,1) (4,9)

Gradient:

m=

Y-intercept:

c=1

19
04

2+x
2x

) =

y
5
Points:
(d)(i) Gradient:

Points:

= x +2

y(
lg y =

+ y

lg

y ( + ) = x +2

lg y = lg x + lg 5 [shown]
4(ii)

= x y +2

2
x(4x)
x+2

(0, 2) (4,1)
m=

Y intercept:
Linear eqn:

=2

4x

(2)(1)
(0)(4)

3
4

3
4

c = 2
Y = mX +c
3

= ( ) X + (2)
4

= X 2
4

Linear eqn:

5(a)
(ii)

Non-linear eqn:

Y = mX + c
= 2X + 1

Y intercept:
Linear eqn:

5
Non-linear eqn:
(b)(ii)
5
Points:
(c)(i) Gradient:
Y-intercept:
Linear eqn:

A(4,5) (0,1)
(5)(1)

m = (4)(0) =

4
4

y = x 3 +

Point:

(1,3) or (2,2)

Gradient:

m=

Linear eqn:

Y Y1 = m (X X1 )
Y (3) = (1)[X (1)]
Y 3 = X
+1
Y
= X
+4

04

c=2
Y = mX

2
4

32
12

lg y = lg (

(0,2) (4,0)
=

2x

= 1

Non-linear eqn: lg y = lg x +4
lg y = lg x + lg 104

xy = x 3 + 1

20

4
3 2
x
4

= 1

c=1
Y = mX +c
= (1)X + 1
= X +1

m=

= x 2

y=

y = 2x 2 + 1
6(a)

5
Points:
(b)(i) Gradient:

5
Non-linear eqn:
(d)(ii)

y =

1
2

6(b)

+c

104

x
10 000
x

Point:

(1,3) or (3,4)

Gradient:

m=

Linear eqn:

Y Y1

34
13

1
2

1
2

= ( ) X +(2)
2

= X
2

+2

= m (X X1 )
1

Y (3) = ( ) [X (1)]
2

Non-linear eqn:

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

2
1

2
5

2
1

2
5

Y3

= X

= X+

x+y
x

= x+

x+y

2
2
1 2
5
x + x
2
2
1 2
3
x + x
2
2

204

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(i)

Ex 8.1

Method 1 (non-linear to linear)


Non-linear eqn:
y = pqx
ln y = ln(pqx )
= ln p + ln qx
= ln p +(x ln q)
= (ln q)x + ln p

8(i)

Points:

(1,8) or (4,2)

Gradient:

m = (1)(4) =

Linear eqn:

Y Y1
Y (8)
Y8
Y
(yx)

= m (X X1 )
= (2)[X (1)]
= 2X +2
= 2X +10
= 2(x) + 10

= 2x +

(8)(2)

Non-linear eqn:

Linear eqn:
Y = (ln q)X + ln p
8(ii)

y|x=16 = 216 +

Y-intercept = 2
ln p
=2
p
= e2
7.4

= 2(4) +
=
8(iii)

Gradient =
ln q

7(i)

2
3
2

m=

10

16
10
4

C(9, 8) lies on graph of yx against x

yx = 8
y(9) = 8
3y
= 8
y

=
3

9(i)

Y = X +2
2

Non-linear eqn:

Points:

(1, 3) (0,0) (1,3)

Gradient:

m = (1)(0) =

y-intercept:

c=0

Linear eqn:

Y = mX + c
= (3)X + (0)
= 3X

Non-linear eqn:

y x = 3x 3
y
= 3x 3 + x

ln y = x + 2
2

3
2

x+2
3

= e2 (e2x )
2

Equate Y(yx):

Linear eqn:
Y = mX +c

=e

Method 2 (linear to non-linear)


Point:
(0,2)
Y-intercept: c = 2

10

Equate X(x):
x=9

=e 2
0.2

Gradient:

= 2

11

6
3

= (ee 2 ) (e2 )

9(ii)

(3)(0)

=3

y|x=2 = 3(2)3 + (2) = 24 + 2 = 26

= pqx [given]
p = e2 7.4
3

q = e2 0.2
7(ii)

y = pqx
= 7.4(0.2)x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

205

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(iii)

Ex 8.1

m + 2n = 18
m
= 18 2n

11(b) y = ab1x
lg y = lg(ab1x )
= lg a
= lg a
= lg a
= lg b (x)
lg y = lg b (x)

(1)

n2 m = 17
sub (1) into (2):
n2 (18 2n) = 17
n2 + 2n 18
= 17
2
n + 2n 35
=0
(n 5)(n + 7) = 0
n=5
or
m|n=5 = 18 2(5)
=8
C(8,5)

(2)

n = 7
m|n=7 = 18 2(7)
= 32
C(32, 7)
(rej graph slopes up)

11(c) aey
= b2x
ln(aey )
= ln(b2x )
ln a + ln ey = (2x) ln b
ln a + y = 2x ln b
y
= 2x ln b
ln a
y
= 2 ln b (x) ln a
12

Equate X (x 3 ) coordinate:
x3 = 8
x =2
Equate Y (y x) coordinate:
yx
=5
y (2)= 5
y
=7
10(i)

Gradient:

m=

Linear eqn:

Y Y1 = m(X X1 )
Y (10) = 3 [X (3)]
Y 10 = 3X 9
Y
= 3X + 1

Non-linear eqn:

y|x= 1 = 3 ( )
2

=
=
=
=
11(a) x

yb =

3
2
3

2
32

2
32+1
2

18
6

=3

1
x

= 3x + x 2
1

+( )

+
2

= 3( ) + 1

x2

y
10(ii)

m=q
c = lg p

(3,10) or (9,28)
(3)(9)

y = p(x + 1)q
lg y = lg[p(x + 1)q ]
= lg p
+ lg(x + 1)q
= q lg(x + 1) + lg p
= q lg(x + 1) + lg p
Plot lg y against lg(x + 1)

Point:

(10)(28)

+ lg b1x
+[(1 x) lg b]
+ lg b lg b (x)
+ lg a + lg b
+ lg ab

+
+

1
2
1
2
1
2

a
yb
a
x
a

= +b

= a( ) + b

1
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

206

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(i)

Method 1 (non-linear to linear)


Non-linear eqn:
ax
y
=

Ex 8.1
14(i)

xb

yx yb = ax
yx
= yb +ax
y
y
= (b) +a
x

Point:

A(3,1) or B (8,3 )
2

Gradient:

mAB =

Linear eqn:

Y Y1

Linear eqn:
Y = bX +a

Non-linear eqn:

1
2

= m (X X1 )
3

2
1

2
1

Y1

= X

= X
1 1

2 x
1

xy

= ( )

2xy

= 1 (shown)
x

4y

2
1
8

(1)

y=x

2(2)y = 1

14(iii) 2xy = 1 1
2

(2)

sub (2) into (1):

Linear eqn:
Y = mX +c
= 3X +2

2x(x 2 )

= 1

2x 3

= 1

x
1
x

2x 4
=1x
4
2x + x 1 = 0

Non linear eqn:


y

= 3 ( ) +2
x

3y

let f(x) 2x 4 + x 1
f(1) = 2(1)4 + (1) 1
=0
x = 1

=2

x
3

y (1 ) = 2
x

y(

14(ii) when x = 2,

Y-intercept = 2
a
= 2

5
2

Method 2 (linear to non-linear)


Gradient: m = 3
Y-intercept: c = 2

Gradient = 3
b
=3

(3)(8)

Y (1) = ( ) [X (3)]

= (b) +a

1
2

(1)(3 )

x3

=2
=
=

2x
x3
ax
xb

a=2
b=3
13(ii) y =

2x
x3

x=y

(1)
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


(x)

2x
x3

x 2 3x = 2x
x 2 5x = 0
x(x 5) = 0
x = 0 or x = 5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

207

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 8.1

He connected the dots with a straight which is not


necessarily the correct shape as verified by the
graphing calculator

= 7 14 5 + 49 3 35

y|x=4 = 5044 4
(4, 4) does not lie on graph
y|x=4 = 5044 4
(4,4) does not lie on graph

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

208

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 8.2

Ex 8.2
1(i)

Linearization
y = ax 2 + b
x2
y

1(ii)

1
4
9 16 25
6.2 5.6 4.6 3.2 1.4

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,6.4)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (20,2.4)
Gradient

(6.4)(2.4)
(0)(20)
1

Y intercept 6.4
b
6.4

2(i)

Linearization
1
y

= ax + b
x
1
y

2(ii)

0.40 0.90 1.41 1.89 2.38

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 0.1)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (4.5,2.15)
Gradient
a

(0.1)(2.15)
(0)(4.5)

0.50

Y intercept 0.1
b
0.1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

209

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y
= ax 2 + x b
y x = ax 2 b
1
4
9 16 25
x2
y x 40.5 36 28.5 18 4.5

3(ii)

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,42)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (20,12)
Gradient

(42)(12)
(0)(20)

1.5

Y intercept 42
b
42
b
42
4(i)

Linearization
a

N
a

=4
=

N
1

N
1

+4

t
b
at
b 1

= ( ) +

1
t
1
N

4(ii)

4
a
4
a

1.00 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.20


0.75 0.99 1.09 1.12 1.15

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.25)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.88,0,80)
Gradient

b
a

(1.25)(0.80)
(0)(0.88)

0.51

(1)

Y intercept 1.25
4

1.25

3.2

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


b
3.2

0.51
1.6

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

210

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
xy = h(x + k)
xy = hx + hk
hk

=h+

= hk ( ) + h

x
1
x

1
x

5.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 1.00

y 5.25 3.38 2.75 2.44 2.23


5(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (4,4.5)
Gradient
hk

(1.5)(4.5)
(0)(4)

0.75

Y intercept 1.5
h
1.5

(1)

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


(1.5)k 0.75
k
0.5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

211

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y

= ax +

b
x

xy = ax 2 + b
x 2 0.25 1.00 2.25 4.00
xy 7.3
6.8
6
4.8
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(7.3)(4.8)

(7.3) [(0.25)(4.00)] (0.25)


7.47
Domain = [0,4]
X-interval =

(4)(0)
10

= 0.4 0.25

X scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


Range

= [4.8,7.47]

Y-interval =
6(ii)

(7.47)(4.8)
12

0.23 0.2

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.2 units


Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,7.5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3,5.48)
Gradient =
a

(7.5)(5.48)
(0)(3)

0.67

Y intercept 7.5
b
7.5
6(iii) Substitution
y 0.67x +

7.5
x

y|x=1.7 0.67(1.7) +

7.5
1.7

3.3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

212

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y = ax 2 + bx
y
= ax + b
x

x
y
x

7(ii)

1.6 3.6 5.6 7.6

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 0.4)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3.7,7)
Gradient

(0.4)(7)
(0)(3.7)

Y intercept 0.4
b
0.4
7(iii)

Intersection

Put = 2, = 0.4 into = + ,

= 2 0.4

2 2 0.4 = 10
2 0.4

=
=

x
y
x

2.0

2.5

10

10

3.0

3.5

4 .0

5.00 4.00 3.33 2.86 2.50

Intersection Pt (2.35,4.3)
X 2.35

2.35

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

213

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
P

En
R

ln P = ln

En
R

ln P = ln E n ln R
ln P = n ln E ln R
ln E 1.61 2.30 2.89 3.00 3.22 3.40
ln P 0.92 2.30 3.48 3.69 4.14 4.50
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(0.92)(4.50)

(0.92) [(1.61)(3.40)] (1.61)


2.3
Domain = [0,3.4]
X-interval =

(3.4)(0)
10

= 0.34 0.25

X scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


Range

= [2.3,4.5]

Y-interval =
8(ii)

(4.5)(2.3)
12

0.57 0.5

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


The graph produces a straight line
true

8(iii) Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 2.3)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3.25,4.2)
Gradient
n

(2.3)(4.2)
(0)(3.25)

Y intercept 2.3
ln R
2.3
R
10.0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

214

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(i)

Linearization
f = kn
lg f = lg[kn ]
= lg k + lg n
= lg k +n lg
= n(lg ) + lg k
lg 2.40 2.67 2.81 3.08 3.18
lg f 3.08 2.81 2.67 2.40 2.30

9(ii)

Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 5.48)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3,2.48)
Gradient =
n

Ex 8.2

(5.48)(2.48)
(0)(3)

Y intercept = 5.48
lg k
= 5.48
k
301 995
9(iii) Intersection
kn = 102.5n

= 102.5
lg = 2.5

= 2.5

= 2.5
= 1
Intersection Pt (2.97,2.5)
X = 2.97
lg = 2.97

933

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

215

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y

= Cx +

D
x

xy = Cx 2 + D
x 2 0.04 0.16 0.36 0.64
xy 1.55 1.69 1.93 2.27
10(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.6,2.22)
Gradient
C

(1.5)(2.22)
(0)(0.6)

1.2

Y intercept 1.5
D
1.5
10(ii) Intersection
Cx 2 + D = 2

=2
Intersection Pt (0.42, 2):
X 0.42
x 2 0.42
x 0.65

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

216

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
yx
= kx n
lg(y x) = lg(kx n )
= lg k + lg x n
= lg k + n lg x
= n lg x + lg k
lg x
0.30 0.48 0.60 0.70 0.78
lg(y x) 1.00 1.26 1.45 1.59 1.71
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.00)(1.71)

(1.00) [(0.30)(0.78)] (0.30)


0.56
Domain = [0,0.78]
X-interval =

0.780
10

= 0.078 0.05

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.05 units


= [0.56,1.71]

Range

Y-interval =

(1.71)(0.56)
12

0.096

0.05
Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.05 units
11(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,0.55)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.68,1.56)
Gradient =
n

(0.55)(1.56)
(0)(0.68)

1.5

Y intercept 0.55
lg k
0.55
k
3.5
11(iii) Substitution
= 3.5 1.5
(1)
= + 4.5
(2)
(2) (1):
( + 4.5) = 3.5 1.5
4.5
= 3.5 1.5
9
7

= 1.5
1.18

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

217

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
y = Aebx
ln y = ln[Aebx ]
= ln A + ln ebx
= ln A bx
= bx + ln A
x 1 2 3 4 5 6
ln y 2.59 2.29 1.99 1.69 1.39 1.10
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(2.59) [

(2.59)(1.10)
(1)(6)

] (1)

2.89
Domain = [0,6]
X-interval =

(6)(0)
10

= 0.6 0.5

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


= [1.10,2.89]

Range

Y-interval =

(2.89)(1.10)
12

0.15 0.1

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.1 units


12(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,2.88)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (5.8,1.16)
Gradient
b
b

(2.88)(1.16)
(0.2)(5.8)

0.307
0.3

Y intercept 2.88
ln A
2.88
A
18
12(iii) Substitution
y = (18)e(0.3)x
= 18e0.3x
At y = 6:
6 = 18e0.3x
1

= e0.3x

3
1

ln = 0.3x
3

ln

1
3

0.3

3.66

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

218

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 8.2

13(i) Linearization
y=a+

b
x

= b( ) + a

Plot y against
1
x

1
x

2.50 0.59 0.50 0.39 0.31 0.25 0.20

Y -0.5 0.8 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.75 1.8


Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(0.5)(1.8)

(0.5) [(2.50)(0.20)] (2.50)


2
Domain = [0,2.5]
X-interval =

(2.5)(0)
(10)

= 0.25 0.25

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


Range

= [0.5,2]

Y-interval =

(2)(0.5)
12

0.21 0.2

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.2 units


13
Correction
(ii)(a) Abnormal reading: y = 0.8 (2nd data)

Correct reading:y 1.4


13
Gradient & Y-intercept
(ii)(b) (X1 , Y1 ) = (0,2)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (2,0)
(2)(0)

gradient (0)(2)
b

Y intercept = 2.0
a
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

219

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14(i)

Ex 8.2

Linearization
T
= kx n
ln T = ln(kx n )
= ln k + ln x n
= ln k +n ln x
= n ln x + ln k
ln x
ln T

4.06
-1.43

4.68
-0.48

5.43
0.63

6.66
2.47

7.26
3.38

Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.43)(3.38)

(1.43) [ (4.06)(7.26) ] (4.06)


7.53
Domain = [0,7.26]
X-interval =

(7.26)(0)
10

0.73 0.5

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


Range

= [7.53,3.38]

Y-interval =

(3.38)(7.53)
12

0.91 0.5

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


14(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 7.5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (5,0)
Gradient
n

(7.5)(0)
(0)(5)

1.5

Y intercept 7.5
ln k
7.5
k
5.5 104
14(iii) Substitution
Put 1.5, 5.5 104 = ,
T = (5.5 104 )(x)1.5
149.6 106 km = 149.6 million km
T|149.6 = (5.5 104 )(149.6)1.5
1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

220

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 8.2

15(i) The graph shows an upward sloping


curve instead of a line.

15(ii) Linearization
Plot P against ln t
P = a ln t + b
[P] = a[ln t] + b
ln t 0.00 0.69 1.61 2.30 2.71 3.00 3.40
P 30 42 50 65 73 77 85
Scale (optional)
c = 30
Domain = [0,3.4]
X-interval =

(3.4)(0)
10

= 0.34 0.25

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


Range

= [30,85]

Y-interval =

(85)(30)
12

4.58 2.5

Y-scale: 1 cm to 2.5 units


15(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0.9, 44)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3.2, 80)
(44)(80)

Gradient = (0.9)(3.2)
a

15.7

Y intercept 30
b
30
15(iii) Substitution
P = 15.7 ln t + 30
P = 95:
(95)
= 15.7 ln t + 30
15.7 ln t
= 65
ln t 4.15
t 63.6s

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

221

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(i)

Ex 8.2

Quadratic eqn
y = ax 2 + bx
y
= ax + b
x

Plot

y
x

against x

x 2 3
4
5
6
7
y
9 11 13 15 17 19
x

Exponential eqn
y = khx
lg y = lg k
+ lg hx
= x lg h + lg k
= lg h (x) + lg k
Plot

y
x

x
lg y

against x
2
3
4
5
6
7
1.26 1.52 1.72 1.88 2.01 2.12

By inspection, Quadratic equation fits better


16(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,5)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (6.5,18)
(5)(18)

Gradient (0)(6.5)
a

Y intercept = 5
b
=5
16(iii) Substitution
y
= 2x 2 + 5x
y|x=4.5 = 2(4.5)2 + 5(4.5)
= 63
16(iv) No.
x = 1 is outside the data range and thus the computed
value is not reliable.

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

222

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17

Ex 8.2

Quadratic Equation
It is the only one among the 3 that has a turning point
to fit the data given that increases then decreases.

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

223

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 8
A2

Rev Ex 8
A1(a) Points:

m=

Y-intercept:
Linear eqn:
Non-linear eqn:

(0,5) (6,1)

Gradient:

51
06

2
3

= X+

Gradient = 0.75
a

= 0.75

) =5

= ( )+

2xy

=5
3

b x

Linear eqn:

=5
2x

2
b
2

3
2
3

y (1 +

a 1

b x
a 1

= ( ) +

= xy + 5

y+

= +2

y
1

= mX + c
= X+5

2xy

y
1

+ =2

x
b

c=5
Y

Method 1 (linear)
Non-linear eqn:

5
2
1+ x
3

15
3+2x

= 0.75b

Y intercept = 0.5

= 0.5

A1(b) Points:
Gradient:

A(1,1) or B(2,7)
mAB =

Linear eqn:

Y Y1
Y (1)
Y1
Y
Non-linear eqn: (lg y)
lg y
lg y
y

17
(1)2

6
(3)

(1)

= 4

b
=2

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


a|b=4 = 0.75(4)
=3

= m(X X1 )
= 2[X (1)]
= 2X + 2
= 2X + 3
= 2(lg x) + 3
= lg x 2 + lg 103
= lg 1000x 2
= 1000 x 2

Method 2 (non-linear)
Gradient:
m = 0.75
Y intercept: c = 0.5
Linear eqn:
Y = mX +c
0.75X 0.5
Non-linear eqn:
1

( )

= 0.75 ( ) 0.5

3
x
a
x

0.75

x
4
y
b
y

1
y

0.75
x

0.5

= 0.5
=2
=2

a=3
b = 4
A3

y = ax + b
y 2 = ax + b
Plot y 2 against x
gradient = a
y 2 intercept = b

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

224

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 8

A4(i) Linearization
y = Aebt
ln y = ln(Aebt )
= ln A + ln ebt
= ln A + [(bt) ln e]
= bt + ln A
= bt + ln A
t
1
2
3
4
5
ln y 2.50 1.95 1.39 0.83 0.26
A4(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0, 3.06)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (4.3, 0.65)
Gradient =
b
b

(3.06)(0.65)
(0)(4.3)

0.56
0.56

Y intercept 3.06
ln A
3.06
A
21.3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

225

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5(i)

1
u
1
v

Rev Ex 8

0.050 0.040 0.033 0.025 0.020


0.050 0.059 0.067 0.077 0.080

A5(ii) Linearization
1
u
1
u

+ =

1
v

1
f

Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(0.05)(0.08)

(0.05) [(0.05)(0.02)] (0.05)


0.1
Domain = [0,0.05]
X-interval =

(0.05)(0)
10

= 0.005 0.005

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.005 units


Range

= [0.05,0.1]

Y-interval =

(0.1)(0.05)
12

0.0042

0.0025
Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.0025 units
2 cm to 0.005 units
Gradient & Y-intercept
Y intercept = 0.10
1
f

= 0.10
10

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

226

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A6(i)

Rev Ex 8

Linearization
xm yn
lg(x m y n )
lg x m + lg y n
m lg x + n lg y
n lg y

= 200
= lg 200
= lg 200
= lg 200
= m lg x + lg 200

lg y

m
n

lg x +

lg 200
n

lg x 0.00 0.48 0.70 0.86


lg y 1.15 0.43 0.10 -0.12
Scale (optional)
c = 1.15
Domain = [0,0.86]
X-interval =

(0.86)(0)
10

= 0.086 0.05

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.05 units


Range

= [0.12,1.15]

Y-interval =

(1.15)(0.12)
12

0.11 0.1

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.1 units


A6(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept
(X1 , Y1 ) = (0.1,1.0)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.78,0)
(1.0)(0)

Gradient = (0.1)(0.78)

m
n

1.47

(1)

Y intercept = 1.15
lg 200
n

= 1.15
2

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


m

1.47
2

m
3
A6(iii) Substitution
x 3 y 2 = 200
y = 10:
x 3 (10)2 = 200
x3
=2
x
1.26

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

227

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B1(i)

Rev Ex 8

Method 1 (linear)
Non-linear eqn:
y
1
y
1
y

=
=

B1(i)

Method 2 (non-linear)
Points:
A(10,1) B(0, 4) C(r, 2)
Gradient:

2x+k
2x+k

(1)(4)
(10)(0)

1
2

Y intercept: c = 4

h
2

= ( )x +

Linear eqn:
Y = mX +c
1

Linear eqn:
2

Y = X+

m =

= X 4
2

Non-linear eqn:
1

At A(10,1):
2

1 = (10)
1 =

h
20+k

k
h

At B(0, 4):
k

h
k

= (0) +

2
x

2
x8

2
2
x8
4
2x16
h
2x+k

h=4
k = 16

4h = k

(1)

y
1

h = 20 + k

= (x) 4

y
1

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


4(20 + k) = k
80 4k
=k
80
= 5k
k
= 16

B1(ii) C(r, 2) lies on Y = 1 X 4.

Put k = 16 into (1):


h = 20 + (16) = 4

B2(a) y =

(2) = (r) 4
2

1
2

=4

x
y

=2

x
px+q

= px + q

B2(b) y = pqx
lg y = lg(pqx )
= lg p
+ lg qx
= lg p
+(x) lg q
= lg q (x) + lg p

B2(c) ey = px 2 qx
ey
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

= px q

228

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B3(i)

Rev Ex 8

Linearization
axy b = a(x 2 + bx)
axy b = ax 2 + abx
axy ax 2 = abx + b
a(xy x 2 ) = abx + b
xy x 2

= bx

x
1
2
3.00
xy x
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1

b
a

2
1.00

3
-0.99

4
-3.00

(3)(3)

(3) [ (1)(4) ] (1)


5
Domain = [0,4]
(4)(0)

X-intercept =

10

= 0.4 0.25

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.25 units


2 cm to 0.5 units
Range

= [3,5]
(5)(3)

Y-intercept =

12

0.67 0.5

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


B3
Graphical Reading
(ii)(a) x = 1.5
X = 1.5
Pt (1.5,2.0)
Y
xy x 2
(1.5)y (1.5)2
y

=2
=2
=2
2.83

B3(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,5)
(b)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (3.5, 2)
(5)(2)

Gradient = (0)(3.5)
2

(1)

Y intercept = 5
b

=5

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(2)
a

=5
= 0.4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

229

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B4(i)

Rev Ex 8

Linearization
y = Kax
lg y = lg(Kax )
= lg K + (lg ax )
= lg K + (x) lg a
= lg a (x) + lg K
x 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
lg y 1.19 0.99 0.79 0.48 0.38 0.18 -0.05

B4
Graphical reading
(ii)(a) Flawed reading
y = 3.0 (4th data)
Correct reading
Y 0.59
lg y 0.59
y 3.89
B4
Gradient & Y-intercept
(ii)(b) (X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.4)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (6.9,0)
(0)(1.4)

Gradient = (6.9)(0)
lg a
a

= 0.2
1.58

Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.19) [

Y intercept = 1.4
lg K
= 1.4
K
= 101.4
= 25.1

(1.19)(0.05)
(1)(7)

] (1)

1.38
Domain = [0,7]
X-interval =

(7)(0)
10

= 0.7 0.5

X-scale: 1 cm to 0.5 units


B4
Graphical Reading
(ii)(c) y = 10
lg y = 1
Y =1

Range

= [0.05,1.38]

Y-interval =

(1.38)(0.05)
12

0.12 0.1

Y-scale: 1 cm to 0.1 unit

Point (2,1)
X =2
x =2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

230

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5(i)

Rev Ex 8

Linearization
y = ln(ax 2 + b)
ey = ax 2 + b
x2
ey

0.04 0.16 0.36 0.64 1.00


1.38 1.62 2.02 2.58 3.30

B5(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept


(X1 , Y1 ) = (0,1.3)
(X 2 , Y2 ) = (0.9,3.1)
Gradient
a

(1.3)(3.1)
(0)(0.9)

Y intercept 1.3
b
1.3
B5
Graphical Reading
(iii)(a) y = ln 3
ey = 3
Y =3
Pt (0.85,3)
X = 0.85
x 0.92
B5
Graphical Reading
(iii)(b) x = 0.1
x 2 = 0.01
X = 0.01
Pt (0.01,1.32)
Y 1.32
y 0.28

Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.38) [
1.3
Domain

(0.04)(1)

] (0.04)

= [0,1]

X-interval =

(1)(0)
10

= 0.1 0.1

X-scale:

1 cm to 0.1 units

Range

= [1.3,3.3]

Y-interval =
Y-scale:

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(1.38)(3.30)

(3.3)(1.3)
12

0.17 0.1

1 cm to 0.1 units

sleightofmath.com

231

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 8

B6(i) Linearization
P
= kc t
lg p = lg(kc t )
= lg k
+ lg c t
= lg k
+t lg c
= lg c (t) + lg k
t
1
2
3
4
5
lg P 1.14 1.40 1.67 1.93 2.20
Scale (optional)
Y1 = mX1 + c
c = Y1 mX1
(1.14) [

(1.14)(2.20)

] (1)

(1)(5)

0.88
= [0,5]

Domain

X-interval =

(5)(0)
10

= 0.5 0.5

X-scale:

1 cm to 0.5 units

Range

= [0.88,2.2]

Y-interval =
Y-scale:

(2.2)(0.88)
12

0.11 0.1

1 cm to 0.1 units

B6(ii) Gradient & Y-intercept


(x1 , y1 ) = (0,0.87)
(x2 , y2 ) = (3.5, 1.8)
Gradient =
lg c
c

(0.87)(1.8)
(0)(3.5)

= 0.27
1.86

Y intercept = 0.87
lg k
= 0.87
k
7.41
B6(iii) Substitution
P = (7.41)(1.86)t
P|t=10 = (7.41)(1.86)10
3.7 103

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

232

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.1
1(c)

Ex 9.1
1(a)

1(b)

x
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
y 3.16 2.83 2.45 2.00 1.41 0

y 2 = 4x for 0 x 5
x
0
1
2
3
y
0
2 2.83 3.46
Line of symmetry: y = 0

y 2 = 2x for 5 x 0

4
4

5
4.47

Line of symmetry: y = 0

y 2 = 0.5x for 0 x 10
x
y

0
1
2
3
4
0 0.71 1.00 1.22 1.41

5
6
7
8
9
10
1.58 1.73 1.87 2.00 2.12 2.24
Line of symmetry: y = 0

2(i)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

(2,4) lies on y 2 = 4ax,


(4)2 = 4a(2)
16 = 8a
a
=2

233

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(ii)

Ex 9.1

y 2 = 4(2)x
= 8x

4(i)

Points A & B
At A & B, y = 2x + 4 meets y = x 2 4,
2x + 4
= x2 4
x 2 2x 8
=0
(x + 2)(x 4) = 0
x = 2
or x = 4
y|x=2 = 2(2) + 4
y|x=4 = 2(4) + 4
=0
= 12
A(2,0)
B(4,12)

4(ii)

Length of AB

x 0
1
2
3
4
5
y 0 2.83 4 4.90 5.66 6.32

|AB| = [(2) 4]2 + (0 12)2


= 36 + 144
= 180
= 36 5
= 65
5(i)

Line & Curve


y 2 = 2x 1
y = mx

(1)
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


(mx)2
= 2x 1
2 2
m x 2x + 1 = 0

Discriminant
For line & curve to meet at one point:
b2 4ac
=0
(2)2 4m2 (1) = 0
4 4m2
=0
2
m 1
=0
(m + 1)(m 1) = 0
m = 1 or m = 1

2y = x + 3
y

= x+

(1)

y 2 = 2x + 3
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
1

3 2

2
3

2
1

4
3

( x+ )
1 2
x
4
1 2
x
4
2

= 2x + 3

+ x+
x

= 2x + 3

5(ii)

=0

x 2x 3 = 0
(x + 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1
or x = 3
1

y|x=1 = (1) +
=1
(1,1)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

y|x=3 = (3) +
=3
(3,3)

sleightofmath.com

Point ( = )
y 2 = 2x 1 (1)
y = x
(2)

Point ( = )
y 2 = 2x 1
(1)
y=x
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


(x)2
= 2x 1
2
x 2x + 1 = 0
(x 1)2
=0
x=1
y|x=1 = 1
(1, 1)

sub (2) into (1):


x2
= 2x 1
2
x 2x + 1 = 0
x 2 2x + 1 = 0
(x 1)2
=0
x=1
y|x=1 = 1
(1, 1)

234

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

y2 = x + 4

Ex 9.1
7(i)

x -4 -3 -2
-1
0
y 0 1 1.41 1.73 2

x 5
6
7
8
y 5.48 6.00 6.48 6.93

x
1
2
3
4
5
6
y 2.24 2.45 2.65 2.83 3 3.16

6(ii)

6(iii)

4x 2 13x
= 5
2
4x 12x + 9 = x + 4
(2x 3)2
=x+4

y 2 = 6x
x 0 1
2
3
4
y 0 2.45 3.46 4.24 4.90

7(ii)

y>3
x > 1.5

7(iii)

4x 2 10x + 1 = 0
4x 2 4x + 1 = 6x
(2x 1)2
= 6x
2
(2x 1)
= y2
y
= (2x 1)
Draw y = 2x 1:

4x 13x = 5
(2x 3)2 = x + 4
(2x 3)2 = y 2
y
= (2x 3)
Draw y = 2x 3 or y = 2x + 3
x = 0.45 or 2.8

x = 0.1 or 2.4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

235

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(i)

Ex 9.1

Points A and B

10(i)
2

At A and B, y = x + meets y = 2x 1:
x

x+

= 2x 1

x1

=0

x2 x 2
=0
(x + 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1
or
y|x=1 = 2(1) 1
= 3
B(1, 3)
8(ii)

x=2
y|x=2 = 2(2) 1
=3
A(2,3)

Points A and B
At A and B, y 2 = 3x meets y = 6 x
(6 x)2
= 3x
2
x 12x + 36 = 3x
x 2 15x + 36 = 0
(x 3)(x 12) = 0
x=3
or x = 12
y|x=3 = 6 (3)
y|x=12 = 6 (12)
=3
= 6
A(3,3)
B(12, 6)

10(ii) Area of triangle OMB


1

Area of triangle PAB


P(5,0) A(2,3) B(1, 3)

Area of OMB = (Area of OAB)


2
1 1

0 12 3 0
|
0 6 3 0
= [0 + 36 + 0 0 (18) 0]
= |
2 2
1

Area of PAB
1 5
= |
2 0

2
3

1
3

5
|
0

4
1

= (54)
4

= [15 + (6) + 0 0 (3) (15)]

= 13 unit 2

= [9 (18)]

11(i)

=
9(i)

27
2

unit 2

Points A & B
1

At A & B, y = meets y = 2x + 1:
x

= 2x + 1

1
= 2x 2 + x
2x 2 + x 1
=0
(x + 1)(2x 1) = 0
x = 1

or x =

y|x=1 =

1
(1)

y|x=1 =
2

= 1
B(1, 1)
9(ii)

Points A & B
At A & B, y 2 = 12 2x meets y = 2 x
(2 x)2
= 12 2x
2
x 4x + 4
= 12 2x
2
x 2x 8
=0
(x + 2)(x 4) = 0
x = 2
or
x=4
y|x=2 = 2 (2)
y|x=4 = 2 (4)
=4
= 2
A(2,4)
B(4, 2)

11(ii) bisector of AB

1
( )
2

AB bisector of AB

=2
1

A ( , 2)
2

Point:

Point M
At M, y = 2x + 1 cuts y-axis (x = 0):
y|x=0 = 1
M(0,1)

MAB = (

(2)+4 4+(2)

Gradient: mAB =
=

2
1

mAB
1
6
)
6

) = (1,1)

1
(4)(2)
((2)(4))

=1

Ratio :
1

AB :

Recall A ( , 2) M(0,1) B(1, 1)


2

By similar triangles (using x-coordinates)


1

AM: MB = ( 0) : [0 (1)]

y y1 = m (x x1 )
y 1 = (1)(x 1)
y1 =x1
y=x

1
2

=1

:1
:2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

236

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

Ex 9.1

Points A & B
At A & B, y = x 2 + x 2 meets y = 2x
x2 + x 2
= 2x
2
x x2
=0
(x + 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1
or x = 2
y|x=1 = 2(1)
y|x=2 = 2(2)
= 2
=4
B(1, 2)
A(2,4)

13(i)

A(2, 4) lies on y = x + k:
4 = 2 + k
k = 6
Point B
At B, y = x 6 meets y 2 = 8x
(x 6)2
= 8x
2
x 12x + 36 = 8x
x 2 20x + 36 = 0
(x 2)(x 18) = 0
x = 2 or x = 18
(taken) y|x=18 = (18) 6
= 12

12(ii) Length of AB
|AB| = [(1) 2]2 + [(2) 4]2
= 9 + 36
= 45

13(ii) bisector of AB

= 9 5
= 35 units

Recall A(2, 4) B(18,12)

12(iii)
Recall A(2,4) B(1, 2) C(3,4) |AB| = 35

AB bisector of AB
Point:

F Foot of from C to AB
|CF| distance from C to AB

MAB = (

2+18 (4)+12
2

Gradient: mAB =
Equating Area of ABC:
1
2
1
2

(base)(height) = area by shoelace formula


|AB||CF|

|AB||CF|
35 |CF|
35 |CF|
|CF|

3 1 2
|
4 2 4
2 3 1 2
|
=|
4 4 2 4
8 + 6 + (4)
]
=[
(12) (4) (4)
1

= |
2

2
4

AB :

1
mAB
1
16
(
)
16

) = (10,4)
1

(4)(12)
( (2)(18) )

= 1

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
y (4)= (1) [x (10)]
y 4 = x + 10
y
= x + 14

= 30
=
=
=

30
35
10
5
105
5

= 25

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

237

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14(i)

Ex 9.1

Points A & B
At A & B, y 2 = 2x 3 meets 2x + 3y = 7
y 2 = 2x 3
(1)

14(iii) distance from P to AB


F Foot of from P to AB
|PF| = distance from P to AB

2x + 3y = 7
3y
= 2x + 7
y

Area of PAB =
1

= x+

2
1

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


( x + )
3
4 2
x
9
4 2
x
9
2

= 2x 3

28
9
46
9

x+
x+

|AB||PF|

2
1 513

7 2

(base)(height) =

49

) |PF|

|PF|

= 2x 3

9
76

=
=

=0

2x 23x + 38 = 0
(x 2)(2x 19) = 0
x=2

or
2

y|x=2 = (2) +

x=

15
19
2
2 19

y|x=19 = ( ) +
2

=1

= 4

A(2,1)

B ( , 4)

35
2
35
2
35
2
35
2
14
13
14
13

units

13 units

Point B
B(b1 , b2 ) lies on y 2 = 2x:
(b2 )2 = 2b1
1

= (b2 )2

b1

B ( (b2 )2 , b2 )
2

19
2

Midpoint of AB
1

Length of AB

A(2,6) B ( (b2 )2 , b2 )
2

19 2

|AB| = (2

) + [1

2+ (b2 )2 6+b2
2

(4)]2

MAB = (

325

513
2

= (x, y)

52 13

x=

1
2

2+ (b2 )2
2

[shown]
y =

14(ii) Area of triangle PAB

6+b2
2

2y = 6 + b2
b2 = 2y 6
(2)
sub (2) into (1):

19

P(6,3) A(2,1) B ( , 4)
2

19

1 6 2
6
2
|
Area of PAB = |
2
3 1 4 3
1
57
19
= [6 + (8) +
6
2

(24)]

1
2

2+ (2y6)2

= 1 + (2y 6)2

= 1 + (4y 2 24y + 36)

2
1
4
1
4

x = 1 + (y 2 6y + 9)
x = y 2 6y + 10
0 = y 2 6y x + 10
y 2 6y x + 10 = 0

= (35)
2

= 17 unit 2
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(1)

sleightofmath.com

238

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(i)

Ex 9.1

Point P
P(a, b) lies in y 2 = 8x:
b2 = 8a
b = 8a or b = 8a (rej b > 0)

17(ii) Line AC
Point:

P(a, 8a)

A(0,2at) or C(at 2 , 2at)

Gradient:

mAC =

AC:

y y1

(2at)(2at)

(0)(at2 )

4at
at2

4
t

= m(x x1 )
4

y (2at) = [x (0)]
Length of PF
P(a, 8a) F(2,0)

y
2

PF = (a 2)2

+ (8a)

( x + 2at)
t
16 2
x
t2
16 2
x
t2
2

= (a2 4a + 4) + 8a
=

= x + 2at
t

Another point of intersection


At point where AC meets y 2 = 4ax

+ (8a 0)

= (a 2)2
a2

t
4

+ 4a + 4
2)2

= (a +
= a + 2 units
16(ii) Length of PQ
PQ = (x coordinate of P) (x coordinate of Q)
=a
(2)
=a+2
PF = PQ [shown]
16(iii) Area of triangle PQF
P(a, 8a) PQ = a + 2

= 4ax

16ax + 4a2 t 2

= 4ax

20ax + 4a2 t 2

=0

16x 20at 2 x + 4a2 t 4 = 0


4x 2 5at 2 x + a2 t 4
=0
(4x at 2 )(x at 2 )
=0
x=
y|

at2

or

at2
x=
4

4 at2

= (
t

x = at 2 (taken)

) + 2at

= at + 2at
= at
Another point of intersection (

at2
4

, at)

Area of PQF = (base)(height)


2
1

= (PQ) (y coordinate of P)
2
1

= (a + 2)(8a)
2
1

= (a + 2)(4 2a)
2
1

= (a + 2)22a
2

= (a + 2)2a
17(i)

D(at 2 , 2at)
2 = 4

A(0,2at)

B(0, 2at)

C(at 2 , 2at)

A(0,2at), B(0, 2at) & C(at 2 , 2at)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

239

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.1

17(iii) A(0,2at)

18(i)

l2 : y = x
l1 l2

2
2 1 C(at , 2at)
= OA

OM
+AM
2

= OA
+
AC

OA
)
+ (OC
3
2

= OA

+ OC
3
2

2 =

0
) + ( at )
3 2at
2at

=(

3
2

= OA
= (

at 2
2

at

19(i)

= (2.2)2 + 12

= 5.84
2.416609195

Method 2
Let M be (xm , ym )

MC

Distance in km
= (2.416609195)(93 106 )(1.609)
361 106
3.61 108

2
1

x coordinates
xm xa
=2
xc xm
x1 0

y coordinates
ym ya
=2
yc ym
y1 2at

=2

at2 x1

2aty1

=2

3x1

= 2at 2 2x1 y1 2at = 4at


2y1
2
3y1
= 2at
= 2at

x1

= at 2

x1

3
2

S(0.1,0) C(2.3,1)
|SC| = [(0.1) (2.3)]2 + [(0) (1)]2

M ( at , at)

AM

OA

+ OC

1
3
1

18(ii)

2+1
2

= OA

l1 : y 2 = x
y = x

y1

= at
3

M ( at , at)
3

17(iv) Line (through M and )


A(0,2at) B(0, 2at) C(at 2 , 2at) D(at 2 , 2at)
2

Point:

M ( at 2 , at)

Gradient:

m =
=

Line:

mAC
1
(

4at
)
at2

1
(2at)(2at)
(
)
(0)(at2 )

4
t

t
4

= m(x x1 )

y y1
2

4
t

4
t

6
1

y ( at) = [x ( at 2 )]
2

y + at

= x at 3

= x at 3 at

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

240

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.1

19(ii) S(0.1,0) C(c1 , c2 )


C(c1 , c2 ) lies on x = 2.3y 2
c1 = 2.3(c2 )2
C(2.3(c2 )2 , c2 )
|SC| = [(0.1) (2.3(c2 )2 )]2 + (c2 )2
= [2.3(c2 )2 0.1]2 + (c2 )2
= [5.29(c2 )4 0.46(c2 )2 + 0.01] + (c2 )2
= 5.29(c2 )4 + (0.54)(c2 )2 + 0.01
f(c2 ) = 5.29(c2 )4 + (0.54)(c2 )2 + 0.01
f(c2 )=

21.16(c2 )3 +(1.08)(c2 )
25.29(c2 )4 +(0.54)(c2 )2 +0.01

Minimum |SC|
f (c2 )
=0
21.16(c2 )3 +(1.08)(c2 )
25.29(c2 )4 +(0.54)(c2 )2 +0.01
21.16(c2 )3 + (1.08)(c2 )
c2 (21.16c 2 + 1.08)

=0
=0
=0

c2 = 0
Sign Test
c2
0 0 0+
f(c2 ) sign 0 +
f(c2 ) is minimum
1 AU = 93 million miles
= 93 106 miles
= 93 106 [1.609] km
= 93 106 [1.609][103 ]m
= 93 106 [1609] m
d = |SC||c

2 =0

f(0)

93 106 [1609]

93 106 [1609]

[0.01] 93 106 [1609]


1.49637 1010
V=

k
d

1.171010
1.496371010

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

95645ms 1

sleightofmath.com

241

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.2
2(a)

Ex 9.2
1(a)

1(b)

Centre (0,1)
Radius: r = 4
Circle: (x a)2 +(y b)2 = r 2
(x 0)2 + (y 1)2 = 42

Comparing coefficients:
2g = 2
2f = 10
g=1
f = 5

Radius: r = f 2 + g 2 c = (5)2 + 12 1 = 4

2
(3, 2)

Method 2 (standard form)


x 2 + y 2 + 2x 10y + 1
x 2 + 2x
+y 2 10y
(x + 1)2 12 +(y 5)2 52
(x + 1)2
+(y 5)2
2
[x (1)]
+(y 5)2

