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High Definition

Induction Log (HDIL)

General Information

Specification - 1515EA

Specification - 1515MA

Specification
Logging speed.
Recommended .
Maximum . . .. .

. . . . . . 30 ft/min
. . . . .. 60 ft/min at 4 samples per foot
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 ft/min at 2 samples per foot

Data presented
Focussed conductivities:
Depths of investigation . . . .

10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120in.

Apparent vertical resolution . .


. true or matched to 1, 2 or 4ft.
Measurement Range: .. . . . . . .
0.1 to 2000 ohm-m
Measurement Accuracy (homogenous formations) |
60, 90, 120in. depth of investigation . . . .
30in. depth of investigation . . . . .. .
20in. depth of investigation . . . . . . .. . .
10in. depth of investigation . . . . . . .. .

1 mS/m, 2% of reading |
2 mS/m, 2% of reading |
4 mS/m, 2% of reading |
10 mS/m, 2% of reading |

Specification (cont.)
Borehole Properties

6 in hole
8 in hole
12 in hole
Hole Size .
Maximum Temperature ..
.
...........
Maximum Pressure .
Tensile Strength . . .
Compressive Strength .

. . .. . Rt/Rm < 7000 |


. .. . . Rt/Rm < 2000
. .. . Rt/Rm < 1000
.. 4.5 in. to 20 in.
. . 400EF (200EC) for > 1 hr.
. .. 350EF (175EC) for > 4 hr.

. .. . . 20,000 psi
. .. . 50,000 lbf.
. .. . 6500 lbf (in 14-in. hole)
...................
. . . 7600 lbf. (in 12 1/4-in. hole)
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 12800 lbf. (in 8-in. hole)
Bending Strength of Mandrel .. . . . . . 6600 ft-lbf.

COMPARISON OF HDIL WITH DPIL AND AIT

Benefits
Improved Conductivity Determination, in complex

environments

Short spacings: near borehole information and


corrections
Long spacings: deep investigation, low borehole
sensitivity

Invasion Profile, even in oil-based mud


Variety of Processing Techniques
True-resolution, artifact-free logs
Matched-resolution logs (1, 2 or 4ft.)
Inversion
Dip Effect Correction

Benefits (cont.)
Full data set
Quality Control
Fault Tolerance
Synthesis of other induction instruments
Future processing and interpretation developments

Block Diagram
Receiver Coils

Transmitter

SP

Telemetry

Aquis ition
and
Stacking
(8 Channels )

Pre-Amp
(7 Channels )

Reference

Micro
Processor
Controlled
Transmitter

Synchronization

Features
Multi-spacing
7 spacings from 6 in. to 94 in
Multi-frequency
8 frequencies from 10 to 150kHz
New skin effect correction
Quality Control
Fully Digital
Feedthrough, fully combinable
Software focusing and inversion generate user

products

Quality Control

Quality Control
FOCUSED RESISTIVITIES
The focused conductivities can be checked for agreement with

what is expected in the well. That is:


Curves should agree in impermeable zone.
Curves should be free of unexplained spikes and artifacts.
Spikes can be caused by:
Borehole rugosity
Deep conductive invasion near bed boundaries
Stick and Pull
High contrast bed boundaries.
Large relative dip
Invasion profiles should be reasonable in permeable
zones.

Instrument Waveforms
SQUARE WAVE(constant):

Tool not balanced (varying with depth): magnetic


materials
SINGLE PULSE
Area under pulse is proportional to formation
conductivity
WIDE PULSE
Very conductive material; e.g. short spacings are
reading the tools wire tube
DOUBLE PULSE
Electrostatic coupling; if too large indicates a shielding
or wiring problem

Instrument Waveforms

Diagnostic Information
Unbalanced
or Magnetic
Normal

Metallic
Shielding

Digitized Waveforms
Transmitter and Receiver Waveform Monitoring
Real-time quality control
Diagnostic Capabilities
Magnetic materials in borehole or formation
Metallic materials in borehole
Shielding integrity
Fourier Analysis for Spectral Data

Conductivity Spectrum

Apparent Conductivity (mS/m)

1500

1000

500

0
0

50
Frequency (kHz)

-500

100

150

Conductivity Spectrum
New skin-effect correction
From shape of spectra
Robust
Linearizes response functions
Reduces noise
Fault tolerance
For example, loss of channel or frequency
Quality Control
Consistency across channels and frequencies

Definitions and
Correction

Induction Response Functions

Depth of Investigation and Vertical


Resolution: Definitions
Depth of Investigation
50%-point on integrated radial response function
Vertical Resolution
90% of vertical response function
Do not show where information is coming from
Do not show extent of cave effect
Measurements are better characterized by 2-D

geometric response function

Resolution
?

Borehole Axis

Radius

Size

Size of smallest region whose conductivity

can be determined accurately.

