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# Quantitative Aptitude Shortcuts

## In a series of providing free resources for preparation of IBPS PO, Clerk,

Specialist officers, SBI PO, SBI clerk and other government jobs exams. I have
started Quantitative Aptitude preparation series. I will try to cover every topic of
post on that topic as soon as possible.

Time and Work

## Shortcut technique with concept examples {Video lecture}

Practice questions (Easy)
Questions from previous papers

## Concept video with examples {Video}

Basic concepts
Practice questions

Number system

## Rules and techniques

Formulae with examples

Simplifications

## Technique and Tricks {PDF}

Technique to solve complex equations

## Tricks to solve {PDF}

Basic concepts
Practice questions from previous papers
Practice questions set 2 (Moderate difficulty)

## Concepts and tricks {Video lecture}

Important questions (Set 2)
Practice questions Set 1, Set 2, Set 3
Using rule of Fraction to solve Profit and Loss questions

Average

## Basic concepts and techniques

Practice questions

Percentage problems

## 7 Tricks to solve questions

Technique to questions {PDF}
Practice questions (using shortcut tricks)

Data Interpretation

## Problems based on Ages

Techniques to solve
Questions from previous papers
Practice questions solved using shortcut methods

## Concept and techniques

Practice questions solved using shortcuts

Probability

## Concepts and tricks {Video lectures}

Formulae and technique
Venn diagrams
Dice problems (2 dices rolled)
Dice problems (3 dices rolled)
Practice questions
Practice questions set 2

Geometry

Triangles
Circles
Lines and Angles

STUDY MATERIAL

QT Cheatsheet

## Time and Work - Shortcuts and Tricks

One simple technique is using days in denominator while solving questions. For
example, A can do a job in 3 days and B can do the same job in 6 days. In how
much time they can do the job together.
Solution - 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2, hence 2 days is the answer.
Examiner can set the question in opposite way and can ask you how much time
A or B alone will take to complete the job. It is quite easy to calculate said
question by putting values in equation we arrived in above question.
You need to understand one simple concept - If A can do a job in 10 day then in
one day A can do 1/10th of job.

SHORTCUT
Best trick that I use in exams myself is by finding the efficiency of workers in
percent. If A can do a job in 2 days then he can do 50% in a day.

Number of days
required to complete the work

per day

Efficiency in
Percent

1/n

100/n

1/1

100%

1/2

50%

1/3

33.33%

1/4

25%

1/5

20%

1/6

16.66%

1/7

14.28%

1/8

12.5%

1/9

11.11%

10

1/10

10%

11

1/11

9.09%

## Now let's solve questions with this trick

Question - A take 5 days to complete a job and B takes 10 days to complete
the same job. In how much time they will complete the job together ?
Solution - A's efficiency = 20%, B's efficiency = 10%. If they work together
they can do 30% of the job in a day. To complete the job they need 3.33 days.

## Question - A is twice as efficient as B and can complete a job 30 days before B.

In how much they can complete the job together ?
Solution - Let efficiency percentage as x
A's efficiency = 2x and B's efficiency = x
A is twice efficient and can complete the job 30 days before B. So,
A can complete the job in 30 days and B can complete the job in 60 days
A's efficiency = 1/30 = 3.33%
B's efficiency = 1/60 = 1.66%
Both can do 5% ( 3.33% + 1.66% ) of the job in 1 day.
So the can complete the whole job in 20 days (100/5)

## Question - A tank can be filled in 20 minutes. There is a leakage which can

empty it in 60 minutes. In how many minutes tank can be filled?
Solution Method 1
Efficiency of filling pipe = 20 minutes = 1/3 hour = 300%
Efficiency of leakage = 60 minutes = 100%
We need to deduct efficiency of leakage so final efficiency is 200%. We are
taking 100% = 1 Hour as base so answer is 30 minutes.
Update - 09-09-2013 ( As Shobhna and Aswin are facing problem in solving
this question, I am solving this question with second method which is also very
easy, hope this will make the solution lot easier.)
Method 2
Efficiency of filling pipe = 100/20 = 5%
Efficiency of leakage pipe = 100/60 = 1.66%
Net filling efficiency = 3.33%
So tank can be filled in = 100/3.33% = 30 minutes

## You can change the base to minutes or even seconds.

You can solve every time and work question with this trick. In above examples I
wrote even simple calculations. While in exams you can do these calculations
mentally and save lots of time.
You can find more tricks like this in quantitative aptitude section.
Comment below in case of any query, I promise to reply within 24 hours.