Centre: (3, 2)
Radius: r = 2
Circle: (x a)2 + (y b)2
= r2
(x 3)2 + [y (2)]2 = 22
(x 3)2 + (y + 2)2
= 22
1(c)

2(b)
3

(3,4)

Radius: f 2 + g 2 c = (3)2 + (2)2 4 = 3


Method 2 (standard form)
x 2 + y 2 4x 6y + 4
x 2 4x +y 2 6y
(x 2)2 22 +(y 3)2 32
(x 2)2
+(y 3)2
(x 2)2
+(y 3)2

(2,2)

Centre: (2,2)
Radius: r = 2
Circle: (x a)2
+(y b)2 = r 2
[x (2)]2 +[y (2)]2 = 22
(x + 2)2
+(y 2)2 = 22

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

c=4

Centre: (g, f) = (2,3)

Method 1 (general form)


x 2 + y 2 4x 6y +4 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx +2fy +c = 0
Comparing coefficients:
2g = 4
2f = 6
g = 2
f = 3

Centre: (3,4)
Radius: r = 3
Circle: (x a)2
+(y b)2 = r 2
2
[x (3)] +(y 4)2 = 32
(x + 3)2
+(y 4)2 = 32

=0
= 1
= 1
= 25
= 52

Centre: (1,5)
Radius: 5

1(d)

c=1

Centre: (g, f) = (1,5)

Method 1 (general form)


x 2 + y 2 + 2x 10y +1 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx +2fy +c = 0

=0
= 4
= 4
=9
= 32

Centre: (2,3)
Radius: 3

sleightofmath.com

242

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3

Method 1

Ex 9.2

A(8,0)

B(0, 4)
10

C(0, 16)

= 10
5(i)

centre (8, 10)


radius = 10

=5
= 25
= 20
= 20

Centre C
C(0,0)

= x3

(1)

y 2x = 0
sub (1) into (2):

(2)

=0

At A(8,0):
(8)2 + (0)2 + 2g(8) + 2f(0) + c
64 16g + c
(1)
At B(0, 4),
(0)2 + (4)2 + 2g(0) + 2f(4) + c
16 8f + c
(2)

=0
=0

( x 3) 2x = 0
2

=0

=3

= 2

=0
=0

y|x=2 = (2) 3 = 4
2

P(2, 4)
Radius r
r = |CP| = [(2) 0]2 + [(4) 0]2 = 20
Circle
(x a)2 + (y b)2

Solving (1), (2) & (3):


g = 8, f = 10, c = 64
x + y + 2(8)x + 2(10)y + 64
x 2 + y 2 + 16x + 20y + 64

x3
2
3

At C(0, 16),
(0)2 + (16)2 + 2g(0) + 2f(16) + c = 0
256 32f + c
=0
(3)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=5

Point P on circle
At point P on circle, where x 2y = 6 meets y
2x = 0,
x 2y = 6
2y
=x6

Circle:
(x a)2
+(y b)2
= r2
[x (8)]2 +[y (10)]2 = 102
(x + 8)2
+(y + 10)2
= 102

5 c
5c
c
c

(4)+(16)

g2

12 + (2)2 c = 5

y coordinate of centre

Method 2
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c

=5

f 2

x coordinate of centre
= 8

C(2, 1) = (g, f)
Comparing coefficients:
g = 2
f=1

(x 0)2 + (y 0)2
x + y2
=0
=0

5(ii)

sleightofmath.com

= r2
2

= (20)
= 20

Check point (2,6) lies on circle


(2)2 + (6)2 = 20
40
= 20 [inconsistent]
No, (2,6) does not lie in circle

243

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

Ex 9.2

Points A & B
At A & B, 12x 5y = 11 cuts x 2 + y 2 6x +
2y 15 = 0
12x 5y= 11
5y
= 12x + 11
y

12x+11

(1)

or

12x+11 2

5
144x2 +264x+121

y|x=1 = 2(1) y|x=3 = 2 ( )


5

=2

=0

6x + 2 (

) 6x +

25

x=

(2)

12x+11

5
24x+22

P(1,2)

x +(

Points P & Q
At P & Q, x 2 + y 2 + 4x 6y + 3 = 0 & y = 2x meet
x 2 + (2x)2 + 4x 6(2x) + 3 = 0
x 2 + 4x 2 + 4x 12x + 3
=0
2
5x 8x + 3
=0
(x 1)(5x 3)
=0
x=1

x 2 + y 2 6x + 2y 15 = 0
sub (1) into (2):
x 2 + y 2 6x + 2y 15
x +(

7(i)

3 6

Q( , )
5 5

) 15 = 0
15 = 0

7(ii)

bisector of PQ
3 6

P(1,2) Q ( , )
5 5

x2
+

144 2
x
25

264

25

PQ bisector of PQ

121
25

Point:

6x
+

24
5

234

25

144

13

A (
6(ii)

x=

24
13

12( )+11

24
13

6
13

13

=
)

B(

6
13

12( )+11
5

13

29
13
29

8(i)

43

13
43

A (

13

29

) B(

13

43

)
2

24
6
29
43
|AB| = [( ) ( )] + [( ) ( )]
13

13

13

mPQ

6
5

4 8

)= ( , )
5 5

= (2)(6 =
)

5
3
(1)( )
5

1
4
( )
5
2
( )
5

1
2

(x x1 )

=m

8
5

2
1

= x+

= x+2
2

x 2 + y 2 2x + 8y 23 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx +2fy +c
=0

c = 23

Centre: (g, f) = (1, 4)


Radius: f 2 + g 2 c
= (4)2 + (1)2 (23)

= 36
=6

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

Comparing coefficients
2g = 2
2f = 8
g = 1
f=4

13 13

13

2+

13 13

Length of AB
24

y y1

3
5

y ( ) = ( ) [x ( )]

y|x= 6 =

PQ :

=0
=0
or

13

=0
=0

25

24

y|x=24 =

Gradient: m =

169x +234x 144


(13x + 24)(13x 6)
x=

MPQ = (

22

15
169 2
x
25
2

1+

= 40 = 4 10 = 210

sleightofmath.com

244

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 9.2

Tangent AB

10

P(3, 10)
210
AB

bisector of AB
AB bisector of AB

C(1, 4)

Point:

Point:

P(3, 10)

Gradient: mAB =

Points on circle
A(2,3) B(1,6)

1
mPC

1
(10)(4)

( (3)(1) )

1
6
)
2

1
AB :

y y1

9(i)

= x 11

3
1

bisector of AB

9(ii)

9(iii)

(2)+4
2

= 1

Centre C
At C, y = 6 2x meets AB (x = 1)
y|x=1 = 6 2(1)
=4
C(1,4)

2 2

1
(3)(6)

[(2)(1)]

= 3 =
3

= m (x x1 )
1

9
2

=x

1
2

=x+4

Radius r
r = |AC| = [2 (3)]2 + (3 1)2 = 29
Circle
(x a)2

Radius r
r = |AC| = [(2) 1]2 + (0 4)2 = 25 = 5
Circle
(x a)2 +(y b)2 = r 2
(x 1)2 +(y 4)2 = (5)2

1 9

)=( , )

Centre C
At C, AB (y = x + 4) meets 2x + 5y = 1
2x + 5(x + 4) = 1
2x + 5x + 20 = 1
7x
= 21
x
= 3
y|x=3 = (3) + 4
=1
C(3,1)

Points on circle
A(2,0) B(4,0)

x=

mAB

y (10) = ( ) [x (3)]

y ( ) = (1) [x ( )]

= x1

y y1

= mAB (x x1 )

y + 10

(2)+(1) (3)+(6)

Gradient: mAB =

AB:

MAB = (

+(y b)2

= r2

[x (3)]2 +(y 1)2 = (29)


(x + 3)2 +(y 1)2
= 29
11(i)

Points A & B
At A & B, x 2 + y 2 4x + 6y 12 = 0 cuts x
axis (y = 0).
x 2 + (0)2 4x + 6(0) 12 = 0
x 2 4x 12
=0
(x + 2)(x 6)
=0
x = 2 or x = 6
A(2,0)
B(6,0)
Length of AB
|AB| = 6 (2) = 8

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

245

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.2

11(ii) Centre C
x 2 + y 2 4x + 6y 12 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

12(ii)

Comparing coefficients:
2g = 4
2f = 6
g = 2
f=3

= MAD

(2, 3) = (
2 =

(2)+(d1 ) (0)+(d2 )
2

(2)+(d1 )
2

and

12(i)

3 =

d1 = 6
D(6, 6)

Centre C of
At C, AB (y = x) cuts circle (x 2 + y 2 = 36)
x 2 + (x)2 = 36
2x 2
= 36
2
x
= 18
x
= 18 = 9 2 = 32
x = 32
or
x = 32
y|x=32 = 32
y|x=32 = 32

)
(0)+(d2 )
2

d2 = 6

=
5
5

C(32, 32)

C(32, 32)

Radius r of
r = |BC|

5
Centre: A(5, 5) or B(5,5)
Radius: r = 5
C1 :
C2 :

Circle with centre (, ) & radius 6


(x 0)2 + (y 0)2 = 62
x2 + y2
= 36

Point D
D(d1 , d2 )
C


AB : y = x

= (g f) = (2, 3)

Centre C

= (5 32) + [5 (32)]

[x (5)]2 + [y (5)]2 = 52
(x 5)2 + (y 5)2 = 52

= (25 302 + 18) + (25 + 302 + 18)


= 96
Circle
C3 :

[x (32)]

or [x (32)]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

2
2

+[y (32)]
+[y (32)]

2
2

= (96)
2

= (96)

246

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(i)

Ex 9.2

Tangent
x + 2y = 5
2y
= x 5
y

= x

Normal
Point:

14
C(1,3)
P

x + 2y = 5

Normal:

1
mtan

1
1
2

( )

=2

y y1 = mnorm (x x1 )
[x (1)]
y (3)= (2)
(x + 1)
y3 =2
y 3 = 2x + 2
y
= 2x + 5

Centre C
x 2 + y 2 4x 8y 5 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

Point P on circle
1

At P, tangent (y = x ) meets normal


(y = 2x + 5)
1

Comparing coefficients
2g = 4
2f = 8
g = 2
f = 4

x = 2x + 5
5
2

15
2

= 3

Centre C

y|x=3 = (3)

Area of ABC = | |

13(ii) Centre
C(1,3)

Radius
r = |CP| = [(3) (1)]2 + [(1) 3]2 = 20

2
1

5
8

2
4

2
||
1

1 16 + 20 + (2)
|
|
2 (5) 16 8

1
|15|
2

= 7.5 units 2
= r2

[x (1)]2 +(y 3)2 = (20)


(x + 1)2 +(y 3)2
= 20

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= (g, f) = (2,4)

Area of triangle ABC


A(2, 1) B(5,8) C(2,4)

= 1
P(3, 1)

Circle
(x a)2 +(y b)2

=0
=0
=0

10x 2 70x + 100 = 0


x 2 7x +10
=0
(x 2)(x 5)
=0
x=2
or x = 5
y|x=2 = 3(2) 7
y|x=5 = 3(5) 7
= 1
=8
A(2, 1)
B(5,8)

C(1,3) or P

Gradient: mnorm =

Point A & B
At A & B, (y = 3x 7) cuts
(x 2 + y 2 4x 8y 5 = 0)
x 2 + (3x 7)2
4x 8(3x 7) 5
2
2
x + (9x 42x + 49) 4x 24x + 56 5
(10x 2 42x + 49)
28x + 51

sleightofmath.com

247

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 9.2

x 2 + y 2 + 4x +6y 12 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx +2fy +c = 0
Comparing coefficients
2g = 4
2f = 6
g=2
f=3

16

Line & Circle


y = mx 1
x 2 + y 2 4x + 3 = 0

(1)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 + (mx 1)2
4x + 3 = 0
2
2 2
x +(m x 2mx + 1) 4x + 3 = 0
(1 + m2 )x 2 + (2m 4)x + 4
=0

c = 12

Centre C = (g, f) = (2, 3)


Radius r = f 2 + g 2 c

Discriminant
For two distinct points:
b2 4ac
(2m 4)2 4(1 + m2 )(4)
(4m2 + 16m + 16) 16(1 + m2 )
(4m2 + 16m + 16) 16 16m2
12m2 + 16m
3m2 4m
m(3m 4)

= 32 + 22 (12) = 25 = 5

(3, 1)

(2, 3)

= [(2) (3)]2 + [(3) (1)]2


=

+
4

Distance from centre to point (3, 1)


12

>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
<0
<0

0 < m < [shown]

(2)2

= 5
< radius
point lies inside circle

17

any line passing through (-3,-1) cannot be


tangent to circle

Centre
x 2 + y 2 + 2x 2y 3 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
C(1,1)

Comparing coefficients:
2g = 2 2f = 2
g=1
f = 1

P(1,2)
Tangent

Centre: C(g, f) = (1,1)


Tangent
Point:

P(1,2) or C(1,1)

Gradient: mtan =
=

1
mnorm

1
(1)(2)

[(1)(1)]

1
mCP

1
1
)
2

= 2

Tangent: y y1 = mtan (x x1 )
y (2)= (2)[x (1)]
y 2 = 2x + 2
y
= 2x + 4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

248

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18(i)
P(x, y)

Ex 9.2
19(ii) bisector of PQ ( )
P(2, 2) Q(6,0)

A(a, 0) B(a, 0)

Point:
PA

= 2PB

[x (a)]2 + (y 0)2

= 2(x a)2 + (y 0)2

(x + a)2 + y 2

= 2(x a)2 + y 2

(x + a)2 + y 2

= 4[(x a)2 + y 2 ]

(x 2 + 2ax + a2 ) + y 2

= 4[(x 2 2ax + a2 ) + y 2 ]

x 2 + 2ax + a2 + y 2

= 4x 2 8ax + 4a2 + 4y 2

3x 2 + 10ax 3a2 3y 2

=0

x2

10
3

ax + a2 + y 2
2

Gradient: mPQ =
=
PQ :

19(iii)
2

3
5

+ a2 + y 2 = 0

(x a) + y 2

(x x1

)2

+ (y y1

)2

16 2
a
9

= r [shown]

1
1
2

= 2

(x a)2 + (y b)2
= r2
(x 6)2 + [y (5)]2 = (5)2
(x 6)2 + (y + 5)2
= 25
[wrong answer in textbook]

4
3

Circle
Centre: P(2, 2)
Point: Q(6,0)
Radius: r = |PQ|

20(i)

= (2 6)2 + [(2) 0]2


(4)2

(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2 = r 2
(x 2)2 [y (2)]2 = (20)
(x 2)2 + (y + 2)2 = 20

x 2 + y 2 4x 4y = 1
y=x+c

(1)
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


x 2 + (x + c)2
4x 4(x + c)
2
2
2
x + (x + 2cx + c ) 4x 4x 4c
(2x 2 + 2cx + c 2 )
8x 4c
2
2
(2c
2x +
8)x + c 4c 1

(2)2

= 20

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

19(iv) C2 :

radius = a

C1 :

2
4

1
(2)(0)

[ (2)(6) ]

Radius of C2 = 5
Centre of C2 =(6, 5)

) = (4, 1)

18(ii) centre (5 a, 0)

19(i)

y y1 = mPQ (x x1 )
y (1) = (2) [x (4)]
y+1
= 2x + 8
y
= 2x + 7

25 2
a
9

mPQ

(6,0)

(x a)

[(x a) ( a) ] + a + y = 0
3

2+6 (2)+(0)

=0

MPQ = (

x 2 + (c 4)x +

c2 4c1
2

=1
=1
=1
=0
=0

[shown]

sleightofmath.com

249

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 9.2

20(ii) Sum of roots


Roots: x1 & x2

21
b

Sum of roots = x1 + x2 =

(c4)
1

(2)]2

=4c

P(9,2)
C(2, 1)

By Pythagoras Theorem,
|PT|2 = |PC|2

Midpoint of PQ

=(
=(
=(
=(

2
x1 +x2
2
x1 +x2
2
4c
2
4c
2

2
x1 +x2 +2c

2
x1 +x2 +2c

2
(4c)+2c

2
4+c

(x, y) = MPQ (
x =
2x
c

4c 4+c
2

= 72 + 32
= 58
= 45

)
)
PT

22

y=

= 45

Method 1 (graphical inspection)

x = (y k)2 + h

4c
2

(h, k)

4+c
2

two y intercepts

(2)

Method 2 (solution)
x = a(y k)2 + h

sub (1) into (2)


y=

13
13

= 35

=4c
= 4 2x (1)

y=

= 9 5

20(iii) Curve traced by midpoint

|CT|2

= [(9 2)2 + [2 (1)]2 ] (13)

(x1 +c)+(x2 +c)

= (13)

Q(x2 , y2 ) lies on y = x + c:
y2 = x2 + c
Q(x2 , x2 + c)

x1 +x2

= 13

(1)]2

[x
+ [y
Centre: C(2, 1)
Radius: r = 13

Points P & Q
P(x1 , y1 ) lies on y = x + c:
y1 = x1 + c
P(x1 , x1 + c)

MPQ = (

Circle
(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2

4+(42x)
2
82x

At y axis (x = 0):
0
= a(y k)2 + h
2
a(y k) = h > 0
h<0

y = x + 4

(y k)2

(y k)

= k

>0

a>0

h
a
h
a

two y intercepts

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

250

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


22

Ex 9.2

Method 3 (discriminant)
a(y k)2 + h
=0
a(y 2 2ky + k 2 ) +h = 0
ay 2 2aky +ak 2 + h = 0
i.e. A = a, B = 2ak, C = ak 2 + h

23

9
4

Grad: mAB =
AB :

1
mAB

=
=

31
8
31
18

31

y|x=31 = 2 ( )
18

18

D(

31

9
31 31
18

31

31

= [(3) ( )] + [(1) ( )]
18

) = ( , 3)

2465
324

(1)(5)

[(3)(4)]

Circle
(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )
1

(x

y (3)= ( ) [x ( )]
1

4
1

y3 = x+
y

Radius r
r = |AD|

3+4 1+5
2


AB bisector of AB
,

x + 3 = 2x

Points
A(3,1) B(4,5) C(1,3)

Point: MAB = (

At D, AB (y = x + 3 ) meets AC (y = 2x).

Discriminant
B 2 4AC = (2ak)2 4(a)(ak 2 + h)
= 4a2 k 2 4a2 k 2 4ah
= 4ah
>0
a > 0, h < 0
two y-intercepts
23

Centre D

= x+3
4

31 2

) + (y

18

31 2
9

= r2
2

= (

2465
324

7
8


AC bisector of AC
Point: MAC = (
Grad: mAC =
AC :

3+(1) 1+3
2
1
mAC

) = (1,2)

1
(1)(3)
[(3)(1)]

=2

y y2 = mAC (x x2 )
y (2)= (2) (x 1)
y 2 = 2x 2
y
= 2x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

251

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 9
A2

Rev Ex 9
A1(i)

Line AC
A(4,4) C(6,0)
Point:
A(4,4) or C(6,0)
(4)(0)

Gradient: mAC = (4)(6) =

4
2

(1)
(2)

sub (1) into (2):


(mx + 1)2
=x
2 2
m x + 2mx + 1
=x
2 2
m x + (2m 1)x + 1 = 0

= 2

y y1 = m (x x1 )
y (0)= (2)[x (6)]
y = 2x + 12

AC:

Line & Curve


y = mx + 1, m > 0
y2 = x

Point B
At B, AC meets y 2 = 4x
(2x + 12)2
= 4x
2
4x 48x + 144 = 4x
4x 2 52x + 144 = 0
x 2 13x + 36
=0
(x 4)(x 9)
=0
x=4
or x = 9
(taken)
y|x=9 = 2(9) + 12
= 6
B(9, 6)

Discriminant
For two distinct points:
b2 4ac
(2m 1)2 4(m2 )(1)
(4m2 4m + 1) 4m2
4m + 1
4m

>0
>0
>0
>0
> 1

<

1
4

Combine inequalities:
m > 0 and m <

1
4

0 < m < [shown]


4

A1(ii) A(4,4) B(9, 6) C(6,0)


|AC| = (4 6)2 + (4 0)2
=

(2)2

A3(i)

(10,18)

42

= 4 + 16

13

= 20
= 4 5
= 25 units

13

Radius: r = 13
Point: (10,18)
y coordinate of centre C = 13

|CB| = (6 9)2 + [0 (6)]2


C1 : (x a)2 + (y b)2
= r2
2
2
(x a) + (y 13)
= 132
[(10) a]2 + [(18) 13]2 = 169
(10 a)2 + 52
= 169
2
(10 a)
= 144
a2 20a + 100
= 144
2
a 20 44
=0
(a + 2)(a 22)
=0
a = 2
or
a = 22
C(2,13)
C(22,13)

= (3)2 + (6)2
= 9 + 36
= 45
= 9 5
= 35
A1(iii) AC: CB

= 25: 35
= 2: 3

[x (2)]2 + (y 13)2 = 132


or (x 22)2 + (y 13)2 = 132

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

252

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 9

A3(ii) Centre: (2, 13) or (22, 13)


Radius: r = 13
[x (2)]2 + [y (13)]2 = 132
C2 :
or (x 22)2 + [y (13)]2 = 132

A4(iii) Radius
1

r = |AB|
2

= [(2) 6]2 + [4 (2)]2


2
1

A4(i)

= 100 = 5
2

Points on circle
A(2,4) B(6, 2)

Circle
(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2 = r 2
[x (2)]2 + [y (1)]2 = (5)2
(x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 25

Centre C
C = MAB = (

(2)+6 4+(2)
2

) = (2,1)

A4(ii) Line DE
Point:
C(2,1)
Gradient: DE AB,
mDE =
DE:

1
mAB

Points D & E
=

1
(4)(2)

[(2)(6)]

1
[

6
]
8

4
3

y y1 = mDE (x x1 )
y (1)=

4
3
4

[x (2)]

y1 = x
y

3
4

3
5

+ [( x ) 1]

(x 2)2

+( x )

25 2
x
9
25 2
x
9
2

= x

(x 2)2

100
9
100
9

3
3
16 2
64
+( x x
9
9
100

x+
x

= 25
= 25

64
9

)= 25
= 25
=0

=0
=0
or x = 5

y|x=1 = (1)
= 3
E(1, 3)

sleightofmath.com

9
125

x 4x 5
(x + 1)(x 5)
x = 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

3
2

8 2

(x 2 4x + 4)

At D & E, circle meets DE (y = x )

y|x=5 = (5)
=5
D(5,5)

253

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5(i)

Rev Ex 9

Circle & Line


x 2 + y 2 + 6x 8y = 0
y = mx

B1(i)
(1)

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


1 2

x 2 + (mx )

+6x 8 (mx ) = 0

x +

(m2 2

3
2

9
1

3
8

x mx + ) +6x 8mx +

(1 + m2 )x 2 mx +
(1 + m2 )x 2 + (6

26
3

+(6 8m)x +

m) x +

25

=0
=0
=0

Discriminant
b2 4ac
= (6

26
3

m)

B1(ii) Length of AB
A(9, 6) B(4,4)

25

4(1 + m2 ) ( )

|AB| = [(9) (4)]2 + [(6) 4]2

= (36 104m +
= (36 104m +

676
9
676
9

m2 )

100

2)

100

9
9

= 125

(1 + m2 )

100
9

= 25 5
= 55 units

224

= 64m2 104m +

B1(iii) Area of triangle CAB


A(9, 6) B(4,4) C(4, 4)

For line to intersect circle at two distinct points:


b2 4ac
>0
224

Area of CAB

1 4 4 9 4
|
|
2 4 4 6 4
1
= [(16) + 24 + 36 16 (36) 24]
2
1
= (40)
2

24

= 20 unit 2

64m2 104m +

>0

576m2 936m + 224 > 0


72m2 117m + 28
>0
(24m 7)(3m 4)
>0
+

m<

24

or m >
3

A5(ii) For line to be tangent to circle:


b2 4ac
=0
64m2 104m +
m=

Points A & B
At A & B, y 2 = 4x meets y = 2x + 12
(2x + 12)2
= 4x
2
4x + 48x + 144 = 4x
4x 2 + 52x + 144 = 0
x 2 + 13x + 36
=0
(x + 9)(x + 4)
=0
x = 9
or x = 4
y|x=9 = 2(9) + 12
y|x=4 = 2(4) + 12
= 6
=4
A(9, 6)
B(4,4)

7
24

224
9

B1(iv) distance from C to AB


F Foot of from C to AB
|CF| = distance from C to AB

=0

Equate area of CAB:

2
1

or m =

A5(iii) For line to not meet circle:


b2 4ac
<0
64m2 104m +

224
9

|AB||CF|

= 20

(55)|CF| = 20

CF

40
55

8
5

85
5

units

<0

(24m 7)(3m 4) < 0


+

7
24

24

<x<

4
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

254

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B2(i)

Line & circle


y = mx
x 2 + y 2 4mx + 3 = 0

Rev Ex 9

(1)
(2)

B2(iii) Line & Circle


line is parallel to y = x,
y=x+c

x 2 + (x + c)2 4x + 3 = 0
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
x 2 + (x + c)2
4x + 3 = 0
2
2
2
x + (x + 2cx + c ) 4x + 3 = 0
(2x 2 + 2cx + c 2 )
4x + 3 = 0
2x 2 + (2c 4)x + (c 2 + 3)
=0

sub (1) into (2):


x 2 + (mx)2 4mx + 3 = 0
x 2 + m2 x 2 4mx + 3 = 0
(1 + m2 )x 2 4mx + 3 = 0
Discriminant
For no intersection:
b2 4ac
(4m)2 4(1 + m2 )(3)
16m2 12(1 + m2 )
4m2 3(1 + m2 )
4m2 3 3m2
m2 3
(m + 3)(m 3)
+

(1)

<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<0
<0

Discriminant
For line to be tangent to circle:
b2 4ac
=0
2
2
(2c 4) 4(2)(c + 3)
=0
2
2
(4c 16c + 16) 8(c + 3) = 0
(4c 2 16c + 16) 8c 2 24 = 0
4c 2 16c 8
=0
2
c + 4c + 2
=0

c=

3 3
3 < m < 3
m is positive integer,
m=1

(4)(4)2 4(1)(2)
2(1)
422
2

48
2

= 2 2

Line with =
y = x + (2 2)
= x 2 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

255

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B3

Rev Ex 9

Method 1 (algebraic)
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
(13,0): 132 + 2g(13) + c = 0
169 + 26g + c = 0
(27,0): 272 + 2g(27) + c = 0
729 + 54g + c = 0

B3

Method 2 (graphical)
bisector of PQ
PQ bisector of PQ
PQ : x =

(1)

(13)+(27)
2

= 20

(0,9)
O

bisector of PR
Point:

(2)

MPR = (
=(

(0,9):

02 + 92 + 2f(9) + c = 0
81 + 18f + c
= 0 (3)

Gradient: mPR =
PR :

(1) (2): 560 28g = 0


28g
= 560
g
= 20

13+0 0+9
2
13 9
2

, )
2

mPR

y y1

(27,0)
(13,0)

9
]
13

13
9

(x x1 )

=m

1
(0)(9)

[(13)(0)]

13

13

y ( ) = ( ) [x ( )]
2

9
2

Put g = 20 into (1):


169 + 26(20) + c
=0
c
= 351

=
=

9
13

169

9
13

18
44

x
x

Centre C
At C, PQ (x = 20) meets PR (y =

Put g = 20 & c = 351 into (3):


81 + 18f + 351 = 0
f
= 24

y|x=20 =

13
9

(20)

13
9

44
9

44
9

= 24
C(20,24)
Radius r
C(20,24) P(13,0) Q(27,0) R(0,9)
r = |CP| = (20 13)2 + (24 0)2
= 625 = 25
Circle
(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2 = r 2
(x 20)2 + (y 24)2 = 252
B4(i)

x 2 + y 2 6x 2y 15 = 0
x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
Comparing coefficients:
2g = 6,
2f = 2,
g = 3
f = 1
Centre:

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

c = 15

Z(3,1)

256

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B4(ii)

Rev Ex 9
B4(iii)

(2,3)

(3,1)

AB:

(3,1)

Chord AB
Point: M(2,3)
Grad: mAB =

1
mZM

1
(1)(3)

[(3)(2)]

1
2
)
1

1
2

Line CD
Point:
Z(3,1)
Gradient: CD AB

y y1 = mAB (x x1 )

mCD = mAB =

y (3)= [x (2)]
2
1

1
2

y y1 = m(x x1 )

CD:

y3 = x1
y

y (1)= ( ) [x (3)]

2
1

= x+2

y 1= x

3
2

= x

(1)

Points C & D
1

At C & D, CD (y = x ) meets
circle (x 2 + y 2 6x 2y 15 = 0)
1 2

x2 + ( x )
2
1
2
x + ( x2
4
5 2
1

2
1

x+ )

( x x+ )
4

5 2
x
4
2

2
15
2

4
55

=0

6x x + 1 15

=0

7x 14

=0

=0

(6)(6)2 4(1)(11)
2(1)

y|x=325

645
2

= 3 25

y|x=3+25

= (3 25)

=0

5x 30x 55
x 2 6x 11
x=

6x 2 ( x ) 15

= (3 + 25)

3
1
3
1
= ( + 5)
= ( 5)
2
2
2
2
= 1 + 5
= 1 5
C(3 25, 1 5) D(3 + 25, 1 + 5)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

257

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5
Circle & line
x 2 + y 2 4x 2y + 1
x 2 4x + y 2 2y + 1
x 2 4x + (y 1)2 12 + 1
x 2 4x + (y 1)2

Rev Ex 9
B5(i)
=0
=0
=0
=0

For two distinct points:


b2 4ac
>0
4k(3k + 4) > 0
+

(1)

3
4

k < or k > 0

kx y = k + 1
y
= kx + k + 1
y
= kx k 1

B5(ii) For intersection at one exact point:


b2 4ac
=0
4k(3k + 4) = 0

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


x 2 4x + [(kx k 1) 1]2
x 2 4x +(kx k 2)2
x 2 4x +[kx (k + 2)]2
x 2 4x +[k 2 x 2 2k(k + 2)x + (k + 2)2 ]
(1 + k 2 )x 2 +[4 2k(k + 2)]x +(k + 2)2
(1 + k 2 )x 2 +(4 2k 2 4k)x +(k + 2)2
(1 + k 2 )x 2 +(2k 2 4k 4)x +(k + 2)2

k = 0 or k =
3

=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0
=0

B5(iii) For no points of intersection:


b2 4ac
<0
4k(3k + 4) < 0
+

4
3

+
0

<k<0
3

Discriminant
b2 4ac
= (2k 2 4k 4)2 4(1 + k 2 )(k + 2)2
= (2)2 (k 2 + 2k + 2)2 4(k 2 + 1)(k 2 + 4k + 4)
= 4(k 2 + 2k + 2)2
4(k 2 + 1)(k 2 + 4k + 4)
k 2 (k 2 + 2k + 2)
k 2 (k 2 + 4k + 4)
]
= 4 [+2k(k 2 + 2k + 2)] 4 [
+1(k 2 + 4k + 4)
2
+2(k + 2k + 2)
= 4(k 4

4(k

+2k 3
+2k 3
4

= 4(k 4
4(k 4

+4k

+4k 3
+4k 3

= 4k 4
+16k 3
4k 4
16k 3
= 12k 2 + 16k
= 4k(3k + 4)

+2k 2
+4k 2
+2k 2
+4k 2
+k 2

+4k
+4k

+4)

+4k

+4)

+8k 2
+5k 2

+8k
+4k

+4)
+4)

+32k 2
20k 2

+32k
16k

+16
16

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

258

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.1

Ex 10.1
1(i)

1(ii)

AD = CD
(S)
BDA = BDC (A)
BD = BD
(S)
ABD CBD

(D is mid pt of AC)
(BD AC)
(common side)
(SAS congruency)

(corr. s of s)

ABD = CBD
i. e. BD bisects ABC

2(i)

(given)
AP
= QE
AP + PQ = QE + PQ
AQ
= EP

AQ = EP
(S)
BAQ = DEA (A)
BQA = DPE (A)

D
C

(Proven)
(Given)
(iso. CPQ with
CP = CQ)
(AAS congruency)

ABQ EDP
2(iii)

QBA = PDE

(corr. s of s)

2(ii)

D
C
A

D
C
A

3(i)

BOA ~ BYT

AB
BO

BT
BY

(given)
(corr. s of s)

A
B

3(ii)

(SS)

AB
BO

BT
BY

(A) ABT = OBY


BAT ~ BOY

(proven)

ABC = AMN (A)


ACB = ANM (A)
ABC ~ AMN

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(opp. )
(SAS similarity)

4(i)

(corr. )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)

sleightofmath.com

259

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(ii)

AC

BC

Ex 10.1

AN

(corr. s of s)

MN

AC MN = AN BC
NC AC = AN BC (MN = NC;
equal sides of iso. MNC
with NMC = NCM)

5(i)

CAB = BCD (A)


ACB = CBD (A)
ABC ~ CDB

(90)
(alt. )
(AA similarity)

B
5(ii)

AC

CB

CB

(corr. s of s)

BD

AC BD = CB 2
6

AC GF
AC GE
GE BD
AC BD

(BG = GA, BF = FC, mid pt thm)

(given)
E
G

7(i)

DE BC

AD = DB, AE = EC,
mid pt thm

7(ii)

DE = BC
2
1

= (2x)
2

(AD = DB, AE = EC, mid pt thm)

(BC = 2x)

=x

2
C

8(i)

SDM = TCM (A)


DMS = CMT (A)
DM = CM
(S)
SDM TCM

(given)
(opp. )
(M is mid-pt of DC)
(AAS congruency)

D
A
S

M
C

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

260

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 10.1

In DSB & CTA,


DSB = CTA(A)
DS = CT
(S)
SDM = TCM
2SDB = 2TCA
SDB = TCA(A)

( SDM TCM)
( SDM TCM)
( SDM TCM)
(DB bisects SDM &
CA bisects TCM)

DSB CTA
SB = TA

(AAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)

D
A
S

Prove: ANT ELR

10

(A) (iso. AGE with AG = EG)


(given)
(given)

R
I

(S)
(SAS congruency)

11(i)

ZX = ZQ
(S) (given)
JXZ = FQZ
(A) (iso. QZX with QZ = XZ)
JQ
= XF
JQ + QX = XF + QX
(given)
JX
= FQ
(S)
JZX FZQ

AR
= ET
(given)
AR (TR) = ET (TR)
AT
= ER
(S)
NAT = LER
AG
= EG
NG
= LG
Subtracting sides,
AG NG = EG LG
AN
= EL
ANT ELR

(SAS congruency)

JX = FQ

BAE = DAC (A)

(AE bisects BAD)

AEB = DEC
= DCE
= ACD (A)

(opp. )
(iso. CDE with DE = DC)
(common )

ABE ~ ADC

(AA similarity)

A
D

11(ii)

AB
AE

AD
AC

E
B

( ABE ~ ADC)

AB AC = AD AE

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

261

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

DEB = FDE (A)

(alt. )

BDE = CEF
= EFD (A)

(90)
(alt. )

BDE ~ EFD

(AA similarity)

12(ii) EFD = CEF (A)

13(i)

Ex 10.1
A

FED = DBE
= ECF (A)

( BDE ~ EFD)
(iso. ABC with AB = AC)

EFD ~ CEF

(AA similarity)

13(ii) FAC = EBC (A)


FCA = ECB (A)
AFC ~ BEC

(alt. s)

AFC = 180 ACF CAF


180)
= 180 (BCE) (EAF)
= 180 BCE (EBF)
= BEC
180)

(s in AFC =

(common )
(EAF = EBF)
(s in BEC =

(EAF = EBF)
(common )
(AA similarity)

13(iii)

CF

CA

CE
CB

( AFC ~ BEC)

CF CB = CE CA

14(i)

In DEC & ABC,


EDC = BAC
(A)
DCE = ACB
(A)
DEC ~ ABC
CD
CA

=
=

(right angles)
(common )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of ~ s)

CE
CB
1

E
B

(E is mid-pt of BC)

D is the mid-point of AC
14(ii) In ADE & CDE,
DA = DC
(S)
ADE = CDE (A)
DE = DE
(S)
ADE CDE
AE = CE
AEC is isosceles
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

(D is mid-point of AC)
(90)
(common side)
(SAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)
( with 2 equal s)

E
B

sleightofmath.com

262

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15(i)

DBG = ABC
= ACB
= DGB
DBG is isosceles
DG = BD
= CE

15(ii) DG = EC
(S)
DFG = EFC (A)
DGF = ECF (A)
DGF ECF

Ex 10.1
A

(iso. ABC with AB = AC)


(corr. )
( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso. DBG)
(BD = CE)

(proven)
(opp. )
(alt. )
(AAS congruency)

15(iii) DF = FE

(corr. sides of s)

16(i)

BP = AC
AB = QC

(S)
(S)

(Given)
(Given)

FBP = 90 FPB
= 90 EPC
= ECP
ABP = QCA (A)

(FBP)
(opp. )
(ECP)

A
F
E
P

B
C

ABP QCA
16(ii) BAP = CQA
AP = QA
QAP is isosceles
CQA = APQ
BAP = APQ

(SAS congruency)
(corr. s of s)
(corr. sides of s)
( with 2 equal sides)
(equal s of iso.)

A
F
E
P

B
C

16(iii) QAP = FAQ + BAP


= FAQ + (CQA)
( ABP QCA)
= FAQ + (90 FAQ) (FAQ)
= 90
AP AQ

A
F
E
P

B
C

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

263

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(i)

In FEC & BAC


FCE = BCA (A)
FEC = BAC (A)
FEC ~ BAC
CF
CB

=
=

CE
CA
1

Ex 10.1
B

(Common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of ~ s)

BF: BC = 1: 2
17(ii) AB = 2EF

(CE = EA, CF = FB,


midpt thm)

In DCA & FEA,


DAC = FAE (A)
DCA = FEA (A)
DCA ~ FEA
CD
EF

CD =

AC
AE
AC
AE

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of~ s)

EF

= 2EF
AB: CD = 1: 1
18(i)

AC
= 3EC
(Given)
AE + EC = 3EC
= 2EC
= 2(2EF) (F is mid pt of EC)
= 4EF

E
G
B

18(ii) BE DF

AG
AD

AG =

AE
AF
AE
AF
4
5

AG
GD

E
G
B

F
D

AD

= AD

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of ~ )

(CD = DB, CF = FE,


mid pt thm)

In GAE & DAF,


GAE = DAF (A)
AGE = ADF (A)
GAE ~ DAF

(AE = 4EF)

=4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

264

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19

Ex 10.1

1st pair of similar triangles


In EFC & ABC,
EFC = ABC (A)
ECF = ACB (A)
EFC ~ ABC

A
AC = BC = 1cm

E
EF
FC

=
=

AB
BC
AB
AB

(AB = BC)

=1
EF = FC

B
(1)

DF
BD = DC = 0.5cm

2nd pair of similar triangles


In BFE & ABD,
BFE = ABD
(A)
(90)
EBF = ABD ABE
= 90 ABE (ABD = 90)
= BAD (A)
(BAD)
BFE ~ ABD
(AA similarity)
BF
FE

AB
BD
AB

=1
2

BC

AB

=1
2

AB

(corr. sides of ~ s)
(D is midpoint of BC)
(AB = BC)

=2
BF = 2EF

(2)

Sum of sides
BF + FC
=1
sub (1) & (2) into (3):
(2EF) + (EF)
=1
3EF
=1
EF

(3)

1
3

20(i)

ADB = CDA
(A)
ABD = 90 BAD
= CAD
(A)
ABD ~ CAD

20(ii)

BD
AB

BD =
BD
DC
AD
AB
AD
AB

=
=
=

AD

(corr. sides of ~ s)

CA
AD2
CD
AD2
CD2
CD
CA
AB
AC

(90)
( BAD)
(BAC = 90)
(AA similarity)

(1)
(corr. sides of ~ s)
(2)

sub (2) into (1):


BD
DC

AB2
AC2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

265

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.2

Ex 10.2
1(i)

1(ii)

AEB = ECD (A)


AE = CE
(S)
BE = DE
(S)
ABE CDE

(opp. )
(AC and BD bisects at E)
(AC and BD bisects at E)
(SAS congruency)

E
B

ABCD is a parallelogram (diagonals bisect


each other)

E
B

2(i)

BF = DE
(S)
AFB = CED (A)
AF = CE
(S)
ABF CDE

(Given)
(90)
(Equal sides of square)
(SAS congruency)

2(ii)

AB = CD

(= sides)

BF = ED
FC = EA

ABD = CDB (A)


ADB = CBD (A)
BD = DB
(S)
ABD CDB

ABF CDE

(2 pairs of equal
opp. sides)

(alt. )
(alt. )
(common side)
(AAS congruency)

3(ii)

( ABD CDB)
AB = CD (= sides)
( ABD CDB)
AD = CB (= sides)
ABCD has 2 pairs of equal
sides

4(i)

A + B + C + D
A + B + (A) + (B)
2(A + B)
A + B

4(ii)

A = C (= )
(Given)
B = D (= )
(Given)
ABCD is a parallelogram (2 pairs of equal opp. s)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(given)
(equal sides of
square AFCE)

Adding sides,
BF + FC = ED + EA
BC
= DA (= sides)
ABCD is a parallelogram

3(i)

= 360 (s of quad = 360)


= 360 (A = C, B = D)
= 360
= 180

sleightofmath.com

266

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

Ex 10.2

In ABC & CDA,


BAC = DCA
AC = CA

(A)
(S)

(given)
(common side)

XBA
= YDC
180 XBA = 180 YDC
ABC
= CDA (A)
ABC CDA
BA = DC (= )
BC = DA (= )
ABCD is a parallelogram

(given)
(s in a line = 180)
(AAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)
(corr. sides of s)
(2 pairs of equal opp. sides)

( ) (alt. , BAC = ACD)


BA CD
(corr. , BA CD)
XBA = XCD
XBA = YDC
(given)
XCD = YDC
( ) (alt. )
BC AD
(2 pairs of sides)
ABCD is a parallelogram
6)

( sides of ABCD)

AD BC
DX BY
AD
AX = CY

( )
= CB

AD + (AX) = CB + (CY)
DX
= BY (= )

(Equal opp. sides of


ABCD)
(given)
(AX = CY)

B
C

D
Y

XBYD is a parallelogram (1 pair of equal


& opp. sides)
7(i)

BE = DF
AB = CD

(S)
(S)

EBA = FDC (A)


ABE CDF

7(ii)

(given )
(Equal opp sides of
ABCD)
(alt. )
(SAS congruency)

D
F
E

(= )
AE = CF
( ABE CDF)
AEB
= CFD
( ABE CDF)
180 = 180

D
F
E

( )
AE CF
(alt. )
AECF is a parallelogram (1 pair of equal
& opp. sides)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

267

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(iii)

AE = CF
= 7cm

Ex 10.2

( ABE CDF)
(CF = 7cm)

D
F
E

8(i)

AC = AC
(S)
AB = AD
(S)
BC = DC
(S)
ABC ADC

(common side)
(equal adj. sides of kite)
(equal adj. sides of kite)
(SSS congruency)

E
B

D
C

8(ii)

CE = CE
(S)
BEC = DEC (A)
BE = DE
(S)
BCE DCE

(common side)
(Diagonals are )
(Longer diagonal bisects
shorter diagonal)
(SAS congruency)

E
B

D
C

8(iii)

BD AC

(Diagonals of kite are )

E
B

D
C

9?