General Induction Measurement


Resolution Issues
True Resolution Depth of Investigation
If Vertical Resolution < Depth of Investigation, curve

contains near-borehole information


Near borehole sensitivity may cause artifacts

Caves, conduction invasion, relative dip

Induction measurements alone cannot always

resolve Rt in thin, invaded beds

Geometric Response Functions:


Skin-Effect-Corrected Measurements
Subarray 0

Subarray 3

Subarray 4

Subarray 6

Unfocused Response Functions


Show
varying depths of investigation and resolutions
significant near-borehole sensitivity
asymmetry

Focusing

Filter &
Combine

Focusing
Filters combine measurements from all arrays to

achieve a more desirable response


Adaptive

For varying background conductivity

Goal of true-resolution focusing


Select depths of investigation
Eliminate near-borehole effect on deep measurements
Compact, symmetrical response

Geometric Response Functions,


True Resolution Focused Curves
10in

30in

90in

120in

True Resolution Focused Curves


Depths of investigation
10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120in.
Eliminate near-borehole sensitivity of deeper curves
Artifact-free
Vertical resolution poorer with increasing depth of

investigation

True-Resolution Log

True-Resolution Log
Multiple depths of investigation reveal invasion

profile in thick beds


Curves separate in thin beds

Due to different curve resolutions


May not indicate invasion

In thin uninvaded beds shallow curves give best

estimate of Rt

Vertical-Resolution-Matched Log

Vertical-Resolution-Matched Curves
Goal: same vertical resolution all curves
Same depths of investigation as true resolution

focused curves
Deep and shallow curves tend to read the same in
thin beds
More convenient for quick interpretation

Combines deep and shallow information

Resolution Matching
10in

10in

Match
Resolution
120in

120in

Geometric Response Functions,


Resolution-Matched Curves
10in

30in

90in

120in

Conductive Invasion

Conductive Invasion
Synthetic example
Thick resistive zone
Conductive invasion with varying invasion depth
True-resolution logs show expected response
Deep resolution-matched curves show features

which could be misinterpreted


If in doubt: check the true-resolution logs

HDIL True Resolution and Resolution


Matched Curves

True-Resolution Versus
Resolution-Matched Curves
True-resolution
Artifact free
Best for log quality control
Curves separate in thin beds
Resolution-matched
Easier interpretation in thin beds
Deep and shallow curves tend to agree in thin beds
Can show artifacts if there is
Borehole rugosity
Conductive invasion
Apparent-dip

Borehole Geometric Factors


Array 1

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

Geometric Factor

Geometric Factor

Array 0

10

12

14

16

Array 5

Geometric Factor

Geometric Factor

-0.001
6

10

12

Hole Diameter (in.)

10

12

14

16

14

16

Array 6

0.001

0.000

Hole Diameter (in.)

Hole Diameter (in.)

0.001

14

16

0.000

-0.001
Centered
1.5 in. S.O.

10

12

Hole Diameter (in.)

Borehole Effect
Significant for shallow curves
Requires very accurate borehole correction
Very small for deep curves
We use data from shallow curves to augment

conventional borehole correction parameters

Oil Based Mud Invasion Example

No profile in
hydrocarbon
zone

Resistive
invasion in
water bearing
zone

Invasion in
shales indicates
possible drilling
damage

Resistivity Processing
Oklahoma Reference Earth Model
theoretical
responses of an
HDIL array
induction logging
tool, vertical well,
oil-based-mud

Deviated well; Uncorrected Data

theoretical responses
of an HDIL array
induction logging
tool,
70 deg deviated well,
oil-based-mud

Deviated Well; Corrected Data

corrected responses
of an HDIL array
induction logging
tool, 70 deg deviated
well, oil-based-mud

Dip Effect and Correction

Apparent-Dip Effect and Correction


Two effects
Increased shoulder-bed effect on deep curves
Spikes caused by charge effects at bed boundaries
Differences between 90in. and 120in. true-resolution

curves may indicate dip effect


Remove both dip effects in a preparation process
before filtering
Works well up to 70 degrees
Horizontal wells: different interpretation techniques

Synthesis of DPIL

Synthesis of DPIL
Useful for:
Field studies,
Correlation,
Equity negotiations.
Demonstrates completeness of data and flexibility of

processing.

Inversion Processing

Inversion
2-D inversion allows simultaneous solution for

layering, invasion parameters, and Rt


Allows incorporation of other information, e.g.

Other logs
Known bed boundaries
Known impermeable zones

Delivers Rt, Rxo and invasion geometric parameters

Summary

Summary
Deeper investigation
Improved borehole and near borehole correction
Invasion profiling
Flexible processing, e.g.
Depth of investigation/ resolution trade-offs
Inversion
Dip correction
Complete data set allows
Quality Control
Synthesis of other tool responses
Future processing developments

Induction Logging Rules-of-thumb


True resolution depth of investigation
If vertical resolution < depth of investigation, curve

contains near-borehole information


Induction measurements alone may not resolve Rt
accurately in thin, invaded beds
If the 90in. and 120in. true resolution curves read the
same, they both read Rt, otherwise;

Very deep invasion


Thin beds
Relative dip