## Update 09 October 2013 - Question requested by Chitra Salin

Question - 4 men and 6 women working together can complete the work within
10 days. 3 men and 7 women working together will complete the same work
within 8 days. In how many days 10 women will complete this work ?
Solution - Let number of men =x, number of women = y
Efficiency of 4 men and 6 women = 100/10 = 10%
so, 4x+6y = 10
Above equation means 4 men and 6 women can do 10% of a the job in one day.
Efficiency of 3 men and 7 women = 100/8 = 12.5%
so, 3x+7y = 12.5
By solving both equations we get, x = -0.5 and y = 2
Efficiency of 1 woman(y) = 2% per day
Efficiency of 10 women per day = 20%
So 10 women can complete the job in 100/20 = 5 days
Update 11-11-2013 - Question requested by Praisy
Question - A and B together can complete a task in 20 days. B and C together
can complete the same task in 30 days. A and C together can complete the
same task in 30 days. What is the respective ratio of the number of days taken
by A when completing the same task alone to the number of days taken by C
when completing the same task alone?
Solution Efficiency of A and B = 1/20 per day = 5% per day ________________1
Efficiency of B and C = 1/30 per day = 3.33% per day______________2
Efficiency of C and A = 1/30 per day = 3.33% per day______________3

## Taking equation 2 and 3 together

B + C = 3.33% and C + A = 3.33%
C and 3.33% will be removed. Hence A = B
Efficiency of A = B = 5%/2 = 2.5% = 1/40
Efficiency of C = 3.33% - 2.5% = 0.833% = 1/120
A can do the job in 40 days and C can do the job in 120 days he they work
alone.
Ratio of number of days in which A and C can complete the job 1:3.

#1
A and B together can do a job in 4 days.If A can do job in 12 days if he works
alone ,then how many days B alone take to complete the job?

#2
A and B can do job in 8 days. B and C can do same job in 12 days.A,B and C
together can do same job in 6 days.In how many days A and C together can
complete the job?

#3
A is twice as efficient as B and can complete a job in 30 days before B.In how
much they can complete the job together?

#4

## A tank can be filled in 20 minutes.There is a leakage which can empty in 60

minutes.In how many minutes tank can be filled?

#5
A can do a certain work in the same time in which B and C together can do it.If
A and B together could do it in 10 days and C alone in 50 days then B alone
could do it in?

#6
A work twice as fast as B. I f B can complete a work in 12 days
independently,the number of days in which A and B can together finish the work
in?

#7
20 Women can do a work in 16 days.Sixteen men can complete the same work
in 15 days.What is the ration between the capacity of a man and a woman?

#8
A and B together can complete a piece of work in 4 days.If A alone can
complete the same work in 12 days,in how many days can B alone complete
that work?

#9
A,Band C can do a piece of work in 36,54 and 72 days respectively.they started
the work but A left 8 days before the completion of the work while B left 12
days before the completion.The number of days for which C worked is?

#10
Ten Women can complete a work in 7 days and 10 children take 14 days to
complete the work.How many days will 5 women and 10 children take to
complete the work?

#11
12 Men complete a work in 9 days.After they have worked for 6 days,6 more
men joined them.How many days will they take to complete the remaining
work?

#12
A,B and C together earn Rs.300 per day,while A and C together earn Rs.188 and
B and C together earn Rs.152.the daily earning of C is?

## Time and Distance is an important chapter from examination point of view.

FORMULAE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Speed = Distance/Time
Time = Distance/Speed
Distance = Speed Time
If the speed of a body is changed in the ratio a : b, then the ratio of
the time taken changes in the ratio b : a.
5. m km/hr = [m 5/18] m/sec.
6. m metres/sec = [m 18/5] km/hr.
I recommend you to watch the following concept video before solving the
questions.

Question 1.
Express a speed of 18 km/hr in metres per second.

## Solution: 18 km/hr = [18 5/18] m/sec. = 5 metres/sec.

Question 2.
Express 10 m/sec. in km/hr.

## Solution: 10 metres/sec = [10 18/5] km/hr. = 36 km/hr.

THEOREM
If a certain distance is covered at m km/hr and the same distance is covered at n
km/hr then the average speed during the whole journey is 2mn/(m+n) km/hr.

## Time taken to travel the distance at a speed of m km/hr = A/m hrs.

Time taken to travel the distance at a speed of n km/hr = A/n hrs.
we see that the total distance of 2A km is travelled in (A)/m+A/n hrs.

Question 3.
Rakesh covers a certain distance by car driving at 70 km/hr and he returns to the
starting point riding on a scooter at 55 km/hr. Find his average speed for the
whole journey.

Question 4.
Raju covers distance between his house and office on scooter. Having an average
speed of 30 km/hr, he is late by 10 min. However, with a speed of 40 km/hr, he
reaches his office 5 min earlier. Find the distance between his house and office.