(incomplete)
Diagonals are only equal if x = y = z = 90

x
A

1)

Statements
x = z

2)
3)
4)
5)

BAD = x
ABC = y
BCD = z
BAD + ABC = 180

6)

AD BC

7)

ABC + BCD = 180

8)

AB DC

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

Reasons
x + y = y + z
x = z
opp.
opp.
opp.
BAD + ABC
= x + y
= 180

Supplementary int. s
ABC + BCD
y + z
= 180
Supplementary int. s

sleightofmath.com

268

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


10(i)

EH BD
GF BD
EH GF

Ex 10.2

(AE = ED, AH = HD, Mid pt thm)


(CF = FB, CG = GD, Mid pt thm)

D
H
A
G
E
I
B

EID = 90
EFG = 90

(BD DF)
(corr. )

D
H
A
G
E
I
B

10(ii) EH GF
EFG = 90
1

(proven) [ ]
(proven) [ ]

(AE = ED, AH = HD, mid pt thm)

GF = BD

(CF = FB, CG = GD, mid pt thm)

EFGH is a
rectangle

In EBF & ABD,


EBF = ABD (A)
EFB = ADB (A)
EFB ~ ADB
BF

=
=

I
C

( & equal opp. sides & 1 right )

EF BC

BD

G
E

[. ]

EH = GF

11(i)

D
H

EH = BD
2
1

BE
BA
1

(AE = EB, AF = FC, midpt thm)

A
F

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. s of ~ s)

F is midpt of BD
11(ii) In FDG & BDC,
FDG = BDC
DFG = DBC
DFG ~ DBC
DG
DC

=
=

DF
DB
1
2

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. s of ~ s)

D
F
G

(F is midpt of BD)

G is midpt of CD
11(iii) AF = FC
(Given)
BF = FD
(F is midpt of BD)
ABCD is a parallelogram (Diagonals bisect each
other)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

269

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

Ex 10.2

In BAD & CDA,


BA = CD
(S)
AD = DA
(S)
Draw line through A to DC
ABC = AFB
= DCB
BAD = CDA
BAD CDA

(given)
(common side)

(A)

(equal s of iso.
ABF)
(corr. )
(supple. int. s)
(SAS congruency)

D
E

C
A

D
E
F

B
( BAD CDA)
12(ii) ADB = DAC
ADE is isosceles ( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso.)
AE = DE

D
E

B
12(iii) BD
= CA
BD (DE) = CA (AE)
BE
= CE
BEC is isosceles

( BAD CDA)
(AE = DE)

D
E

( with 2 equal sides)

B
13(i)

AE = AD
(S)
EB = DC
(S)
AED
= ADE
AED + 90 = ADE + 90
AEB
= ADC (A)
ABE ACD

13(ii) AE = AD

(S)

(given)
(equal opp. sides of rect.)
(iso. AED)
( of rect. )
(SAS congruency)

D
F

( ABE ~ ACD)

AED = ADE
AEF = ADG (A)

(iso. AED)

AEF ADG

(AAS congruency)

D
F

2EF
1

(BF = 2EF)

(1)
E

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

D
F

30 (2)
60

EBF = 30
ABC = 60

13(iii) sin EBF = EF


=

(given)

EAB = DAC
EAF = DAG (A)

BF
EF

60
C

(Complementary )

sleightofmath.com

270

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.2

AB = AC
iso. ABC
ABC = ACB = 60
ABC is equilateral
14(i)

AE XY

( ABE ACD)
( with 2 equal sides)
(equal s of iso.)
( with 2 s = 60)

(CX = XA, CY = YE, mid pt thm)

A
X
C
D
Y

F
E

14(ii) AE XY
XY BF
AE BF

(Proven)
(DX = XB, DY = YF,mid-pt thm)

A
X
C
D
Y

F
E

14(iii) AB DC
EF DC
AB DC ( )
( )
AE BF
BAEF is a
parallelogram

(ABCD is a )
(CDEF is a )

A
X

(proven)
( opp. sides )

C
D
Y
F
E

15

In ADE & CBF,


AE = CF
(S)
EAD = FCB
(A)

given
alt.

JH GI [= ] (given)
ED BF [= ] ( opp. sides of EBFD)
JG IH
HJGI is a
parallelogram

AD = CB
(S)
(equal opp. sides of ABCD)
ADE CBF
(SAS congruency)
DE = BF
[= ]
AED = CFB
DEF = BFE
(s in a line = 180)
DE BF
[ ] (alt. )
EBFD is a parallelogram (1 pair of equal & opp.
sides)

E
A

( opp. sides)

1)

C
F

2)

2)
E
A

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

1)
G

I
B

271

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.3

Ex 10.3
1

ABC + ABD = 90 + ABD


( in semicircle)
= 90 + 90
( in semicircle)
= 180
i.e. C, B and D lie on a straight line

D
B
C

3(i)

APB = ABP
= 180 ABC
= ADC
CDP = CPD
CDP is isosceles
CD = CP

(iso APB with AB = AP)


(s in a line = 180)
(s in opp segment)

C
B
P
A

( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso.)

AEF + CDA
= AEF + (180 CBA)
= AEF + (ABF)
= AEF + (180 AEF)
= 180

(s in opp. segment)

C
B

(s in a line st. line)


(s in opp. segment)

D
F
A
E

3(ii)

AEF + CDA = 180


CD FE

(Proven)
(Supplementary int. s)

C
B

D
F
A
E

PB = PA
= PC

(Equal tangents from ext pt)


(Equal tangents from ext pt)

C
B
A

5(i)

ABC = ACB
= BAT

(iso. ABC with AB = AC)


(alt. segment thm)

B
O

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

272

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(ii)

ABC = BAT
CB ST

Ex 10.3

(proven)
(alt. s)

B
O

6(i)

OA = OD
OD = OC

(S)
(S)

(radius)
(radius)

B
O

AOD = OBC
= OCB
= DOC (A)

(corr. )
(iso. OCB with OC = OB)
(alt. )

C
A
D

AOD DOC
AD = CD
6(ii)

(SAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)
B

O
C
A
D

CDE = 180 ODC


ODA
= 180 ODC
(OCD)
= COD
7(i)

(s in a line = 180)
( AOD DOC)
s in = 180

EDC = DAC + DCA (ext. = sum of int. opp. s)


= DAC +
(iso. ADC with AD = DC)
(DAC)
= 2DAC

E
D
A
C

7(ii)

ABD = ACD
= CAD
= CBD

(s in same segment)
(iso. ADC with DA = DC)
(s in same segment)

E
D
A
C

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

273

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(i)

APB = 90
= PQA

Ex 10.3

(A)

( in semicircle)
(Given)

B
P

PBA = QAP
(A)
ABP ~ PAQ

(alt. segment thm)


(AA similarity)

8(ii)

1)

AP

AB

PQ

ABP ~ PAQ

PA

(AP)2 = AB QP
= AB QP

AP
9

BFD = BAF + ABF


(ext. = sum of int. opp. s)
= BAF + (BAF) (iso. AFB with FA = FB)
= 2BAF
(alt. segment thm)
= 2ACB

B
O

10(i)

APC = BPA (A)


PAC = PBA (A)
APC ~ BPA

(common )
(alt. segment thm)
(AA similarity)

C
A

10(ii)

PC
AP

PA
BP

( APC ~ BPA)

BP CP = AP 2
11

In BAN & BPL,


BAN = 90
= BPL (A)
BNA

= ALN
= BLP (A)
BAN ~ BPL
ABN = PBL
ABL = PBL

12(i)

PBL = ABN (A)


BPL = 90
= BAN (A)
BPL ~ BAN

(tan rad)
( in semicircle)

P
L
O

(iso. ALN with AN = AL)


(opp. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. of ~ s)

(BN bisects ABP)


( in semicircle)
(tan rad)
(AA similarity)

B
P
L

M
A

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

274

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.3

12(ii) BPL = 90
= BMA (A)
= AMN (A)

( in semicircle)
( in semicircle)
(s in a line = 180)

B
P
L

13

14(i)

PBL = ABM
= MAN (A)

(BN bisects ABP)


(alt. segment thm)

BPL ~ AMN

(AA similarity)

M
A

PQ + QR + RP
= PQ + QT + TR
+RP
= PQ + (QU) + TR +RP (Equal tangents QT = QU)
= PQ + QU + (RS) +RP (Equal tangents TR = RS)
= (PQ + QU) +(RS + RP)
= PU
+PS
= PU
+PU
(Equal tangents PS = PU)
= 2PU
BAC = CAP (A)

(common )

ABC = CAX
= ACP (A)

(alt. segment thm)


(alt. )

ABC ~ ACP

(AA similarity)

T
P
Q

14(ii)

AC
AB
AC2
AB

16(i)

(corr. sides of ~ s)

AC

= AP

PA =
15

AP

AC2
AB

PCB = PCA
= CAX
= PBC
PBC is isosceles
PB = PC
BEC = 90
= DAC

(PC bisects BCA)


(alt. )
(alt. segment thm)
( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso.)

C
X

CE AB
(A) ( in semicircle)

(s in same segment)
CBA = CDA
CBE = CDA (A)
(AA similarity)
EBC ~ ADC

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

O
A
B

sleightofmath.com

E
D

275

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 10.3

16(ii) area of ABC

= (AB)(CE)
2

EC
BC

EC =

AC

( EBC ~ ADC)

DC
BCAC

A
E

DC

area of ABC
1

= (AB)(CE)
2
1

BCAC

2
1

DC
BCAC

= (AB) (
= (AB) (
=
=
17(i)

1)
2)
3)
4)

5)
5)

6)

2
2r
ABBCAC
2(2r)
ABBCAC
4r

)
)

(diameter DC = 2r)

AP BR = PQ2
PQ2 = PC PA
(AP) BR = PC (PA)
RB = PC
AB = AC

given
Tangent-secant thm
(1,2)

AQ is line of symmetry
of iso APR
[Trigonometric proof]
[geometric]
2
2
2
Pythagoras thm
AQ = AP PQ
2
2
[
]
AQ = AP PC PA tangent
secant thm
= AP[AP PC]
= AP[AC]
2
(4)
AQ = AP AB

17(ii) (work in progress)


(S) AQ = AQ
(A) AQP = AQR
(S) QP = QR
AQP AQR

(common side)
(90)
(AQ is line of symmetry)
[Trigonometric proof]
SAS(1,2,3)
R

17(ii) (R) ABQ = ACQ


(H) AQ = AQ
(S) AB = AC
ABQ ACQ

rt in semicircle
common side
AQ is line of symmetry
[trigonometric proof]
RHS(1,2,3)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

276

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(iii) AP = AR
AP
=1
AR
AC = AB
AC
AB
AP
AR

=1
=

AC
AB

=1

Ex 10.3
AQ is line of symmetry
[trigonometric proof]
AQ is line of symmetry
[trigonometric proof]
(1,2)

AP AB = AR AC

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

277

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17

Ex 10.3

Proposition
Given
AE is tangent to diameter CD
AB = EF
Then
CD is line of symmetry
Proof
0 < < 90
cos =
tan =

AB
AD
2r
AD

AD =
AD =

AB
cos
2r
tan

Equate AD:
AB
2r
=
cos tan
(AB) tan = 2r cos
(AB) sin = 2r cos 2
(AB) sin = 2r[1 sin2 ]
(AB) sin = 2r 2r sin2
2r sin2 + (AB) sin 2r = 0
(2r)[sin ]2 + (AB)[sin ] 2r = 0
sin =

(AB)(AB)2 4(2r)(2r)
2(2r)

sin =

(AB) (AB)2 + 16r 2


4r

(AB)+(AB)2 +16r2
4r

or sin =

(AB)(AB)2 +16r2
4r

<0

[rej sin > 0 for 0 < < 90]


There could only be 1 angle for a certain fixed length AB
Similarly, there could be only 1 angle for the same fixed length EF
AB = EF
=
CAD CED
CD is line of symmetry
Alternate proof
Increasing function of sine when is increasing from 0 to 90 and adjacent is increasing

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

278

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18

Ex 10.3

area of ABC
= area of ABO + BCO + CAO
1

2
1

= (AB)r + (BC)r + (CA)r


= r(AB + BC + CA)
2
1

= r(AB + BC + CA)
2
1

= r(perimeter of ABC)
2
1

= r(2s)
2

(S is semi-perimeter of ABC)

= rs

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

279

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 10

Rev Ex 10
A1(i)

Prove: GHI ABC

H
I

HI = BC
GHI = ABC

(S)
(A)

(Given)
(alt. )

AH
= GB
AH (AG) = GB (AG)
GH
= AB
(S)
GHI ABC
A1(ii) Prove: CA GI

(Given)

G
A
C
B

(SAS congruency)
H
I

HGI = BAC
( GHI ABC)
AGI = GAC (s in a line = 180)
(alt. )
CA GI

G
A
C
B

A2(i)

Prove: APQ ~ ABC


APQ = ABC (A)
PAQ = BAC (A)
APQ ~ ABC

A2(ii) Prove: AQ =
AQ
AP

AQ = (
=(
=
A3(i)

AB
AC

AB
AC2

2AB

(Given)
(Common )
AA similarity

AC2
2AB

AC
AB
AC

( APQ ~ ABC)
) AP
AC

)( )
2

(AP =

AC
2

Prove: AEF ~ DEG


(A) AEF = DEG
(A) EAF = EDG
AEF ~ DEG

A
F

(opp. )
(alt. )
(AA similarity)

E
B

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

G
C

280

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 10

A3(ii) Prove: BF = 4AF

(1)
DG
AF

DE
AE

(4)

(AE = AD)

=2

In FCB & GCD,


FCB = GCD (A)
FBC = GDC (A)
FCB ~ GCD
BF

(2)

DG = 2AF

GD

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)

BC
DC

=2
BF = 2DG
= 2(2AF)
= 4AF
A3(iii) Find: |AB|

(D is midpt of BC)
(DG = 2AF)
A

1 cm

A4(i)

AB = AF + BF
= AF + (4AF)
= 5AF
= 5cm
Prove: DPC = BQA
In PDC & QBA,
PD = QB
(S)
PDC = QBA (A)
DC = BA

(S)

BF = 4AF

4 cm

AF = 1cm

G
C

D
A

B
Q

(given)
(equal opp. s of ABCD)
(equal opp. sides
of ABCD)
(SAS congruency)

PDC QBA
DPC = BQA
A4(ii) Prove: AQCP is parallelogram
DPC = BQA
DPC = PCQ
PCA = BQA
PC QA ( )
PC = QA (= )
AQCP is a parallelogram

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

B
Q

(proven)
(alt. )

P
D

(corr. )
(1 pair of & eq. sides)

sleightofmath.com

281

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5(i)

Rev Ex 10

Prove: TU = PQ

There is only 1 straight line connecting T & U.

If V is the midpoint of PR,


TV SR
(PT = TS, PG = GR, mid pt thm)
VU PQ
(RU = RQ, RG = GP, mid pt thm)

U
V
Q

TU = TV + VU
TU SR PQ (SR PQ)
TU = TV

+VU

= ( SR) +VU
2

(PT = TS, TV = VR, midpt thm)

+ ( PQ) (RV = VR = RU =

= SR
2

UQ, midpt thm)


1

2
1

= ( PW) + PQ
1 1

(equal height of trapezium)

= ( PQ) + PQ
2 2
1

2
1

= PQ

+ PQ

4
3

= PQ
4

A5(ii) TU = 3 PQ
4
3

8 = PQ
PQ =
A6(i)

4
32
3

Prove: CE DG
C

In ABD & ACD,


AB = AC
(H)
AD = AD
(S)
ADB = 90
= ADC (R)
ABD ACD
BD = CD
CE DG

(given)
(common side)
( in semicircle)
(s in a line = 180)
(RHS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)

D
F
A

(BD = CD, BG = GE,


mid pt thm)

A6(ii) Prove: AF = 1 AD

(A) FAE = DAG


(A) AFE = ADG
FAE ~ DAG
AF
AD

=
=

AE
AG
1
2
1

(common )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of~ s)

D
F
A

(AE = AG)

= AD
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

282

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A7(i)

Rev Ex 10

C
D
A

Prove: PDF ~ POC


DPF = OPC

(A) (common )

PDF = 180 CDF (s in line = 180)


= CAE
(s in opp. segments)
= 2OAC
(OA bisects CAE arc AC =
arc AE)
= OAC
(iso. OCA with 2 sides as radius)
+ OCA
= POC (A) (ext. = sum of int. opp. s)
(AA similarity)
PDF ~ POC
A7(ii) Prove: PD PC = PF PO
PD

PF

PO

( PDF ~ POC)

PC

PD PC = PF PO
A7(iii) Prove: PB PA = PF PO
In PBD & PCA,
BPD = CPA (A)
PDB = 180 BDC
= PAC (A)
PBD ~ PCA

PB
PD

(common )
(s in a line)
(s in opp. segments)
(AA similarity)

PC
PA

PB PA = PD PC
= PF PO
A8(i)

from (ii)

P
F
D

Q O

ADQ + QDC + CDF


= ADQ + (90) + CDF
= ADQ + 90 + (CFD)
= ADQ + 90 + (OFA)
= ADQ + 90 + (OAF)
= ADQ + 90 + (90 ADQ)
= 180
i.e. A,D and F lie on straight line

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(tan rad)
(iso. CDF with CD = CF)
(Common )
(iso. OAF with OA = OF as radius)
(ADQ)

sleightofmath.com

283

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 10

A8(ii) Prove: AD AF = AQ AB
[

AD
AQ

AB
AF

] or

AD
AB

In ADQ & ABF,


DAQ = BAF (A)
ADQ = 90
= AFB ()
ADQ ~ ABF

B1(i)

AD

AQ

P
F

AQ
AF

(common )
(given)
( in semicircle)
(AA similarity)

Q O

AB
AF

AD AF = AQ AB
Prove: ABF = EDF

(given)
ABD
= EDB
(given)
FBD
= FDB
Subtracting angles,
ABD FBD = EDB FDB
ABF
= EDF
B1(ii) Prove: ABF EDF

F
C

(proven)
(iso. ACE with CA = CE)
(iso. DBF
with FBD = FDB)
(AAS congruency)
ABF EDF
B1(iii) Prove: F is the mid point of AE
ABF = EDF(A)
BAF = DEF(A)
BF = DF
(S)

F
C

AF = EF
( ABF EDF )
F is the mid-point of AE

B2(i)

Prove: YDC ~ XYB


YCD = XBY(A)
YDC = XYB(A)
YDC ~ XYB

X
Y

(corr. )
(corr. )
(AA similarity)

B2(ii) Prove: YC = 2XB


YC
XB

=
=
=

DC
YB
AB
YB
(2YB)

X
A

( YDC ~ XYB)
(DC = AB;
equal opp. sides of ABCD)
(AB = 2YB)

YB

(1)

(2)
D

=2
YC = 2XB

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

284

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B3(i)

Rev Ex 10

Prove: CE = GE

A
D

In CAE & GAE,


CAE = GAE (A)

(AE bisects BAC)

ACB = 90
= ADF
= AGE (A)

(given)
(AB CD)
(corr.)

G
B

AE = AE
(S)
CAE GAE
CE = GE
B3(ii) Prove: CF = CE

B4(i)

(Common side)
(AAS congruency)
(corr. sides of s)
A

CEA = 90 CAE
= 90 DAF
= DFA
= CFE
iso. CEF
CF = CE
Prove: SM = 2TU

( ACE)
(AE bisects BAC)
( AFD)
(opp. )
( with 2 equal s)
(equal sides of iso.)

SM QT

(PS = SQ, PM = MT,


mid pt thm)

In RSM & RUT,


SRM = URT (A)
RSM = RUT (A)
RSM ~ RUT
SM
RM

UT
RT

=2
SM = 2TU
B4(ii) Prove: 4TU = QT
QT = 2SM
= 2(2TU)
= 4TU
4TU = QT

D
F

G
B

common
corr.
(AA similarity)
(corr. sides of ~ s)

(2)

(1)
U
Q

(RM = 2RT)

P
(PS = SQ, PM = MT,
mid pt thm)
(SM = 2TU)

T
U
Q

B4(iii) Find: area of TQR

area of TQR
= (QT)(height)
= (4TU)(height)
2

= 4 [ (TU)(height)]

1
2
1

QT = 4TU

U
Q

T
R

= 4(area of UTR)
= 4x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

285

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B5(i)

Rev Ex 10

Prove: BXDY is a parallelogram


EX BY
XD BY

(AE = EB, AX = XY,


mid pt thm)

FY BX
BX YD

(CF = FB, CY = YX,


mid pt thm)

A
X
E
Y
B

(S)

E
Y
B

(equal opp. sides


of BXDY)

(SAS congruency)
AXB CYD
B5(iii) Prove: ABCD is a parallelogram
AB = CD (= )
CAB = ACD
AB CD( )
ABCD is a

( AXB CYD)
( AXB CYD)
(alt. )
(1 pair of equal & opp.
sides)

B6

Prove: BCD = 2BDA

B7

BCD = BCA + DCA


= (BDA) + DCA (s in same segment)
= BDA + (DBA) (s in same segment)
= BDA + (BDA) (iso. ABD with AB = AD)
= 2BDA
Prove: BC QR

D
X

E
Y
B

F
C

D
B

R
QRP = PQC
= PBC
BC QR

D
X

(S) (given)

YXB = XYD
(alt. )
AXB = CYD (A) (s in a line = 180)
XB = YD

( opp. sides)
BXDY is a
B5(ii) Prove: AXB ~ CYD
AX = CY

C
P

(alt. segment thm)


(s in same segment)
(alt. )

B
Q

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

286

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 10

B8(i)

A
C

C
O

H
R

Prove: PC 2 = PA PB AC BC
In APQ & QPB,
APQ = QPB
PQA = PBA
APQ ~ QPB
PQ
AP

(common )
(alt. segment thm)
(AA similarity)

PB
QP

PQ2 = PA PB
PC 2 = PH 2 + HC 2
= (PQ2 QH 2 ) + HC 2
= PQ2 + (HC 2 QH 2 )
= PQ2 + (HC + QH)(HC QH)
= PQ2 + (CH + HR)(QC)
= PQ2 QC RC
= PQ2 AC BC
= PA PB AC BC

B8(ii) Prove:
PC 2

PC

= (

2 PA

1
PB

(pythagoras thm)
(pythagoras thm)
[a2 b2 = (a + b)(a b)]
QH = HR
(QC RC = AC BC)
(PQ2 = PA PB)
(tangent secant thm)
(not in syllabus)

= PA PB AC BC
= PA PB (PC PA) (PB PC)
= PA PB + (PA PC) (PB PC)
= PA PB + (PA)(PB) (PA + PB)(PC) + PC 2
= 2(PA)(PB) (PA + PB)(PC) + PC 2

PC(PA + PB) = 2(PA)(PB)


PC
1
PC

=
=

2(PA)(PB)
PA+PB
PA+PB
2(PA)(PB)
1 1
1

= (

2 PA

PB

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

287

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.1
4(b)

Ex 11.1
1(a)

sin 45
cos 30+sin 60

1(b)

2
2
3 3
+
2
2

2
2

2
23

6
6

1st quadrant
= 390 360
= 30

=1
+1
=2

sin cos
=
=

3
6
3
3
( )( )
2
2
3
4
5

+ cos
+
+

4(c)

2
1

tan
3

sin tan +cos


3
4
6

Method 1 (graphical)

=
1(d)

3
(

3
3
)(1)+( )
2
2

3
3

1 2

=1

sin =

4(d)

Method 1 (graphical)

= 100

=
4

= 2(2)

1
tan A
1
2

Method 2 (non-graphical)
= 100 260
3rd quadrant
= 180
= 260 180
= 80

3rd quadrant
= 180 100
= 80

+ tan(90 A)

= 2 tan A +

= 60

2 tan A

Method 2 (non-graphical)
= 60 300
4th quadrant
= 360
= 360 300
= 60

4th quadrant
= 60

sin cos(90 ) = sin sin


= (sin )2
=( )

Method 2 (non-graphical)
= 390 30
1st quadrant
=
= 30

tan 45 + tan 30 tan 60


= (1) + ( ) (3)

1(c)

Method 1 (graphical)

= 390

tan A = 2

=4
2

4(a)

Method 1 (graphical)

= 250

3rd quadrant
= 250 180
= 70

Method 2 (non-graphical)
= 250
3rd quadrant
= 180
= 250 180
= 70

5(a)

= 20
= , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 20, 160, 200, 340

5(b)

= 70
= , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 70, 110, 250, 290

5(c)

= 35
= , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 35, 145, 225, 315

6(a)

= , , + , 2
2 4 5
= , , ,
3

6(b)

= , , + , 2
4 6 9
= , , ,
5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

288

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(c)

7(i)

Ex 11.1

= 0.3
= , , + , 2
= 0.3, 2.84, 3.44, 5.98
R=

2(v0 )2
g

9(i)

Right angle triangle


sin A =

By Pythagoras Thm,

sin cos

adj = (3) 12

If v0 = 10, g = 10, = 30:


2(10)2

R =

3 1
A
adj

10

= 3 1
= 2

sin 30 cos 30
1

3
2

cos A =

= 20 ( ) ( )
2

2
3

, tan A =

1
2

= 53
Trigonometric ratio
7(ii)

If v0 = 7, g = 9.8, = 45:
2(7)2

R =
=

sin 45 cos 45

9.8
98 2
( )
9.8 2
2

2
( )
2

=
9(ii)

= 10 ( )
4

1
2

5
A
3

3
5

By Pythagoras Thm,
52

opp =

32

= 2
10(i)

+ tan ( A)
2

4
3

= +
= +
3

= tan A +

8(ii)

sin(90 A)tan 60
= cos A
(3)
= ( )

Trigonometric ratio

=2

9(iii)

=4

sin A = , tan A =

tan A

Right angle triangle


cos A =

tan A sin 45 = ( ) ( )

=5
8(i)

3
2
3
2

cos A cos 30 = ( ) ( )

A = 230

tan A

= 230 180
= 50

1
12

4 sin A

For 0 < B < 360


B = , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 50, 130, 230, 310

+ cos ( A)
2

= 4 sin A + sin A
= 5 sin A

10(ii)

= 5( )

=4

A = 320

= 360 320
= 40
For 0 < B < 360
B = , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 40, 140, 220, 320

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

289

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

Ex 11.1

Right angle triangle


opp
sin A = k =

12

A
adj

hyp

Right angle triangle


cos 35 = k
By Pythagoras Thm,

By Pythagoras Thm,

opp = 1 k 2

adj = 1 k 2

tan 35 =
Trigonometric ratio
cos A = 1 k 2

= 1 k 2 ( )
3

1k2

11(iii)

2 cos
6

tan(90A)

3
2( )
2
1
tan A

= (3) tan A
= 3 (
= k

1k2
k

Trigonometric ratio
tan 35
+ tan 45 + tan 55

11(ii) sin(90 A)tan 30


= cos A tan 30

1 opp
35
k

)
2

1k2
k

+1

=1

=1

=1

=1

=1

+ tan(90 35)

1k2

k
1k2

1k2
k

k
1k2
k
1k2 +k2
k1k2
1
k1k2

1
tan 35
1

k
1k2

1k
3

1k2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

290

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.2
3(a)

Ex 11.2

cos 330 = cos 30


=

Coordinates
x = 1

3
2

A
330

T
C
= 360 330 = 30

y = 3
3(b)

sin 225 = sin 45

r = (1)2 + (3) = 2

cos 240 =
tan 240 =
sec 240 =
csc 240 =
cot 240 =
2(a)

y
r
x
r
y
x

T
C
= 360 225 = 45

(3)

=
=

(2)
(1)
(2)

1
sin 240
1
tan 240

3
2

3(c)

=
=
=

sin 230 < 0

cos 350 > 0

tan 340 < 0

sin 160 > 0

cos

3
4

1
1
2

( )
1
3
( )
2

1
(3)

= 2
=
=

2
3

1
3

9
8

5
6

3(e)

cos(150) = cos 30

3(f)

A
350

C
A
340

) = tan ( )
3

sin = 0.2
3rd or 4th quadrant
11.5

S A
T C

3
2
3

tan = 3
2nd or 4th quadrant
71.6

0 < < 360

0 < < 360

= 180 + , 360
191.5, 348.5

4(b)

S A
150
T C
= 180 150 = 30

=
4(a)

A
160

tan (

= 3

= 180 , 360
108.4, 288.4

>0

tan(45) = tan 45 S A
= 1
45
T C
= 45

<0

3(d)

A
230

T
tan

2(f)

= 3

T
2(e)

= sin
2

T
2(d)

T
2(c)

T
2(b)

sin

(1)

cos 240

(3)

A
225

Trigonometric ratio
sin 240 =

A
9
8

T
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

C
sleightofmath.com

291

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(c)

cos =

Ex 11.2

5(a)

1st or 4th quadrant

=
4

S
T

tan A =

8
15

< 0 2nd or 4th quadrant

90 < A < 180 2nd quadrant


2nd quadrant

0 < < 2
= , 2
7
= ,
4

Quadrant

Coordinates
tan A =

8
15

r A

15
4(d)

cos = 0.7
2nd or 3rd quadrant
0.795

x = 15, y = 8,

r = 82 + (15)2 = 17

Trigonometric ratio

0 < < 2
= , +
2.35,3.94
4(e)

tan2 = 3
tan = 3
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant
= 60

5(b)
S

(17)
8

17

15
17

2
5

< 0 3rd or 4th quadrant

90 < B < 270 2nd or 3rd quadrant


3rd quadrant
Coordinates
sin B =

2
5

3 sin = 2
2

sin

sin

3
2

y = 2, r = 5,

Quadrant
sin B =

= , 180 , 180 + , 360


= 60, 120, 240, 300

(15)

r
y

sin A = =

0 < < 360

4(f)

cos A = =

x = (5) (2)2
= 5 4 = 1

Trigonometric ratio

1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant


0.955

cos B = =
r

0 < < 2

cot B =

= , , + , 2
= 0.955 2.19, 4.10, 5.33

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

1
tan B

1
5

1
y
x

1
(2)
(1)

=
2

292

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6

Ex 11.2

Quadrant

8(i)

cos A = > 0

Coordinates
sin 20 = k =

1st or 4th quadrant

y
r

y = k, r = 1,

cos A & sin A have same sign


1st or 3rd quadrant

20
x

x = 1 k 2

1st quadrant
Trigonometric ratio
sin 200 = sin 20 = k

Coordinates
1

cos A = =

A
8(ii)

x = 1, r = 2,
y = 22 12 = 3

8(iii)

Trigonometric ratio
y

sin(A) = sin A = =
r

tan A = =
x

7(i)

3
1

8(iv)

5
12

9(a)

<0

12

y
x

9(b)
5

(5)2

13

sin A = =

= 13
x

12

13

, cos A = =

cos(A) = cos A =

7(iii)
7(iv)

12

y
x

cos(9070)

k
1k2
1
cos 20

1
1k2

100 + 71 sec x = 0
71 sec x
= 100
sec x

cos x

13

13

tan A

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

71
71

1
5
12

( )

100

= 180 , 180 +
135.2, 224.8

5 cot x + 3 = 2 + 3 cot x
2 cot x
= 1
=

1
2

0 < x < 360

cos ( A) = sin A =

100

x = 180 , 360
= 116.6, 296.6

tan(A) = tan A = (

tan ( A) =

1
sin 70

tan x
= 2
63.4
2nd or 4th quadrant

Trigonometric ratio

7(ii)

csc 70 =

cot x

y = 5, x = 12,
r=

tan(20) = tan 20 =

Coordinates

122

= 1 k 2

0 < x < 360

4th quadrant

12

44.8
2nd or 3rd quadrant

tan A & cos A have opp. signs


3rd or 4th quadrant

[typo in book]

2nd or 4th quadrant

tan A =

1k2

= 3

Quadrant
tan A =

cos 20 = =

) =

12

5
12

12
5

sleightofmath.com

293

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(c)

Ex 11.2
10(a) 2 sin x 3 = 0

5 cos x = 3 sin 60
3
2

5 cos x = 3 ( )
5 cos x =
cos x

sin x

2
3
10

0 < x < 360

2 sin(x) = 0.3
2 sin x = 0.3
sin x
= 0.15
8.6
3rd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 2

72.5
1st or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 360

x = ,
2
= ,
3

10(b)

cos x1
0.5cos x

=2

cos x 1 = 1 2 cos x
3 cos x = 2
cos x
S

0.841
1st or 4th quadrant
0 < x < 2

x = 180 + , 360
188.6, 351.4
9(e)

3
2

1st or 2nd quadrant

x = , 360
= 72.5, 287.5
9(d)

S
T

x = , 2
0.841,5.44

2 cos x = sec x
2 cos x =
cos 2 x =
cos x

10(c)

cos x
1

=7

4
= 7 14 tan2 x
14 tan2 x = 3

4
12 tan2 x

1
2

= 45
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 360

tan2 x

tan x

14
3
14

0.434
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

x = , 180 , 180 + , 360


= 45, 135, 225 , 315

0 < x < 2
9(f)

3 sin x + 2 = cot 15
3 sin x
= cot 15 2
1

sin x

= tan 15

0 < x < 360


x = , 180
35.3, 144.7

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

x = , , + , 2
0.434, 2.71, 3.58, 5.85

sin x
0.57735
35.3
1st or 2nd quadrant

11(i)

sin (x ) = sin [ ( x)]


= sin ( x)
2

= cos x [shown]

sleightofmath.com

294

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.2

11(ii) 3 sin (x ) + 3 = 3 cos x


2

13

3( cos x) + 3 = 3 cos x
3 3 cos x
= 3 cos x
23 cos x
=3
cos x
=

3
2

3 sin B + 2 = 0
3 sin B
= 2
S

1st or 4th quadrant

12

= <0
3

3rd or 4th quadrant


A & B are in different quadrant,
Case 1: A in 1st quadrant, B in 3rd quadrant
Case 2: A in 1st quadrant, B in 4th quadrant
Case 3: A in 3rd quadrant, B in 4th quadrant
Coordinates of A
1st quadrant:
y
x1 = 1
tan A = 2 =
x
in 1st or 3rd quadrant y1 = 2

x = , 2
11

sin B

0 < x < 2
= ,

Quadrant
tan A = 2 > 0
1st or 3rd quadrant

Quadrant
tan = 7 > 0 1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < < 180 1st or 2nd quadrant
1st quadrant

r1 = 12 + 22 = 5
r1

Coordinates
y
tan = 7 =

y = 7, x = 1,

1
2

3rd quadrant:
x2 = 1
y2 = 2

1
r2

r2 = 12 + 22 = 5
3rd quadrant:
y3 = 2
r3 = 3

Coordinates of B

r = 12 + 72

sin B = =

= 50 = 25 2 = 52

in 3rd or 4th quadrant

x3 = 32 (2)2 = 5

Value
v=
=

770 sin 135


sin
3852
7
52

770 sin 45

= 3852

y
r

52
7

770(

2
)
2

x3

7
52

385(5)(2)
7

2
= 550

x4

4th quadrant:
2 y4 = 2
r4 = 3

3 3

x4 = 32 (2)2 = 5
Values
Case 1: 3 sin A tan B
y

r1
2

x3
2

= 3 ( 1) ( 3)
= 3( ) (

) =

4
5

Case 2: 3 sin A tan B


y

r1
2

x4
2

= 3 ( 1) ( 4)
=3 ( )( ) =

Case 3: 3 sin A tan B


y

r2
2

x4
2

= 3 ( 2) ( 4)

=3 ( )( ) =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

295

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14(i)

Ex 11.2

Coordinates
y
sin 130 = k =

15(i)

1 130

k
x

y = k, r = 1,
x = 1 k 2

k
1

14(ii) Coordinates
y
sin 50 = k =
r

50

y = k, r = 1,
x = 1 k 2

y
( )
x

k
1k2

1k2
k

15(ii)

y = 1
r=

k 2

k2, x

= k,

=0

40 1
k

x
r

T C
x 180 + , 360
185.7, 354.3
Combine answers:
x = 161.6, 198.4

cos(220)
( )

Trigonometric ratio

18.4
3rd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 360

= 1 k 2 + k 2
=1

sec(220) =

1
10

10 sin x + 1 0

k2

2
k2)

+ (1

3
10

sin x
<0
x=
10

5.7
161.6, 198.4
3rd or 4th quadrant

y
x

3+10 cos x
10 sin x+1

14(iii) Coordinates
1k2

sin x

Combine answers:
x = 161.6

Trigonometric ratio
tan 40 = cot(90 40)
tan 50

10 sin x + 1 0

18.4
2nd or 3rd quadrant 0 < x < 360
0 < x < 360
S A
S A

T
C

x 180 + , 360
T C
198.4, 341.6
x = 180 , 180 +
161.6, 198.4

sin 50 = sin(180 130) = = k

tan 40 =

=0
10 sin x + 1
3 + 10 cos x = 0
= 3
10 cos x
cos x

Trigonometric ratio

3 + 10 cos x

k
1

1
cos(220)
1

=
k

1
cos(40)

16(i)
(a)

3 sin x 2 = 0
sin x

2
3

41.8
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < x < 360
x = , 180
41.8, 138.2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

296

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(i)
(b)

tan x 4 = 0
tan x
=4
76.0
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < x < 360
x = , 180 +
76.0, 256

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

Ex 11.2
16(ii) 3 sin x tan x 12 sin x 2 tan x + 8 = 0
3 sin x (tan x 4) 2(tan x 4) = 0
(tan x 4)(3 sin x 2)
=0
S

tan x = 4 or sin x =

2
3

x = 41.8, 76.0, 138.2, 256.0

sleightofmath.com

297

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3
1(e)

Ex 11.3
1(a)

(sin x 1)(sin x + 1) = 0
sin x = 1
or sin x = 1
0 x 360

0 x 360

90 180 270 360

1(b)

90 180 270 360

x = 90

x = 270

(3 sin x 1)(tan x + 1) = 0
1
tan x = 1
sin x =
or
3
= 45
19.5
2nd or 4th quadrant
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 x 360
0 x 360
S A
S A

T
C
T C
x = 180 , 360
x = , 180
= 135, 315
= 19.5, 160

2(a)

1 sin x
1
7 7 sin x
7
10 7 sin x 3 4

90 180 270 360

90 180 270 360


1

x = 0, 360

x = 180

sin x (2 cos x 3) = 0
3
sin x = 0
or
cos x =
2

0 x 360

(no solution)

90 180 270 360

For y = 7 sin x 3,
min = 10
sin x = 1
0 x 360
x = 270

x = 0, 180, 360
1(d)

1(f)

0 x 360

1(c)

(cos x 1)(cos x + 1) = 0
cos x = 1
or cos x = 1

T C
x = 0, 180, 360 x = 180 , 360
104.0, 284.0
90 180 270 360

0 x 360

0 x 360

sin2 x (tan x + 4) = 0
tan x = 4
sin2 x = 0
or
76.0
sin x = 0
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 360

tan x (2 cos x 1) = 0
tan x = 0
or cos x = 1

90 180 270 360

0 x 360

= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

max = 4
sin x = 1
x = 90

0 x 360
90 180 270 360

x = 0, 180, 360
T C

x = , 360
= 60, 300

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

298

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(b)

1
5
3

Ex 11.3

cos x
1
5 cos x
5
5 cos x + 2 7

For y = 5 cos x + 2,
min = 3
cos x = 1
0 x 360
x = 180

90 180 270 360

max = 7
cos x = 1
x = 0, 360
2(c)

1 sin x
1
3 3 sin x
3
1 4 3 sin x 7
For y = 4 3 sin x,
min = 1,
sin x = 1
0 x 360
x = 90

90 180 270 360

max = 7
sin x = 1
x = 270

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

299

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

3(a) y = 3 cos(2x) + 2
i.e. a = 3, b = 2, c = 2

y = 3 cos(2x) + 2
5

Amplitude = |a| = |3| = 3


Period =

360
b

360

= 180

180

360

Workings

Domain
0 x 360
Axis with
y=23
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
3600

Cycle

180

=2

3(b) y = 5 sin 2x
= sin 2x + 5
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 5
Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1
Period

2
b

2
2

y = 5 sin 2x

5
4

Workings
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
y=51
Amplitude
Shape
sin
20

Cycle

3(c)

=2

y = 4 sin 8x
i.e. a = 4, b = 8, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4
Period

360
b

360
8

= 45

y = 4 sin(8x)
45

-4

90

Workings

Domain
0 x 90
Axis with
y=04
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
Cycle

900
45

=2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

300

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

3(d) y = 6 cos (x) 4

i.e. a = 6, b = , c = 4

2
b

2
1
2

Amplitude = |a| = |6| = 6


=

Period

= 6 cos ( ) 4

10

= 4

Workings
Domain
0 x 4
Axis with
y = 4 6
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
40

Cycle

=1

3(e) y = 2 sin(3x) 1
i.e. a = 2, b = 3, c = 1
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

360
b

360
3

= 120

1
1

= 2 sin(3)
120 180

Workings
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
y = 1 2
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
1800

Cycle

3(f)

120

= 1.5

y = 2(2 cos 5x)


= 4 2 cos 5x
= 2 cos 5x + 4
i.e. a = 2, b = 5, c = 4

y = 2(2 cos 5x)


6
4

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

360
b

360
5

= 72

72

144 180

Workings
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
y=42
Amplitude
Shape
cos
Cycle

1800
72

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 2.5

sleightofmath.com

301

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

3(g) y = 1 2 sin x

y = 2 sin ( x) + 1

= 2 sin ( x) + 1
3

i.e. a = 2, b = , c = 1

360
b

360
1
3

810

-1 O

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

= 1080
Workings

Domain
0 x 810
Axis with
=12
Amplitude
Shape

8100
3
Cycle
=
1080

3(h) y = 1.3 + 1.2 cos 2t


= 1.2 cos 2t + 1.3
i.e. a = 1.2, b = 2, c = 1.3

y = 1.3 + 1.2 cos 2t


2.5

Amplitude = |a| = |1.2| = 1.2


Period

2
2

1.3
0.1

Workings
Domain
0 2
Axis with
= 1.3 1.2
Amplitude
Shape
+
20
Cycle
=2

4(ii) y|t=4 = 1.2 cos[2(4)] + 1.3


= 1.2 cos 8 + 1.3
= 1.13m
5(i)

y = p cos ( ) + q
2

i.e. a = p, b = , c = q
2

Period

2
b

2
1
2

= 4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

302

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

5(ii) q = min+max = (5)+(3) = 1


2

|p| =

maxmin
2

(3)(5)

=4

p = 4 or p = 4
5(iii) p < q
p = 4, q = 1

y = 4 cos ( x) 1
2

3
x

y = 4 cos ( ) 1
2

-1

Amplitude = 4
Period
= 4

-5

Workings
Domain
0 x 4
Axis with
y = 1 4
Amplitude
Shape
cos
40

Cycle

6(i)

=1

y1 = 4 sin 2x
i.e. a = 4, b = 2, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4
Period

360
b

360
2

= 180

y2 = 2 cos x 1
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 1
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

360
b

360
1

4
1

3
4

180

2 = 2 cos 1

360
1 = 4 sin 2

= 360

Workings
1 = 4 sin 2
Domain
0 < x 360
Axis with
y=04
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
Cycle

3600
180

=2

2 = 2 cos 1
Domain
0 < x 360
Axis with
y = 1 2
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
Cycle

3600
360

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=1

sleightofmath.com

303

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

6(ii) 4 sin(2x) + 1 = 2 cos x


4 sin 2x
= 2 cos x 1
y1
= y2
4 Intersections
4 real roots
7(a) y = 5 tan x
i.e. a = 5, b = 1, c = 0
Period

180
b

180
1

= 180

y = 5 tan
x
360

180

= 90

= 270
Workings

Domain
0 x 360
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+
3600
Cycle
=2
180

7(b)

y = 4 tan 3x
i.e. a = 4, b = 3, c = 0
180
180
Period =
=
= 60
b

= 4 tan 3

60

= 30

120

= 90

180

= 120

Workings
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape

1800
Cycle
=3
60

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

304

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(c)

Ex 11.3

y = 3 tan 2x
i.e. a = 3, b = 2, c = 0
Period

= 3 tan 2

2
=

3
4

3
2

5
4

7
4

Workings
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+tan
20

Cycle

=4

7(d) y = 1.5 tan 4x


i.e. a = 1.5, b = 4, c = 0
Period

= 1.5 tan 4

3
8

5
8

7
8

Workings
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape

0
Cycle
=4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

305

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(a)

