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Results of the time lapse experiment on air injection using the ultra-stable and continuous seismic ACROSS source

Junzo Kasahara (NTT DATA CCS, Shizuoka Univ.)*,Shinji Ito, Tomohiro Fujiwara (NTT DATA CCS),

Yoko Hasada (Daiwa Exploration

and Consulting), Kayoko Tsuruga(Tokyo Univ. Marine Sci. & Tech.),

Ryoya Ikuta, Naoyuki Fujii (Shizuoka Univ.), Koshun Yamaoka(Nagoya Univ.), Kin’ya Nishigami and

Kiyoshi Ito (DPRI, Kyoto Univ.)

Abstract: To demonstrate the temporal change of seismic waves due to the injection of air into the ground, we carried out a field test in Japan using an ultra-stable seismic source and a seismic array. A newly built seismic ACROSS was used, and the rotational axis of weight-mass was horizontally placed. Although the instrument has potential for the frequency band of 10 to 50 Hz, we used 10-35 Hz for this study. We injected air into the quaternary layer at 100 m depth. We analyzed 31 3-component geophones and one 3-component borehole geophones at 800 m depth. We obtained transfer functions between the source and receivers. All differential transfer function between before the injection and each record revealed very large changes of waveforms immediately after the beginning of injection of air at some sites. The station #7 at 200 m from the injected well showed extremely large change at 1 day after the beginning of injection. The delay times for appearance of change vary place to place and the differential waveform characteristics for each station are quite different one by one.

1.

Introduction

The continues monitor of the physical property changes in reservoirs of oil, gas and CO 2 sequestration zone and their migration is extremely useful and important for the oil, gas production business and global climate change problem. To enable the above objectives, we are proposing use of ultra-stable, continues and long-life seismic source(s) called ACROSS (Acutely Controlled and Routinely Operated Signal System) and a multi-geophone array. The seismic ACROSS has been developed by Japanese scientists since 1995 (Kumazawa et al., 2000; Kunioto and Kumazawa, 2004) and several instruments have been used in the earthquake prediction program. The seismic ACROSS generates forces by the rotation of eccentric weight mass controlled by GPS timing to enable very accurate frequencies. In the most of studies using ACROSS, the frequency band is rather narrow such as 10-20 Hz or 20-30 Hz. By the rotation along the vertical axis, the ACROSS can generate radial and transverse forces. Because the initial intension of ACROSS development is monitoring of temporal changes before large earthquake generation, the instrument is designed as permanent installation, not moving ban type as Vibroseis. One of application is the monitor of plate-boundary reflection along the Philippine Sea Plate (Kasahara et al, 2010). Kasahara and his colleagues are trying to use this system to reservoir monitoring (e.g., Kasahara et al., 2011). For the application to the geophysical exploration, the newly built ACROSS was designed as horizontal rotational axis and wider frequency band such as 10-50 Hz. The numerical simulation assuming single ACROSS and multi-geophones proved the possibility of imaging of zones with time-variable physical properties (Kasahara et al., 2011). It, however, is important to carry out field experiments for this new innovative method. To obtain field proven data, we carried out an experiment using a newly built ACROSS, a geophone array and air injection into the formation at 100 m depth in Awaji Island, where is the focal zone of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake (Mw=6.9), between February 14 and March 9, 2011. The reflection profile across Awaji Island is obtained by Sato et al., (1998). This article describes the results of the time-lapse (4D) experiment as the above.

  • 2. Injection experiment in Awaji Island and data processing

We used a newly built seismic ACROSS with the horizontal rotational axis in addition to the existing seismic ACROSS owned by Nagoya University. We placed 32 3-components geophones at the surface in addition to 800 m borehole 3-component geophones. Locations of the above are shown in Figures 1 and 2. We operated both ACROSSs. In this experiment, we operated 10-35 Hz up-sweep with 100 seconds periods. In an hour, we repeated 32 up-sweep and a 400 second transitional sweep. We alternatively switched clockwise and anticlockwise rotations every one hour. We calculated synthetic seismic records for vertical vibration and horizontal vibration by addition and subtraction of clockwise and anticlockwise rotations, respectively (Kasahara et al, 2011b). The transfer function between the source and each station is obtained by compensation of source signatures. Because #22 station stated the recording only after the injection, we examined data obtained by 31 stations and 800 m borehole. The observed data obtained by the 1800 m borehole located near the 800 m borehole will be analyzed later. The data excited by Nagoya Univ. ACROSS is not presented in this report, but we confirmed the similarity to the new ACROSS results. The 80 tons air in total with 2.1 MPa pressure were interjected into the quaternary Okasa formation at 100 m depth between February 26 and March 3, 2011 (Figure 3). At two days before the main injection, we made 1 ton injection test.

3Observed results We synthesized vertical vibration records and horizontal vibration records using addition and subtraction of clockwise and anti clockwise excitation records, respectively (Kasahara et al., 2011b). P-wave with c.a. 2.5 km/s is identified in the UD records of vertical vibration and S-wave with 400 m/s is identified in the EW records of horizontal vibration (Figure 4). We generated differential seismograms in reference to the seismic record at 0:00 in February 24. The rustles are shown with original waveforms (Figure 5). All seismic records except #22 show extremely large changes on differential waveforms after the beginning of injection. Some stations show immediately after the injection, but some stations such as #7 show gradual changes on waveforms. The changes are large for later phases rather than P and S first arrivals. The 800 m borehole data is shown in Figure 6. The slant distance between the source and sensors at 800 m is ~0.81 km. Vp is approximately ~4 km/s which is the Vp of weathered granite. It is surprised that the differential waveforms show large arrivals after P arrivals immediately after the air injection.