Question 5.
A man walking with a speed of 5 km/hr reaches his target 5 minutes late. If he
walks at a speed at a speed of 6 km/hr, he reaches on time. Find the distance of
his target from his house.

Question 6.
A boy goes to school at a speed of 3 km/hr and returns to the village at a of 2
km/hr. if he takes 5 hrs in all, what is the distance between the village and the
school?

CONCEPTS
1) There is a relationship between speed, distance and time:
Speed = Distance / Time OR
Distance = Speed* Time
2) Average Speed = 2xy / x+y
where x km/hr is a speed for certain distance and y km/hr is a speed at for
same distance covered.
**** Remember that average speed is not just an average of two speeds i.e.
x+y/2. It is equal to 2xy / x+y

3) Always remember that during solving questions units must be same. Units
can be km/hr, m/sec etc.
**** Conversion of km/ hr to m/ sec and m/ sec to km/ hr
x km/ hr = (x* 5/18) m/sec i.e. u just need to multiply 5/18
Similarly, x m/sec = (x*18/5) km/sec
4) As we know, Speed = Distance/ Time. Now, if in questions Distance is
constant then speed will be inversely proportional to time i.e. if speed
increases ,time taken will decrease and vice versa.

## TIME AND DISTANCE PROBLEMS

Problem 1: A man covers a distance of 600m in 2min 30sec. What will be the
speed in km/hr?
Solution: Speed =Distance / Time
Distance covered = 600m, Time taken = 2min 30sec = 150sec
Therefore, Speed= 600 / 150 = 4 m/sec
4m/sec = (4*18/5) km/hr = 14.4 km/ hr.

Problem 2: A boy travelling from his home to school at 25 km/hr and came
back at 4 km/hr. If whole journey took 5 hours 48 min. Find the distance of
home and school.

## Solution: In this question, distance for both speed is constant.

Average speed = (2xy/ x+y) km/hr, where x and y are speeds
Average speed = (2*25*4)/ 25+4 =200/29 km/hr
Time = 5hours 48min= 29/5 hours
Now, Distance travelled = Average speed * Time
Distance Travelled = (200/29)*(29/5) = 40 km
Therefore distance of school from home = 40/2 = 20km.

Problem 3: Two men start from opposite ends A and B of a linear track
respectively and meet at point 60m from A. If AB= 100m. What will be the ratio
of speed of both men?
Solution: According to this question, time is constant. Therefore, speed is
directly proportional to distance.
SpeedDistance

## Ratio of distance covered by both men = 60:40 = 3:2

Therefore, Ratio of speeds of both men = 3:2

Problem 4: A car travels along four sides of a square at speeds of 200, 400,
600 and 800 km/hr. Find average speed.
Solution: Let x km be the side of square and y km/hr be average speed
Using basic formula, Time = Total Distance / Average Speed
x/200 + x/400 + x/600 + x/800 = 4x/y 25x/ 2400 = 4x/ y y= 384
Average speed = 384 km/hr

1.
How many minutes Raman will take to cover a distance of 400 meters if he runs at
a speed of 20 km/hr ?
A.

2 mins

C.

1 mins

E.

1.5 mins

B.

2.5 mins

D.

None of these

Explanation :
Raman's speed = 20 km/hr = 20 5/18 = 50/9 m/sec
400 9/50 = 1 mins

2.
John travelled from his town to city. John went to city by bicycle at the speed of
25 km/h and came back at the speed of 4 km/h. If John took 5 hours and 48 min
to complete his journey, what is the distance between town and city ?
A.

15 km

C.

20 km

B.

22 km

D.

25 km

Explanation :
Average speed of John = 2xy/x+y = 2 25 4 / 25 + 4= 200/29 km/h
Distance traveled = Speed Time = 200/29 29/5 = 40 Km
Distance between city and town = 40/2 = 20 km

3.
Speed of a train is 20 meters per second. It can cross a pole in 10 seconds. What is
the length of train ?

A.
150 m

C.

200 m

B.

250 m

D.

300 m

Explanation :
Lenght of train = 20 10 = 200 meters

4.
Ram walks at a speed of 12 km/h. Today the day was very hot so walked at of
his average speed. He arrived his school 10 minutes late. Find the usual time he
takes to cover distance between his school and home ?
A.

40 mins

C.

50 mins

B.

45 mins

D.

60 mins

Explanation :

If Ram is walking at of his usual speed that means he is taking 6/5 of using time.
6/5 of usual time - usual time = 10 mins
1/5 of usual time = 10 mins
Usual time = 50 mins

5.
A car running at 65 km/h takes one hour to cover a distance. If the speed is
reduced by 15 km/hour then in how much time it will cover the distance ?
A.