Ex 11.3
10(d) A = maxmin = (3.5)(0.5) = 1.5

sin1 ( ) =
2

= 30
8(b) cos 1 ( 1) = 180
2

= 180 60
= 120
8(c)

tan1 (3) =
3

1
2

b=
c=

A = sin1 ( )

4th quadrant

B = cos 1 h, h < 0 2nd quadrant


C = tan1 k
1st or 4th quadrant
A and B cannot be in the same quadrant
9(ii) For A and C to be in the same quadrant,
they have to be in the 4th quadrant.
k<0
10(a) A = maxmin = (5)(1) = 3
2

c=
10(b) A =

=
=

2
(3.5)+(0.5)
2

=2

11(ii) 1 sin 4t 1
20 20 sin 4t 20
max = 20
20 sin 4t = 20
sin 4t = 1

4t =
t

0.393
11(iii) I = 20 sin 4t
i.e. a = 20, b = 4, c = 0
Amplitude
= |a| = |20| = 20
=

2
b

2
4

=
2

a = 3
360

Period

T = 90

b=

T
4
max+min

) =
=

9(i)

a = 1.5

11(i) I = 20 sin 4t
i.e. a = 20, b = 4, c = 0
Amplitude
= |a| = |20| = 20

=
8(d) sin1 (

T = 4

360

T
90
max+min

2
maxmin

= 20 sin 4

= 4

20

(5)+(1)
2
1(3)
2

=2

0
-20

= 2

T=
Workings
a=2
b=
c=

max+min

Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
= 0 20
Amplitude
Shape
+

= 2

(1)+(3)
2

= 1

10(c) A = maxmin = (4)(2) = 3


2

Cycle

T = 180

0
1

=2

a = 3
b=
c=

360

T
180
max+min
2

=2
=

(4)+(2)
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=1

sleightofmath.com

306

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

12(a) y = |6 sin 3x + 2|
i.e. a = 6, b = 3, c = 2

Amplitude = |a| = |6| = 6


Period

2
b

8
4
2

y = |6 sin 3x + 2|

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
=26
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
3
Cycle
2 =
2

12(b) y = |4 cos (x) 1|

i.e. a = 4, b = , c = 1
2

Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4


Period

2
b

2
1
2

= 4

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
= 1 4
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
1
Cycle
=
4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

307

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

12(c) y = |2 tan 3x|


i.e. a = 2, b = 3, c = 0
Period

y = |2 tan 3x|

3
=

2
3
=

5
6

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
Cycle
=3

12(d) y = |5 + 3 sin x|
= |3 sin x + 5|
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 5

8
Amplitude = |a| = |3| = 3
Period

2
b

2
1

= |5 + 3 sin |

= 2

Workings

Domain
0x
Axis with
=53
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
1
Cycle
=
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

308

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

12(e) y = |sin 2x + 1| for 0 x .


i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 1

= |sin 2 + 1|

2
Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1
Period

2
b

2
2

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
=11
Amplitude
Shape
+
0
Cycle
=1

12(f) y = |1.5 cos 4x 2| for 0 x .


i.e. a = 1.5, b = 4, c = 2
Amplitude = |a| = |1.5| = 1.5
Period

2
4

=
2

= |1.5 cos 4 2|

3.5
2
0.5

-2

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
y = 2 1.5
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
0

Cycle

=2

13(i) Amplitude = 4
a=4
Period
360
b

= 120
= 120
=3

c = max amplitude
=24
= 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

309

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(ii) y = 4 sin 3x 2
13(iii) Amplitude = 4
Period
= 120
y = b + c cos ax
= 3 2 cos 4x
= 2 cos 4x + 3
Amplitude = 2
Period

360
4

Ex 11.3
y
5
2
1

-2

= 3 2 cos 4
90

180

= 4 sin 3 2

-6

= 90
Workings

= 4 3 2
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
= 2 4
Amplitude
Shape
+
1800
Cycle
= 1.5
120

y = b + c cos ax
= 3 2 cos 4x
= 2 cos 4x + 3
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
=32
Amplitude
Shape

1800
Cycle
=2
90

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

310

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

14(i) y = a sin (x) + c

16(i) Vertical
component
r sin

Amplitude = 4
a=4
Period
2
1
b

( )

2b
b
14(ii) c

a=

40

= 20

2
2

= 4

b=

= 4

c = 25

= 4
=2

16(ii)

( , sin )

360

180

y
y = 20 sin

45

= min + amplitude
=1+4
=5

180

t + 25

25
5

14(iii) y = 4 sin ( x) + 5

Amplitude = 4
Period
= 4

16(iii) y
20 sin

9
5

(, 9)

sin

(5, 9)

180

180

= 40
t + 25 = 40

3
4

0.848
1

y = 4 sin ( x) + 5
2

(3, 1)

6
Workings

180

180

180

t 2

t = ,
t = 0.848,2.29
= 48.6s, 131. s

Domain
0 x 6
Axis with
=54
Amplitude
Shape
+
60

Cycle

15

3
2

y = a sin bt
Period
2
b

=4
=4
=

Max = 0.55 a = 0.55

y = 0.55 sin t
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

311

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17

Ex 11.3

y1 = 2 cos 2x
i.e. a = 2, b = 2, c = 0

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

2
b

2
2

y2 = 1 + sin x
= sin x + 1
i.e. a = 1, b = 1, c = 1

1 = 2 cos 2

2
1
O

2 = sin + 1
x

-2

Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1


Period

2
b

2
1

= 2

Workings
1 = 2 2
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
=02
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20

=2

2 = + 1
[0,2]
Domain
Axis with
=11
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
2

=1

17(i) 2 cos 2x = sin x + 1


y1 = y2
4 intersections
4 distinct values of x
17(ii)

y
= 2 cos 2

2
O

= sin + 1
x

-2

7 intersections

7 distinct values of x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

312

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

18(i) y1 = sin x
i.e. a = 1, b = 1, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1
Period

2
b

= 2

y2 = 2 cos x
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

2
b

2
1

y
2
1


-1 2

2 = 2 cos

x
2
1 = sin

-2

= 2

18(ii) 2 intersection 2 roots

<x<

Workings
1 =
Domain
0 2
Axis with
=01
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
2

=1

2 = 2
Domain
0 2
Axis with
=02
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=1

sleightofmath.com

313

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19

Ex 11.3

y1 = tan 3x
i.e. a = 1, b = 3, c = 0

Period = =
b

y2 = tan 2x
2

2 tan 3x

= 5 tan 2x

tan 3x

= tan 2x

i.e. a = , b = 2, c = 0
2

2 = tan 2

Period =

1 = tan 3

5
2

y1
= y2
6 intersections
6 solutions

5
6

Workings
1 = 3
Domain
0x
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+
0

Cycle

=3

y2 = tan 2x
2

Domain
0x
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape

Cycle

=2

20(a) tan [cos 1 (1)] = tan()


2

= tan ( )
3
= 3
20(b) sin[tan1 (1)] = sin()

= sin ( )
4

= sin ( )
4

20(c) cos [sin1 ( 3)] = cos()


2

= cos ( )
3

= cos
3
1
=
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

314

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


20(d) cos 1 [cos 4]

Ex 11.3

= cos 1 ( cos )

= cos 1 ( )
2

2
3

21(i) y = 3 cos x + 2
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 2
Amplitude = |a| = |3| = 3
Period

2
b

2
1

= 2

21(ii) x = is line of symmetry


+
2

y
= 3 cos + 2

5
2

-1

= 2

Workings
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
=23
Amplitude
Shape
+

Cycle

20
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=1

sleightofmath.com

315

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

22(i) y1 = 2 + cos x
= cos x + 2
i.e. a = 1, b = 1, c = 2
Amplitude
= |a| = |1| = 1
Period

= 2

y
4
3

= 2 + cos

y2 = 4 sin x
2

i.e. a = 4, b = , c = 0

1
= 4 sin
2
x
2

Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4


Period

2
b

2
1
2

= 4

Workings
1 = 2 +
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
=21
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
2

=1

1
2 =
2
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
=04
Amplitude
Shape
+
Cycle

20
4

1
2

22(ii) 2 sin 1 x k cos x = 1


2

1 k cos x

= 2 sin x
2

2 + 2k cos x

= 4 sin x

y1

= y2

2 + cos x

= 4 sin x
2

Compare coefficient of cos x


2k = 1
1

k=
2

22(iii) x = is line of symmetry


a+c
2

=
= 2 a

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

316

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


23

Ex 11.3

y1 = 3.1 tan 2x
i.e. a = 3.1, b = 2, c = 0
Period

180

180
2

= 90

1 = 3.1 tan 2
2

y2 = 2 cos 4x
i.e. a = 2, b = 4, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

360

360
4

90

2 = 2 cos 4

180

= 90
= 45

= 135

Workings
1 = 3.1 2
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape

1800

Cycle

90

=2

2 = 2 4
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
= 0 2
Amplitude
Shape
+
1800

Cycle

90

=2

T = 90
45 < < 90
2 cos 4x + 3.1 tan 2x = 0
3.1 tan 2x
= 2 cos 4x
3.1 tan 2x = 2 cos 4x
y1
= y2
Period = 90
x = , + 90, + 180, + 270
24(a) Let A = cos 1 ( 1)
5

2nd quadrant
1

cos A = =

5
1

x = 1, r = 5
y = 52 (1)2 = 24

= 26

sin [cos 1 ( )] = sin A=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

26
5

sleightofmath.com

317

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 11.3

24(b) Let B = sin1 ( 2)

4th quadrant
2

sin B = =

y = 2, r = 3,
x = 32 (2)2 = 5
2

tan [sin1 ( )] = tan B =

2
5

25(a) y = cos x tan x


Familiar
y = sin x
25(b) y = sin2 x
y = cos 2 x
Complementary shape
26(a) [check for error]
sin1 (sin x) = x
Dgf = Df =
True
26(b) sin(sin1 x) = x

Dgf = Df = [ , ]
2 2
False
26(c) cos 1 (cos x) = x
Dgf = Df =
False
26(d) tan(tan1 x) = x

Dgf = Df = ( , )
2 2
False
26(e) < x <
2
2
1 (tan
tan
x) = x


Dgf = Df = ( , ) = ( , )
2 2
2 2
True
26(f) If cos x = 0.2 then x = cos 1 0.2
Not necessarily true.
x can assume other values depending on the domain restriction

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

318

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11
A2(i) Quadrant

Rev Ex 11

tan A = > 0
A1(a) 2 cos x 1 = 4 cos x
2 cos x
= 1
cos x

cos B = < 0 2nd or 3rd quadrant


5

Same quadrant 3rd quadrant

1
2

= 60
2nd or 3rd quadrant

0 x 360
x = 180 , 180 +
= 120, 240

Coordinates of A

sin x
=

-3

r = (3)2 + (4)2 = 5
Coordinates of B
3

x2

r2

cos B = =
3
2

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th quadrant

-3
y2

x2 = 3, r2 = 5

y2 = 52 (3)2 = 4
Trigonometric ratio

0 x 2
x = , , + , 2
2 4 5
= , , ,
3

-4
r

y = 3, x = 4,

tan A = =

A1(b) 4 sin2 x = 3
sin2 x

1st or 3rd quadrant

sin A = =

A2(ii) tan(B) = tan B = (y2 ) = (4) = 4


x2

A1(c) (2 sin x + 1)(2 cos x + 5) = 0


sin x =

1
2

or

cos x =

A2(iii) sec A tan B =

(no solution)
= 30
3rd or 4th quadrant
0 x 360
S

=
=

1
2

or

x
r

( )
1
4
5

( )
x2

( )
3

A3(i) y = a cos bx + c

cot x =
tan x =

Amplitude = 3
|a|
=3
a = 3 or a = 3
(rej a is a positive integer)

3
2
2
3

1st or 4th quadrant 0.588


2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 2
S

T C
x = , 2
5
= ,
3

tan B

cos A
1 y2

A1(d) (2 cos x 1)(2 cot x + 3) = 0


=

T C
x = 180 + , 360
= 210, 330

cos x =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

0 x 2

Period = 60
360
b

T C
x = , 2
= 2.55,5.70

= 60
=

360
6

=6
A3(ii) c
(a)

sleightofmath.com

= min + |a|
=4
+3
= 7

319

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A3(ii)
(b)

Rev Ex 11
A4(ii) 3 intersections
3 sol

= 3 cos 6 + 7
10
7

A5(a) 4 tan1 1 cos 1 ( 3)


2

60

120

180

= 4( )

( )

( )

Workings

Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
y=73
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
1800
Cycle
=3

A5(b) cos [sin1 (

1
2

)] = cos()

= cos ( )

60

= cos
=

1
2

A4(ii) y = 5 tan 2x
i.e. a = 5, b = 2, c = 0
Period

2
= 5 tan 2

Workings
Domain
0 x 2\pi
Axis with
Amplitude
Shape
+tan
20
Cycle
=4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

320

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

A6(i) y1 = cos 2x
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 0
Amplitude
= |a| = |1| = 1
Period

2
b

2
2

y2 = 2 sin x
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 0
Amplitude
= |a| = |2| = 2
Period

2
b

2
1

= 2

y
2
1

1 = cos 2

-1

2 = 2 sin

-2

Workings
y1 = cos 2x
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
y=01
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
20
Cycle
=2

y2 = 2 sin x
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
y=02
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
20
Cycle
=1
2

A6(ii) cos 2x = 0.6 for 0 x 2


(a)
y1 = 0.6
4 intersections 4 sol

1
O

1 = cos 2 = 0.6

-1
A6(ii) cos 2x = 2 sin x for 0 x 2
(b)
y1 = y2
2 intersections 2 sol

2
1
O

1 = cos 2

-1

4 sol

2 = 2 sin

-2
A6(ii) cos 2x 2 sin x = 1
for 0 x 2
(c)
cos 2x
= 2 sin x + 1
y1
= 2 sin x + 1

y
3
1
O

= 2 sin + 1
1 = cos 2

-1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

321

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

A6(ii) 2|sec 2x| = |csc x| for 0 x 2


2
1
(d)
=
|cos 2x|
|cos 2x|
2

|sin x|

= |sin x|

|cos 2x| = |2 sin x|


|y1 |
= |y2 |

= 2|sin |
= |cos 2|

4 sol
B1(a) (2 sin2 x + sin x)(tan x 3 cos 20) = 0
sin x (2 sin x + 1)(tan x 2.82)
=0
1
sin x = 0
or
sin x =
or
2
0 x 360
= 30

3rd or 4th quadrant


1
90 180 270 360

x = 0, 180, 360

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

0 x 360
S

T C
x = 180 + , 360
= 210, 330

tan x = 2.82
70.5
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 x 360
S

T C
x = , 180 +
= 70.5, 250.5

sleightofmath.com

322

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

B1(b) |3 tan x 1| = 2
3 tan x 1 = 2
3 tan x
=3
tan x
=1
= 45
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 x 360
S

tan x

0 < x < 2

r = 12 + (2)2 = 5
Trigonometric ratio

1
tan A

1
2

=
2

B3(iii) sin ( A) cos 150


2

( cos 30)

= cos A

0 < x < 2

y = 2, x = 1

B3(ii) cot A =

S A

T C
x = , +
3
5
= ,

x=

Coordinates
y
tan A = 2 =

sin(A) = sin A = = ( ) =

2nd or 3rd quadrant

B3(i) Quadrant
A = tan1 (2) 4th quadrant

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 161.6, 341.6

B1(c) tan x (2 cos x + 1) = 0


tan x = 0
cos x =

18.4
2nd or 4th quadrant

T C
x = , 180 +
= 45, 225

B1(d)

0 x 360

90 180 270 360

B2(iv) q = 6
p = 2 8 = 6

3 tan x 1 = 2
3 tan x
= 1

=
=
=

1
5
1
5
5
5

5
5

15
10

3
)
2

3
)
2

3
)
2

=3

sec x1

sec x 1 =
sec x

cos x

2
3
5
3
3
5

0.927
1st or 4th quadrant

S
T

0 < x < 2
x = , 2
= 0.927,5.36
B2(i) A = maxmin = (2)(6) = 4
2
2
B2(ii)
T = 8
a = 4
b=
c=

T
8
max+min
2

=
=

4
2+(6)
2

= 2

B2(iii) (6 + 8, 2)
(14, 2)
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

323

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

B4(i) y1 = |2 cos x 1|
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 1

B5(ii) y = 3 tan x + 1
i.e. a = 3, b = 1, c = 1
180 180
Period =
=
= 180
b
1

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

2
b

2
1

= 2

3
1

1 = |2 cos 1|
2

y = 3 tan x + 1

y2 =

2x
3

+1

150

330

= 90

Workings
Domain
0 < x < 2
Axis with
y = 1 2
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
20
Cycle
=1

360

180

= 270

Workings
Domain
0 x 360
Axis with
y=1
Amplitude
Shape
+tan
3600
Cycle
=2

180

B4(ii) 2x + 3 = 3|2 cos x 1|

2x
3

+1

= |2 cos x 1|
B5(iii) 3 tan x + 1 0

y2
= y1
3 sol

0 x < 90 or 150 x < 270


or 330 x 360

B5(i) 3 tan x + 1 = 0
tan x

1
3

= 30
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 360
x = 180 , 360
= 150, 330

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

324

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 11

B6(i) y = cos 2x
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 0

Amplitude = |a| = |1| = 1


Period

2
b

2
2

2
1
1
2

= cos 2
x

= 2 sin 6

y = 2 sin 6x
i.e. a = 2, b = 6, c = 0
Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2
Period

2
b

2
6

Workings
y1 = cos 2x
Domain
0x
Axis with
y=02
Amplitude
Shape
+sin
0
Cycle
=3

y2 = 2 sin 6x
Domain
0x
Axis with
y=01
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
0
Cycle
=1

B6(ii) cos 2x = 2 sin 6x


[Symmetry]

x = is vertical line of symmetry for y = cos 2x


2

( , 0) is point of symmetry for y = cos 2x


2

x=+( )
2

Period of collective graph =


x = + ()

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

325

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.1
2(i)

Ex 12.1
1(a)

sec x cos x =

1
cos x

1(d)

sin x cot x = sin x (

cos x
sin x

3rd quadrant:
y = 1, r = 3,

x = 32 (1)2 = 8
4th quadrant:
y2 = 1, r2 = 3,

sin x
(1cos x)(1+cos x)

sec =

sin x
1cos2 x
sin x

sin2 x
1

sin x

sin =

2(ii)

cos = 1 sin2

sec =

tan =

x
r

2
1(1)
3

1
8

= 8 =
3

3
8

3(a)

3
8
3
8

or

1
8
3

3
8

= sin sec
1

3
1

x
1
8
1

=(

cos

= ( ) (

y
1

or

1
cos x

LHS = sec x

sin

or

8
3

1sin2
1

tan =
=

cos = 1 sin2
cos

-1

cos
1

=
Method 1 (non-graphical)

-1

x2

x2 = 32 12 = 8
Values

= csc x

2(ii)

(sec x + 1)(sec x 1)
= sec 2 x 1
= (tan2 x + 1) 1
= tan2 x

2(i)

3rd or 4th quadrant

= cos x
1(c)

sin = = < 0

cos x

=1
1(b)

Method 2 (graphical)
Coordinates

sin x
) sin x

sin x
cos x

= tan x

= RHS [proven]

3(b)

LHS = cos x tan x


= cos x (

sin x
cos x

= sin x
= RHS [proven]
3(c)

LHS =
=

cos2 x+sin2 x
1cos2 x
1
sin2 x

= csc 2 x
= RHS [proven]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

326

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(d)

3(e)

Ex 12.1

LHS = 2 + 3 sin2 x
= 2 + 3(1 cos 2 x)
= 2 + (3 3 cos 2 x)
= 5 3 cos 2 x
= RHS [proven]

6(ii)

1
cos2 x

sin2 x
cos2 x
2

1
sin2 x
1

sin x

sin x

sin (

7(c)

2+2 cos 2+2 cos

1
cos2 x

LHS

= (1 +
=(

sin x
1
cos x
1
) (1 +
)

+
cos x cos x
sin x sin x

cos x+sin x1
cos x

sin x+cos x+1


sin x

(sin x + cos x)2 12


sin x cos x

= 4 cot [shown]

sin2 x + 2 sin x cos x + cos 2 x 1


sin x cos x

x
= 3 cos
x
cos =

= sin (
=

sin2

4 cos
sin

= 2 tan

=2

(1)

sin

1
2

(2)

=2
= RHS [proven]

sub (1) into (2):


1

2
xy

2 sin x cos x + sin2 x + cos 2 x 1


sin x cos x
2 sin x cos x + (1)
1
=
sin x cos x
2 sin x cos x
=
sin x cos x

cos

sin = y cos

= (1 + tan x sec x) (1 + cot x + csc x)

1cos2

xy

= tan2 x
= RHS [proven]

1cos
1+cos
2(1+cos )2(1cos )

= sin (

6(i)

LHS = sin2 x + tan2 x sin2 x


= sin2 x (1 + tan2 x)
= sin2 x (sec 2 x)
= sin2 x (

LHS = (sin + cos )2


= sin2 + 2 sin cos + cos 2
= sin2 + cos 2 +2 sin cos
=1
+2 sin cos
= RHS [shown]
2

7(b)

= csc x cot x
= RHS [proven]
4

xy 2

LHS = sin4 x cos 4 x


= (sin2 x)2 (cos 2 x)2
= (sin2 x + cos 2 x) (sin2 x cos 2 x)
(sin2 x cos 2 x)
=1
= sin2 x cos 2 x
= RHS [proven]

) cos x
cos x

+ (6

7(a)

LHS = (1 + cot 2 x) cos x


= (csc 2 x) cos x
=(

= 4x 2

= 4(9 cos 2 ) +36 sin2


= 36 cos 2 +36 sin2
= 36(sin2 + cos 2 )
= 36

= tan x
= RHS [proven]
3(f)

+x 2 y 2
+(xy)2

= 4(3 cos )2 +(6 sin )2 x = 3 cos , sin =

LHS = sin2 x (1 + tan2 x)


= sin2 x (sec 2 x)
= sin2 x (

4x 2
= 4x 2

sin = y ( )
sin =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

327

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(e)

Ex 12.1

LHS
=

8(ii)

LHS = csc 2 x + sec 2 x

3 6 cos 2 x
sin x cos x

=
=

3(sin2 x + cos 2 x)
6 cos 2 x
=
sin x cos x
2

3 sin x + 3 cos x
6 cos x
sin x cos x

3 sin2 x 3 cos 2 x
sin x cos x

1
sin2 x

1
cos2 x

cos2 x+sin2 x
sin2 x cos2 x
1
sin2 x cos2 x

= csc 2 x sec 2 x
= RHS [proven]
8(iii)

3(sin2 x cos 2 x)
=
sin x cos x
3(sin x + cos x)(sin x cos x)
=
sin x cos x

LHS = (cot x + tan x)2


= (csc x sec x)2
= csc 2 x sec 2 x
= csc 2 x + sec 2 x

= 3(sin x + cos x)

= RHS [deduced]

= RHS [proven]
9
7(f)

LHS
1

=
1

1
1

1
1
tan2 x
=

cot x)

1
1 (tan2 x + 1)

1
1
1 sec 2 x

LHS
= (sec x + tan x)(sec x tan x)
+(csc x + cot x)(csc x

1
1 + cot 2 x

= sec 2 x tan2 x

+ csc 2 x cot 2 x

= (tan2 x + 1) tan2 x

+(cot 2 x + 1) cot 2 x

=1

+1

=2
1

1
1
csc 2 x
1
1
=
=
= sec 2 x = RHS
2
1 sin x cos 2 x

= RHS [proven]
10

LHS
= (sin + cos )2 (sin + cos )(sin cos )
= (sin + cos )[(sin + cos ) (sin cos )]

[proven]

= (sin + cos )(2 cos )


8(i)

LHS = cot x + tan x


=
=
=

cos x
sin x

= 2 cos (sin + cos )

sin x

= RHS [proven]

cos x

cos2 x+sin2 x
sin x cos x
1
sin x cos x

= csc x sec x
= RHS [proven]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

328

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11

Ex 12.1

sin x + sin y = a
sin y
= a sin x

13
(1)

cos x + cos y = a
cos y
= a cos x

1sin x

LHS =

1+sin x
1sin x

1+sin x

(2)

(1)2 + (2)2 :
sin2 y + cos 2 y = (a sin x)2
+(a cos x)2
2
2
1
= (a 2a sin x + sin x) +(a2 2a cos x +
cos 2 x)
1
= 2a2 2a(sin x + cos x) + sin2 + cos 2 x
1
= 2a2 2a(sin x + cos x) +1
2a(sin x + cos x) = 2a2
sin x + cos x = a
k=
1
k

=
=
=
=
=

1sin x
1sin x

(1sin x)2

12(i)

1sin2 x

(1sin x)2

=
=

cos2 x

1sin x
cos x

(1 sin x) > 0
[
]
cos x > 0
for acute x

= sec x tan x
= RHS [proven]
Different restriction results in different output of
trigo f(x)

1+sin x
cos x

13(i)

cos x
1+sin x
cos x
1+sin x

1sin x
1+sin x

1sin x
1sin x

cos x(1sin x)

1 sin x 1 sin x

1 + sin x 1 sin x

(1 sin x)2
1 sin2 x

(1 sin x)2
cos 2 x

1sin2 x
cos x(1sin x)
cos2 x
1sin x
cos x

[proven]

12(ii) k + 1 = 1+sin x + 1sin x


k
k2 +1
k

cos x =

cos x
2

cos x
2k
k2 +1

Put cos x =
2k2
k2 +1

2k
k2 +1

into k =

= 1 + sin x

=
=
=

sin x = 1
sin x

1 sin x
cos x
x is obtuse, (1 sin x) > 0, cos x < 0
= sec x + tan x
= tan x sec x

cos x

1+sin x
cos x

,
13(ii)

2k2
k2 +1

2k2
k2 +1
2k2
k2 +1
k2 1
k2 +1

={

k2 +1

1 sin x
1 + sin x

14

k2 +1

sec x tan x , for x in 1st or 4th quadrant

tan x sec x for x in 2nd or 3rd quadrant

4 sin A cos A +(cos 2 A 10 sin A cos A + 25 sin2 A)


+9 cos 2 A + 6 sin A cos A + sin2 A
= 10 cos 2 A + 26 sin2 A
= 10 cos 2 A + 26(1 cos 2 A)
= 26 16 cos 2 A
= p cos 2 A + q
p = 26
q = 16

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

329

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.2
2(b)

Ex 12.2
1(a)

5 cos x + 2 sin x = 0
2 sin x
= 5 cos x
tan x

5
2

90 180 270 360

0 < x < 360


x = , 180 +
53.1, 233.1

3(b)

0 < x < 360


x = 180 , 360
= 149.0, 329.0

T C
x = 180 + , 360
= 191.5, 348.5

90 180 270 360

x = 270

2 tan2 x 3 tan x 2 = 0
(2 tan x + 1)(tan x 2) = 0
1
tan x =
or tan x = 2
2
63.4
26.6
1st or 3rd quadrant
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 360
S

sin x sin x tan x = 0


sin x (1 tan x) = 0
sin x = 0
or
tan x = 1

= 45
1
1st or 3rd quadrant
90 180 270 360

0 < x < 360

T C
x = , 180
= 30, 150

41.0
2nd or 4th quadrant

11.5
3rd or 4th quadrant

2 sin2 x + sin x 1
=0
(2 sin x 1)(sin x + 1) = 0
1
sin x =
or sin x = 1
2
0 x 360
= 30

1st or 2nd quadrant


1
0 x 360

3 cos x + 7 sin x = 2 sin x


5 sin x
= 3 cos x
tan x

2(a)

3(a)

53.1
1st or 3rd quadrant

1(c)

0 < x < 360


x = 180

3(sin x cos x) = cos x


3 sin x 3 cos x = cos x
3 sin x
= 4 cos x

0 < x < 360


x = 180 , 360
111.8, 291.8

tan x

68.2
2nd or 4th quadrant

1(b)

tan x + 5 tan x sin x = 0


tan x (1 + 5 sin x) = 0
tan x = 0
or sin x = 1

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 153.4, 333.4

0 x 360
S

T C
x = , 180 +
= 63.4, 243.4

0 < x < 360

0 < x < 360


x = 180

T C
x = , 180 +
= 45, 225

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

330

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(c)

Ex 12.2

6 cos 2 x 5 cos x 1
=0
(6 cos x + 1)(cos x 1) = 0
1
cos x =
or cos x = 1

4(a)

4 sin x cos x 3 sin x = 0


sin x (4 cos x 3) = 0
3
sin x = 0
or
cos x =
4

0 x 2

80.4
0 x 360
2nd or 3rd quadrant

0.723
1st or 4th quadrant

0 x 2

0 x 360
S A

T C
x = 180 , 180 +
= 99.6, 260.4
3(d)

90 180 270 360

90 180 270 360

1
3

x = 0, , 2

x = 0, 360

4(b)

or sec x = 2

cos x = 3
(no solution)

3 sec 2 x 7 sec x + 2 = 0
(3 sec x 1)(sec x 2) = 0
sec x =

cos x =

3 sin2 x + sin x cos x


sin x (3 sin x + cos x)
sin x = 0
or
0 x 2

= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

90 180 270 360

x = 0, , 2

0 x 360
S

T C
x = , 360
= 60, 300
3(e)

x = 0, 180, 360

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

4(c)

0 x 360
S

=0
=0
3 sin x = cos x
tan x =

1
3

0.322
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 2
S

T C
x = , 2
= 2.82,5.96

7 sin3 x + sin2 x = 0
sin2 x (7 sin x + 1) = 0
sin x = 0
or sin x = 1
7
0 x 360
8.2

3rd or 4th quadrant


1
90 180 270 360

T C
x = , 2
= 0.723,5.56

2 csc 2 x 7 csc x 4 = 0
(2 csc x + 1)(csc x 4) = 0
1
csc x = 4
csc x =
or
2

sin x = 2
(no solution)

sin x =

1
4

0.253
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 x 2

T C
x = 180 + , 360
188.2, 351.8

T C
x = ,
= 0.253, 2.89

sleightofmath.com

331

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(d)

Ex 12.2

2 cos 2 x cos x 1 = 0
(2 cos x + 1)(cos x 1) = 0
1
cos x =
or cos x = 1
=

0 x 2
1

90 180 270 360

S A

T C
x = , +

4(e)

2 4
3

x 60 = , 180 +
= 30, 210
x
= 90, 270

x = 0, 2
5(c)

3 sin 2x + 2 = 0
sin 2x

2
3

41.8
3rd or 4th quadrant

2 cos x 3 cos x sin x = 0


cos x (2 3 sin2 x) = 0
cos x = 0
or 3 sin2 x = 2
0 x 2

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

2
3
2

sin x =

90 180 270 360


1

x= ,
2

5(a)

sin2 x =

1
3

0 < x
< 360
60 < x 60 < 300

0 x 2

tan(x 60) =

= 30
1st or 3rd quadrant

2nd or 3rd quadrant

5(b)

2x = 180 + , 360 , 540 + , 720


= 221.8, 318.2,
581.8, 678.2
x = 110.9, 159.1,
290.9, 339.1

0.955
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quad.
0 x 2

S A

T C
x = , , + , 2
= 0.955,2.19,4.10,5.33

cos 2x = 0.5
= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

5(d)

0 < x
< 360
40 < 2x 40 < 680

2x 40 = ,
, 360 ,
360 + , 720

= 36.9, 36.9, 323.1, 406.9, 683.1


x
1.6,
38.4, 181.6, 218.4

T
0 < x < 360
0 < 2x < 720
2x = , 360 , 360 + , 720
= 60, 300, 420, 660
x = 30, 150, 210, 330

cos(2x 40) = 0.8


36.9
1st or 4th quadrant

6(a)

10 sin 2x = 3
sin 2x

3
10

0.305
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < x < 2
0 < 2x < 4

2x = , ,
2 + , 3
= 0.305, 2.84, 6.59, 9.12
x = 0.152, 1.42, 3.29, 4.56

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

332

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

Ex 12.2

cot 2x = 2
tan 2x =

R
= 55
64 sin 2 = 55

0.463
2nd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 2
0 < 2x < 4

sin 2

tan ( x) =

0.983
1st or 3rd quadrant
S
0 < x < 2

0< x<
2

1
2

x
6(d)

3 sin x + 2 cos x = 2(sin x + 3 cos x)


3 sin x + 2 cos x = 2 sin x + 6 cos x
sin x
= 4 cos x
tan x
=4
76.0
1st or 3rd quadrant
S A

0 < x < 360


T C
x = , 180 +
76.0, 256.0

8(b)

sin x3 cos x

5
4
4
5

2x = , + ,
2.50, 3.79
x 1.25, 1.89

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2 sin x+cos x

=2

sin x 3 cos x = 4 sin x + 2 cos x


3 sin x
= 5 cos x

0.644
2nd or 3rd quadrant
0 < x < 2
0 < 2x < 4

8(a)

4 sec 2x + 5 = 0
cos 2x

64

2 = , 180
59.2, 120.8
29.6, 60.4

0.983
1.97

55

0 < < 90
0 < 2 < 180

x = , +

sec 2x

59.2
1st or 2nd quadrant

2x = , 2 , 3 , 4
= 2.68, 5.81,
8.96, 12.1
x = 1.34,2.91,
4.48, 6.05
6(c)

R = 64 sin 2

tan x

5
3

59.0
2nd or 4th quadrant

0 < x < 360


x = 180 , 360
121.0, 301.0

3 , 3 +
8.78, 10.1
4.39, 5.03

sleightofmath.com

333

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(a)

2 sin x

Ex 12.2

= tan x

2 sin x

9(d)

sin x

cos x

2 sin x cos x
= sin x
sin x (2 cos x 1) = 0
sin x = 0
or cos x = 1
2

0 < x < 360

6 2 cos 2 x
6 2(1 sin2 x)
6 2 + 2 sin2 x
2 sin2 x 9 sin x + 4
(2 sin x 1)(sin x 4)
sin x =

= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

= 9 sin x
= 9 sin x
= 9 sin x
=0
=0
or sin x = 4

1
2

(no solution)
= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant

90 180 270 360

T C
x = , 360
= 60, 300

x = 180

9(b)

0 < x < 360

0 < x < 360

sec 2 x
= 4 sec x 3
2
sec x 4 sec x + 3
=0
(sec x 1)(sec x 3) = 0
sec x = 1
or sec x = 3
1
cos x = 1
cos x =

T C
x = , 180
= 30, 150
9(e)

90 180 270 360

no solution

9(c)

70.5
1st or 4th quadrant

cos x =

1
2

1
cos2 x

or

cos x = 3

0 < x < 360

T C
x = , 360
70.5, 289.5

T C
x = , 360
= 60, 300
9(f)

2 tan x

= 3 + 2 cot x

2 tan x

= 3 + 2(

1
tan x

2 tan x
= 3 tan x + 2
2
2 tan x 3 tan x 2
=0
(2 tan x + 1)(tan x 2) = 0

or cos x = 3

= 60
(no solution)
2nd or 3rd quadrant

tan x =

1
2

or tan x = 2

26.6
63.4
2nd or 4th quadrant 1st or 3rd quadrant

0 < x < 360

S A

T C
x = 180 , 180 +
= 120, 240

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

7 cos x 3

2
sec2 x
2

(no solution)
= 60
1st or 4th quadrant

2 sin2 x + 5 cos x + 1
=0
2
2(1 cos x) + 5 cos x + 1 = 0
2 2 cos 2 x + 5 cos x + 1 = 0
2 cos 2 x + 5 cos x + 3
=0
2
2 cos x 5 cos x 3
=0
(2 cos x + 1)(cos x 3) = 0

cos x =

0 < x < 360

7 cos x 3

7 cos x 3
= 2 cos 2 x
2
2 cos x 7 cos x + 3 = 0
(2 cos x 1)(cos x 3) = 0

0 < x < 360

0 < x < 360


S

T C
x = 180 , 360
153.4, 333.4

sleightofmath.com

0 < x < 360


S

T C
x = , 180 +
63.4, 243.4

334

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.2

10(a) 2 tan2 x 1
= 5 sec x
2
2(sec x 1) 1
= 5 sec x
(2 sec 2 x 2) 1
= 5 sec x
2
2 sec x 5 sec x 3 = 0
(2 sec x + 1)(sec x 3) = 0
sec x =

1
2

11(b)
|2 cos x + 3 sin x| = sin x
2 cos x + 3 sin x = sin x or
2 sin x
= 2 cos x
tan x
= 1
45
2nd or 4th quadrant

or sec x = 3

cos x = 2
(no solution)

cos x =

0 < x < 180

0 x 2

T C
x = 180 , 360
135

T C
x = , 2
= 1.23, 5.05

2nd or 4th quadrant


0 x 2

0 x 2
S

T C
x = , +
= 0.785, 3.93

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

0 < x
< 360
10 < 2x + 10 < 730
0
2x + 10 = 180 , 360 , 540 , 720
116.6, 296.6,
476.6, 656.6
x

0 < x < 180


x = , 180 , 180 + , 360
= 55, 125

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 153.4

12(b) cot(2x + 10) = 0.5


tan(2x + 10) = 2
63.4
2nd or 4th quadrant

1sin 20

= 55
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

2x 20 = ,
, 360 ,
360 + , 720

= 18.2, 18.2, 341.8, 378.2, 701.8


x
= 0.9,
19.1, 180.9, 360.9

11(a) 2 cos 2 x + sin 20 = 1


2 cos 2 x
= 1 sin 20
=

0 < x < 180

cos x

26.6
2nd or 4th quadrant

0 < x
< 360
20 < 2x 20 < 700

1st or 3rd quadrant

T C
x = , 2
= 2.82, 5.96

12(a) cos(2x 20) = 0.95


18.2
1st or 4th quadrant

10(b) csc 2 x
+2 cot x = 4
2
(cot x + 1) + 2 cot x = 4
cot 2 x + 2 cot x 3 = 0
(cot x + 3)(cot x 1) = 0
cot x = 3
or
cot x = 1
1
tan x = 1
tan x =
3

=
0.322

tan x

1.23
1st or 4th quadrant

2 cos x + 3 sin x = sin x


4 sin x
= 2 cos x

53.3, 143.3,

233.3, 323.3

sleightofmath.com

335

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.2

12(c) csc(2x + 60) = 4


sin(2x + 60) =

13(b) sin (3x + 5) = 3


2

14.5
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < x
< 360
60 < 2x + 60 < 780

<x

<

0.833 <
2x + 60
= , 180 , 360 + , 540 , 720 + , 900

= 14.5, 165.5, 374.5, 525.5


734.5, 885.5
x 52.8,
157.24, 232.8, 337.2

3x
2

0 < x
< 360
60 < 2x 60 < 660
2x 60
= , 180 , 360 ,

+
+

6
5
6

< 3 +

5
6

< 10.258

= , , 2 + , 3 ,

4 + ,

= 0.448,2.69, 6.73, 8.97,


= 1.24,
3.93, 5.43

13.0

sin(2x 3)

0.216
3rd or 4th quadrant

14
3
3
14

0 <x
< 2
3 < 2x 3 < 4 3
3 < 2x 3 < 9.57

495, 675

2x 3
= 2 , + , ,
3 + , 4 ,

277.5

x = 7.5, 97.5, 187.5


13(a) cot(3x + 0.5) = 3

+ , 2 ,

= 6.50
2.93, 0.216, 3.36, 6.06,
9.64, 12.4

1
3

0.22
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 <x
< 2
0.5 < 3x + 0.5 < 6 + 0.5
0.5 < 3x + 0.5 < 19.3

3x + 0.5
= , + ,
2 + , 3 + ,
6 +

x 0.988,
6.22

2
3x

< 2
5

csc(2x 3)

540 , 720 ,

= 45, 135,315,

0.322,3.46,
19.2

3x

13(c) 3 csc(2x 3) + 15 = 1

12(d) tan(2x 60) = 1


= 45
2nd or 4th quadrant

tan(3x + 0.5) =

0.448
1st or 2nd quadrant

14(a) sin(3x + 70) = 0.2


11.5
1st or 2nd quadrant

4 + , 5 + ,

6.60, 9.75,

12.88, 16.03,

2.04, 3.08,

4.13, 5.17

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 0.0372, 1.39, 3.18, 4.53

sleightofmath.com

0 < x
< 180
70 < 3x + 70 < 610
3x + 70 = , 180 ,
= 11.5, 168.5,
x
= 32.8,

360 + , 540
371.5, 528.5
100.5, 152.8

336

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 12.2

14(b) 8 csc 2x cot 2x


8(

1
sin 2x

)(

cos 2x
sin 2x

=3
)

=3

8 cos 2x
8 cos 2x
8 cos 2x
3 cos 2 2x + 8 cos 2x 3
(3 cos 2x 1)(cos 2x + 3)
cos 2x =

1
3

16

= 3 sin2 2x
= 3(1 cos 2 2x)
= 3 3 cos 2 2x
=0
=0

1
cos

or cos 2x = 3

2
3

=4

cos

2
2

cos =

1
4

is obtuse
2nd quadrant
(rej cos
< 0 in 2nd quadrant)

is obtuse
2nd quadrant

0 < x < 180


0 < 2x < 360

3
-2

T C
2x = , 360
= 70.5, 289.5
x = 35.3, 144.7

x = 2, r = 3,
y = (3)2 (2)2
= 5
y

tan = =
x

2 sin x cos x cos x


+4 sin x 2
(2
= cos x sin x 1)
+2(2 sin x 1)
= (2 sin x 1)(cos x + 2)

15(ii) 2 sin x cos x 2


= cos x 4 sin x
2 sin x cos x cos x + 4 sin x 2 = 0
(2 sin x 1)(cos x + 2)
=0
1
cos
x
= 2
sin x =
or
2
(no solution)
= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant
360 x 360
S

cos =

(no solution)
70.5
1st or 4th quadrant

15(i)

2 tan2
= 5 sec + 10
2
2(sec 1)
= 5 sec + 10
2 sec 2 2
= 5 sec + 10
2
2 sec 5 sec 12 = 0
(2 sec + 3)(sec 4) = 0
3
sec = 4
sec =
or

5
2

5
2

17(a) 3 cos 2 2x + 4 sin 2x


3(1 sin2 2x) + 4 sin 2x
3 3 sin2 2x + 4 sin 2x
3 sin2 2x 4 sin 2x 2

sin 2x =
=
sin 2x =

=1
=1
=1
=0

4(4)2 4(3)(2)
2(3)
4210
6
2+10
3

1.72
(no solution)

440
6

4410
6

210
3

sin 2x =

210
3

0.387

22.8
3rd or 4th quadrant
0 < x < 360
0 < 2x < 720

T C
x = 360 + , 180 ,
, 180

T C
2x = 180 + , 360 ,
540 + , 720

= 330, 210,
30, 150

202.8, 337.2,
562.8, 697.2
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

101.4, 168.6,
281.4, 348.6

337

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(b) sec x (tan x 2)
(

1
cos x

Ex 12.2
= 2 csc x

) (tan x 2)

sin x
cos x

= 2(

(tan x 2)

=
=

sin x
2

cos

sin x
)
cos x

tan x

223
2

212
2

243
2

(
tan x = 1 + 3
69.9
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < x < 360

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 143.8, 323.8

3x = ,
2

2,
x

3
2

+ 2

6 2

= ,

(2)

2010 sin A 2
F

) +(

(3)

10 cos A 2

=1

100 cos2 A

=1

F2

400 400 sin A + 100 sin2 A + 100 cos 2 A = F 2

T C
x = , 180 +
= 69.9, 249.9

2010 sin A

F2

400 400 sin A + 100(sin2 A + cos 2 A)

= F2

400 400 sin A + 100

= F2

F2

= 500 400 sin A

F = 500 400 sin A or F = 500 400 sin A

(NA)
18(ii)

tan =

sin
cos

2010 sin A
)
F
10 cos A
(
)
F

2010 sin A
10 cos A

2sin A
cos A

[shown]
18(iii) Put A = 30 in F = 500 400 sin A,

0x
0 3x 3

400400 sin A+100 sin2 A

17(c) sin 3x (4 sin 3x 3 cos 3x)