  • 4. Discussion

All differential seismic records show very large change of waveforms on later arrivals of P and S. The interpretation is not easy because of heterogeneous underground structure. We computed synthetic seismograms using layer structure, but it cannot explain such complicated waveforms. The large arrivals after P and S first arrivals are seemed as the diffracted phases or P to S or S to P converted phases. It is necessary to use heterogeneous Vp an Vs structure for the waveform computation.

  • 5. Summary and conclusions

To prove the effectiveness of continuous seismic monitoring on reservoir time lapse problems of oil, gas and CO 2 CCS, we carried out the air-injection experiment using ultra-stable and continuous, and long-life seismic ACROSS. We analyzed 31 surface and one 800 m depth borehole records and found the waveform changes associated with air injection are clearly seen on differential seismic records. The changes on later arrivals are large than first arrivals of P and S wave. Spread of air is very

fast such as 0.1cm/s.

However, interpretation of waveform changes is not simple, and we will try to use synthetic

seismograms using 3D heterogeneous underground structure and back-propagation method.

Acknowledgements

We express our great thanks to JCCP and officers in JCCP for their financial support to this project ..

References Hasada, et al., 3D simulation for time lapse in oil and gas reservoirs and CCS reservoirs using seismic ACROSS technology,

Proc. Soc. Exploration Geophysicists of Japan 99-102, 2011. Kasahara, J., Tsuruga, K., Mikada, H., Yamaoka, K. and Fujii, N. (2006), Time Lapse Approach in the Study of Earthquake Generation - Geophysical Exploration of Asperities-Reflectors System (EARS) for Interplate Earthquake Generation along a Subducting Oceanic Plate -, Geophysical Exploration (Butsuri Tansa) , 59,525-538, 2006. Kasahara, J., V. Korneev, and M.S. Zhdanov, editors “Active Geophysical Monitoring”, Handbook of Geophysical Exploration, Seismic Exploration Volume 40, 2010, p551, . Elsevier Pub., 2010. Kasahara, J., Hasada, Y . and Tsuruga, K. Imaging of ultra-long term temporal change of reservoir (s) by accurate seismic sources(s) and multi-receivers, in Extended abstract of “EAGE workshop on Permanent Reservoir Monitoring(PRM)”, 40-44, February-March,, Trondheim, Norway, 2011a. Kasahara et al., Time Lapse experiment using the seismic ACROSS source near the Nojima-fault in Awaji Island- Generation of vertical and horizontal vibration by synthetic method, Proc. Soc. Exploration Geophysicists of Japan,

2011b.

Kunitomo, T., and Kumazawa, M

Active monitoring of the Earth‘s structure by the seismic ACROSS - Transmitting and

, receiving technologies of the seismic ACROSS, Proc. 1st International Workshop “Active Monitoring in the Solid Earth

..

Geophysics”, in Mizunami, Japan, S4-04, 2004. Kumazawa, M., Kunitomo, T., Yokoyama, Y., Nakajima, T. and Tsuruga, K., (2000) ACROSS: Theoretical and technical developments and prospect to future applications, Technical report, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, 9, 115-129,

2000.

Sato, H.,

Hirata, H.,. Ito,T

,

Tsumura, N., T. Ikawa, T.,

Seismic reflection profiling across the seismogenic fault of the 1995

.. Kobe earthquake, southwestern Japan, Tectonophysics, 286, 19-30, 1998.

fast such as 0.1cm/s. However, interpretation of waveform changes is not simple, and we will try

Figure 1Map of new ACROSS(upper red circle), 800 m borehole (blue triangle), injection well (yellow square) and additional Nagoya University ACROSS (lower red circle) in Awaji Island. Yellow lines show Nojima fault system. The rectangle zone shows locations of 32 geophones.

fast such as 0.1cm/s. However, interpretation of waveform changes is not simple, and we will try

Figure 2: Geophones (blue and red squarers) and the two ACROSSs (yellow circles).

fast such as 0.1cm/s. However, interpretation of waveform changes is not simple, and we will try

Figure 3: Time sequence of air injection. Accumulated air weights and air flow/min (vertical axis) with elapsed days (horizontal axis).

02/26 00:00 V-source UD

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
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02/26 00:00 H-source EW

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Figure 4: Seismic records for UD (top) and EW (bottom) excited by vertical vibration and horizontal vibration, respectively. Vertical axis: travel time (sec). Horizontal axis:

distance (m) from the source.

#7 vertical source UD differential 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5
#7 vertical source UD
differential
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Figure 5a: Seismic records at station #7. Top two are UD

components excited by vertical vibration. Original (let) and

differential to February 24 at 0:00 records (right). Vertical

axis is travel time and horizontal axis is elapsed time from

February 24. Bottom two diagrams are EW components

exited by horizontal vibration. Colors show amplitudes of

seismograms. Color trace of every 2 hours is shown, but

wiggle waveforms shown for every 6 hours.

#14 vertical source UD differential 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5
#14 vertical source UD
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Figure 5b: Seismic records for station #14 at injection well site.
travel time (s)
travel time (s)

Figure 6: 800 m borehole differential records. Top three

are UD, NS, and EW components for vertical force and

bottom three

are

UD,

NS

and

EW for horizontal

vibration.