=4
2
4 sin 3x 3 sin 3x cos 3x
=4
2
4(1 cos 3x) 3 sin 3x cos 3x = 4
(4 4 cos 2 3x) 3 sin 3x cos 3x = 4
4 cos 2 3x 3 sin 3x cos 3x
=0
cos 3x (4 cos 3x + 3 sin 3x)
=0
cos 3x = 0
3 sin 3x = 4 cos 3x
4
0x
tan 3x =
3
0 3x 3
0.927

2nd or 4th quadrant


1
90 180 270 360

(1)

sin2 + cos 2 = 1
sub (1) & (2) into (3):

= 1 3

tan x = 1 3
36.2
2nd or 4th quadrant
0 < x < 360

10
cos A

sin

tan x 2 tan x
=2
2
tan x 2 tan x 2 = 0
2(1)

10 sin A + F sin = 20
F sin
= 20 10 sin A

2(2)2 4(1)(2)

= cos

cos A

tan x =

10 cos A = F cos
10

(tan x 2)

tan x 2

18(i)

F|A=30 = 500 400 sin 30


1
= 500 400 ( )
2
= 500 200 = 300 = 103
Put A = 30 in tan =
tan =

T C
3x = , 2 ,
3

2sin 30
cos 30

1
2
3
2

2sin A
cos A

3
2
3
2

= 3

= 60

= 2.21, 5.36,
8.50
x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 0.738, 1.79,
2.83

sleightofmath.com

338

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12
A2(a) 5 sin2 x 8 sin x cos x = 0
sin x (5 sin x 8 cos x) = 0
sin x = 0
or
5 sin x = 8 cos x

Rev Ex 12
A1(a) x = a sin (1)
(i)
a2 x 2
(2)
sub (1) into (2):
= a2 (a sin )2
= a2 a2 sin2
= a2 (1 sin2 )
= a2 cos 2

tan x =

90 180 270 360

0 x 360
x = 0, 180, 360

= (1

A2(b) 5 cot 2 x

5(

3
sin2 )2

=
= cos 3

A1(b) Coordinates of
(i)
2 cos = sin
y
tan
= 2 =
x

is obtuse 2nd quadrant


y = 2, x = 1,
2

1
1
( )
3

cos2 x
sin2 x
2

-1

+7

= 11 csc x

) +7

11
sin x

= 3

T C
x = , 180
= 30, 150

Trigonometric ratio
tan() = tan = (2) = 2
x
r

0 x 360

r = (2) + (1)2 = 3

5 cos x +7 sin2 x
= 11 sin x
2
2
5(1 sin x) +7 sin x= 11 sin x
5 5 sin2 x +7 sin2 x = 11 sin x
2 sin2 x 11 sin x + 5 = 0
(2 sin x 1)(sin x 5) = 0
1
sin x = 5
sin x =
or
2
(no solution)
= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant

3
(cos 2 )2

A1(b) sec = 1 =
cos
(ii)

0 x 360

T C
x = , 180 +
58.0, 238.0

(a sin )2 2
a2

58.0
1st or 3rd quadrant

3
A1(a)
x2 2
(1 2 )
(3)
(ii)
a
sub (1) into (3):

= (1

A2(c) 1 + 2 cos (3 x + 75) = 0


2

cos ( x + 75)
2

1
1
A1(b) csc(90 ) =
=
= 3
sin(90)
cos
(iii)

1
2

= 60
2nd or 3rd quadrant
0 x

360

A
C

75 x + 75 615
2

3
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

x + 75 = 180 , 180 + , 540 , 540 +


= 120, 240,
= 30, 110,

480, 600
270, 350

339

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

A3(a) 10 cos 3x + 8 = 0
cos 3x

A4(b) Prove:

LHS =

A5(i)

C
=

=
=

3x2
4
3x2
4

< 14.5

1
cos
1

1
1

sin cos
1
sin
1
sin

sin

1cot x
1+cot x

= + , 2 , 3 + , 4 ,

5 +

3.87, 5.55,
16.4

16.4

sin

cos )

1cos2
cos
sin2
cos

sin
cos

= tan

10.2, 11.8,

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

2x = , 180 + ,
= 45, 225,

360 + , 540 +
405, 585

x = 22.5, 112.5, 202.5, 292.5


A4(a) Prove:

LHS =

1csc x
cot x

1csc x
cot x

= RHS

cos

A5(ii) sec 2x csc 2x cot 2x = 1


tan 2x
=1
45
1st or 3rd quadrant

< 20

= RHS [proven]

0.730
3rd or 4th quadrant
x

Prove: sec csc cot = tan

A3(c) 3 sin (3x2) = 2


=

tan x+1

tan x
1

tan x tan x
tan x
1
+
tan x tan x

LHS = sec csc cot

2x 70 = 180 , 180 + , 1260 , 1260 + ,


1620 , 1620 +
= 110,250,
1190, 1330,
1550, 1690
x
= 700

tan x1

LHS = ln(sec x + tan x)(sec x tan x)


= ln(sec 2 x tan2 x)
= ln[(tan2 x + 1) tan2 x]
= ln 1
=0
= RHS [proven]

1+cot x

A4(c) Prove: ln(sec x + tan x) + ln(sec x tan x) = 0

A3(b) cos(2x 70) = sin 200


= sin 20
= cos 70
= 70
S

2nd or 3rd quadrant

T
x
< 800
2x 70 < 1530

sin (

1cot x

[proven]

3x = , + , 3 , 3 + , 5 , 5 +
, 7
= 2.50, 3.79, 8.78, 10.1, 15.1, 16.4,
21.3
x 7.12

4
3x2

tan x+1

0.644
2nd or 3rd quadrant
x >6
3x > 18

tan x1

= tan x sec x

1
sin x
cos x
sin x

sin x1
sin x
cos x
sin x

sin x1
cos x

= tan x

sec x = RHS [proven]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

340

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A6(i)

Rev Ex 12

1st curve
y = 4 cos 3x
Point P
y|x=0 = 4 cos[3(0)]
P(0,4)

=4

Intersection point
At intersection point,
y = 4 cos 3x cuts x axis (y = 0)
4 cos 3x = 0
cos 3x = 0

3x =

90 180 270 360

( , 0)

2nd curve
y = 2 sin x + k

At ( , 0),
6

2 sin ( ) + k = 0
6

2( ) + k = 0
2

= 1

y = 2 sin x 1
Point Q

At max, x =
y|

x=
2

= 2 sin 1
2

= 2(1) 1
=1

Q ( , 1)
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

341

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

A6(ii) y1 = 4 cos 3x
i.e. a = 4, b = 3, c = 0

Amplitude = |a| = |4| = 4


Period

360
b

360
3

= 120

y2 = 2 sin x 1
i.e. a = 2, b = 1, c = 1

4
1

180
= 2 sin 1
= cos 3

3
4

Amplitude = |a| = |2| = 2


Period

360
b

360
1

= 360
Workings

1 = 4 cos 3
Domain
0 180
Axis with
=04
Amplitude
Shape
+
1800
Cycle
= 1.5
120

2 = 2 sin 1
Domain
0 180
Axis with
= 1 2
Amplitude
Shape
+
1800
1
Cycle
=
360

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

342

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A7

P = 105 20 cos (

Rev Ex 12

16t

B1(b) 4 sin x cos x

4 sin x cos x

= 100

105 20 cos (
20 cos (
cos (

16t
7

16t
7

16t
7

) = 100

= 5

16t
7
16t
7
16t
7

> 10
>

160
7

sin x = 0
0 x 2

90 180 270 360

x = 0, ,2

B1(a) sec 2x = 2
1

cos 2x =
2

=
3
1st or 4th quadrant
A

3 3
5

= ,
6

,
,

2 + , 4
7 11

3
3
7 11
6

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

1
2

1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

2 4 5

= ,
3

B1(c) (tan x + 1)(2 tan x 1) = 5


2 tan2 x + tan x 1
=5
2
2 tan x + tan x 6
=0
(2 tan x 3)(tan x + 2) = 0
3
2

tan x = 2

0.983
1.11
1st or 3rd quadrant 2nd or 4th quadrant
0 x 2
S

= ,

S A

T C
x = , , + , 2

tan x =

1
cos x
1

0 x 2

= , 2 , 22 + , 24

2x = , 2 ,

1.32,4.97, 70.4,74.1
10.3

) =0

cos x

> 71.8

0 x 2
0 2x 4

cos x

cos 2 x =

sin x
cos x
1

4 cos x =

sin x (4 cos x

1.318
1st or 4th quadrant
t

= tan x

T C
x = , +
= 0.983,4.12

sleightofmath.com

0 x 2
S

T C
x = , 2
= 2.03,5.18

343

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

B2(i) x = 4 sin + 3 cos


y = 4 cos 3 sin

B3(b) Prove:
LHS =

y
= 2x
4 cos 3 sin = 2(4 sin + 3 cos )
4 cos 3 sin = 8 sin + 6 cos
11 sin
= 2 cos
tan

2
11

10.3
2nd or 4th quadrant
obtuse
90 < < 180

cos x
1sin x

= 180 , 360
= 169.7, 349.7
B2(ii) x 2 + y 2
= (4 sin + 3 cos )2 + (4 cos 3 sin )2

cos x
1sin x

1
cos x

= tan x

1
cos x

cos 2 x
(1 sin x)
(1 sin x) cos x

cos 2 x
1 + sin x
(1 sin x) cos x

(1 sin2 x) 1 + sin x
(1 sin x) cos x

sin x sin2 x
(1 sin x) cos x

sin x (1 sin x)
(1 sin x) cos x

sin x
cos x

= tan x
= RHS [proven]

= (16 sin + 24 sin cos + 9 cos )


+(16 cos 2 24 sin cos + 9 sin2 )
= 25 sin2 + 25 cos 2
= 25(sin2 + cos 2 )
= 25 [shown]
B3(a) LHS
2

1 tan x
1 + tan2 x

1 (sec 2 x 1)
sec 2 x

2 sec 2 x
sec 2 x
2
=
1
sec 2 x
2
=
1
1
cos 2 x
=

B3(c) LHS = ln(1 + cos x) + ln(1 cos x)


= ln(1 cos 2 x)
= ln(sin2 x)
= ln[(sin x)2 ]
= 2 ln(sin x)
= RHS [proven]
B4(a) tan 5x = 0.6
2

0.540
1st or 3rd quadrant
x
5x
2
5x
2

>4
> 10

= , 2 + , 3 , 4 +
0.540,2.60, 6.82, 8.88,
5.24

13.11

= 2 cos 2 x 1
= RHS [proven]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

344

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

B4(b) csc 2x = 6
sin 2x =

1
6

0.167
1st or 2nd quadrant
x <5
2x < 10

2x

63.4
18.4
= 26.6
2nd or 4th quad. 2nd or 4th quad. 1st or 3rd quad.

cos ( )

0 < < 180


S

4
3
3

2x

> 666.67

3
2x

A
C

, 900 +
138.6,221.4,
858.6, 941.4
x 1287.9
3

0 < < 180


S

T C
= 180 ,
360
= 161.6

or tan =

0 < < 180


S

T C
= , 180 +
= 26.6

1
cos 2x

cos 2x 1 + sin 2x

(1 + sin 2x) cos 2 2x


cos 2x (1 + sin 2x)

(1 cos 2 2x) + sin 2x


=
cos 2x (1 + sin 2x)

= 180 , 180 + , 540 , 540 + ,

or tan = 3

B6(i) f(x)

> 1000

T C
= 180 ,
360
= 116.6

41.4
2nd or 3rd quadrant
x

tan = 2

sec ( )
3
2x

=2

= 4

6 tan3 + 11 tan2 3 tan

B4(c) 3 sec (2x) + 4 = 0


3 sec ( )

= 2 cot

6(tan )3 + 11(tan )2 3(tan ) 2 = 0

2x = , , 2 + , 3 , 4 +
= 0.167,2.974, 6.451,9.257 12.734
x 4.63
3
2x

B5(ii)
6 tan2 + 11 tan 3

900
=

sin2 2x + sin 2x
cos 2x (1 + sin 2x)

sin 2x (sin 2x + 1)
cos 2x (1 + sin 2x)

sin 2x
cos 2x

498.6,581.4

B5(i) 6x + 11x 3x 2
=0
2
(x + 2)(6x + + )
(x + 2)(6x 2 + 1)
(x + 2)(6x 2 x 1)
=0
(x + 2)(3x + 1)(2x 1) = 0
1

= tan 2x [shown]

x = 2 or x = or x =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

345

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 12

B6(ii) y = f(x)
= tan 2x
i.e. a = 1, b = 2, c = 0
Period

180
b

B7(i)

t
2

i.e. a = 1.6, b = , c = 0
v = 1.6 sin

T=

180

= 90

B7(ii) v

= ()

90

180 270

t
2

Workings

= 4s

t
2

t
2

= 1.3
=

13
16

0.948
1st or 2nd quadrant

x = 45 x = 135 x = 225

= 1.3

1.6 sin
sin

= ,
0.948,2.193
0.604, 1.40

Domain
0 x 270
Axis with
y=0
Amplitude
Shape
+tan
Cycle

2700
90

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

=3

sleightofmath.com

346

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.1

Ex 13.1
1(a)

1(b)

1(c)

LHS = sin(90 + )
= sin 90 cos + cos 90 sin
= (1) cos +(0) sin
= cos
= RHS [proven]
LHS = cos(90 + )
= cos 90 cos sin 90 sin
= (0)
cos (1) sin
= sin
= RHS [proven]
LHS = sin (

3
2
3

3(a)

sin 15 cos 75 + cos 15 sin 75


= sin(15 + 75)
= sin 90
=1

3(b)

sin 50 cos 20 cos 50 sin 20


= sin(50 20)
= sin 30
1

=
2

3(c)

=
)
3

= sin ( )

cos cos ( ) sin

3(d)

= [ sin ( )] cos cos ( ) sin


= (1)
cos (0) sin
= cos
= RHS [proven]
1(d)

3(e)

2(c)

2(d)

sin 15 sin 30 cos 15 cos 30


= (cos 15 cos 30 sin 15 sin 30)
= cos(45)
=

2
2

tan 35+tan 10
1tan 35 tan 10

1+tan 2 tan
(0)tan
1+(0) tan

LHS = sin cos 2 + cos sin 2


= sin( + 2)
= sin 3
= RHS [proven]
LHS = sin 2 cos cos 2 sin
= sin(2 )
= sin
= RHS [proven]
Prove: LHS = cos 3 cos 2 + sin 3 sin 2
= cos(3 2)
= cos
= RHS [proven]
Prove: LHS =

tan 3tan 4
1+tan 3 tan 4

= tan(3 4)
= tan()
= tan
= RHS [proven]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= tan(35 + 10)
= tan 45
=1

tan 2tan

3(f)

= tan
= RHS [proven]

2(b)

3
2

LHS = tan(2 )
=

2(a)

cos 70 cos 40 + sin 70 sin 40


= cos(70 40)
= cos 30

tan 30tan 75
1+tan 30 tan 75

= tan(30 75)
= tan(45)
= tan 45
= 1

4(a)

cos 75 = cos(30 + 45)


= cos 30 cos 45 sin 30 sin 45
2
3
2
2
62

= ( )( )
=
4(b)

2
2

sin 15 = sin(45 30)


= sin 45 cos 30 cos 45 sin 30
2
3
2
2
62

= ( )( )
=
5(a)

( )( )

2
2

( )( )
2

LHS
= sin(A + B)
+ sin(A B)
= sin A cos B + cos A sin B + sin A cos B
cos A sin B
= 2 sin A cos B
= RHS [proven]

sleightofmath.com

347

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.1

5(b)
LHS
= cos(A + B)
cos(A B)
= cos A cos B sin A sin B (cos A cos B + sin A sin B)
= cos A cos B sin A sin B cos A cos B sin A sin B
= 2 sin A sin B
= RHS [proven]

6(d)
LHS

6(a)
LHS

1
cos( )

1
1
cos cos
=
=
cos cos + sin sin cos cos + sin sin
cos cos
sec sec
1 + tan tan

= RHS [proven]

sin(A + B) sin(A B)
cos(A + B) cos(A B)

(sin A cos B + cos A sin B) (sin A cos B cos A sin B)


(cos A cos B sin A sin B) (cos A cos B + sin A sin B)

sin A cos B + cos A sin B


=
cos A cos B sin A sin B
2 cos A sin B
=
2 sin A sin B

7(a)

LHS = tan(A + 45) tan(A 45)


=

sin A cos B + cos A sin B


cos A cos B sin A sin B

=
=

= cot A

7(b)

sin(A + B)
=
cos(A B)

tan A(1)
1+tan A(1)

tan2 A1
1tan2 A

LHS = tan A + tan B


=

sin A cos B + cos A sin B


cos A cos B + sin A sin B
sin A cos B + cos A sin B
cos A cos B
=
cos A cos B + sin A sin B
cos A cos B
tan A + tan B
=
1 + tan A tan B

7(c)
LHS

= RHS [proven]

= cot(x + y)

sin A
cos A

sin A
cos B

sin A cos B +sin A cos A


cos A cos B
sin(A+B)
cos A cos B

= RHS [proven]

6(c)
LHS

1
tan(x + y)

1
= tan x + tan y
1 tan x tany

sin(A + B)
=
sin(A B)
sin A cos B + cos A sin B
sin A cos B + cos A sin B
cos A cos B
=
=
sin A cos B cos A sin B sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos A cos B
tan A + tan B
=
tan A tan B

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

tan Atan 45
1+tan A tan 45

= RHS [proven]

LHS

= RHS [proven]

tan A+(1)
1tan A(1)

= 1

= RHS [proven]
6(b)

tan A+tan 45
1tan A tan 45

1 tan x tan y
1 tan x tan y
cot x cot y 1
tan x tan y
=
= tan x + tan y =
tan x + tan y
cot y + cot x
tan x tan y
=

cot x cot y 1
cot x + cot y

= RHS [proven]

sleightofmath.com

348

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.1

7(d)
LHS

9(i)

cos A sin B =

10

cos A sin B

9(ii)

= RHS [proven]

2
2
2
= 2 [sin A ( ) + cos A ( )] [cos A ( )
2
2
2
2
sin A ( )]
2
2
2
= 2 ( ) (cos A + sin A) (cos A sin A)
2
2
2
2

sin A cos B =

10

1
5

=
5

10

sin A cos B =
=
9(iii)

tan A
tan B

=
=
=
=

= cos A (1 cos A)
= 2 cos 2 A 1
= RHS [proven]

9
10

7
10

, cos A sin B =

1
5

sin A
cos A
sin B
cos B

sin A
cos A

cos B
sin B

sin A cos B
sin B cos A
7
10
1
5

sin A cos B =

7
10

, cos A sin B =

1
5

=
2

10

LHS
= cos(A + B + C)
= cos[(A + B) + C]

sin(A+B)
sin A cos B+cos A sin B

= cos A cos B cos C sin A sin B cos C


sin A cos B sin C cos A sin B sin C
= RHS [proven]

= cos A sin A cos A


sin2 cos A cos A sin2 A

sin A cos B

= cos A 3(1 cos A) cos A

= 5

cos A sin B

= 5

tan A cot B
tan(A B)
tan Atan B
1+tan A tan B
3
tan B
4
3
1+ tan B
4

=
=
=

25
24
25
24
25

tan A =

24

18 24 tan B = 25 +
4

= cos A 3 sin A cos A


2

= 5 cos A sin B

sin A cos B

3 sin A cos B + 3 cos A sin B = 2 sin A cos B 2 cos A sin B

171
3

sin A cos Bcos A sin B

11

LHS = cos 3A
= cos A cos A cos A sin A sin A cos A
sin A cos A sin A cos A sin A sin A

sin(AB)

= cos(A + B) cos C sin(A + B) sin C


= (cos A cos B sin A sin B) cos C
(sin A cos B + cos A sin B) sin C

2
1

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

= 2 ( ) (cos A sin A)

8(ii)

2
1

=( )+( )

7(e)
LHS = 2 sin(A + 45)
cos(A + 45)
= 2[sin A cos 45 + cos A sin 45] [cos A cos 45
sin A sin 45]

8(i)

cos A sin B

sin y cos x sin x cos y sin(y x)


=
sin y cos x + cos y sin x sin(y + x)

4
2

sin A cos B cos A sin B =

sin y sin x sin y cos x sin x cos y


tan y tan x cos y cos x
cos x cos y
=
=
=
sin
y
sin
y
cos
x + cos y sin x
sin
x
tan y + tan x
+
cos y cos x
cos x cos y
=

sin(A B)

tan B

tan B

75
4

3
4

tan B

= 7
=

28
171

= cos 3 A 3 cos A + 3 cos 3 A


= 4 cos 3 A 3 cos A
= RHS [proven]
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

349

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


12(i)

Ex 13.1

Quadrant

13(i)

tan A = > 0

1st or 3rd quadrant

Coordinates of A
cos A = for 90 < A < 180
5

3
5

-4

sin B =

12
13

for 0 < B < 90

13
B 12

x = 132 122 = 5

y = 12, r = 13,

Coordinates of B
sin B = in 3rd quadrant

Coordinates of B

r = (4)2 + (3)2 = 5
sin A = = , cos A = =

sin A = = , tan A = =

-3

y = 4, x = 3,

-4

y = 52 (4)2 = 3

Coordinates of A
3

-3

13

cos B = =

12

tan B = =

Trigonometric ratio
sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

y = 3, r = 5,
x = (5)2 (3)2 = 4

12

33

13

13

65

= ( )( ) + ( )( ) =
x

cos B = = , tan B = =

tan A+tan 45

1tan A tan 45

13(ii)

4
( )+(1)
3
4
1( )(1)
3

tan(A + B) =

13(iii) sec(A B)=


=

= ( )( ) +( )( )
=

5
24
25

tan A+tan B
1tan A tan B

= 7

12(ii) cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B


3

Trigonometric ratio
tan(A + 45) =

x = 4, r = 5,

same quadrant 3rd quadrant

tan A = in 3rd quadrant

sin B = < 0 3rd or 4th quadrant

3
12
)+( )
4
5
3
12
1( )( )
4
5

33
56

1
cos(AB)
1
cos A cos B+sin A sin B
1
4
5
3 12
)( )+( )( )
5
13
5 13

65
16

12(iii) sin(B A) = sin B cos A cos B sin A


3

= ( )( )
=

7
25

( )( )

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

350

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


14

Ex 13.1

Right angle triangle


hyp =

(24)2

sin =

7
25

72

, cos =

24 hyp

= 625 = 25

24
25

, tan =

= cos(x 50)

cos x cos 10 sin x sin 10 = cos x cos 50 + sin x sin 50

24

15(c)
cos(x + 10)

cos x cos 10 cos x cos 50 = sin x sin 10 + sin x sin 50


Trigonometric ratio
sin A = sin( + 60)
= sin cos 60 + cos sin 60
7

24

= ( )( )
=

25
2
7+243
50

cos x (cos 10 cos 50)


cos 10cos 50

= tan x

sin 10+sin 50

3
2

+( )( )
25

= sin x (sin 10 + sin 50)

tan x

cos A = cos( + 60)


= cos cos 60 sin sin 60
24

= ( )( )
=

25
2
2473
50

3
2

tan A = tan( + 60)


=

tan +tan 60
1tan tan 60

7
24

( )+(3)
7
1( )(3)
24

7+243
2473

15(a) sin(x + 30)


= 2 cos x
sin x cos 30 + cos x sin 30 = 2 cos x
3
sin x ( )
2
3
sin x ( )
2

+ cos x ( )
2

= 2 cos x

= 20
1st or 3rd quadrant

= 3

cos x cos 60sin x sin 60


2

0 < x < 360

= 5 sec(x 20)

1
2

cos x( )sin x(

=
=

3
)
2

5
cos(x20)
5
cos x cos 20+sin x sin 20
5
cos x cos 20+sin x sin 20
5

5
2

3 sin x + 2 sin x sin 20

= cos x 2 cos x cos 20


2

sin x ( 3 + 2 sin 20)


2

x = , 180 +
= 60, 240

= cos x ( 2 cos 20)


2

tan x

=5
2

2
2

2
2

= 3 sin x
= 3 sin x

tan x
7.1
1st or 3rd quadrant

2 [cos x ( ) sin x ( )]

= 3 sin x

2 cos x 2 sin x
2 cos x

= 3 sin x
= (3 + 2) sin x

tan x

17.8
1st or 3rd quadrant

0 < x < 360

2 cos x cos 20 + 2 sin x sin 20 = cos x 3 sin x


2
2

15(b) 2 cos(x + 45)


2(cos x cos 45 sin x sin 45)

= ( ) cos x

0 < x < 360


x = , 180 +
= 20, 200

1050

= tan 20

cos(x+60)

10+50
1050
) sin(
)
2
2
10+50
1050
2 sin(
) cos(
)
2
2

2 sin(

tan x

15(d)
2 sec(x + 60)

tan x
= 60
1st or 3rd quadrant

sin 10+sin 50

= tan (

( )( )
25

cos 10cos 50

2
3+2

0 < x < 360


x = , 180 +
= 7.1, 187.1

5
2 cos 20
2

3+2 sin 20

0.124
S

x = , 180 +
= 17.8, 197.8
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

351

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


16(a)

tan x+tan 15
1tan x tan 15

Ex 13.1
17(a) sin x cos 1 cos x sin 1 = 0.2
sin(x 1)
= 0.2
0.201
S A
1st or 2nd quadrant

T
C
0 <x
< 2
1 < x 1 < 2 1

=2

tan(x + 15) = 2
63.4
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < x
< 360
15 < x + 15 < 375

x 1 = ,
= 0.201,2.94
x
= 1.20, 3.94

x + 15 = , 180 +
63.4, 243.4
x
48.4, 228.4
17(b)

16(b) 2 tan x + 3 tan(x 45) = 0


2 tan x + 3 (
2 tan x + 3 [
2 tan x +

tan xtan 45
1+tan x tan 45
tan x(1)

1+tan x(1)
3 tan x3

1+tan x

2 tan x

T C
x = , 180 +
= 26.6, 206.6

tan(2x 1) =

)= 0

1
2
1
2

0.464
1st or 3rd quadrant

=0
=0
=

33 tan x

0 <x
< 2
1 < 2x 1 < 4 1

1+tan x

2 tan x + 2 tan2 x
= 3 3 tan x
2 tan2 x + 5 tan x 3
=0
(2 tan x 1)(tan x + 3) = 0
1
tan x = 3
tan x =
2
71.6
26.6
2nd or 4th quadrant
1st or 3rd quadrant
0 < x < 360

tan 2xtan 1
1+tan 2x tan 1

2x 1 = , + ,
= 0.464, 3.61,
x
= 0.732,2.30,

T C
x = 180 , 360
= 108.4, 288.4

16(c) tan 5x
sin 5x
cos 5x

sin 5x cos 2x
sin 5x cos 2x sin 2x cos 5x
sin(5x 2x)
sin 3x

2 + , 3 +
6.75, 9.89
3.87, 5.44

sin 2x
cos 2x

cos 0.4

tan x

tan x
0.339
1st or 3rd quadrant

0.353

0 < x < 2
x = , +
0.339, 3.48

= tan 2x
=

17(c) cos(x 0.4)


= 3 sin x
cos x cos 0.4 + sin x sin 0.4 = 3 sin x
cos x cos 0.4
= sin x (3 sin 0.4)

0 < x < 360


S

3sin 0.4

= sin 2x cos 5x
=0
=0

=0
1

0 < x < 360


0 < 3x < 1080

90 180 270 360

3x = 0,180, 360,540
720,900,
1080
x = 60,
120, 180, 240, 300

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

352

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(d) 3 cos x
3 cos x
3 cos x
3 cos x + 4 cos x sin 2
cos x (3 + 4 sin 2)
tan x

Ex 13.1
= 4 sin(x 2)
= 4(sin x cos 2 cos x sin 2)
= 4 sin x cos 2 4 cos x sin 2
= 4 sin x cos 2
= 4 sin x cos 2
=

cos(A + B) =

cos(A + B) =

5
A
2

<0

5
13

Recall

12

13

10

y = 3, r = 10,

x = (10) 32 = 1

1+tan B tan A

13

13

, cos(A + B) =

( )

13
56
65

13

( )

19(ii) Coordinates of C
acute C 1st quadrant
sin C =

12
13

13
C 12

= ,
r

x = 132 122 = 5
x

13

cos C = =

=3
tan Btan A

12

y = 12, r = 13,

Trigonometric ratio

tan(B A) =

-5

cos A = ,

12

and B is acute

A+B

sin A = ,

=( )

13

sin B = sin[(A + B) A]
= sin(A + B) cos A cos(A + B) sin A

18(ii) Coordinates

tan B = =

Q2 or Q3

sin(A + B) =

tan A = = [shown]

18(iii)

13

Q1 or Q2

Q2

Trigonometric ratio

sin(A + B) = =

y = (13)2 (5)2 = 12

y = (5) 22 = 1

Coordinates of ( + )
A and B are acute

and A is acute

10

x = 5, r = 13,

x = 2, r = 5,

sin B =

A
3

y = 52 32 = 4

4 cos 2

18(i) Coordinates
2

cos A = for acute A

sin A = = ,

3+4 sin 2

tan x
3.99
1.33
S A
2nd or 4th quadrant

T C
0 < x < 2
x = , 2
1.82, 4.96

cos A =

19(i) Coordinates of A

3
1

1
2
3 1
1+( )( )
1 2

( )( )

=1

Recall

sin C =

12

13

cos C =

sin(A + B) =

B A = 45

5
13

12

13

13

, cos(A + B) =

sin(A + B + C)
= sin[(A + B) + C]
= sin(A + B) cos C + cos(A + B) sin C
=

12
13

( )
13

12

13

13

+( )

=0
19(iii) sin(A + B + C) = 0
0 < A + B + C < 270
A + B + C = 180
Yes, A, B and C are angles of triangle
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

353

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


20

Ex 13.1

Show: sin(A + B) sin(A B) = sin2 A sin2 B


LHS = (sin A cos B + cos A sin B)(sin A cos B
cos A sin B)
= sin2 A cos 2 B
cos 2 A sin2 B
2 (1
2
= sin A sin B)
(1 sin2 A) sin2 B
= sin2 A sin2 A sin2 B sin2 B +
sin2 A sin2 B
= sin2 A sin2 B
= RHS [shown]

tan( + )
tan +tan

90 180 270 360


90 180 270 360

5
x

( )+tan

5+x tan

x5 tan

tan (x +
tan (

20(ii) LHS = sin 15 sin 75


= sin 75 sin 15
= sin(45 + 30) sin(45 30)
= sin2 45 sin2 30

=
=

2
4
1

1 2

( )
2

1
4

10
x
10
x
10

tan =

5
x

10
x

= 10

50
x

tan

50
x

) = 10 5

x2 +50
x

) =5

tan

5x
x2 +50

21(ii) tan(2 + ) = tan[ + ( + )]


=

2x = , 180 ,
4x = 0,180,
= 0,180,
360,540,
720 x = 0, 45,
x = 0, 45,
90, 135, 180

2
2

5
1( ) tan
x

=( )

1tan tan

5 + x tan

20(i) sin2 3x
= sin2 x
sin2 3x sin2 x
=0
sin(3x + x) sin(3x x) = 0
sin 4x sin 2x
=0
sin 4x = 0
sin 2x = 0
0 x 180
0 x 180
0 2x 360

0 4x 720

21(i) tan = 5

360 +
360
180

tan +tan(+)
1tan tan(+)
5
x

10
x
5 10
1( )( )
x
x

( )+( )

10

tan = , tan( + ) =
=
=

15
x
x2 50
x2

15x
x2 50

0 < 2 + < 90
tan(2 + ) > 0
15x
x2 50

>0
x

>0

(x+50)(x50)
x

>0

(x+52)(x52)

= RHS [shown]

52

+
0

+
52

52 < x < 0 or x > 52 ?

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

354

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


21(ii) tan(2 + )

=
=

Ex 13.1

tan 2+tan

0 < 2 + < 90
tan(2 + )

1tan 2 tan
2 tan
(
)+tan
1tan2
2 tan
1(
) tan
1tan2

5x

x2 +50

tan = , tan =

>0

15x[x2 +25]

>0

x2 25x2 +25

25+(25)2 4(1)(25)
25(25)2 4(1)(25)
[x
][x
]
2(1)
2(1)

tan(2 + )

>0

25+525
25525
[x
][x
]
2
2

5
2( )
x ] + ( 5x )
[
x 2 + 50
5 2
1( )
x
=
5
2( )
x ] ( 5x )
1[
5 2 x 2 + 50
1( )
x

+
0

25525
2

22
A+B+C
tan(A + B + C)

10
5x
)
[ 2 x
]+( 2
x 25
x + 50
x2
=
10
5x
)
1[ 2 x
]( 2
x 25 x + 50
x2

tan(A+B)+tan C
1tan(A+B) tan C

tan(A + B) + tan C
tan A+tan B
1tan A tan B

25525 25+525
2

0<x<

>0

+ tan C

or x >

25+525
2

= 180
= tan(180)
=0
=0
=0

tan A + tan B + tan C tan A tan B tan C = 0


tan A + tan B + tan C
= tan A tan B tan C [shown]

10x
5x
[ 2
]+( 2
)
x

25
x
+ 50
=
10x
5x
](
)
1[ 2
x 25 x 2 + 50
10x
5x
(x 2 25)(x 2 + 50)
2 25] + (x 2 + 50)
x
=
2
10x
5x
(x 25)(x 2 + 50)
](
)
1[ 2
x 25 x 2 + 50
[

10x(x 2 + 50) + 5x(x 2 25)


(x 2 25)(x 2 + 50) 50x 2

10x 3 + 500x + 5x 3 125x


x 4 + 25x 2 + 25 50x 2

15x 3 + 375x
x 4 25x 2 + 25

15x[x 2 + 25]
= 2
x 25x 2 + 25

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

355

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.2
2(b)

Ex 13.2
1(a)

Coordinates
1

A = cos 1 ( ) for obtuse A


1

cos 2 22 sin2 22 = cos(45)


=

2
2

cos =

1
2

-1

y = (2)2 (1)2 = 3
1(b)

2 sin cos

= sin ( )
=

1(c)

2 cos 2
12

2
2

3
,
2

cos =

1
2

Trigonometric ratio
sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A

1 = cos ( )
6

3
2

=
1(d)

sin =

(cos 75 + sin 75)2


= cos 2 75 + 2 sin 75 cos 75 + sin2 75
= (sin2 75 + cos 2 75) +2 sin 75 cos 75
= (1)
+ sin 150
(1)
=
+ sin 30
=1

3
2

= 2( )( )

3
2

1 2

3
2

cos 2A = cos 2 A sin2 A = ( ) ( )


2

1
2

tan 2A =

2 tan A
1tan2 A

2(

3
)
1

1(

3
)
1

23
13

= 3

=
2

1(e)

3(i)

sin2 67.5 =
=
=
=

1(f)

2 tan 15
1tan2 15

1cos(135)

3(

2
1( cos 45)

1(

1
3

3(ii)

sin 2x

=
9

3(iii)
5

cos 8x = cos[2(4)]
= 2 cos 2 4x 1
1 2

= 2( )

x = 52 32 = 4
= ,
5

tan =

3
4

4(a)

Trigonometric ratio
3

24

25

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A= 2 ( ) ( ) =

LHS =
=

3 2

25

4(b)

LHS =
=

2 tan A
1tan2 A

3
4
3 2
1( )
4

2( )

24
7

9
79

81

cos 2A
cos A+sin A
cos2 Asin2 A
cos A+sin A

(cos A+sin A)(cos Asin A)


cos A+sin A

cos A sin A = RHS [proven]

4 2

cos 2A = cos 2 A sin2 A = ( ) ( ) =

tan 2A =

sin = for acute A

2 2

cos =

=1

cos 4x = cos[2(2)]
= 1 2 sin2 2x

=1

= 1 2( )

Coordinates

sin 2x

2
)
2

2
2+2

sin 2x

= tan 30
=

2(a)

3 sin x cos x = 1

4(c)

LHS =

1cos 2A
sin 2A
sin A
cos A

1(12 sin2 A)
2 sin A cos A

2 sin2 A
2 sin A cos A

= tan A = RHS [proven]

1cos 2A
1+cos 2A
2

1(12 sin2 A)
1+(2 cos2 A1)

2 sin2 A
2 cos2 A

= tan A = RHS [proven]


Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

356

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(d)

Ex 13.2

LHS = 4 sin A cos 3 A 4 sin3 A cos A


= 4 sin A cos A (cos 2 A sin2 A)
1

6(i)

(cos 2 A sin2 A)

= 4 ( sin 2)
2

sin A =

= 2 sin 2 cos 2
= sin 4A
= RHS [proven]
5(a)

1
cos A

)(

LHS =
=

1
sin A

)=

1
sin A cos A

=1
2

1
sin 2A

sin 2A

5(c)

LHS =

Trigonometric ratio
cos 2A = cos 2 A sin2 A

6(ii)

=
2

cos 4A = 2 cos 2A 1
1 2

= 2 ( ) 1
2

)(

cos A
sin A

)=

1
sin A cos A

=1
2

1
sin 2A

A
sec 2
2

1
cos2

A
2

1
1+cos A
2

2
1+cos A

6(iii)

sin 4A = 1

1 2

6(iv)

cos A
cos

21
2

= 2 cos

2
2 tan A
)
1tan2 A

A =

1+cos A
1cos A

1
2
1
1[12 sin2 ( A)]
2

1+[2 cos2 ( A)1]

1
cot 2 ( A)
2

3
2

A1

1+cos A

1tan2 A
tan A

2
1
2

1+cos A

cos A =
tan 2A

cos 2 4

= 1 ( )

= 2 csc 2A = RHS [proven]

LHS = 2 cot 2A =

LHS =

1
2

1+( )
2

= cot A tan A = RHS [proven]


5(e)

3
2

RHS [proven]
5(d)

1 2

1
)
cos2 A
sin A
(
)
cos A

= ( ) ( )

tan A

2
sin 2A

cos2 A

cos A = = , tan A = = 3

sec2 A

=(

2 A

3
2

= 2 csc 2A = RHS [proven]


5(b)

3
2

x = (2)2 (3) = 1

LHS = sec A csc A


=(

Coordinates
obtuse A 2

1+cos A

or cos A =

rej cos A > 0


2
1

for 45 < A < 90

1
2
1
2 sin2 ( A)
2

2 cos2 ( A)

1
2

= RHS [proven]

=
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

357

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(i)

Ex 13.2

Coordinates
2
tan A =
3
3
<A<
3

-3
-2

8(i)

Coordinates
1
1

cot = k tan = =

= 1, = ,

r = 12 + k 2 = 1 + 2
r=

(2)2

sin =

(3)2

2
13

= 13

, cos =

sin =

1
1+ 2

, cos =

1+ 2

13

Trigonometric ratio
Trigonometric ratio
tan 2A =
7(ii)
7(iii)

tan 3A =

2 tan A
1tan2 A

2
2( )
3
2 2
1( )
3

tan 2A+tan A
1tan 2A tan A

tan A

sin 2 = 2 sin cos = 2 (


=

1
2
1
1tan2 A
2

12
5

2
3
12 2
1( )( )
5
3

6 tan A

tan A =
2
1

313

8(ii)
=

46
9

1tan tan 45
tan +tan 45

8(iii)

sec 2 =
=

1
2 tan2 A
2

0
=

or tan A =

8(iv)

313
2

7(iv)

Recall sin =
csc 2A =
=

1
sin 2A
1
12
13

2
13

=
13
12

rej tan A < 0

2
1

for < A <

, cos =
1

2 sin A cos A

1
k

1( )(1)
1
k

( )+(1)

cos 2

2k
1+k2

1
cos2 sin2

1+k2
k2 1

k
1
(
) (
)
2
1 + k
1 + k 2
1

1+k

k2 1
1+k2

tan +tan 45
1tan tan 45

k1

k2
1 + k2

1
1 + k2

tan 2+tan
1tan 2 tan
2 tan
)+tan
1tan2
2 tan
1(
) tan
1tan2

2 tan +(tan tan3 )


(1tan2 )2 tan2

3
13

1
2
3
2(
)(
)
13 13

=
9(a)

3 tan tan3

3 1

k k3
3
1 2
k

LHS =
1
2
1
cos A
2

9(b)

9(c)

sleightofmath.com

3k2 1

k3 3k

sin A
1+cos A

1 3
k
1 2
13( )
k
1
k

3( )( )

3k2 1

k(k2 3)
1
2

1
2

2 sin A cos A
1
2

1+(2 cos2 A1)

1
2

1
2

2 sin A cos A
1
2

2 cos2 A

= tan A = RHS [proven]

LHS =
=

13 tan2

sin A

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

) =

2
1

k
1+k2

tan 3 = tan(2 + )
=

3+13

tan(+45)

cot( + 45) =

2(1)

)(

=2

2
1
21
2 tan A + 6 tan A 2 =
2
2
1
21
tan A + 3 tan A 1 =
2
2
1
3(3)2 4(1)(1)

tan A =

( )+( )

2 tan A

12

1
1+k2

1+tan2 A
1tan2 A

cos2 A+sin2 A
cos2 Asin2 A

sin2 A
cos2 A
sin2 A
1 2
cos A

1+

1
cos 2A

cos2 A+sin2 A
cos2 A
cos2 Asin2 A
cos2 A

= sec 2A = RHS [proven]

LHS = cos 4 A sin4 A


= (cos 2 A + sin2 A) (cos 2 A sin2 A)
(cos 2A)
=1
= cos 2A
= RHS [proven]
358

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(d)

9(e)

LHS = cos 4A
= cos(2 2)
= 1 2 sin2 2A
= 1 2 (sin 2A)2
= 1 2(2 sin A cos A)2
= 1 2(4 sin2 A cos 2 A)
= 1 8 sin2 A cos 2 A
= 1 8 sin2 A (1 sin2 A)
= 1 8 sin2 A + 8 sin4 A
= 8 sin4 A 8 sin2 A + 1
= RHS [proven]

Ex 13.2
10(a) 4 sin 2x
4(2 sin x cos x)
8 sin x cos x
sin x (8 cos x 1)

=
=
=

0 < x < 360

82.8
1st or 4th quadrant

90 180 270 360

0 < x < 360

T C
x = , 360
= 82.8, 277.2

x = 180

1cos 2A 2

2
12 cos 2A+cos2 2A
4

10(b) 4 sin x cos x = 1


4(

4
24 cos 2A+1+cos 4A

2 sin 2x

=1

sin 2x

= (3 4 cos 2A + cos 4A)


= RHS [proven]
1+cos 2A+sin 2A

1 + (2 cos 2 A 1) + (2 sin A cos A)


1 (1 2 sin2 A) + (2 sin A cos A)

2 cos 2 A + 2 sin A cos A


2 sin2 A + 2 sin A cos A

2 cos A (cos A + sin A)


2 sin A (sin A + cos A)

= cot A

=1
1
2

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

1cos 2A+sin 2A

= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant

LHS =

sin 2x

1+cos 4A
12 cos 2A+(
)
2

9(f)

or cos x = 8

sin x = 0

LHS = (sin2 A)2


=(

= sin x
= sin x
= sin x
=0

2x = , 180 ,
= 30, 150,
x = 15, 75,

360 + , 540
390, 510
195, 255

10(c) (sin x cos x)2


=2
sin2 x 2 sin x cos x + cos 2 x = 2
(sin2 x + cos 2 x) 2 sin x cos x = 2
1 sin 2x
=2
sin 2x
= 1

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

= RHS [proven]

90 180 270 360

2x = 270,
x = 135,

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

270 + 360
315

359

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.2

10(d) cos 2x 3 cos x + 2


=0
(2 cos 2 x 1) 3 cos x + 2 = 0
2 cos 2 x 3 cos x + 1
=0
(2 cos x 1)(cos x 1)
=0
1
cos x =
or cos x = 1
2
0 < x < 360
= 60

1st or 4th quad.


1
0 < x < 360

90 180 270 360

T C
x = , 360
= 60, 300

90 180 270 360

x = 0,

x = 0, 2

cos x [5 (

sin 2
2

0 x 2

0.927
3rd or 4th quadrant

2
90 180 270 360

(no solution)

x= ,
2

2 tan x

1tan2 x
2

11(c) cos 2x
1 2 sin2 x
2 sin2 x sin x 1
(2 sin x + 1)(sin x 1)

=3

) tan x = 3
=3
= 3 3 tan2 x
=3

tan2 x

sin x =
=

3
5

37.8
1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th quadrant

or

= sin x
= sin x
=0
=0

sin x = 1

7 11
6

3 + , 4
10.4, 11.6
5.18, 5.82

90 180 270 360

T C
x = + , 2
=

sleightofmath.com

0 x 2

x = , 180 , 180 + , 360


= 37.8, 142.2, 217.8, 322.2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

3rd or 4th quad.


0 x 2

2x = + , 2 ,
4.07,5.36,
x 2.03, 2.68,

2 tan x
5 tan2 x

tan x

0 x 2
0 2x 4

x = 180

1tan2 x
2 tan2 x

=0

or sin 2x = 5

cos x = 0

=0
=0

=0

+ 2]

cos x ( sin 2x + 2)

tan 2x tan x

sin x =

or

90 180 270 360

10(f)

= 3 sin x
= 3 sin x
= 3 sin x
= 2 sin2 + 3 sin
=0
=0

0 < x < 360

90 180 270 360

11(b)
5 sin x cos 2 x + 2 cos x
cos x (5 sin x cos x + 2)

10(e) cos 2x 1
(1 2 sin2 x) 1
2 sin2 x
0
2 sin2 x + 3 sin x
sin x (2 sin x + 3)
sin x = 0

11(a) 2 sin x
= sin 2x
2 sin x
= 2 sin x cos x
sin x
= sin x cos x
sin x (cos x 1) = 0
sin x = 0
or cos x = 1
0 x 2
0 x 2

x =
2

360

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.2

11(d) 2 cos 2x
= 11 cos x + 1
2
2(2 cos x 1)
= 11 cos x + 1
4 cos 2 x 2
= 11 cos x + 1
2
4 cos x 11 cos x 3 = 0
(4 cos x + 1)(cos x 3) = 0
1
cos x = 3
cos x =
4
(no solution)
1.32
2nd or 3rd quadrant

12(i)

At x-axis,
y
=0
2
3 sin 2x + 2 cos x
=0
3(2 sin x cos x) + 2 cos 2 x = 0
6 sin x cos x + 2 cos 2 x
=0
2
3 sin x cos x + cos x
=0
cos x (3 sin x + cos x)
=0
cos x = 0
3 sin x = cos x

0 x 2

S A

T C
x = , +
= 1.82, 4.46
11(e) tan 2x

90 180 270 360

0 < x < 360

2 tan x
= 3 tan x 3 tan3 x
3 tan3 x tan x
=0
2
tan x (3 tan x 1) = 0
tan x = 0
or tan2 x = 1

tan x =

3
1

0 x 2

1st, 2nd, 3rd or


4th quadrant

x = 0, , 2

0 x 2
S

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

12(ii) y
=2
2
3 sin 2x + 2 cos x
=2
2
3(2 sin x cos x) + 2(1 sin x) = 2
6 sin x cos x + (2 2 sin2 x) = 2
6 sin x cos x 2 sin2 x
=0
2
3 sin x cos x sin x
=0
sin x (3 cos x sin x)
=0
sin x = 0
3 cos x = sin x

tan x = 3
1
71.6

1st or 3rd quadrant


90 180 270 360
1

5 7 11
6

18.4
2nd or 4th quadrant

x = 180 , 360
= 161.6, 341.6

0 < x < 360

x = , , +
, 2
= ,

T C
x = , 360
= 90, 270 0 < x < 360

= 3 tan x

1tan2 x

tan x

= 3 tan x

2 tan x

90 180 270 360

y = 3 sin 2x + 2 cos 2 x

0 < x < 360


S

x = 180

sleightofmath.com

T C
x = , 180 +
= 71.6, 251.6

361

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


13(i)

Ex 13.2
14(ii) 8 cos 3 x
8 cos 3 x 6 cos x
2(4 cos 3 x 3 cos x)
2 cos 3x

a = cos x + sin x
b = cos x sin x
a + b = 2 cos x

a+b

cos x =

a b = 2 sin x

sin x =

cos 3x

a+b 2
2

a2 +2ab+b2
4

= 60
2nd or 3rd quadrant

ab
2

0 < x < 180


0 < 3x < 540

cos 2x = cos 2 x sin2 x


=(

= 6 cos x 1
= 1
= 1
= 1

ab 2

1
2

A
C

2
a2 2ab+b2

3x = 180 , 180 + ,
= 120, 240,
x = 40, 80,

4ab
4
= ab
=

540
480
160

sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x


= 2(

ab
2

)(

a+b
2

) = 2(

a2 b2
4

) =

a2 b2
2

13(ii) a2
+b2
= (cos x + sin x)2
+(cos x
sin x)2
= (cos 2 x + 2 sin x cos x + sin2 x) +(cos 2 x
2 sin x cos x + sin2 x)
= 2 cos 2 + 2 sin2
= 2(cos 2 + sin2 )
= 2 [proven]
14

14(i)

LHS = cos 3x
= cos(2x + x)
= cos 2x cos x
= (2 cos 2 x 1) cos x
= 2 cos 3 x cos x
= 2 cos 3 x cos x
= 2 cos 3 x cos x
= 4 cos 3 x 3 cos x
= RHS [shown]

sin 2x sin x
(2 sin x cos x) sin x
2 cos x (sin2 x)
2 cos x (1 cos 2 x)
2 cos x + 2 cos 3 x

8 cos 3 10
6 cos 10
3
= 2(4 cos 10 3 cos 10)
= 2 cos 30
3
2

= 2( )
= 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

362

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 13.2

Prove: tan x = cot x 2 cot 2x

16
Prove: cos 6 + sin6 =

RHS = cot x 2 cot 2x


2
= cot x
tan 2x
2
= cot x 2 tan x
= cot x

1tan2 x
1tan2 x

tan x

= (sin cos )2 + (

tan x
= cot x 2 cot 2x
2 cot 2x = cot x tan x
=

LHS
= cos 6 + sin6
= (cos 2 )3 + (sin2 )3
= [cos 2 + sin2 ] [(cos 2 )2 (cos 2 )(sin2 ) +
(sin2 )2 ]
[(cos 2 )2 sin2 cos 2 +
=1
(sin2 )2 ]
= sin2 cos 2 +(cos 2 )2
+(sin2 )2

= cot x cot x + tan x


= tan x
= LHS [proven]

cot 2x

5+3 cos 4

= ( sin 2)

cot xtan x

= sin 2

Show: 2 tan 20 + 4 tan 40 + 8 tan 80 =


9(cot 10 tan 10)

1 1cos 4

= (
=

LHS = 2 tan 20
+4 tan 40
+8 tan 80
= 2(cot 20 2 cot 40) +4(cot 40
2 cot 80) +8(cot 80 2 cot 160)

=
=
=

4
2
cos 41

8
cos 41
8
cos 41
8
5+3 cos 4

+
+
+
+

1+cos 2 2
2

1+2 cos 2+cos2 2


4
2+2 cos2 2

+(
+

1cos 2 2

12 cos 2+cos2 2
4

4
2+2(

1+cos 4
)
2

4
2+1+cos 4
4
3+cos 4
4
6+2 cos 4
8

= RHS [proven]

= 2 cot 20 4 cot 40
+4 cot 40 8 cot 80
+8 cot 80 16 cot 160
= 2 cot 20 16 cot 160
= 2 cot 20
= 2 cot 20

16
tan 160
16
tan 20

= 2 cot 20 +16 cot 20


= 18 cot 20
= 18 (

cot 10tan 10
2

cot 2x =

cot xtan x
2

= 9(cot 10 tan 10)


= RHS [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

363

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(i)

Ex 13.2

3 +4 cos 2 x
= 3 +4 (

1+cos 2x
2

= 3 +2 + 2 cos 2x
= 2 cos 2x + 5
17(ii) y = 3 + 4 cos 2 x
= 2 cos 2x + 5

7
5.5
5
4
3
2.5

i.e. = 2, = 2, = 5
Amplitude = || = |2| = 2
Period

2
2

= 3 + 4 cos 2

= 4 3 sin cos

17(iii) y = 4 3 sin x cos x


1

= 4 3 ( sin 2x)
2

= sin 2x + 4
2

i.e. = , = 2, = 4
2

Amplitude = || = | | =
Period

2
2

17(iv) 4 cos + 3 1 = 0
4 2
= 1 3
2
3 + 4
= 4 3
4 intersections 4 sol
Workings
1 = 2 cos 2 + 5
Domain
0 x 2
Axis with
y=52
Amplitude
Shape
+cos
20
Cycle
=2

2 = 4 3 sin cos
Domain
0 x 2
3
Axis with
y=4
2
Amplitude
Shape
sin
20
Cycle
=2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

364

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18

R=

1 2
v sin cos
4.9

R|v=16
1
4.9

(16)2

19

x
Show: 2 + 2 + 2 cos x = 2 sin

LHS = 2 + 2 + 2 cos x

= 25
sin cos = 25

sin cos
1

Ex 13.2

sin 2

sin 2

=
=
=

= 2 + 2 + 2 [2 cos 2 ( x) 1]

245

512
245
512
490

= 2 + 2 + 4 cos 2 ( x) 2
2

512

73.1
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < < 90
0 < 2 < 180

= 2 + 4 cos 2 ( x)
2

= 2 + 2cos 2 ( x)
2

2 = , 180
73.1,106.9
36.6, 53.4

= 2 + 2 [ cos ( x)]
2

cos x < 0 for 135 < < 180


1

= 2 2 cos ( x)
2

= 2 2 [1 2 sin2 ( x)]
4

= 2 2 + 4 sin2 ( x)
4

= 4 sin2 ( x)
4

= 2sin2 ( x)
4

= 2 sin

x
4
1

sin ( ) > 0 67.5 < < 90


= RHS [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

365

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3
4(a)

Ex 13.3
1(a)

R = 32 + 42 = 5
4
= tan1 ( ) 53.1
3
y = 5 sin( 53.1)

cos + sin

R = 12 + 12 = 2
1
= tan1 ( ) = 45
1

max = 5
sin( 53.1) = 1
0 <

< 360
53.1 < 53.1 < 306.9
53.1 = 90

143.1

cos + sin = 2 cos( 45)


1(b)

3 cos sin
2

R = (3) + 12 = 3 + 1 = 2

= tan1 ( ) = 30

3 cos sin = 2 cos( + 30)


1(c)

R = 32 + 42 = 5
(4)
= tan1 [(3)] 53.1

3 sin + 4 cos = 5 sin( + 53.1)


1(d)

4(b)

R = 12 + (2) = 1 + 2 = 3
=

2
tan1 ( )
1

3(i)

1.18

90 180 270 360

I = 15 sin(120t) 8 cos(120t)

Min = 10
+ 71.6 180

108.4

R = 152 + 82 = 17
8
= tan1 ( ) 0.489 96
15

I = 17 sin(120t 0.489 96)


3(ii)

R = 12 + 32 = 10
3
= tan1 ( ) 71.6

Max = 10
cos( + 71.6) = 1
0 <

< 360
71.6 < + 71.6 < 431.6
+ 71.6 0, 360

288.4

R = 52 + 122 = 13
12
tan1 ( )
5

= 54.7

5 sin 12 cos = R sin( )

90 180 270 360

y = 10 cos( + 71.6)

sin 2 cos = 3 sin( 54.7)


2

= sin

y = cos 3 sin

sin 2 cos

min = 5
sin( 53.1) = 1
53.1 = 270

323.1

3 sin + 4 cos

y = 3 sin 4 cos

A = 17

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

366

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(c)

Ex 13.3

y = 6 cos + 5 sin

62

5(a)

3 cos x 4 sin x = 1
R = 32 + 42 = 5
4
= tan1 ( ) 53.1
3
5 cos(x + 53.1)= 1

52

R=
+
= 61
1 (5)
= tan
39.8
6

y = 61 cos( 39.8)

cos(x + 53.1)
max = 61
cos( 39.8) = 1
0
<

< 360
39.8 < 39.8 < 320.1
39.8 0

39.8

90 180 270 360

x + 53.1 , 360
78.5,281.5
x
25.3, 228.4
5(b)

3 sin x cos x = 1
2

R = (3) + 12 = 3 + 1 = 2

= tan1 ( ) = 30

2 sin( 30) = 1

sin( 30)

y = 35 sin( + 63.4)

min = 35
sin( + 63.4) = 1
x + 63.4 270
x
206.6

0 < x
< 360
53.1 < x + 53.1 < 413.1

R = 32 + 62 = 45 = 9 5 = 35
6
= tan1 ( ) 63.4

max = 35
sin( + 63.4) = 1
0 <

< 360
63.4 < + 63.4 < 423.4
x + 63.4 90
x
26.6

y = 3 sin + 6 cos

78.5
1st or 4th quadrant

min = 61
cos( 39.8) = 1
39.8 180

219.8
4(d)

1
2

= 30
1st or 2nd quadrant

= sin
90 180 270 360

0 < x
< 360
30 < x 30 < 330

x 30 = , 180
= 30,150
x
= 60, 180
5(c)

6 cos x 2 sin x = 3.5

R = 62 + 22 = 40 = 4 10 = 210
2
= tan1 ( ) 18.4
6

10 cos(x + 18.4) = 3.5


cos(x + 18.4)

3.5
210

56.4
1st or 4th quadrant
0 < x
< 360
18.4 < x + 18.4 < 378.4

S
T

x + 18.4 , 360
56.4,303.6
x
38.0, 285.2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

367

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(d)

Ex 13.3
6(i)

sin x + 2 cos x = 2

12

R=
+
= 5
1 (2)
= tan
63.4
1

R = 82 + 62 = 10
6
= tan1 ( ) 0.643 50
8

G(t) = 10 cos(4t 0.643 50)

5 sin(x + 63.4) = 2
sin(x + 63.4)

G(t) = 8 cos 4t + 6 sin 4t

22

6(ii)

39.2
1st or 2nd quadrant
0 < x
< 360
63.4 < x + 63.4 < 423.4

1 cos(4t 0.643 50)


1
10 10 cos(4t 0.643 50) 10
min = 10
10 cos(4t 0.643 50) = 10
cos(4t 0.643 50)
= 1

x + 63.4 , 180 , 360 +


39.2,140.8, 399.2
x
77.3, 335.8

t
>0
4t 0.643 50 > 0.643 50

90 180 270 360

5(e)

4t 0.643 50 =
t
0.946

2.1 cos x sin x = 1.6

R = (2.1)2 + (1)2 =
1

= tan1 ( )
2.1

1
10

541

25.5

7(i)

541 cos(x + 25.5) = 1.6


10

cos(x + 25.5)

16

541

46.5
1st or 4th quadrant

0 < x
< 360
25.5 < x + 25.5 < 385.5

= 5(1 + 0)
= 5 coulombs

7(ii)

16

R = 12 + ( ) =

= tan1 ( 4 ) 0.245

17
4

R=
+ 17.26
1 ( e )
= tan
40.9

17.26 cos(x 40.9) 2

17

q=

e2

cos(x 40.9)

1 2

cos x + e sin x = 2
2

q= 5e10t (cos 60t + sin 60t)


4

x + 25.5 , 360
46.5,313.5
x
21.1, 288.0
5(f)

1
q = 5e10t (cos 60t + sin 60t)
4
1
10(0) (cos
q|t=0 = 5e
0 + sin 0)

17
5e10t [ cos(60t
4
517 10t

A =

4
517
4

0.245)]

cos(60t 0.245)

B = 0.245
2

7(iii)

17.26

61.2
1st or 4th quadrant
0
<x
< 360
40.9 < x 40.9 < 319.1

S
T

10t
e
0
q
0

x 40.9 , 360
61.2,298.8
x
102.1, 339.6

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

368

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(a)

Ex 13.3

y = 4 sin + 3 cos 2

8(c)

R=
+
=5
1 (3)
= tan
36.9
4
y = 5 sin( + 36.9) 2
42

32

1 sin( + 36.9)
5 5 sin( + 36.9)
7 5 sin( + 36.9) 2

1
5
3

max = 3
sin( + 36.9) = 1
0 <

< 360
36.9 < + 36.9 < 399.9
+ 36.9 90

53.1

R = 12 + (2) = 3

= tan1 ( )

2
1

54.7

1 sin( 54.7)
1
3 3 sin( 54.7) 3
33 3 sin( 54.7) 53

max = 53
sin( 54.7) = 1
0
<

< 360
54.7 < 54.7 < 305.3
54.7 90

144.7

= sin

90 180 270 360

= sin

min = 33
sin( 54.7) = 1
54.7 270

324.7

y = 3 7 cos + 24 sin
= 3 + (24 sin 7 cos )
R = 242 + 72 = 25
7
= tan1 ( ) 16.3
24
y = 3 + 25 sin( 16.3)

8(d)

y = 7 + 15 cos 2 + 8 sin 2
= 7 + (15 cos 2 + 8 sin 2)

max = 24
cos(2 28.1) = 1

90 180 270 360

= sin
90 180 270 360

1 cos(2 28.1)
1
17 17 cos(2 28.1)
17
10 17 cos(2 28.1) + 7 24

max = 28
sin( 16.3) = 1
0
<

< 360
16.3 < 16.3 < 343.7
16.3 90

106.3
1

90 180 270 360


1

R = 152 + 82 = 17
8
= tan1 ( ) 28.1
15
y = 7 + 17 cos(2 28.1)

1 sin( 16.3)
1
25 25 sin( 16.3)
25
22 3 + 25 sin( 16.3) 28

min = 22
sin( 16.3) = 1
16.3 270

286.3

y = 3 sin( 54.7) + 43

min = 7
sin( + 36.9) = 1
+ 36.9 270

233.1
8(b)

y = sin 2 cos + 43
= (sin 2 cos ) + 43

0
<

< 360
28.1 < 2 28.1 < 691.9
2 28.1 = 0, 360

= 14.0, 194.0

min = 10
cos(2 28.1) = 1
2 28.1 180, 180 + 360

104.0, 284.0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

369

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(i)

Ex 13.3

10(a)

h = 1.6 + 0.5 sin ( ) 1.2 cos ( )

h = 1.6 + 1.3 sin (


1

sin (

x
6

1.3 sin (

x
6
x
6

1.18)

1.18)

1.3 1.3 sin (


0.3

1.3

sin (

x
6

x
6

4
13

0.313
1st or 2nd quadrant
0
<x
< 24
x
1.18 < 1.18 < 11.39

5 cos(2x 26.6) = 2
=

2
5

26.6
2nd or 3rd quadrant

1.18

, ,
2 + , 3
0.313,2.83,
6.60,9.11
x 2.84h, 7.64h,
14.8h, 19.6h
2h 51 min, 7h 39 min
14h 51min, 19h 39min
02: 51, 07: 39,
14: 51, 19: 39

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

R = 22 + 12 = 5
1
= tan1 ( ) 26.6

cos(2x 26.6)

10(b) 2 cos 2x + sin 2x + 2 = 0


2 cos 2x + sin 2x
= 2

x 56.3 , 180
56.3,123.7
x
112.6, 180

1.18) = 2

1.18)

3
13

0
<x
< 360
56.3 < x 56.3 < 303.7
=2

1.6 + 1.3 sin (

56.3
1st or 2nd quadrant

1.18) + 1.6 2.9

sin(x 56.3)

max. = 2.9
min. = 0.3
9(ii)

R = 22 + 32 = 13
3
= tan1 ( ) 56.3

13 sin(x 56.3) = 3

1.18)

=2

sin x+cos x

4 sin x cos x 3 = 2 sin x + 2 cos x


2 sin x 3 cos x = 3

R = 0.52 + 1.22 = 1.69 = 1.3


1.2
= tan1 ( ) 1.18
0.5

4 sin xcos x3

sleightofmath.com

0
<x
< 360
26.6 < 2x 26.6 < 693.4
2x 26.6
180 , 180 + ,
153.4,206.6,
x 90, 116.6,

A
C

540 , 540 +
513.4, 566.6
270, 296.6

370

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3

10(c) sin 1 x cos 1 x +2 cos x = 1


2

1
2

10(e) 2 sin x(2 sin x cos x) = 1


4 sin2 x
2 sin x cos x = 1

sin x

+2 cos x = 1

4(

1 2

17

R = ( ) + 22 =

= tan1 ( 1 ) 76.0

17
2

17
sin(x
2

+ 76.0) = 1

sin(x + 76.0)

17

x + 76.0 , 180 ,
29.0,151.0
x
75.0,

cos x
sin x

= 3 + 2(

1
sin x

x 45,

11(i)

1
5

360 + , 540 ,

720 +

386.6, 513.4,

746.6

161.6, 225,

341.6

V = 70 sin t + 85 cos t

R = 702 + 852 110.11


85

= tan1 ( ) 0.881 87
70
V = 110.11 sin(t + 0.881 87)

13 cos(x + 56.3) = 2
=

2x + 63.4
, 180 ,

26.6, 153.4,

R = 22 + 32 = 13
3
= tan1 ( ) 56.3

cos(x + 56.3)

R = 12 + 22 = 5
2
= tan1 ( ) 63.4

0 < x
< 360
63.4 < 2x + 63.4 < 783.4

360 + , 540
389.0, 511.0
313.1

2 cos x
= 3 sin x + 2
2 cos x 3 sin x = 2

=1
=1

26.6
1st or 2nd quadrant

= 3 + 2 csc x
)

2 2 cos 2x sin 2x
sin 2x + 2 cos 2x

sin(2x + 63.4)

0 < x
< 360
76.0 < x + 76.0 < 436.0

2(

=1

5 sin(2x + 63.4) = 1

29.0
1st or 2nd quadrant

10(d) 2 cot x

) sin 2x

1cos 2x

2
13

56.3
1st or 4th quadrant
0 < x
< 360
56.3 < x + 56.3 < 416.3

S
T

11(ii) 1
sin t
1
110.11 110.11 sin(t + 0.881 87) 110.11
max = 110.11
110.11 sin(t + 0.881 87) = 110.11
sin(t + 0.881 87)
=1

x + 56.3 , 360 , 360 +


56.3,303.7 416.3
x
247.4

t
0
t + 0.881 87 0.881 87

= sin
90 180 270 360

t + 0.881 87
t

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

0.689 ms 1

371

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3

11(iii) V
= 50
110.11 sin(t + 0.881 87) = 50
sin(t + 0.881 87)

0.471
1st or 2nd quadrant
t
0
t + 0.881 87 0.881 87

13(i)

In QRS, cos =

110.11

SR
8

R = 22 + 82 = 68 = 4 17 = 217
8

= tan1 ( ) 76.0
2

OR = 217 sin( + 76.0)


max = 217
sin( + 76.0) = 1
0 <

< 90
76.0 < + 76.0 < 166.0
+ 76.0 = 90

14.0

10

x = 149 cos(8t 0.611)


12(ii) 1
cos t
1
149 149 cos(8t 0.611) 149

90 180 270 360

13(ii) OR
=6
217 sin( + 76.0) = 6

max. = 149

sin( + 76.0)
x

= 149
149 cos(8t 0.611) = 149
cos(8t 0.611)
=1
t
0
8t 0.611 0.611

3
17

46.7
1st or 2nd quadrant

90 180 270 360

0 <
< 90
76.0 < + 76.0< 166.0

+ 76.0 , 180
46.7,133.3

57.4

8t 0.611 0
t
0.0763
12(iii) x

=9
149 cos(8t 0.611) = 9
=

14(i)
9

0
<t
<1
0.611 < 8t 0.611 < 7.39
8t 0.611 , 2 ,
0.741, 5.54,
t
0.169, 0.769,

3 sin + 4 cos(60 )
=2
[
]
3 sin + 4 cos 60 cos + sin 60 sin = 2
1

149

0.742
1st or 4th quadrant

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

OR = OS +SR
= PT +SR
= (2 sin +8 cos ) cm [shown]

R = 102 + 72 = 149
7
= tan1 ( ) 0.611

cos(8t 0.611)

SR = 8 cos

x = 10 cos 8t + 7 sin 8t

PT

PT = 2 sin

50

t + 0.881 87 ,
0.471,2.67
t
1.79 ms
12(i)

In PQT, sin =

=2

3 sin + 2 cos + 23 sin


(3 + 23) sin + 2 cos

=2
=2

S
T

3
2

3 sin + 4 [( ) cos + ( ) sin ]

2 +
7.02
0.954

sleightofmath.com

372

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3

14(ii) For (3 + 23) sin + 2 cos

15(ii) OM

=4
29 cos( 68.2) = 4

R = (3 + 23) + 22

cos( 68.2)

= (9 + 123 + 12) + 4

= tan1 (

2
3+23

25 + 123 sin( + 17.2) = 2

15

17.2
1st or 2nd quadrant

tan =
AC

16(i)

360 +
377.2
360

= 2 cot

sin

sin

(5,2)
2
5

OM
OA
OM
5+2 cot

cos
sin

18
16

tan x

90 180 270 360

= tan x
=

9
8

48.4
1st or 3rd quadrant

R = 22 + 52 = 29
5
= tan1 ( ) 68.2

0 < x < 90
x = , 180
48.4, 131.6

OM = 29 cos( 68.2)
max = 29
cos( 68.2) = 1
0
<

< 90
68.2 < 68.2 < 28.8
68.2 = 0

= 68.2

16
area of COD = 2(area of AOB)
(ii)(b) 18 cos x
= 2(8 sin x)
18 cos x
= 16 sin x

For 2 cos + 5 sin

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+18 cos x [shown]

Max = 297
sin(x + 66.0) = 1
0 <

< 90
66.0 < + 66.0 < 156.0
x + 66.0 = 90
x
24.0

= 5 sin +2 cos
= 2 cos +5 sin [shown]

= 8 sin x

sin (5 + 2 cot ) = OM
OM
= sin (5 + 2 cot )

15(i)

+ (6)(6) sin(90 x)

S = 297 sin(x + 66.0)

= sin (5 + 2

= (4)(4) sin x

16
For 8 sin x + 18 cos x,
(ii)(a) R = 82 + 182 = 297
18
= tan1 ( ) 66.0

OA = OC +CA
=5
+2 cot [shown]

S = area of AOB +area of COD


2

68.2 ,
, 360
42.0
42.0, 318.0

26.2

25+123

AC

sin( + 17.2)

+ 17.2 , 180 ,
17.2,162.8,

0, 146,

0
<
< 90
68.2 < 68.2 < 28.8

) 17.2

0
360
17.2 + 17.2 377.2

29

42.0
1st or 4th quadrant

= 25 + 123

90 180 270 360


1

17(i)
p = A sin(t)
+B sin(t + c)
= A sin(t)
+B[sin(t) cos(c) + cos(t) sin(c)]
= A sin(t)
+B cos(c) sin(t) + B sin(c) cos(t)
= [A + B cos(c)] sin(t) +B sin(c) cos(t)
= B sin (c) cos(t) +[A + B cos (c)] sin(t)

sleightofmath.com

373

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 13.3

17(ii) Why?
R2 = [Bsin (c)]2

18(v) In ABC,

+[A + B cos(c)]2

= B 2 sin2 (c)

In OBN,

+A2 + 2AB cos(c)

cos =

ON

AM = AC
= AC
= 2 cos
= 6 sin

2 cm

sin =

+CM
+BN
+6 sin
+2 cos

AM = R sin( + )
18(vi) OAM area = 1 (base)

2
1

(height)

= OM

AM

2
1

ON = 6 cos
In ABC,

BN

2 cm

sin =

= A2 + B 2 + 2AB cos c [shown]


In OBN,

BN = 6 sin

= B 2 [sin2 (c) + cos 2 (c)] +A2 + 2AB cos(c)

18(i)

AC

AC = 2 cos

+A2 + 2AB cos(c)


+B 2 cos 2 (c)

= B 2 [1]

cos =

= R cos( + ) R sin( + )

BC

2
1

= R2 ( ) [2 sin( + ) cos( + )]

2
1

BC = 2 sin

= R sin 2( + )
4

1
2
(40) sin 2( + )
4
= 10 sin 2( + ) [shown]

OM = ON
MN
= ON
BC
= 6 cos 2 sin [shown]
18(ii)

R = 62 + 22 = 40 = 4 10 = 210
2
= tan1 ( ) 18.4

18(vii) 1 sin 2( + )
1
10 10 sin 2( + ) 10

OM = 210 cos( + 18.4)

max
10 sin 2( + )
sin 2( + )

18(iii) OM
=5
210 cos( + 18.4) = 5
cos( + 18.4)

0 <
< 90
36.9 < 2( + 18.43) < 216.9

5
210

37.8
1st or 4th quadrant
0 <
< 90
18.4 < + 18.4 < 108.4

= 10
= 10
=1

S
T

90 180 270 360

2( + 18.43) = 90

26.6

+ 18.4 , 360
37.8, 322.2

19.3
18(iv) OA = R cm [pythagoras thm]
AOB =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

374

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19

Ex 13.3

P = (k 1) sin 4t + (2 + k) cos 4t
R = (k 1)2 + (2 + k)2
= (k 2 2k + 1) + (4 + 4k + k 2 )
= 2k 2 + 2k + 5
max = 2k 2 + 2k + 5
= 2(k 2 + 1) + 5
1 2

1 2

= 2 [(k + ) ( ) ] + 5
1 2

= 2 (k + ) + 5
1 2

= 2 (k + ) +

1 2

(k + ) 0
2

3
2
3

2
2
3

max cannot be less than 2


2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

375

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13
A1(b) y = 2 cos (3 2x) + 3

Rev Ex 13

A1(a) cos 105 = cos(60 + 45)


= cos 60 cos 45
1

2
( )
2
2
13
2
( )(
)
2
2
26

=( )
=
=

sin 60 sin 45
3
2

( )

2
2

= 2( sin 2) + 3
= 2 sin 2 + 3
i.e. = 2, = 2, = 3

( )
Amplitude

= || = |2| = 2

Period

5
3
2
3

2x)
+ sin ( ) sin(2x)

= cos ( ) cos(2x)

+ [ sin ( )] sin 2x

= (0) cos 2
= sin 2x
= RHS [shown]

+(1) sin 2

2
2

= 2 sin 2 + 3

Workings
Domain
0x
Axis with
y=32
Amplitude
Shape
sin

Cycle

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

3
3

= cos ( ) cos(2x)
2

A1(b) Show: cos (3 2x) = sin 2x


LHS = cos (

sleightofmath.com

=1

376

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A2(i)

Rev Ex 13

Coordinates of
90 < < 180 2nd quad.
4

cos = =
= 4,
y=

52

5
13

= 5,

-4

(4)2

=3

sin x =

Coordinates of
180 < < 270 3rd quad.
sin =

=5

A3(a) 4 cos 2x +2 sin x


4(1 2 sin2 x) +2 sin x
4 8 sin2 x +2 sin x
8 sin2 x 2 sin x 1
(4 sin x + 1)(2 sin x 1)

13

= 13

0 < x < 360


S

tan tan 45

tan( 45) =

1+tan tan 45

24

25

3
)(1)
4
3
1+( )(1)
4

cos 2 = 1 2 sin2 = 1 2 (

cos 2 =

1
2 cos 2 ( )
2
1+cos

7(
5 2

119

13

169

) =

1
2

sin 2x
2

sin 2x

1+cos
2

T C
x = , 180
= 30, 150

=2
=

4
7

34.8
1st or 2nd quadrant

cos

A3(b) 7 sin x cos x = 2

= 2( )( ) =

0 < x < 360

T C
x = 180 + , 360
194.5, 345.5

7
A2(ii) sin 2 = 2 sin cos

A2(iv) cos

sin x =

-5

x = 132 (5)2 = 12
Trigonometric ratio

A2(iii)

or

14.5
= 30
3rd or 4th quadrant 1st or 2nd quadrant

=3
=3
=3
=0
=0

cos < 0
2
1

for 90 < < 135

0 < x < 360


0 < 2x < 720

12
)
13

1+(

2
1

= 13
2

=
=

26
1

26

2x , 180 ,
34.8,145.2,
17.4, 72.6,

360 + , 540
394.9, 505.2
197.4, 252.6

A3(c) sin 2x
= sin2 x
2 sin x cos x
= sin2 x
sin x (2 cos x sin x) = 0
sin x = 0 or
2 cos x = sin x

tan x = 2
1
63.4

1st or 3rd quadrant


90 180 270 360
1

0 < x < 360


x = 180

0 < x < 360


S

T C
x = , 180 +
= 63.4, 243.4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

377

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A3(d) cot 2x

Rev Ex 13

= 1 + cot x

A5(i) 7 cos x + 24 sin x 12

= 25 cos(x 73.7) 12

= 1 + cot x

tan 2x
1

=1+

2 tan x
1tan2 x
1tan2 x

2 tan x

1 cos(x 73.7)
1
25 25 cos(x 73.7)
25
37 25 cos(x 73.7) 12 13

1
tan x

tan x+1
tan x

1 tan2 x
= 2 tan x + 2
2
tan x + 2 tan x + 1 = 0
(tan x + 1)2
=0
tan x
= 1
= 45
S A
2nd or 4th quadrant

T
C
0 < x < 360

max = 13
cos(x 73.7) = 1
x 73.7 0
x
73.7

sin A
cos A

sin A
cos A

cos(x 73.7)

(2 cos 2 A 1)

= (cos 2 2A sin2 2A)

2
5

x
> 0
x 73.7 > 73.7

sec 2 2A

= cos(2 2A)

66.4
1st or 4th quadrant

= tan A (cos 2A)


= cos 2A tan A
= RHS [proven]
A4(b) LHS = cos 4A

A5(ii) 7 cos x
= 10 24 sin x
7 cos x + 24 sin x = 10
25 cos(x 73.7) = 10

tan A

= 2 sin A cos A

90 180 270 360

min = 37
cos(x 73.7) = 1
x 73.7 180
x
253.7

x = 180 , 360
= 135, 315
A4(a) LHS = sin 2A

x 73.7 360 + , ,
293.6, 66.4,
x
7.3

cos2 2A
1
cos2 2A

= 1 tan 2A
= RHS [proven]

, 360
66.4,293.6

A6(i) LHS = 1cos +sin


1+cos +sin

A4(c) LHS =

sin(A+B)
sin A cos B

sin A cos B+cos A sin B


sin A cos B

=1+

cot A tan B = RHS [proven]


A5(i) 7 cos x + 24 sin x = R cos(x )
R = 72 + 242 = 25
24

= tan1 ( ) 73.7
7

2
2

1+(2 cos2 1)+(2 sin cos )


2
2
2

2
2
2

2 cos2 +2 sin cos


2
2
2

2
2
2

2 cos (cos +sin )


2
2
2

1(12 sin2 )+(2 sin cos )

2 sin2 +2 sin cos

2 sin (sin +cos )

= tan

= RHS [proven]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

378

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13

A6(ii) 1 + sin
= 2 cos
sin 2 cos = 1

B1(i)

cos(A+B)
cos A cos B+sin A sin B

R = 12 + 22 = 5
2
= tan1 ( ) 1.11

7
5
7
5

5 cos A cos B + 5 sin A sin B = 7 cos A cos B


7 sin A sin B

cos A cos Bsin A sin B

5 sin( 1.11) = 1
sin( 1.11)

cos(AB)

1
5

0.464
3rd or 4th quadrant
0
<
<
1.11 < 1.11 < 2.03

2 cos A cos B

= 12 sin A sin B

cos A cos B

= 6 sin A sin B
[proven]

tan A tan B

B1(ii) tan( + )
1.11 , ,
2.68, 0.464,

0.644

+ , 2
3.61,5.82

= tan(45)

tan +tan

=1

1tan tan
tan +tan
1

(1)

=1

1
6

tan + tan =
6

A7(i)
2.5

1 A
m

1.5

cos 2 A =

= 1,
y=

4
1

7.25 cos( 68.2) = 1.5

68.2 360 + , ,
303.9, 56.1,

12.1

3
2

3
2

= ( )( ) ( ) ( )

7.25

0
<
< 90
68.2 < 68.2 < 21.8

-1

3
2

1.5

56.1
1st or 4th quadrant

2 A

(1)2 = 3

Trigonometric ratio
cos(A + 60) = cos A cos 60 sin A sin 60

=2

22

sin =

R = 12 + 2.52 = 7.25
2.5
= tan1 ( ) 68.2

cos( 68.2)

cos A = = =

A +B
= 1.5
1 cos +2.5 sin = 1.5
cos + 2.5 sin = 1.5 [shown]
A7(ii)

B2(i) Coordinates
A is obtuse 2nd quadrant

= 1
S
T

, 360
56.1, 303.9

B2(ii) Recap

sin =

3
, cos
2

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A=

2
1
3
2( )( )
2
2

3
2

B2(iii) cos 2A = 2 cos 2 A 1= 2 (1) 1 = 1


4

B2(iv) sin 3A = sin 2A cos A + cos 2A sin A


1
3
)( )
2
2
3
3

4
4

= (
=

3
2

+ ( ) ( )
2

=0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

379

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13

B3(a) 4 sin 3x cos x 4 cos 3x sin x + 1 = 0


4(sin 3x cos x cos 3x sin x)
= 1
4 sin(3x x)
= 1
sin(2x)

B3(d) cos 2x 3 cos x


(2 cos 2 x 1) 3 cos x
2 cos 2 x 3 cos x 2
(2 cos x + 1)(cos x 2)

1
4

cos x =

14.5
3rd or 4th quadrant
0 < x < 180
0 < 2x < 360

2nd or 3rd quadrant

0x
S A

T C
x = , +
=

= 2 cos x
= 2 cos x
=0
=0
sin x = 1
0 < x < 360

3(

90 180 270 360

x = 90, 270

x = 90

1
cos 2x

= 8 sin 2x

) = 8 sin 2x

= 8 sin 2x cos 2x

= 8(

= 4(sin 4x)

sin 4x

0
<x
< 360
63.4 < 2x 63.4 < 656.6

2 + , 3
7.13, 8.58
1.78, 2.14

B4(a) sin(x y)
=p
(i)
sin x cos y cos x sin y = p
q cos x sin y = p
qp
= cos x sin y
cos x sin y
=
(1)

26.6
1st or 2nd quadrant

sin cos
360 + , 540
386.6, 513.4
225, 288.4

(2)

sin(x + y) = sin(x) cos(y) + cos(x) sin(y)


=q
+q p (2) & (3)
= 2q
p
B4(a)
(ii)

tan x
tan y

=
=
=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

4x = , ,
0.848,2.29,
x 0.212, 0.573,

5 sin(2x 63.4) = 1

2x 63.4 , 180 ,
26.6,108.4,
x
45, 108.4,

sin 4

0x
0 4x 4

R = 12 + 22 = 5
2
= tan1 ( ) 63.4
=

0.848
1st or 2nd quadrant

B3(c) sin 2x
= 2 cos 2x + 1
sin 2x 2 cos 2x = 1

sin(2x 63.4)

2 4

B3(e) 3 sec 2x

90 180 270 360

or

2x = 180 + , 360
194.5, 355.5
x 97.2, 172.8
B3(b) sin 2x
2 sin x cos x
sin x cos x cos x
cos x (sin x 1)
cos x = 0
or
0 < x < 360

=1
=1
=0
=0
cos x = 2
(no solution)

sleightofmath.com

sin x
cos x
sin y
cos y

sin x cos y
cos x sin y
q
qp

380

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13
B5(b) cos 2 x = 1+cos 2x

B4 (a) sin 2x sin 2y = 2 sin x cos x (2 sin y cos y)


(iii)
= 4 sin x cos y (cos x sin y)
= 4q (q p)

y = 4 cos 2 x
= 4(

B4(b)
A + B + C = 90
C
= 90 (A + B)

1+cos 2x
2

= 2 cos 2 + 1

180

-1

= 2 + 2 cos 2x 1
= 2 cos 2x + 1
i.e. = 2, = 2, = 1

Show: tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A = 1


Amplitude = || = |2| = 2
LHS
= tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A
= tan A tan B + tan B tan[90 (A + B)]

Period

90
] tan A
(A + B)
= tan A tan B + tan B cot(A + B) + cot(A + B) tan A
= tan A tan B + cot(A + B) [tan B + tan A]
+ tan [

= tan A tan B +
= tan A tan B +

1
tan(A+B)
1

= tan A tan B + (

tan A+tan B

360
2

= 180

Workings
Domain
0 x 180
Axis with
y=12
Amplitude
Shape
+cos

(tan A + tan B)

1tan A tan B

360

max. = 1 + (2) = 3
min. = 1 + (2) = 1

(tan A + tan B)

tan A+tan B
1tan A tan B

) (tan A + tan B)

1800

Cycle

= tan A tan B +1 tan A tan B


=1
= RHS [shown]

180

=1

B5(a) For 2 cos x 3 sin x,


R = 22 + 32 = 13
3

= tan1 ( ) 56.3
2

B6(a) LHS = cos(x+y)

(2 cos x 3 sin x)2


= [13 cos(x + 56.3)]
= 13 cos 2 (x + 56.3)
13 [shown]

cos 2 (x + 56.3) 1

0 < x
< 360
56.3 < x + 56.3 < 416.3
x + 56.3 , 180 ,
360 + , 540
= 0,180,
483.7
x
= 123.7,

sin(xy)

(cos x cos ysin x sin y)+(cos x cos y+sin x sin y)

= (sin

Trigonometric equation
(2 cos x 3 sin x)2 = 13
13 cos 2 (x + 56.3) = 13
cos(x + 56.3)
= 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+cos(xy)

sin(x+y)

x cos y+cos x sin y)(sin x cos ycos x sin y)

2 cos x cos y
2 cos x sin y

= cot y
= RHS [proven]

B6(b) LHS

90 180 270 360

1+sec 2
tan 2

=
180 + , 360 ,

1
cos 2
sin 2
cos 2

1+

(2 cos2 1)+1
2 sin cos
cos
sin

cos 2+1
cos 2
sin 2
cos 2

cos 2+1
sin 2

2 cos2
2 sin cos

= cot = RHS [proven]

360,
303.7

sleightofmath.com

381

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 13

B6(c) LHS = sin2 2 (cot 2 tan2 )


= sin2 2 (
= sin2 2 (
= sin2 2 [
2

cos2

sin2

sin2
cos2
4
cos sin4

>0
17 sin( 28.1) > 0

sin2 cos2
(cos2 +sin2 )(cos2 sin2 )
(sin cos )2

= sin 2 [

B7(iii) Given: 0 < < 90

(1) cos 2
2

1
2

AB

AB = 17 sin( 28.1)
118.1

O 28.1

( sin 2)
cos 2

= sin2 2 (1
4

sin2 2

= 4 cos 2
= RHS [proven]
B7(i) AB = OB OA
= 15 sin 8 cos

R = 152 + 82

= 17

= tan1 ( ) 28.1
15
AB = 17 sin( 28.1)
B7(ii) AB
=5
17 sin( 28.1) = 5
sin( 28.1)

= 90

5
17

17.1
1st or 2nd quadrant

28.1 < < 90


B7(iv) shaded area
= area of OPB
1

= (15 sin )(15 cos ) (8 sin )(8 cos )


=
=
=
=

225
2
161
2

sin cos
sin cos

2
161
4

( sin 2)
2

sin 2
sin 2

161
4

161
4

max =
161
4

32 sin cos

161 1

B7(v) 1

0
<
< 90 [by inspection]
28.1 < 28.1 < 61.9
S A
28.1 , 180

17.1,162.9
T C

45.2

area of OAQ

sin2 =

sin 2

sin 2

161
4

161
4
161

=1

90 180 270 360

0 < < 90
0 < 2 < 180
2 = , 180
= 90
= 45

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

382

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.1
3(a)

Ex 14.1
1(a)

d
dx

(3x 7 ) = 3

(x 7 )

dx

55

5 d

( x 2 ) =

dx 2

=
d
dx

(3x 2
d

d
dx

x3

3(c)

= 4

dx

d
dx

=
=
=
2(d)

d
dx

=
=
=
2(e)

d
dx

dx

(1)

d
dx

(x 2 )

= 4(3x 2 ) +5(2x)
= 12x 2
+10x
2(c)

(x)

dx

+5

2 x 2

3
2 d

2x4
5

(x 2 )

3(d)

3 dx
2

(2x)

3
22
3

20
3 d

dx

(12)

x9

11
8
(x )

100
x

2 d

(9x 2
d
dx

x2

dx 2

4(a)
dx

(x 2 )

dx x3
d

x3

+ 3)
x

dx

(x 3 )

4 )

d
dx

x4

2 )

d
dx

(3)

+0

x2

(3x + 2x 3)
d
dx

(x)

+2

(x 2 )

dx
1
1
+2 ( x 2 )
2
1

d
dx

(3)

(8x 2 + 3x x)
d
dx

(x 2 ) +3

d
dx

(x)

+3(1)

= 16x

+3

(x 1 )

(x

18

2x2 +4x
x

d
dx

(x 2 )

dx
1
1
( x 2 )
2
1

2x

(2x + 4)
d

dx

(x)

= 2(1)
=2

(x 3 )
2 dx
b
0
(3x 2 )
2
3b
x2
2

(x 2 )

= 8(2x)

b d

d
dx

=2

( )

= 18x

dx
d

x2

3(2x 3 )

=8

(x 9 )

11 dx

(9x 8 )
11
9
x 8
11

( x3 ) =

100

= 9(2x)

dx
d

(x 1 )

(x 2 ) 3

=3
3(f)

dx

= 3(1)

(x 2 ) +100

= 200x

=3

(x 4 )

5 dx
2
(4x 3 )
5
8 3

(3a) +b

+100(x 2 )

dx

= 100(2x)

=
3(e)

(3a + bx 2 )
dx

d
dx

2
x2

20 dx
3
(8x 7 )
20
6 7
x
5

(100x 2 +

= 6(3x

=0
+b(2x)
= 2bx
2(f)

=6

3x8

(x 1 )

=9

+4(1)
+4

(x 3 )

d
dx

=4

= 100

(x 5 )

(4x 3 + 5x 2 12)
d

(x) +2

+2(x 2 )

dx

+ 4x 1)

= 3(2x)
= 6x

dx

(x 2 ) +4

dx

= 4(1)

dx

=3

2(b)

( x 2 )

2 dx
5 2 3
( x 5)
2 5
1

2(a)

3(b)

2 dx
5 d

(4x + )

=4

= 3(7x 8 )
= 21x 8
1(b)

d
dx

d
dx

(4)

+0

dx 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

383

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(b)

d
dx

=
=

Ex 14.1

x2 6x+4

6(b)

dx
d
dx

(x 6 + )
(x)

x
d

=1

dx

(6)

+4

d
dx

d
dx

(x 1 )

= 1.5 t

x2

6(c)

dx

=2

(x 2 )

dx

= 2(2x)

d
dt

( )

dx

=
=

( )

dx 2

2x2

( +

5(a)

d
dx

2
x2

6(d)

dx 2

dx

dx

6(e)
)

(3x1.5
d

dx

(x1.5 )

= x
2
dx

2x

d
dx

=3

(3x
d

dx

(x)

= 3(1)
=3
6(a)

d
dt

1
2

(x )

dx
1
1
+ ( x 2 )
2
1

6x2 x+2

x 2 )

+ x1.5

= 3(1.5x 0.5 )

dx

1
2

(x )

3
1
( x 2 )
2
1

2x

x 2

2
1 d

4(2.5t1.5 )

= 24t

10t 2

2xx

(x )

d
dx

6(f)

(x 1 )

1
x2

= 2(2t)
= 4t

+1
+1

+t
d

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

d
dt

d
dt

(9)

+0

d
dt

(t)

d
dt

(3)

2t 1 )
2

d
dt

(t 1 )

2(t 2 )
+

2
t2

y = 4x 2 6x + 1
dx

1)
(t)

+12(1)
+12

=2

dy

d
= (2t 2
dt
d
= 2 (t 2 )

(2t

= 2(1)

7(a)

(t + 1)(2t 1)

d
dt

=2

dt

d (2t + 1)(t 2)
[
]
dt
t
d 2t 2 3t 2
= (
)
dt
t
=

+(x 2 )

4xx

d
(2t + 3)2
dt
d
= (4t 2 + 12t + 9)
dt
d
d
= 4 (t 2 ) +12 (t)
= 4(2t)
= 8t

+ x 1 )

2 dx
3
1
1
( x 2 )
2
2
1

dt

dt

= 12(2t)

dt

dt

[4t 2 (3 t)]

=3

5(b)

(x 2 )

3x2 +x1

(1)

dt

+2(2x 3 )
4

dt

d
(12t 2 4t 2.5 )
dt
d
d
= 12 (t 2 ) 4 (t 2.5 )

( ) +2

x3

dt
d

dx 2
d 1

(1 + t)(1 t)

= 1

=0

=0

x2 +4

2x2
d 1

2(1)

dt

dt
d

(t)

d
(1 t)
dt
d
d
= (1) (t)

dx 2x
3 d
(x 1 )

2 dx
3
(x 2 )
2
3

= 4x
4(d)

0.5

d
dt

dx 2
d 5

= t
2

d
5 3
= (2x 2 )
dx
2 2x
d
d 5
2
= (2x ) ( )

2t)

4x3 5x3
2x

t(t 2)
d
= (t1.5
dt
d
= (t1.5 )
dt

+4(x 2 )

=1
4(c)

dt

= 8x 6

Gradient at (2,5):

(1)

dy

dx x=2

= 8(2) 6
= 10

sleightofmath.com

384

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(b)

Ex 14.1
8(b)

y = x(2 x)
= 2x xx
= 2x
dy

dx

1
2

y = 2x 2 + 3x
dy

= 4x + 3

dx

3
2

1
1
2 ( x 2 )
2
1

Curve at y = 2:
2x 2 + 3x
=2
2
2x + 3x 2 = 0
(2x 1)(x + 2) = 0

3 1

x2
2
3

x
2

x=
dy

dx x=9

=
=

9
2

9
1

Gradients at x = , 2:
2

dy

dx x=1

(3)

or x = 2

Gradient at x = 9:

25
6

= 4( ) + 3 = 5
2

dy

= 4(2) + 3 = 5

dx x=2

7(c)

y=
=

(x+1)(2x3)
x
2x2 x3

8(c)

= 2x 1

= x + 4x 1

= 2 0 3(x
=2

dx x=1

=1

Curve at y = 5:

=2+

x2 +4

3
(1)2

dx

=5

x
2

x +4
= 5x
2
x 5x + 4 = 0
(x 1)(x 4) = 0
x = 1 or x = 4

y = x 2 2x
dy

4
x2

x2

=5
8(a)

= x + 4(x 2 )

dx

2 )

Gradient at x = 1:
dy

dy
dx

=x+

= 2x 1 3x 1
dy

x2 +4

y=

= 2x 2
Gradients at x = 1,4:

Curve at y = 1:
x 2 2x
= 1
2
x 2x + 1 = 0
(x 1)2
=0
x=1

dy

dx

Gradient at x = 1:
|

dx x=1

= 2(1) 2

= 1 (4)2 =

3
4

= 4x 5

Gradient at y axis (x = 0):


dy

=0

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

y = 2x 2 5x + 1
dy

dy

= 1 (1)2 = 3

dx x=4

9(a)

dx x=1
dy

dx x=0

sleightofmath.com

= 4(0) 5 = 5

385

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(b)

y=

Ex 14.1

x4

10(a) y = 3x 2 + 6x + 2

dy

=1

dx

= 1 4x 1
dy

Gradient is 3:
dy

= 0 4(x 2 )

dx

6x + 6 = 3

x2

dx x=4

y=

= (4)2

1 2

1
4

10(b) y = ax 2 + b

= ax 2 +bx 1

x+2

dy

dx

=1 +

( , )

=0

Gradient at x = 4:

9(c)

y|x=1 = 3 ( ) + 6 ( ) + 2

=4

dy

=3

dx

Curve crosses x axis (y = 0):


y
=0
x4

= 6x + 6

= a(2x) +b(x 2 )

= 2ax

x2

= 1 +2x 1
Gradient is 2 at x = 1:
dy

dy

= 0 +2(x 2 )

dx

=2

2a b
b

x2

Curve crosses y = x:
x

dx x=1

=2
= 2a 2

(1)

Gradient is 1 at x = 4:

x+2

dy

dx x=4
b

x
=x+2
2
x x2
=0
(x + 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1 or x = 2

8a

16

= 1
= 1

(2)

sub (1) into (2):


8a

2a2
16
1a

= 1

Gradient at x = 1,2

8a +

dy

64a + 1 a
63a

= 8
= 9

dx x=1
dy
dx x=2

2
(1)2
2
(2)2

= 2
1

=
2

= 1

(3)

sub (3) into (1):


1

16

b = 2 ( ) 2 =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

386

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11

Ex 14.1

Line:
4y 3x = 7
4y
= 3x + 7
y

= x+

13

y=

x+

4
3 2
x
8
2

4
3

8
9

=9
(2)

x2

Tangent x axis:
dy

=0

dx

= x2 +

x
1

= 9 +(x 2 )

dx

sub (1) into (2):


3

= 9x +x

(1)

dy

= x2 +

= 9x +

Curve:
3x 2 8y = 5
8y
= 3x 2 5
y

9x2 +1

=0

x2

=9

x2
2

=0

3x 6x 9 = 0
x 2 2x 3 = 0
(x + 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 1 or x = 3

=
1

1
9

(x + ) (x ) = 0
3

x=

or

x=

dy

y|x=1 = 6

= x
4

14
3

y=

= (3) =

dx x=3

12

2
1

x
1

dy
dy

= x 2 +3x 2

= (1) =

dx x=1

( ,6 )

Gradient at x = 1, 3:
dy

( , 6)

dx

y|x=1 = 6
3

Curve gradient:

= ( x 2 ) +3 ( x 2 )

dx

2 2

4x

3
2xx

y = x(x 2)
3
2
= x(x 4x + 4) 3
= x 3 4x 2 + 4x 3
dy
dx

Gradient at x = 1:
dy

dx x=1

= 3x 2 8x + 4
15(i)

Gradient is 7:

dx

=7

dx

3x 2 8x + 4 = 7
3x 2 8x 3 = 0
(3x + 1)(x 3) = 0
1

x=

or

y|x=1 = 4
3

22
27

22

27

( , 4

4(1) 2(1)(1)

3
4

y = x 3 + px + q
dy

dy

= 3x 2 + p

Curve at (3,16):
(16) = (3)3 + p(3) + q
16 = 27 + 3p + q
q
= 3p + 11

x=3
y|x=3 = 0

Gradient at (3,16) is 20:

(3,0)

dy

dx x=3
2

= 20

3(3) + p = 20
27 + p
= 20
p
= 7
q|p=7 = 10
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

387

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.1

15(ii) Curve & its gradient with p = 7, q = 10:


y = x 3 7x 10
dy
dx

19(i)

f(0) = 0
x=0

= 3x 2 7

Gradient is 20:
dy

= 20

dx

3x 2 7
= 20
2
3x 27
=0
2
x 9
=0
(x + 3)(x 3) = 0
x=3
or x = 3
(taken)
y|x=3 = (3)3 7(3) + 10
=4
(3,4)
16

f(x) = x[x 2 + kx + (2k 3)]

19(ii) Observe quadratic factor


[x 2 + kx + (2k 3)]
i.e. a = 1, b = k, c = 2k 3
Discriminant
For 2 non real roots,
b2 4ac
<0
2
k 4(1)(2k 3) < 0
k 2 8k + 12
<0
(k 2)(k 6)
<0
+

f(x) = x

f(x + x) = x + x

= lim

x0

= lim

19(iii) f(x) = x 3 + kx 2 + (2k 3)x


f (x) = 3x 2 + 2kx + 2k 3
i.e. a = 3, b = 2k, c = 2k 3
Roots: &

x0

2<k<6

f(x+x)f(x)

f (x) = lim

x+xx x+x+x
x
x+x+x
x+xx

x0 x(x+x+x)
x

= lim

x0 x(x+x+x)
1

Sum of roots

= lim
=
=
17

x0 (x+x+x)
1

Product of roots =

= (

= (x 3 + 1)(x 2 + 1)(x + 1)

= (x 5 + x 3 + x 2 + 1)(x + 1)
+x 4
+x

+x 3
+x 3

+x
+x

+1

= x 6 + x 5 + x 4 + 2x 3 + x 2 + x + 1
dy
dx

b
a

=
=

2k

3
2k3
3

( )2 = ( + )2 4

= x6

x + x x as x 0

x+x
1
2x

=+ =

4k2

4 (

2k3

3
8k12

9
4k2 24k+36

9
4
9
4

(k 2

6k + 6)

= (k 3)2
9

2 distinct roots
( )2 0

= 6x 5 + 5x 4 + 4x 3 + 6x 2 + 2x + 1

18
f(x) = (x 1)(x + 1) (x 2 + 1) (x 4 + 1)
= (x 2 1) (x 2 + 1) (x 4 + 1)
(x 4 + 1)
= (x 4 1)
= (x 8 1)

= (x1024 1)
= x 2048 1

2k 2

4
9

(x1024 + 1)
(x1024 + 1)
(x1024 + 1)
(x1024 + 1)

(k 3)2

0
3

(x1024 + 1)

f (x) = 2048x 2047


Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

388

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


19(iv) | |

( )2
4
9

(k 3)

(k 3)
k 2 6k + 9
k 2 6k + 8
(k 2)(k 4)
+

Ex 14.1

20

3
4

dy
dx

9
4

= 5x
5

y = x2

y=

1
1
0
0

21

+
4

2k4

2
5 2
x
2

Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:

+1
x + x + + x = x2
1 + 1 + + 1 = 2x
x = 2x
[wrong]
1=2

The number of x should not be disconnected from


x and be excluded from being differentiated

Combine inequalities,
2 k 4 and k 3 and 2 < k < 6 and k

and k

k=4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

389

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.2
2(b)

Ex 14.2
1(a)

d
dx

) =2

dx

(x + 2)

=
2(c)

d
3
[
]=
dx (34x)3

d
dx

(2x 1)

= 4(2x 1) 2
= 8(2x 1)3
1

( x + 2)

d
dx

=
2(d)

dx 4

= 5 ( x + 2)
4

= 5 ( x + 2)
4

d
6
[
]
dx (2x)2

[(3 4x)3 ]

( x + 2)

dx 4

1
4

= ( x + 2)
1(d)

d
dx

12
(2x)3
12

(2x)3

dx

(1 4x)10

= 10(1 4x)

d
dx

(2x 3) =

d
dx

=
3(b)

(2 3x 2 )4

= 4(2 3x 2 )3

d
dx

d
dx

d
dx
1

[(2x 3)2 ]
1

(2 3x 2 )

2x3

d
dx
1

dx

(x + x

2 )3

= 3(x + x 2 )2

d
dx

3(c)

(x + x 2 )

) =4

dx 2x+7

d
dx

53x2

4
(2x+7)2
8
(2x+7)2

=
d
dx

(2x + 7)

3(d)

x2 +2x+2

(6x)

d
dx

(x 2 + 2x + 2)

d
(x 2 x + 1)
dx
1
d
= [(x 2 x + 1)2 ]
dx
1

1
2

=
=
sleightofmath.com

(5 3x 2 )

(2x + 2)

2x2 +2x+2
x+1

= (x 2 x + 1)2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

d
dx

1
d
[(x 2 + 2x + 2)2 ]
dx

= (x 2 + 2x + 2)2

[(2x + 7)1 ]

(x 2 + 2x + 2)

= 4[(2x + 7)2 ]
=

d
dx

= 3(x + x 2 )2 (1 + 2x)
= 3(x + x 2 )2 (2x 1)
2(a)

253x2
3x

=
d

[(5 3x 2 )2 ]

(2x 3)

= (5 3x 2 )2

= 4(2 3x 2 )3 (6x)
= 24x(2 3x 2 )3
1(f)

d
dx

22x3
1

(5 3x 2 ) =

(2 x)

(1)

= 10(1 4x)9
(4)
9
= 40(1 4x)
1(e)

d
dx

= (2x 3)2

(1 4x)

(3 4x)

[(2 x)2 ]

4 4

3(a)

d
dx

(4)

= 6[2(2 x)3 ]

5 1

d
dx

(6x 2 + 5)

9
(34x)4
36

(34x)4

=6

d
dx

12x

+5)2
24x
(6x2 2
+5)

= 3[3(3 4x)4 ]

= 4(2x 1)

[(6x 2 + 5)1 ]

= (6x2

(2x 1)4
3

1(c)

d
dx

= 5(x + 2)4 1
= 5(x + 2)4
d

(x + 2)5

= 5(x + 2)

dx

= 2[(6x 2 + 5)2 ]
4

1(b)

dx 6x2 +5

1
2x2 x+1
2x1
2x2 x+1

d
dx

(x 2 x + 1)

(2x 1)

390

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4(a)

Ex 14.2

y = (3x 1)4
dy

4(d)

= 4(3x 1)

dx

d
dx

y = (4x5)3
= (4x 5)3

(3x 1)

= 4(3x 1)3 3
= 12(3x 1)3

dy

= 3(4x 5)4

dx

= (4x5)4
12

Curve at y =
y = 5 2x
= (5 2x)
dy

1
2

= (5 2x)2

dx

= 12(2)3 = 96

dx x=1

4(b)

(4x 5)

= (4x5)4

Gradient at x = 1:
dy

d
dx

252x
1

52x

d
dx

(5 2x)

(2)

27
1

1
(4x5)3

(4x 5)3
(4x 5)3
4x 5
x

= 27
= 33
=3
=2

27

Gradient at x = 2:
dy

12

= (4(2)5)4 =

dx x=2

Gradient at x = :

27

dy

dx x=1

4(c)

1
1
52( )
2

1
51

1
2

5(a)

2x3

dx
d

(2 x)

dx

= 6(2 x) [0

= (2x 3)2

dx

= 6(2 x) [

= (2x 3)1
dy

[(2 x) ]

= 6(2 x)

y=

d
dx

= (2x3)2

d
dx

= 6(2 x) (

(2x 3)

(2)

(x 2 )]

dx
1 1
x 2]
2
1
2x

3
x

(2 x)

= (2x3)2
5(b)
Curve at y = 1:
1
2x3

2x 3
x

dx [(11)3 ]
x

d
1 3
= [(1 ) ]
dx
x

=1
=1
=2

1 4

= 3 (1 )
x

Gradient at x = 2:
dy

dx x=2

= (2(2)3)2 = (1)2 = 2

=
=
=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

3
1 4
(1 )
x

3
1 4
(1 )
x

3
1 4
(1 )
x

d
dx
d

(1 )

dx

(1)

d
dx

(x 1 )]

[0 (x 2 )]

1
x2

3
1 4
x2 (1 )
x

391

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5(c)

Ex 14.2
6(a)

2]

y = (x + 2)2 x + 2
1

dx 2(32)

= (x + 2)2 (x + 2)2

2
1 d 3
[( 2) ]
2 dx x
1

= (x + 2)2

= [2 ( 2) ]
=
=

dy

dx x
d

dx

[3

3
3
( 2)
x

1
3
x

( 2)
dx

(x 1 )

[3(x 2 ) 0]

( 2 )

d
dx

2
5

(2)]

3
x

=
5(d)

d
dx

3
3
x

x2 ( 2)

=
=

6(b)

d
dx

dy

1
2

1
(23x2 )2

(2x + 2)

dx

[2

22x+2
1

1
2

(x ) +

dx

d
dx

= 1.52 3x 2
(2)]

[2 ( x ) +0]
2

22x+2
1

22x+2
1

d
dx

(2 3x 2 )

(6x)

= 9x2 3x 2
7(i)

x
1+x

(1+x)1
1+x
1

=1

[shown]

1+x

7(ii)

dx 1+x
d

1 3

[(x ) ]
x

1 2

dx

(x )

dx

(x)

d
dx

(x 1 )]

1 2

x2

8(i)
[(x + 2x) ]

= 4(x + 2x)

3
3

d
dx
d

1
2

(x ) +2

dx
1
3
1
2x) [ x 2
2
3
1
2x

(1)

dx

)
[(1 + x)1 ]

[(1 + x)2
[(1 + x)

1
(1+x)2

d
dx

(1 + x)]

1]

d
dx

2x1
(x1)2

x1

+ (x1)2

Cover-up rule:

(x + 2x)

= 4(x + 2x) (

1+x
d

= 4(x + 2x)

dx

(1

=0

= 3 (x ) [1 (x 2 )]
= 3 (x ) (1 +

dx
d

=0

1 2

= 4(x +

= 1.5(2 3x 2 )0.5

dx

1 2

(23x2 )

[(2x + 2) ]

= 3 (x ) [

dx

23x2

= 3 (x )

5(f)

= (2 3x 2 )2

1
2

2x(2x+2)

5(e)

(23x2 )

y=
=

= (2x + 2)
2

= (x + 2)2

(x + 2)

3
2

2
5

( 2)

d
dx

= (x + 2) 1

( 2)

= (x + 2)2

x = 1:

(x)]

+2(1)]

1
( )2

Substitution:

+ 2)

x = 0:

= A + B

=2

A
2x1

(x1)2 =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

B=1

=B

sleightofmath.com

2
x1

+ (x1)2

392

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.2

8(ii)

10

y = (1 x)4

d 2x1

dy

dx (x1)2

dx

d
dx

[(x 1)1 ]

= 2[(x 1)

2 ]

+
d
dx

d
dx

[(x 1)2 ]

(x 1) +2[2(x 1)

= 2[(x 1)2 ] 1

3 ]

(1 x)

Gradient is 4:

d
dx

dy

(x 1)

= 4

dx
3

4(1 x) = 4
1x
=1
x
=0
y|x=0 = 1
(0,1)

+2[2(x 1)3 ] 1
2

= (x1)2

d
dx

= 4(1 x)3 (1)


= 4(1 x)3

+ (x1)2 ]

dx x1

=2

= 4(1 x)3

(x1)3

= (x1)3 [(x 1) +1]


2

= (x1)3 (x)

11

y = x 2 2x + 5

2x

= (x1)3
9(a)

= (x 2 2x + 5)3

y = (x 2 2x 4)3

dy

dy

= 3(x 2 2x 4)2

dx

d
dx

At

y=

1
1

= (1 + x)2

dx

=
=

d
dx

(1 + x)

12

2(1+x)2
1

dy

3
2(1+x)2

dx x=3

2(4)2

= (a x)2

dx

=0

= (a x)2

2
3

d
dx

(a x)

1
2

= (a x) (1)
2

Gradient at x = 3:
dy

= 0:

dx
2x2

y = (a x)3

dy

x
=1
3
y|x=1 = 1 2 + 5
3
= 4
3
(1, 4)

1+x

= (1 + x)2
dy

2x2

3(x2 2x+5)3

= 12
9(b)

(x 2 2x + 5)

3(x2 2x+5)3

= (12)(1 + 2 4)2

d
dx

(2x 2)

2
3(x2 2x+5)3

Gradient at x = 1:
dx x=1

(x 2 2x 4)

= 3(x 2 2x 4)2 (2x 2)


= (6x 6)(x 2 2x 4)2

dy

= (x 2 2x + 5)3

dx

1
16

= a x
2

Gradient of
dy

dx x=2
3

at x = 2:

1
3
1

a 2 =
2
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

a 2

a2

2
9
4
81
166
81

393

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.2

13
y = [(x 2 1)2 + 4]5

16(i)

y = (x 2 + 1)n
dy

dy

= 5[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4

dx

d
dx

= 5[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4 [

[(x 2 1)2

d
dx

+4]

[(x 2 1)2 ]

= 5[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4 [2(x 2 1)

dx

d
dx

= n(x 2 + 1)n1 (2x)


= 2nx(x 2 + 1)n1 [shown]

d
dx

(4)]

(x 2 1) +0]

16(ii)
d2 y
dx2

= 2nx [(n 1)(x 2 + 1)n2

= 5[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4 [2(x 2 1) 2x]

d
dx

(x 2 + 1)]

= 20x(x 2 1)[(x 2 1)2 + 4]4

14
y=

(416x2 )

= 4nx 2 (n 1)(x 2 + 1)n2

dy

+2n(x 2 + 1)n1

= 2n(x 2 + 1)n2 [2x 2 (n 1) + (x 2 + 1)]

dx
3

= 2(4 16 x 2 )
=
=
=
=

15

(2nx) (x 2 + 1)n1

= 2nx[(n 1)(x 2 + 1)n2 2x] +2n (x 2 + 1)n1

= (4 16 x 2 )

d
dx

2
(416x2 )

d
dx
d

(4 16 x 2 )

dx

(4)

d
dx

[0 (16 x 2 )2

[0 (16 x 2 )2 (2x)]

dx

16x2 (416x2 )

dy

(1)

dx x=1
n)

n(2
1
3

= (x 2 + 3)2
2

dx2 x=1

x2 +3

d2 y

16x2

= 2n(2n1 )
= n(2n )

d
dx

(x 2 + 3)

17

2x

3
2(x2 +3)2

= 2n[(1)2 + 1]n2 [2(1)2 (n 1) +((1)2 + 1)]


= 2n(2)n2 [2(n 1) + 2]
= n(2)n1 [2n]
= n2 (2n )

dx

]]

= 2n(1)[(1)2 + 1]n1

dx x=1

= (x 2 + 3)2
dy

1
2

(16 x 2 )]

(416x2 )
2x

2)

2
(416x2 )
2

dy

[(16 x

(416x2 )

y=

d2 y

dx2 x=1
2 (2n )

:n
: n [shown]
f(x) = 1 + x
= (1 + x)

1
2

x
3

(x2 +3)2
x
1

(2)

x2 +3 x2 +3

sub (1) into (2):


dy

dx

(x 2 + 3)
(x 2 + 3)

dy
dx
dy
dx

f (x) = (1 + x)

x
x2 +3

=
y
=

= xy

+ xy = 0 [shown]

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

1
21+x
1
21+x
1
21+x
1
4x+xx

1
2

d
dx
d

(1 + x)

dx

(1) +
1

d
dx

(x 2 )]

[0 + x 2 ]
2

1
2x

[shown]

394

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


18

Ex 14.2

x2 + y2 = 1
y2
= 1 x2

19
1

y=

1
1
1
+
+
x2 +1 x2 +2 x2 +3

= 1 x 2

=(
dy

dx

=
=

1
21x2
1
21x

d
dx

1
x2 +1

x2 +2

x2 +3

(1 x 2 )
dy

(2x)
2

dx

= (

x
1x2

1
x2 +1

1
x2 +2

( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

Gradient at x = :

x2 +3

dx x=1
2

1
( )
2
2
1(1)
2

1
2
3

1
3

1
2
3
4

1
1

( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

dx
d

dy

1
2
1
1
1
( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

2x
2
1
1
1
( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

x2 +3

(x 2 + 2)1

2
1
[+ dx (x + 3) ]

[(x 2 + 1)2 ][2x]


[+[(x 2 + 2)2 ][2x]]
+[(x 2 + 2)2 ][2x]

[ (x2

2x

+1)2

2x

(2x) [(x2
[(x2

] + [ (x2

+ [ (x2

( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

x2 +2

2x

(x 2 + 1)1

dx
d

2
1
1
1
( 2 + 2 + 2 )
x +1 x +2 x +3

dx x2 +1
x2 +2
x2 +3
1
1
1

dx x2 +1

dy

1
+1)2

1
+1)2

+2)2

]
}

+ (x2

+ (x2

+3)2

+2)2

1
+2)2

+ (x2

+ (x2

1
+3)2

1
+3)2

dx x=1

=
=
=
=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2(1)
2
1
1
1
( 2 + 2 + 2 )
(1) +1 (1) +2 (1) +3

2
1 1 1 2
( + + )
2 3 4

2
13 2
( )
12

[((1)2

+1)2

+ ((1)2

+2)2

+ ((1)2

+3)2

[(2)2 + (3)2 + (4)2 ]


1

16

( + +

122
169

sleightofmath.com

395

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.3
2(a)

Ex 14.3
1(a)

d
dx

d
dx

d
dx

[(2x 1)3 ]

= x 3(2x 1)2 2
= 6x(2x 1)

d
dx

(x) (2x 1)3

+1 (2x 1)3
+(2x 1)

= 2x(1 x)

= (2x 1)2 (8x 1)


1(b)

dx

=
[(x 1)(x + 2)2 ]

= (x 1)

d
dx

[(x + 2)2 ] +

d
dx

2(b)

(x + 2)2

= (x 1) 2(x + 2) 1

+1

= 2(x 1)(x + 2)

+(x + 2)2

= (x + 2) [2(x 1)

(x 1) (x + 2)2

= (x + 2) (2x 2

dx

+x + 2)

= 3x(x + 2)

=
=

= (1 2x)

d
dx

4]

[(3x + 2)

=
4]

d
dx

2x
1x
2x
1x

(1 2x) (3x + 2)

2(c)

= (x 2 + 1)

d
dx

[(1 + x)2 ]

d
dx

(x 2 + 1) (1 + x)2

(1 + x)2

= (x 2 + 1) 2(1 + x) 1

+2x

= 2(x 2 + 1)(1 + x)

+2x(1 + x)2

= 2(1 + x) [(x 2 + 1)

+x(1 + x)]

= 2(1 + x) (x 2 + 1

+x + x 2 )

[x

1
1+3x
1+2x

+1

1 + 2x

+(1 + 2x)]

(1 + 3x)

1+2x

(x 2 1 2x 2 )

+1 + 2x

1+2x

3x 2)

[(x 2 + 1)(1 + x)2 ]

(1 + 2x) + (x) 1 + 2x
dx

= x2

dx

1+2x

(3x + 2)]

1(d)

+(1 x)]

= 2(3x + 2)3 [6(1 2x)

2x

[4x

21+2x

= x2

= 2(3x + 2) (4 15x)

(1x)2

dx

2(3x + 2)4

(1 x)2

(x1 + 2x)

= 12(1 2x)(3x + 2)3

= 2(3x + 2) (6 12x

1
2x

+(1 x)2 ]

2x

+(2) (3x + 2)4

(x) (1 x)2

[4x(1 x)

(1x)(15x)

= (1 2x) 4(3x + 2)3 3

dx

d
dx

(1 5x)

2x

=x

= (x + 2) 3x

[(1 2x)(3x + 2)

=x

1(c)
d

d
dx

+(x + 2)]

+
+

= (2x 1) [6x +(2x 1)]

[(1 x)2 ]

dx

= x 2(1 x) (1)

= x

[x(2x 1)3 ]

=x

[x(1 x)2 ]

d
dx

(1 2x 2 )
1

212x2

(4x)

2x3
1
2x

12x2
2x
12x2

d
dx

+2x

(x 2 ) 1 2x 2
1 2x 2

+2x1 2x 2

12x2

12x2

[2x 3

+2x(1 2x 2 )]

[x 2

+(1 2x 2 )]

(1 3x 2 )

2x(13x2 )
12x2

= 2(1 + x) (2x 2 + x + 1)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

396

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.3

2(d)
d
dx

3(a)
1)3x 2

[(4x

= (4x 1)

dx

=
=
=
=
=

23x2 +1

6x

1
3x2 +1
1
3x2 +1

dx

= (x + 2)2 (3 +

1
2x+1

d
dx
3

dx

3
2

(x + 1) x + 1

+ x

3
x2 +1

1
2

x + 1

[x 2 + 1

+3x(x + 1)]

(xx + 1

+3xx + 3x)

(4xx + 3x + 1)

2x+1

4xx+3x+1
2x+1

=
=

[(2x + 3)1 4x]

= (2x + 3)
= (2x + 3)

=
=
=
=

d
dx

1
2
14x

14x

1
x14x
1
x14x
16x8x
x14x

d
dx

(2x + 3)

(4) + [2 (

2(2x+3)

14xx

(1 4x) +

214x

x2

+
+

1
2x

) + 0]

1
x

1 4x

1 4x

1 4x

d
dx

(x + 2)]

x2

+(3x 2 2x) 5 + 6x

25+6x

x
5+6x
x
5+6x
x
5+6x
x
5+6x

+x(3x 2)5 + 6x

[3x 2 (x 1)

+x(3x 2)(5 + 6x)]

[3x(x 1)

+(3x 2)(5 + 6x)]

(3x 2 3x

+(3x 2)(6x + 5)]

(3x 2 3x

+18x 2 + 3x 10)

(21x 2 10)

x(21x2 10)
5+6x

dx

+(3x 2 2x)5 + 6x

5+6x
1

(x 3 x 2 ) 5 + 6x

3x2 (x1)

5+6x

(5 + 6x)

5+6x

y = x3 + x 2

[typo in question]

14x
dy

dx

=x
=x

+1 4x)

=
=

(1 6x 8x)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(x + 2)3

3(x3 x2 )

[2x(2x + 3) +(1 4x)]


(4x 6x

1
x2

) (x + 2)3

[(x 3 x 2 )5 + 6x]

= (x 3 x 2 )

d
dx

= (x 3 x 2 )

2x+1

1
x2

x2

[x 2 (x 1)5 + 6x]

+ xx + 1
2

2x+1

2x+1

3(b)

(x + 1)

dx

(1 + ) (x + 2)3

= (x + 2)2 (3 +

d
dx

+ (0

(24x 2 3x + 4)

[(x 2 + 1) x + 1]

[(x + 2)3 ]

= (x + 2)2 [3 (1 + )

= (2x + 3)

dx

2(f)
dx

+12x 2 + 4)

= (x + 1)

= (1 + )

(12x 2 3x

3
2

= 3 (1 + ) (x + 2)2

= (x + 1)

[(1 + ) (x + 2)3 ]

+4(3x 2 + 1)]

3
2

3x 2 + 1

d
dx

[3x(4x 1)

3x2 +1
d

= (1 + ) 3(x + 2)2 1

24x2 3x+4

2(e)

(4x 1) 3x 2 + 1

+43x 2 + 1

3x2 +1
3x2 +1

d
dx

+4

3x(4x1)
1

[ (x + 1)(x + 2)3 ]

dx x

3x 2 + 1
1

= (4x 1)

+ 1]

sleightofmath.com

d
dx

(3 + x 2 ) +
1

23+x2

2x

x2
3+x2
1
3+x2
1
3+x2
3+2x2
3+x2

d
dx

(x) 3 + x 2

+1 3 + x 2
+3 + x 2

[x 2

+(3 + x 2 )]

(2x 2 + 3)

397

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

Ex 14.3
7

y = xx 1
dy

=x

dx

=x
=
=
=
=
=

(x 1) +

dx

1
2x1

2x1
1
2x1
1
2x1

dy

(x) x 1

+1

[(x 4)4 ]

= x 4(x 4)3 1

= 4x(x 4)3

= x

dx

x 1

+x 1

2x1
1

d
dx

y = x(x 4)4

[x

+2(x 1)]

(x

+2x 2)

(3x 2)

3x2
2x1

dx

1
2x
(x4)3
2x
(x4)3
2x

d
dx

(x) (x 4)4

1
2x

(x 4)4

(x4)4
2x

[8x(x 4)3

+(x 4)4 ]

[8x

+(x 4)]

(9x 4)

(x4)3 (9x4)
2x

Gradient at (5,10):
dy

dx x=5

3(5)2
251

13
2(2)

13
4

dy

At

dx

1
2x

= 0:

(x 4)3 (9x 4) = 0
4

x = 4 or x =

y = (x + 1)3 (x 1)

dy
dx
3

= (x + 1)

d
dx

(x 1)

d
dx

[(x + 1)

3]

8
(x 1)

y=

x2 1
x2 +1
(x2 +1)2

= (x + 1)3 1

+3(x + 1)2 1 (x 1)

= (x + 1)3

+3(x + 1)2 (x 1)

=1

= (x + 1)2 [(x + 1)

+3(x 1)]

= 1 2(x 2 + 1)1

= (x + 1)2 (x + 1

+3x 3)
dy

= (x + 1)2 (4x 2)

dx

= (x2
at

dy
dx
4x

(x 2 + 1)

2x
2x

+1)2

=0
=0
(0)2 1

y|x=0 = (0)2

sleightofmath.com

d
dx

= 0:

(x2 +1)2

=8

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+1)2
4x

Gradient at x = 1,1:
dy
|
=0
|

= 2[(x 2 + 1)2 ]
= (x2

Curve cross x axis:


y
=0
2 (x
2(x + 1)
1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 1

dx x=1

2
x2 +1

= 2(x 2 + 1)2

= 2(x + 1)2 (2x 1)

dx x=1
dy

x2 +1

+1

= 1

398

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9

Ex 14.3
11

y = x4 x 2
dy

=x

dx

dx

(4 x 2 )
1

=x
=
=
=
=
=

24x
x2

4x2
1

(2x)
2

d
dx

y = (x a)x b

(x) 4 x 2

dy

4 x 2

+1
+4

= (x a)

dx

= (x a)

x2

[x 2 +(4 x 2 )]

4x2
1

(4 2x 2 )

4x2
1
4x2
2(2x2 )

2(2 x 2 )

x4 x 2

=x

x(4 x 2 1)

=0

or 4 x 2 = 1
4 x2 = 1
3 x2 = 0
x2
=3
x = 3 or

x=0

dx x=3
dy

2(2)

dx x=3

10

dx

d
dx

(x a) x b

+1

x b

+x b

2xb
xa +(2x2b)
2xb
3xa2b
2xb

Curve intersects x-axis (y = 0) with x = b + 1:


0 = (b + 1 a)b + 1 b
0 = (b a + 1)1
0=ba+1
a=b+1
Gradient at A:
dy

dx x=b+1

=
=

x = 3

4
2(23)

=2

43
43

2(b+1)b
(3b+3)a2b
21
b+3a
2
b+3(b+1)
2

a=b+1

2
2
= 1 [shown]

= = 2

2(23)

3(b+1)a2b

2
1

= 2

Curve & its gradient


y = 3x 2 7x + 2
dy

(1)

2xb
xa +2(xb)

=
dx x=0
dy

1
2xb

xa

Gradient at x = 0, 3, 3:
|

(x b) +

4x2

Curve cross y = x:
y
=x

dy

d
dx

= 6x 7

mtan = 6x 7
Line & its gradient
5x y = 0
y
= 5x
mline = 5
Tangent Line:
mtan = mline
6x 7 = 5
x
=2
y|x=2 = 3(2)2 7(2) + 2
=0
(2,0)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

12
d
dx

[f(x)g(x)h(x)]
d
dx

f(x)[g(x)h(x)]

= f(x)

d
dx

[g(x)h(x)]

d
dx

f(x)[g(x)h(x)]

= f(x) [g(x)h (x) + g (x)h(x)]

+f (x)

= f(x)g(x)h (x) +f(x)g (x)h(x)

+f (x)g(x)h(x)

13(i)

[g(x)h(x)]

f(a) = 0
By factor theorem, (x a) is a factor

13(ii) The gradient of f(x) at x = a is 0

sleightofmath.com

399

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.4
1(d)

Ex 14.4
1(a)

5x

d
3x 2
(
)
dx 1 4x

dx 2x+1

6x 24x 2
+ 12x 2
(1 4x)2

5
=
(2x + 1)2

6x 12x 2
(1 4x)2

1x

dx 12x

(1 4x) 6x
3x 2 (4)
=
(1 4x)2

1(e)

1
(1 2x)2

=
(

x2

d 2
d
(x ) x 2 (x + 3)
dx
dx
=
(x + 3)2
(x + 3) 2x
x2 1
=
(x + 3)2
2x 2 + 6x
x2
=
(x + 3)2
=

x(x + 6)
(x + 3)2

2x1

2(x 2 x 1)
(2x 1)2

dx x+3

(x + 3)

x2 +1

(2x 1)

d 2
d
(x + 1)
(x 2 + 1) (2x 1)
dx
dx
=
(2x 1)2
(2x 1) 2x
(x 2 + 1) 2
=
(2x 1)2
2
4x 2x
2x 2 2
=
(2x 1)2
2x 2 2x 2
=
(2x 1)2

d
d
(1 x) (1 x) (1 2x)
dx
dx
=
(1 2x)2
(1 2x) (1)
(1 x) (2)
=
(1 2x)2
2x 1
+ 2 2x
=
2
(1 2x)
=

d
dx

(1 2x)

1(c)

d
d
(3x 2 ) 3x 2 (1 4x)
dx
dx
(1 4x)2

d
d
(5x) 5x (2x + 1)
dx
dx
=
(2x + 1)2
(2x + 1) 5
5x 2
=
(2x + 1)2
10x + 5
10x
=
(2x + 1)2
(2x + 1)

1(b)

(1 4x)

1(f)

d 2x 3
(
)
dx 1 x
=

(1 x)

d
d
(2x 3 ) 2x 3 (1 x)
dx
dx
(1 x)2

(1 x) 6x 2
2x 3 (1)
(1 x)2

6x 2 6x 3
(1 x)2

6x 2 4x 3
(1 x)2

+ 2x 3

2x 2 (3 2x)
=
(1 x)2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

400

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(a)

Ex 14.4

1
2x
(1 + x)2

1
(1 + x
2x
=
(1 + x)2

(1 x)
1 x 1

1x
+

1 x

1
21 x
1
21 x

1
(1)
21 x

x
21 x

1x
[2(1 x) + x]

+ x)

2x + 1

x+1

dx 14x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

2x]

2x)

d
1 4x dx (x + 1)

(x + 1)
2

d
4x
dx 1

(1 4x)
1 4x (1)

(x + 1)

=
1 4x
=

1 4x

1
[(1 4x)
4x
= 1
1 4x
1
(1 4x

4x
1
=
1 4x
1
(3 2x)
4x
1
=
1 4x
3 2x
=
(1 4x)1 4x

sleightofmath.com

1
(4)
21 4x

1 4x
2(x + 1)
+
1 4x

1x

1
(2 x)
21 x
=
1x
2x
=
21 x(1 x)

2x
2x
+1

2(d)

1x
(2 2x

1
(2)
22x + 1

2x

1
[2(2x + 1)
2x
+1

=
2x + 1
1
(4x + 2
2x + 1

=
2x + 1
1
(2x + 2)
2x + 1

=
2x + 1
2x + 2
=
(2x + 1)2x + 1

d
(1 x)
dx

d
2x + 1
dx

2x + 1

2x(1 + x)2

2x

22x + 1

2x)

d
x
(
)
dx 1 x
d
1 x dx (x)
=

d
2x + 1 dx 2x

1x

2x + 1 2

x 1

2(b)

2x

(2x + 1)

1
(1 x)
2x
=
(1 + x)2
=

dx 2x+1

d
d
(1 + x) (x)
x (1 + x)
dx
dx
=
(1 + x)2
(1 + x)

2(c)

d
x
(
)
dx 1 + x

+ 2(x + 1)]

+ 2x + 2)

401

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 14.4

2(e)
d
3x 2
(
)
dx 2x 2 3
2x 2 3

y=
dy

d
(3x 2 )
dx

(3x 2 )
2

d
2x 2 3
dx

dx

(2x 2 3)

=
6x2x 2 3
=

1
3x 2 [
(4x)]
22x 2 3
2x 2 3

2x 2 3 (6x)

6x 3
2x 2 3

dy

6x

6x 3 ]

dy

x2]

(3x2 )

d
(14x2 )
dx

(14x2 )2
(14x2 )(6x)

3x2 (8x)

(14x2 )2
6x24x3
+24x3
2
2
(14x )
6x
(14x2 )2

= (14)2 =

2
3

1x

=
=

(1x)

d
(x2)
dx

(x2)

d
(1x)
dx

(1x)2
(x2)(1)
(1x)2
+x2
(1x)2

(1x)1
1x
1

= (1x)2

(x 2 3)
Curve cross x axis:
y =0

x2
1x

2(f)
d
5x
(
)
dx 1 x 2
1 x 2

=0
=2

Gradient at x = 2:

d
5x
dx

(5x)
(1 x 2 )

dy

d
1 x 2
dx

dx x=2

= (12)2
= 1

1
5x [
(2x)]
21 x 2
1 x2

1 x 2 (5)
=
51 x 2
=

d
(3x2 )
dx

x2

dx

2x 2 3(2x 2 3)

y=

(14x2 )

dx x=1

2x 2 3

1
[6x(2x 2 3)
23
2x
=
2x 2 3
6x
[(2x 2 3)
23
2x
=
2x 2 3
6x
(x 2 3)
23
2x
=
2x 2 3

3x2
14x2

5x 2
1 x 2

1 x2

1
[5(1 x 2 )
2
1

x
=
1 x2
5
[(1 x 2 )
2
1

x
=
1 x2
5
(1)
2
1

x
=
1 x2
5
=
(1 x 2 )1 x 2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

+ 5x 2 ]

+ x2 ]

sleightofmath.com

402

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

y=

Ex 14.4

x+2

3x+1

dy
dx

y=(

5x+3 4
10x6

dy
dx

d
3x + 1 dx (x + 2)
=
3x + 1 1
=
3x + 1
=

d
(x + 2)
3x + 1
dx
3x + 1
1
(x + 2)
(3)
23x + 1
3x + 1
3(x + 2)

23x + 1
3x + 1

1
[2(3x + 1)
23x + 1
=
3x + 1
1
(6x + 2
23x + 1
=
3x + 1
1
(3x 4)
2 3x + 1
=
3x + 1
3x 4
=
23x + 1(3x + 1)

= 4(
= 4(
= 4(
= 4(
= 4(

3(x + 2)]
=
3x 6)

5x+3 3

10x6

dx 10x6

5x+3 3

(10x6)

)
)

5x+3

10x6

5x+3 3

d
d
(5x+3) (5x+3) (10x6)
dx
dx
(10x6)2

(10x6)5

10x6

5x+3 3

(5x+3)10
(10x6)2

50x30

50x30
(10x6)2

10x6

5x+3 3

60

) (10x6)2

10x6

240(5x+3)3
(10x6)5

Curve at y = 16:
y
= 16
(

5x+3 4

) = 16

10x6
5x+3

10x6

=2

5x+3

or

10x6

= 2

5x + 3 = 20x 12
15x
= 15

5x + 3 = 20x + 12
25x
=9

=1

9
25

Gradient at x = 1:
dy

dx x=1

34
24(4)

1
2(2)4

1
16

Gradient at x = 1,
dy

dx x=1
dy

dx x= 9

25

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

=
=

25
240(5(1)+3)3
(10(1)6)5
9
25

240(5( )+3)
9
25

(10( )6)

= 120
3

1000
3

403

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7

y=

Ex 14.4
8

1x

x2 +3

y=
dy

dy
dx

1x

2 2
x +3

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

At

dy

1
1x
x2 +3

x2 +3
21x
x2 +3
21x
x2 +3
21x
x2 +3
21x
1
21x

1x

dx x2 +3
(x2 +3)

d
(1x)
dx

(1x)

d 2
(x +3)
dx

(x2 +3)2

dx

(x2 +3)(1)

(1x)2x

(x2 +3)2

x2 3

xa
bx
1
xa
2
bx

xa

xa

dx bx

(bx)

d
(xa)
dx

(xa)

d
(bx)
dx

(bx)2

bx

bx
2xa

bx
2xa

(bx)(1)

(xa)(1)
(bx)2

2x+2x2
(x2 +3)2

x2 2x3

bx

+xa
(bx)2

(x2 +3)2

(x1)(x3)
(x2 +3)2

(x1)(x3)

ba
bx

2xa (bx)2
ba
3

2xa(bx)2

3
(x2 +3)2

(x3)(x+1)
3

21x(x2 +3)2

Gradient at x =
dy

= 0:

dx x=a+b

dx
(x3)(x+1)
3

21x(x2 +3)2

2(

=0
2

=
=

3
a+b
a+b 2
)a(b(
))
2
2

3
a+b 2a 2b a+b 2
(
)
2
2 2
2

ba
3
ba ba 2
2
(
)
2
2

ba
2(

ba

x = 1 or x = 3

ba

a+b

ba 2
)
2

ba
(ba)2
2
22

ba
(ba)2
2

= (b a) (ba)2
=

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

2
ba

[shown]

404

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


9(i)

Ex 14.4

1
3

x+h

y=
dy
dx

xk

1 x+h

= (

3 xk

=
=

x+h 3
( )
xk
2

2
x+h 3
3(
)
xk

1
1 2
x+h 3
3[(
) ]
xk

1
1 2
x+h 3
3[(
) ]
xk

(1)
(

x+h

dx xk
(xk)

d
(x+h)
dx

(x+h)

d
(xk)
dx

dy

(xk)2
(xk)1

dx

mtan =

(x+h)1

xk

9(ii)

dy
dx

2x

Tangent & its gradient

xh

y=

(xk)2

25
4

mtan = 0
(xk)2

(2)

Using intersection,
kx x =

25

(1)

Using gradients,
1
3y2

(k+h)
(xk)2

k
2x
k

1= 0
=1

2x

3y 2 (x k)2

1)

2x
k

(xk)2

dx

k
x

= kx x

sub (1) into (2):


dy

y = x(

kh

1 2
x+h 3
3[(
) ]
xk

10(i) Curve & its gradient

= (k + h) [shown]

= 2x

(2)

Tangent to y axis:

sub (2) into (1):

dy

(2x)x x =

2(x) x

dx
1
1 2
x+h 3
3[(
) ]
xk

kh
(xk)2

x = h or x = k (rej k > x > h)


y|x=h = 0
(h, 0)

k|x=25 = 2
4

25
4

25
4
25
4
25
4
5

= 2( ) = 5
2

10(ii) Curve gradient with = k = 5:


dy
dx

5
2x

As x ,

dy
dx

5
2x

gradient of l is 1
l passes through O and gradient is 1
y = x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

405

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


11(i)

Ex 14.4

1 + x + x 2 + + x n1 + x n

xn+1 1
x1

Diff wrt x,
0 + 1 + 2x + + (n 1)x n2 + nx n1
1 + 2x + 3x 2 + + (n 1)x n2 + nx n1

=
=
=

(x1)

d
(xn+1 1)
dx

(xn+1 1)

d
(x1)
dx

(x1)2
(x1)[(n+1)xn ]

(xn+1 1)(1)

(x1)2
(x1)(n+1)xn

xn+1 +1

(x1)2

11(ii) x = 3, n = 10:
1 + 2(3) + 3(3)2 + + (10 1)(3)102 + 10(3)101 =
1 + 2(3) + 3(3)2 + + 9(3)8 + 10(3)9

(31)(10+1)310

310+1 +1

(31)2
2(11)310

311 +1
4

= 280483
12

y=

u2
v3

=
=
=

v3

d
(u2 )
dx

u2

d
(v3 )
dx

(v3 )2
v3 (2uu )
2uu v3

u2 (3v2 v )
v6
3u2 v2 v

v6

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

406

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Rev Ex 14
A3

Rev Ex 14
A1(a)

d
dx

(1 3x 2 )

= (1 3x 2 )
2

A1(b)

d
dx

1
213x2
3x

dx

[(1 3x 2 )2 ]

dx
1

13x2

d
dx

=x

dx

[(1 + 2x)

4]

d
dx

(x) (1 + 2x)

+1 (1 + 2x)

= 8x(1 + 2x)3

+(1 + 2x)4

= (1 + 2x)3 (8x +1 + 2x)


= (1 + 2x)3 (10x + 1)
d

1+2x
x

)=
=

= x
2

=
A2

+ 2x)

dx x
1
d
(x 2 )
dx
1 3
2

+2

(x 2 )

dx
1
1
+2 ( x 2 )
2
1

2xx

A4

y = (2x5)2
= 9(2x 5)2

dy

y = (2x + 3)5x 9

= 9[2(2x 5)3 ]

dx

= 9[2(2x 5)

dy

dx

= (2x + 3)
= (2x + 3)
=
=
=
=
=

d
dx

(5x 9) +
1

25x9

5(2x+3)
1
1
25x9
1
25x9

3 ]

d
dx

(2x 5)

36
(2x5)3

(2x + 3) 5x 9

+2

Gradient at x = 1:
5x 9

dy

dx x=1

36

= (2(1)5)3 =

36
343

+25x 9

25x9
25x9

d
dx

+ (x + 1)]

n=0

1
(2)
21 2x

1 2x

1
[(1 2x)
2x
1
=
1 2x
1
(2 x)
2x
1
=
1 2x
2x
=
(1 2x)3

d
2x
dx 1

1 2x
x+1
+
1 2x

1 2x

= x 4(1 + 2x) 2

dx

(x + 1)

1 2x 1

(x + 1)

1 2x

(6x)

A1(c)

d
1 2x dx (x + 1)

(1 3x 2 )

[x(1 + 2x)4 ]
d

x+1
12x

dy
1

y=

[5(2x + 3)

+4(5x 9)]

(10x + 15

+20x 36)

(30x 21)

30x21
25x9

k = 30

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

407

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


A5

y=

Rev Ex 14

x2 1

B1(b)

x2 +1

dx

dy
dx
=

(x 2 + 1)

d 2
d
(x + 1) (x 2 1) (x 2 1)
dx
dx
(x 2 + 1)2

(x 2 + 1) 2x

=
=

2x 3 + 2x

(x 2 + 1)2

(x 2

4x
+ 1)2

B2

4x

y|x=0 = (0)2

dx 9(87)2

5
33
5

(4x 1)

8
5

[4

8
5

(4x 1)

66
5x

(4x 1)

d
dx

[4 (

8
5

(x) (1)]
dx
1

2x

)0]

2
x

1
2

Curve

+1

y = 4x +

= 1

dx

2
3

8
( 7)
x

( 7)

4x +

dx x

d
dx

(x 1 )

d
dx

(7)]

16
3

9x2 ( 7)

x2

2
1

= x+ c

x
8

= c

= 14x +

32
x

(1)

Equate gradients:
1

8
x

x+

( 2 )

=4

2
8

9( 7)

8
x

[8

[8(x 2 ) 0]

3
8
9( 7)
x

8
x2
8

Tangent intersects curve:

7
1

= 4 +8(x 2 )

mtan = 4

= [2 ( 7) ]
= [

=4

2
1 d 8
[( 7) ]
9 dx x
1

= 4x +8x 1

33

dy

(4x 1)

= x+ c

(0, 1)

33

mtan =

=0
(0)2 1

=0

(x2 +1)2

Tangent
4y = 2x + c
y

=0

dx

(x 2 + 1)2

dy

3
d

[(4x 1) 5 ]
dx

= 11 [ (4x 1) 5 ] (4x 1)
5
dx

(x 2 1) 2x

2x 3 + 2x

[11(4x 1) 5 ]

= 11

tangent x axis:

B1(a)

x2
x2

8
x2

7
2
2
7
16

(2)

sub (2) into (1):


c| 16 = 167
x=

c|

x=

16
7

= 167

Note: Consider the discriminant approach


Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

408

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


B3

Rev Ex 14

Curve
y = x 3 3x 2 9x + k
dy
dx

B5(i)

y=
dy

= 3x 6x 9

ax2
xb
(xb)

dx

mtan = 3x 2 6x 9

Using intersection:
x 3 3x 2 9x + k = 0
k
= x 3 + 3x 2 + 9x

ax2

d
(xb)
dx

(xb)2
ax2 1

(xb)2ax

Tangent
x axis y = 0
mtan = 0

d
(ax2 )
dx

(xb)2

2ax2 2abx
(xb)2

ax2 2abx
(xb)2

ax(x2b)
(xb)2

ax2

Curve at ( , 6):
3

Using gradients:
3x 2 6x 9 = 0
x 2 2x 3
=0
(x 3)(x + 1) = 0
x=3
or x = 1
k|x=3 = 27
k|x=1 = 5

2 6b =
a

1 2
3

a( )

1
b
3

a
9

= 18 54b
1

tangent at ( , 6) is horizontal:
3

B4

dy

y = xa 3x 2
dy

=x

dx

=x
=
=
=
=

d
dx

(a 3x 2 )
1

2a3x
3x2

a3x2
1
a3x2
1
a3x2
a6x2

d
dx

+a 3x 2

[3x

+(a 3x

2 )]

a|b=1 = 18 54 ( ) = 9

(a 6x 2 )

B5(ii) Curve & its gradient with a = 9, b = 1:


6

a3x2

y=
dy
dx

9x2
x

1
6

1
3
1 2
(x )
6

9x(x )

For horizontal tangent:

Tangent at (1, b) to y = 2x + 1:
mtan
= mline

a3

b = a 3

or b =

(rej a 0)

(b) = (1)a 3(1)2

dx x=1
a6

=0

a=0

Curve at (1, b):

dy

=0

3
1 1
a( )( 2b)
3 3
2
1
( b)
3

a 3x 2

(6x) +1
2

dx x=1

(x) a 3x 2

dy
dx
1
9x(x )
3
1 2
(x )
6

=2
=2

=0
=0

x = 0 or x =

a6
= 2a 3
2
a 12a + 36 = 4(a 3)
a2 12a + 36 = 4a 12
a2 16a + 48 = 0
(a 12)(a 4) = 0
a = 12 or a = 4 (rej)

1
3

(taken)

y|x=0 = 0
(0,0)

b|a=12 = 112 3 = 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

409

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.1
2(a)

Ex 15.1
1(a)

y = x 3 5x + 8
dy
dx

y = x 3 + 3x 2
dy
dx

= 3x 2 + 6x

Tangent
Point:

= 3x 2 5

Normal
Point:

y|x=1 = 13 5(1) + 8
=4

(1,2)
dy

Gradient:

(1,4)
2

= 3(1) + 6(1)

dx x=1

Gradient:

dy
|
dx x=1

= 3
Tangent: y y1 =

dy

dx x=1

Normal:

(x x1 )

y y1

y=x +

Gradient:

=2

= 1
dy

dx x=1

= 10
8

= 10

2x 2 + 8
= 10x
x2 + 4
= 5x
2
x 5x + 4 = 0
(x 4)(x 1) = 0
x = 4 or x = 1 (rej x > 1)
(4,10)

= 1 (1)2

Tangent: y y1 =

x2

(1,3)
|

x
8

Normal
Point:

x2

dx x=1

[x (1)]

y = 2x +
dy

dy

= x+

2x +
Tangent
Point:

(x x1 )

= 1 +2(x 2 )
=1

dx
dx

y4 = x

= x +2x
dy

= dy

y (4) =

2(b)

x
1

1
3(1)2 5

dx x=1

y (2)= (3)[x (1)]


y 2 = 3 (x x1 )
y 2 = 3x 3
y
= 3x 1
1(b)

(x x1 )

y (3)= (1)[x (1)]


y 3 = (x 1)
y 3 = x + 1
y
= x + 4

Gradient:

Normal:

1
dy
|
dx x=4

y y1

1
2

8
(4)2

= dy

2
3

(x x1 )

dx x=4

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

y 10

y 10

= x+

= x+

3
2

(x 4)
8

3
2

3
38

410

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(a)

y=
dy
dx

Ex 15.1

x2 +5

3(b)

x+1

=
=
=
=

(x+1)

d
(x2 +5)
dx

(x2 +5)

y = 1 2x
dy

d
(x+1)
dx

dx

(x+1)2

(x2 +5)1

(x+1)2x
(x+1)2
2x2 +2x

212x
1

x2 5

212x dx
1

(1 2x)

(2)

212x

(x+1)2

Tangent & Normal


Point:
y
=3
1 2x = 3
1 2x = 9
2x
=8
x
= 4
(4,3)

x2 +2x5
(x+1)2

Tangent & Normal


Point:

y|x=3 =

32 +5

3+1

7
2

(3, )
2

Gradient:

dy

dx x=3

Tangent: y y1

32 +2(3)5
(4)2

dy

dx x=3
5

Gradient:

(x x1 )

8
5

8
13

= x

y
Normal:

15

= x+

y y1

= dy

dy

1
12(4)

3
1

3
5

y y1

= dy

( )

y
y
y

7
2
7
2

5
8

8
5
8

[x (3)]

y (3) =

(x 3)

y3
y3
y

= x+

24

5
8

5
83

10

= x+

(x x1 )

dx x=4

dx x=3

y( ) =

= x+

y
Normal:

[x (4)]

y3 = x

(x x1 )

dx x=4
1
3

(x x1 )

y 3 = ( )

dx x=4

Tangent: y y1 =

y ( ) = ( ) [x (3)]
7

dy

1
3

[x (4)]

(x + 4)
=3
= 3x + 12
= 3x + 15

4(i)

dy
dx

2x
4xx2 +1

Tangent
Point:
Gradient:

P(1,2)
dy

dx x=1

Tangent: y y1

2(1)
41+1

dy

dx x=1
1

1
2

(x x1 )

y (2) = ( ) [x (1)]
2

4(ii)

Normal:

2
1

2
3

y2

= x

= x+

y y1

= dy

1
|

(x x1 )

dx x=1

y (2) =
y2
y
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

1
1
2

[x (1)]

= 2x + 2
= 2x + 4
411

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


5

y=
dy
dx

Ex 15.1

3x+1

1x

=
=
=

(1x)

d
(3x+1)
dx

(1x)3
33x

(3x+1)

dy

d
(1x)
dx

dx

(1x)2
(3x+1)(1)
(1x)2
+3x+1
(1x)2

= 6x 2

Line & its gradient


4y + x = 2
4y
= x + 2

= (1x)2
Normal
Point:

Curve & its gradient


y = 3x 2 2x + 5

mline =
At x-axis,
y
=0
3x+1
1x

1
3

( , 0)

Normal:

y y1

4
4 2
( )
3

= dy

1
4(9)
16

1
|

dx x=1
3

y (0) =
y

mtan ( )

= 1

mtan

=4

dy
|
dx x=1
3

Gradient:

Tangent
Gradient: Tangent line
m1 m2
= 1
mtan mline
= 1

=0
=

= x+

4
9
4
9
4

Point:

(x x1 )
1

[x ( )]
3

6x 2
=4
6x
=6
x
=1
2
y|x=1 = 3(1) 2(1) + 5
=6
(1,6)

(x + )

= x
9

4
27

Tangent: y y1
y (6)
y6
y

= mtan (x x1 )
= (4)[x (1)]
= 4x 4
= 4x + 2

1st curve & its gradient


y = x 3 + 2x 2 4x + 5
dy
dx

= 3x 2 + 4x 4

2nd curve & its gradient


2

y = x 3 + 3x 2 x 1
3

dy
dx

= 2x 2 + 6x 1

tangents are :
m1
= m2
2
3x + 4x 4 = 2x 2 + 6x 1
x 2 2x 3 = 0
(x 3)(x + 1) = 0
x = 3 or x = 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

412

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(i)

Ex 15.1

y = ax 5
dy

= 5ax

dx

9(b)
4

Curve at (1, b):


b = a(1)5
=a
dy
dx
dy

3
2

5a

b|a= 3 =
10

dy

2
3

dx

10
3
10

Tangent
Point:
Gradient:

x + = x 2 2x + 3

=0
=

dy

= 2x 2 3x + 6

Origin (0,0)

Tangent: y y1

Using gradients,
|

dx x=0

(x x1 )

y (0) = (0)[x (0)]


y
=0
9(a)

= x2 x + 3

2x2

Using intersection,

dx x=0

mnorm =

dy

= 2x 2

8(ii)

2
1

Curve
y = x 2 2x + 3

2
3

= x+

mnorm =

at (1, b):

dx x=1

Normal
2y + x = l
2y
= x + l

1
2

2x 2
2x
x

1
2x2

=2
=4
=2

Note: Consider the discriminant approach


Tangent
y = 3x + k
mtan = 3

l|x=2 = 2(2)2 3(2) + 6


=8
10(i)
y = px 3

Curve
y = 2x 2 5x + 3
dy
dx

y
B(0,8)
2

= 4x 5

mtan = 4x 5

y = px 3
dy

Using intersection,
3x + k = 2x 2 5x + 3
k
= 2x 2 8x + 3

dx

= 3px 2

Gradient at A
mtan =

Using gradients,
4x 5 = 3
4x
=8
x
=2

dy

dx x=2

= 3p(2)2 = 12p

10(ii) Point A
At A, y = px 3 has coordinate of x = 2
y|x=2 = p(2)3 = 8p
A(2,8p)

k|x=2 = 2(2)2 8(2) + 3


= 5

Gradient of AB
A(2,8p) B(0,8)
mAB =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

8p8
20

= 4p 4

413

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.1

10(iii) Equate gradients:


mtan = mAB
12p = 4p 4
8p
= 4
1

p
11(i)

12(ii) Tangent at P(2, 3):


(3)
= (1 + 2a)(2) a2
3
= 2 + 4a
a2
a2 4a 5
=0
(a 5)(a + 1) = 0
a = 5 or a = 1

y = 2x 2 kx + 3
dy
dx

Tangent at a = 5:
y = (1 + 2(5))x (5)2

= 4x k

mtan =

dy

dx x=1

=4k

Tangent at a = 1:
y = (1 + 2(1))x (1)2

11(ii) Point A
y|x=1 = 2(1)2 k(1) + 3
=5k
A(1,5 k)

13(i)

Gradient of AB
A(1,5 k) B(5,1)
(5k)(1)
(1)(5)

y=

dy
dx

4k

dx

4k

Gradient:

8
x3

y|x=a =
(a,

a2

4
a2

Gradient: mtan =

+1

+ 1)
dy

dx x=a

a3

Tangent: y y1

= mtan (x x1 )

+ 1) = ( 3 ) [x (a)]

y(

a2

a2 y 4 a2 =

= 1 + 2x

Tangent
Point:

+1

= 4(2x 3 ) +0

Point:

Curve & its gradient


y = x + x2
dy

Tangent

4k 16 = 4 k
5k = 20
k =4
12(i)

+1

x2

Equate gradients:
mtan
= mAB
4k

= x

= 4x

mAB =

25

= 11x

Gradient at A

8
a
8

(x a)

a2 y 4 a2 = x + 8
2

y|x=a = a + a
(a, a + a2 )
dy

dx x=a

a
8

a y

= x + a2 + 12

a
8

a3

x+1+

12
a2

= 1 + 2a

Tangent: y y1

dy

dx x=a

(x x1 )

y (a + a2 ) = (1 + 2a)[x (a)]
y (a + a2 ) = (1 + 2a)x a 2a2
y
= (1 + 2a)x a2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

414

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.1

13(ii) Gradient of PQ
P(b, 0),Q(0, b)
mPQ =

0b
b0

14(ii) Normal
Point:
A(1,6) or C
Gradient: AC BD

= 1

mAC =

Equate gradients:
mtan = mPQ

a3
8

Normal:

a3
a

5
1

0b

y 6 = (x + 1)

b0

5
1

5
29

= x+

Point C
29

meets axis (y = 0).


y
=0
1

29

x+
1

Tangent at (b, 0):


(0) = (b) + 4
b =4
B(2.2,0) D(0,11) F(1,0)

At C, normal (y = x +

12

= (2)3 x + 1 + (2)2
= x + 1 + 3
= x + 4

14(i)

5
1

y6 = x

=8
=2

y y1 = mAC (x x1 )
1

Tangent with a = 2:
y

y 6 = [x (1)]

= 1

a3

1
mBD

=0
=

29
5

x
= 29
C (29,0)
14(iii) Area ABC = 1 (BC)(AF)
2
1

y = x + 7x + 12

= [29 (2.2)][6]

dy

= 3(31.2) = 93.6

dx

= 2x + 7

mtan = 2x + 7
(11)(0)

mBD = (0)(2.2) = 5
Equate gradients:
mtan = mBD
2x + 7 = 5
2x
= 2
x
= 1
y|x=1 = (1)2 + 7(1) + 12 = 6
A(1,6)

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

415

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


15

Ex 15.1

& its gradient


(y 2)2 = x
y2
= x
y = 2 + x or 2 x
dy
dx

2x

or

Line & its gradient


x 2y = 4
2y
=x4

= x2
2

Point:

2x

x
=1
y|x=1 = 2 + 1
=3
(1,3)

y3

16

dy

(x 1)

2
1

2
1

2
5

y3

= x

= x+

16

5x3
2
x

1
5x3
2
x

1
5x3
2
x

at (1,2):

5x3

(1,2) lie in y =

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

(5x3 )

x(3x2 )

d
(x)
dx

(5x3 )1
x2

3x3

5+x3
x2

x3

5
x2

(2x

5
x2

5(1)3
2 (1)

[2(1) (1)2 ]
(2 5)

24

d
dx

(y 2 ) +
dy
dx

dy
dx

dy

(1,2) does not lie in

d
dx

+1
+y 2

(x) y 2

=0

y2

=0
=0
= 3x 2 y 2

dx

dx

5(1)3

2 = 2 [inconsistent]

y =

d
(5x3 )
dx

dy

3x2 y2
2xy

At (1,2),
dy

5x3

Method 2 (Without subjecting y)

2xy

(2) =

2 = 2 [consistent]

5x3

(x)2

3x 2 +x 2y

at (1,2):

5(1)3
(1)

3x 2 +x

or y =

(2) =

3x 2 +2xy

5x3

d
dx

x 3 +xy 2
=5
Differentiating with respect to x:

y=

5x
2

5x3

Method 1 (Subjecting y)
xy 2 = 5 x 3
2

5x
2

dx x=1

= mtan (x x1 )

Tangent: y y1

Tangent
Gradient: tangent line,
mtan = mline
mtan

1
5x3
2
x

mline =

2x

dx

dy

dx

3(1)2 (2)2
2(1)(2)
7

=
4

5x3
x

sleightofmath.com

416

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


17(i)

Ex 15.1

Curve & its gradient


y = x3 + 5
dy
dx

= 3x 2

Tangent
Point:
Gradient:

y|x=1 = 6
(1,6)
dy

dx x=1

Tangent: y y1

=3
=

dy

dx x=1

(x x1 )

y (6) = (3)[x (1)]


y6
= 3x 3
y
= 3x + 3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

17(ii) Point
At point where curve meets tangent,
x3 + 5
= 3x + 3
3
x 3x + 2
=0
(x 1)(
)
(x 1)(x 2
)
2
(x 1)(x
2)
2
(x 1)(x + x 2) = 0
(x 1)(x + 2)(x 1) = 0
x=1
or x = 2
(taken)
y|x=2 = 3(2) + 3
= 3
(2, 3)

sleightofmath.com

417

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


4

Ex 15.2
1(a)

Ex 15.2

y = 4x 1

y=
dy

dx
dy
dx

2x
x+1

=4

>0
y is increasing

=
=

1(b)

y = x 2 + 2x
dy
dx

1(c)

y=
dy

dx

= 2 1

(x+1)2
2x(1)
(x+1)2
2x+2
2x
(x+1)2
2
(x+1)2
2
(x
(x+1)(2)

= x
2

> 0 for x > 0


y is increasing
2(a)

(x2 +1)

x2 +1

2x2
(x2 +1)2

1x2
+1)2

For decreasing function:

+ +
1 1

f (x) = 3x 2
< 0 for > 0
f(x) is decreasing

x < 1 or x > 1 [shown]


6(a)

y = x 2 + 2x 4
dy

(x)

= 6x 5
< 0 for x < 0 x 5 < 0
f(x) is decreasing
f

dx

y = x 3 + 3x
dy
dx

3(ii)

dy
dx

= 2x + 2

For increasing function:


dy
dx

3(i)

<0

1 x2
< 0 (x 2 + 1)2 > 0
x2 1
>0
(x + 1)(x 1) > 0

f(x) = (x 3 + 1)

f(x) = x 6 5x

<0

dx
1x2
(x2 +1)2

(x)

= 1
<0
f(x) is decreasing

2(c)

x2x

(x2 +1)2

dy

2(b)

d
d
(x) x (x2 +1)
dx
dx
(x2 +1)2

(x2 +1)1

= (x2

f(x) = 9 x
f

d
(x+1)
dx

x2 +1

=
dx

(2x)

+ 1) > 0
for all x values except x 1
y is increasing for all real values of x [shown]

y = x 3 1

dy

d
(2x)
dx

>0

= 2x + 2

> 0 for x > 0


y is increasing

(x+1)

>0

2x + 2 > 0
x
> 1

= 3x 2 + 3
> 0 for all x values x 2 0

y increases for all real values of x

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

418

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(b)

y = 2x 3 3x 2 + 6
dy
dx

Ex 15.2
9(i)

dy

2x3 +2x
(x2 +1)2

4x
+1)2

For increasing function:


f (x) > 0

y = 3x 2 + 4x 3
= 6x + 4

4x
(x2 +1)2

>0

4x
x

> 0 (x 2 + 1)2 > 0


>0

9(ii)

For decreasing function:


f (x) < 0
x <0

10

T = 5x 2 + 90x + 65

<0

dx

2x3 +2x

= (x2

x < 1 or x > 1

dy

(x2 1)2x
(x2 +1)2

+ +
1 1

For decreasing function:

d
d
(x2 1) (x2 1) (x2 +1)
dx
dx
(x2 +1)2

(x2 +1)2x

6x 2 6
>0
x2 1
>0
(x + 1)(x 1) > 0

dx

(x2 +1)

f (x) =

>0

dx

dy

x2 +1

= 6x 2 6x

For increasing function:

7(a)

x2 1

f(x) =

6x + 4 < 0
2

<

x
7(b)

dT
dx

y = 2x 9x + 12x 3
dy
dx

= 6x 2 18x + 12

For cooling:
dT

10x + 90 < 0
10x
> 90
x
>9
11(a)

1<x<2
f(x) = (x + 1)4
f (x) = 4(x + 1)3 (1)
= 4(x + 1)3
For increasing function:
f (x)
>0
3
4(x + 1) > 0
x+1
>0
x
> 1
8(ii)

<0

dx

For decreasing function:


6x 2 18x + 12 < 0
x 2 3x + 2
<0
(x 1)(x 2) < 0

8(i)

= 10x + 90

11(b)

= ( + 1)3

11(i)

y = f(x)

(a) y = x 3

For decreasing function:


f (x) < 0
x < 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

= 3

(b) y
= (x + 1)3

sleightofmath.com

Interval Nature

Sign of

x>0
x<0
x > 1
x < 1

+
+
+
+

Increasing
Increasing
Increasing
Increasing

dy
dx

419

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.2

11(ii) No.

12(ii) For decreasing function:

By Definition, if

dy
dx

0 for all x, then the function is

(non-strictly) increasing.
If function is increasing,
necessarily

dx

for x >

2x1

=
=
=
=

d
2x1dx(3x+4)

could be 0, not

<

7
3

dy

(3+4)]

dx

21
(63
34)

=
=
=

For increasing function:

>0
3

>0

21
(37)

3
(2x1)2

dx
3x7

(2x 1)2 > 0 for x >

(2x1)2

3x 7 > 0

xa

xa

3x+4
2x1

21
3x7

dy

13(i) y = x2 2ax2,

2x1
[3(21)

and x >

<x<

1
(2)
(3x+4)
22x1

32x1

= 21

Combining inequalities:

d
(3x+4) 2x1
dx
2

<0

2x1

x>

<

2x13

1
21

(2x 1)2 > 0 for x >

<0

3x 7
x

(2x1)

= 21

dx

<0

dx
3x7
3
(2x1)2

>0

dx

3x+4

12(i) y =
dy

dy

dy

dy

(xa)

d
(x2 2ax2)
dx

(x2 2ax2)

d
(xa)
dx

(xa)2
(x2 2ax2)1

(xa)(2x2a)

(xa)2
2x2 4ax+2a2
x2 +2ax+2
2
(xa)
(x2 2ax)

+2a2 +2

(xa)2
[(xa)2 a2 ]

+2a2 +2

(xa)2
(xa)2

+a2 +2
(xa)2

a2 +2

= 1 + (xa)2

13(ii) For increasing function:

dy

>0

dx
a2 +2

Combine inequalities:
>

7
3

x>

and x >

1
2

7
3

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

1 + (xa)2 > 0
2+a2
(xa)2

> 1

all values of a
a2 + 2 > 0 and (x a)2 > 0 for x a

sleightofmath.com

420

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.3
4(i)

Ex 15.3
1(i)

h(t) =
=

t(10t)

r =3+

5
4

= t t2

4(ii)

dr

= 0 +2 [(1+t)2 ] (1)

dt
5

2
5

4
5

= (1+t)2

h (t) = (2t)
= t

dr

2
3

42
1

h (2) = (2)

= cm s 1

The balloon is deflating.

= km s
2

1(ii)

dt t=3
5

1+(0)

= 5 cm

4
2

r|t=0 = 3 +

4
10tt2
5

2
1+t

5(i)

h (6) = (6)
2

f(t) =

10 000 000

(6t 2 + 5)2

= km s 1

11am: t = 60

2(i)

l =
dl

t3
3

4t + 10

= t2 4

dt

dl

5(ii)

6(i)

s= +
8

ds

ds

v
40
1

= +
8

60
40

=1 h
8

= 2t
6(ii)
|

dt t=2

= 2(2)

7(i)(a)

= 4cm s 1
3(ii)

80

r =t +2

dr

v2

= +

dv

dt

10 000 000

dv v=60
dr

144(60)3 +120(60)

= 3.11
3 people per min

t 4 = 4
t2
=0
t
=0
3(i)

[2(6t 2 + 5)][12t]

10 000 000

f (60) =

= 4

dt
2

(6(60)2 + 5)2

10 000 000
144t3 +120t

For length is decreasing at 4 mm/s:


dl

f (t) =

=5

t 4
=5
2
t 9
=0
(t + 3)(t 3) = 0
t = 3 (rej t 0) or t = 3
2(ii)

10 000 000

46

For length is increasing at 5 mm/s:


dt
2

f(60) =

C(x) =

The initial radius is 2 cm and is increasing at an


increasing rate.
Daniel & Samuel
A-math tuition 9133 9982

19 200
x

Annual gasoline costs if car gets 3km l1


= C(3)

r r = t2 + 2
2

The time taken to stop at v = 60km h1 is 1 h

sleightofmath.com

19 200
3

= $6400

421

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


7(i)(b) Annual gasoline costs if car gets 8km l1
= C(8)
=

Ex 15.3
7(ii)

19 200

Average rate of change in Bens annual gasoline


costs
=

= $2400

C(8)C(3)
8
24006400
83

= $800 per km/l


7(iii)

C (x) =
C

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

(5)

19200
x2
19200
52

= $768 per km/l

422

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.4
1(c)

Ex 15.4
1(a)

dx
dt

dx
dt

= 2,

dy

dt x=1

=?

= 2,

dy
dx
dy
dt

x
1

dy

x2

dt

dy

dx

= (4x

x2
2

= 8x

dx
dt

) 2

dt x=1

dx
dt

dy

= 2,

dt x=2

dy

dx

dx

dt

At y = 10, x 3 + 2 = 10
x3
=8
x
=2

= 8(1)

2
12
1

= 6 units s
1(b)

= 3x 2 2
= 6x 2

x2
dy

At x = 1,

=?

= 3x 2

dx

= 4x
=

dt y=10

y = x3 + 2
dy

y = 2x 2 +

dy

dy

=?

= 6(2)2

dt x=2

= 24 units s 1
1(d)

dx
dt

= 2,

dy

dt y=2

=?

y = (2x3)3
y=

= 3(2x 3)3

dy
dy
dx

=
dy
dt

dx

= 3[3(2x 3)4 ] 2

=
=
=

18
(2x3)4
dy
18
(2x3)4
36
(2x3)4

At x = 2,

dx

dy

dt x=2

x
x+1
(x+1)(1) x(1)
=
(x+1)2
x+1
x
(x+1)2
1
(x+1)2

dx
dy

dt

dt

dy

dx

dx
dt

= (x+1)2 2
2

= (x+1)2
36

= [2(2)3]4

At y = 2,

= 36 units s 1

x
x
dy

dt x=2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

x
x+1

sleightofmath.com

=2
= 2x + 2
= 2
2

= (2+1)2 = 2 units s 1

423

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


2(a)

dy
dt

= 4,

dx

dt x=3

Ex 15.4
2(c)

=?

dt

y = x 3 2x 2
dy

= 4,

dy

= 3x 4x
=

dt

dy
dx

dt

dt
dx

dy

dt

dx

dt x=3

dt

= 4,

y=
dy
dx

=
=

4 =
dx
dt

dt x=2

15

2x+7

dx
dt
dx
dt

= 42x + 7

dt

At y = 3, 2x + 7 = 3
2x + 7 = 9
x
=1

=?

1+x

dt

dx

3x2

dy

dx

4
3(3)2 4(3)

dy

4 =

3x2 4x

At x = 3, |
dy

=?

2x+7

dt

dx

2(b)

22x+7
1

dx

4 = (3x 2 4x)
dx

dt y=3

dx

dy

dx

y = 2x + 7

dx

dy

dx

(1+x)

d
(3x2 )
dx

3x2

d
(1+x)
dx

dt x=1

= 42(1) + 7 = 12 unit s 1

(1+x)2

2(d)

3x2 1

(1+x)6x

dt

(1+x)2
6x+6x2

dy

dx

dt y=5

=?

3x2
(1+x)2

y = x(x 4)
= x 2 4x

6x+3x2
(1+x)2
dy
dx
6x+3x2
(1+x)2

dx

dy

dt
dx

dx

dt

dy

4(1+x)2

dt

6x+3x2

dx

At x = 2, |

= 4,

dt x=2

4(1+2)2
6(2)+3(2)2

3
2

unit s 1

dy

dx

= (2x 4)

dx

= 2x 4

dt

dx
dt
dx
dt

4
2x4
2
x2

At y = 5, x 2 4x
=5
2
x 4x 5 = 0
(x 5)(x + 1) = 0
x = 5 or x = 1 (rej)
dx

dt x=5

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

2
52

2
3

units s 1

424

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


3(i)

y=
dy

2x1

=
=
=
3(ii)

4(ii)

x+1

dx

Ex 15.4

dt
dy

(x+1)

d
(2x1)
dx

(2x1)

dx
dy

d
(x+1)
dx

(x+1)2
(x+1)2
(2x1)1
(x+1)2
2x+2
2x+1
(x+1)2
3

(x+1)2

y|x=0 =

1
1

dy

dx x=0

=3

dt

dt
dx
dt

=3
=3

= 1
5(a)
3

dx

dx

(x + 1)2
=4
2
x + 2x + 1
=4
2
x + 2x 3
=0
(x + 3)(x 1) = 0
x = 3 or x = 1

A(0, 1)
Gradient:

=3

dx
12
(x+1)2

Tangent
Point:

dy

((0)+1)

=3

Let A area of circle & r radius


dA
dr
= 2, |
=?
dt
dt r=6
A = r 2 [area of circle]

Tangent: y y1

dy

dx x=0

dA

(x x1 )

dr

y (1) = 3 [x (0)]
y = 3x 1
3(iii)

dx
dt

= 0.03,

dy
dt

dA
dt

dt

=
=

dy

dx
3
(x+1)2
0.09
(x+1)2

dr

y=
dy
dx

dr

dr

dt
dr

dt

1
r

dt

At r = 6,

0.03
5(b)

dr

dt r=6

1
6

cm s 1

Let A area of circle & r radius


dA
dr
= 10, |
=?
dt
dt r=2

0.09

dt x=0

4(i)

dA

dx

At A(0, 1),
dy

2 = 2r

at A(0, 1) = ?

dt
dy

= 2r

= (0+1)2 = 0.09 units s 1

A = r 2 [area of circle]
dA

2x10

dr

x+1

=
=
=

(x+1)

d
(2x10)
dx

(x+1)2
2x+2

(2x10)

dA

d
(x+1)
dx

dt

(x+1)2
(2x10)1
(x+1)2
2x+10
(x+1)2

= 2r
=

dA
dr

10 = 2r
dr
dt

12

dt
dr
dt

5
r

At r = 2,

= (x+1)2

dr

dr

dt r=2

= = 2.5 m s 1
2

> 0 [shown] (x + 1) > 0 for x 1

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

425

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


6(i)

Ex 15.4

dV
dx
= 3, = ?
dt
dt

7(b)

Let A be Surface Area,


V be Volume & x be length of side
dA

dt

V = x + 3x [given]
dV
dx
dV
dx

= 2x + 3

dx

3 = (2x + 3)
dx

dt

6(ii)

dx

3
2x+3

dt x=3

dt x=6

A=x
dA
dx
dA
dt

1
3

cm s 1

1
5

dx

cm s 1

dV

3 A 2
( )
2 6

dV

dA

dA

dt

20

A
6
A

At x = 1, 1 =

dV

dt
dx

dt A=6

8(i)

At A = 4, x 2 = 4 x = 2

dt x=2

(2)

= 0.2

dx

dt

dV

[area of square]

dA

A 2
( )
6

= 2x
=

x=

A
6

2(6)+3

= 2x

= x2

V = ( ) =

dx

dx

sub (2) into (1):

dt

2(3)+3

10
dt

(1)

dt
dx

Let A be area & x be side


dA
dx
= 10, |
=?
dt
dt A=4
2

=?

A = 6x 2

dt

7(a)

dt x=1

dx

dA
dx

dV

V = x3

dV

= 0.2,

1
20

1=

A
6

A=6

= 0.05 cm3 s 1
6

Let y Length & x Breadth


dx
dy
= 4,
=?
dt
dt
y = 2x [given]
dy
=2
dx

= = 2.5 cm s 1
2

dy
dt

dy
dx

dx
dt

= (2) (4)
= 8 cm/s

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

426

A math 360 sol (unofficial)


8(ii)

Ex 15.4

Let A Area of rectangle


dx
dt

= 4,

dA

10(ii)

dt

=?

dt x=8

dx

= 2,

da

dt x=4

=?

a = x(x + 1)
A = xy
(1)
y = 2x
(2)
sub (2) into (1):
A = x(2x) = 2x 2

=
da
dx

da
dA

dt

dA

dx

dt

dx

At x = 8,

dA

11(i)

dp

dA

dt p=3

dt

dt

=( + p
=

2)

dp
dt

dA
dx
dA

dt p=3

10(i)

dt
3

dt

=?
(1)

Let a be area of triangle


1

a = (2x)(x + 1) sin 150


2

1
2

= 8x + 1
=

dA

dx

dx
dt

= (8x + 1) 1.2
= 9.6x + 1.2

= + (3)2 = 7 units 2 s 1

= x (x + 1)

dA

0.5

1 3 2
+ p
4 4

= 1.2,

sub (2) into (1):


A = x(4x + 1)
= 4x 2 + x

At p = 3,
dA

= 2(4) + 1 = 9 cm2 s 1

Q(2x, y) lies on y = 2x + 1:
y = 2(2x) + 1
= 4x + 1
(2)

=?

dA
dp
1

dt

A = xy

= + p2

dA

dx

Let A Area of parallelogram OPQR


dx

= p + p3
= 0.5,

dx

dt x=4

(1 + p2 )
2

da

da

= (p)
1

At x = 4, |

= 16(8) = 128 cm2 s 1

2
1

= 2x + 1

dt x=8

2
1

dA

= (x + )

A = (height) (sum of bases)

dt

dt

= 4x 4
= 16x

dp

= (2x) +

= 4x

dx

9(ii)

+ x

=x+

dA

9(i)

2
1 2
x
2

At x = 1.5,

dA

dt x=1.5

= 9.6(1.5) + 1.2
= 15.6 units/s

x+1
150
A 2x B

= x (x + 1) [shown]
2

Daniel & Samuel


A-math tuition 9133 9982

sleightofmath.com

427

A math 360 sol (unofficial)

Ex 15.4

11(ii) Let z be length of diagonal OQ


dx
dz
= 1.2, |
=?
dt