72 mins

C.

76 mins

B.

78 mins

D.

None of these

Explanation :
Reduced speed = 65-15 = 50 km/h
Now car will take 65/50 60 mins = 78 mins

6.
In a 100 m race A runs at a speed of 1.66 m/s. If A gives a start of 4m to B and
still beats him by 12 seconds. What is the speed of B ?
A.

1 m/s

C.

1.25 m/s

B.

1.33 m/s

D.

Rs 1.5 m/s

Explanation :
Time taken by A to cover 100 meters = 60 seconds
Since A gives a start of 4 seconds then time takes by B = 72 seconds
B takes 72 seconds to cover 96 meters
Speed of B = 96/72 = 1.33 m/s

7.
In a kilometer race, A beats B by 100 meters. B beats C by 100 meters. By how
much meters does A beat C in the same race ?
A.

200 meters

C.

190 meters

B.

180 meters

D.

210 meters

Explanation :
While A covers 1000 meters, B can cover 900 meters
While B covers 1000 meters, C can cover 900 meters

Lets assume that all three of them are running same race. So when B runs 900 meters, C can run 900
9/10 =810
So A can beat C by 190 meters.

## Problems on Trains - Types of Problems with Examples

Problems on Trains chapter is almost same as TIME AND DISTANCE. The only
difference is that the length of the moving object is also considered.

## Some important things to be noticed:

(i) When two trains are moving in opposite directions, their speeds should be
added to find the relative speed.
(ii) When they are moving in the same direction, the relative speed is the
difference of their speeds.
(iii) When a train passes a platform, it should travel the length equal to the sum
of the lengths of trains & platform both.

## Trains passing a telegraph post or a stationary man

1.How many seconds will a train 100 metres long running at the rate of
36 km an hour take to pass a certain telegraph post?
Solution: In passing the post the train must travel its own length.
Now,

36 km/hr

36 5/18

10 m/sc.

## Trains crossing a bridge or passing a railway station

2.How long does a train 110 metres long running at the rate of 36
km/hr take to cross a bridge 132 metres in length?

## Trains running in opposite direction

3.Two trains 121 metres and 99 metres in length respectively are
running in opposite directions, one at the rate of 40 km and the other at
the rate of 32 km an hour. In what time will they be completely clear of
each other from the moment they meet?

## Trains running in the same direction

4. In example above. If the trains were running in the same
direction, in what time will they be clear each other?

## Trains passing a man who is walking

5. A train 110 metres in length travels at 60 km/hr. In what time will it
pass a man who is walking at 6 km an hour (i) against it; (ii) in the
same direction?

## Solution: This question is to be solved like the above examples 3 and 4,

the only difference being that the length of the man is zero.

6. Two trains are moving in the same direction at 50 km/hr and 30 km/hr. The
faster train crosses a man in the slower train in 18 seconds. Find the length of
the faster train.

## 7. A train running at 25 km/hr takes 18 seconds to pass a platform. Next,

it takes 12 seconds to pass a man walking at 5 km/hr in the
opposite direction. Find the length of the train and that of the platform.

## Only if you let it be a problem! Solve it and no problem anymore!

Problems based on Ages is a very popular question in Clerical Exams; it
can come in either Reasoning or in Quantitative Aptitude. But it will come.
I know some people leave this one out because its way too confusing to em
well, let us try to see how to not get confused.

The important thing in any kind of Age Problem, is to decide which age
present or past or future to be taken as x!
Let us make a simple rule for ourselves the x should be the
present age always.
In most cases, taking the present age as x, i.e., the base year works just
fine. Past will become, say (x-5) years, and future can be denoted as
(x+5).
But sometimes, present age is not directly given in words. Then, take
x to be the age you are supposed to find.
You can also try putting yourself in someones place and try to calculate
the age!

## Also, sometimes when nothing works and youre stuck on an age

question in the last 4 minutes of the exam just look at the options and
solve it through back calculations! Works just fine!
Also, please know keep it simple the age problems are easily solved.

## Quantitative Aptitude Techniques Book

Some practice questions for your benefit:
Question 1: The age of Rekha is twelve times that of her daughter Avani. If the
age of Avani is 3 years, what is the age of Rekha?
Solution. Whos age do we need? Rekhas.
Present age required to be found? Yes!
Okay, so, Rekhas present age = x
Rekhaa age is 12 times her daughters age.
Daughters age = 3. Therefore, 12 times of 3 = x
12 x 3 = x
= 36 years = Rekhas age.
Question 2: The fathers age four years ago was 8 times the age of his son. At
present the fathers age is 4 times that of his son. Find the sons present age.
Solution. Okay, whos present age do we need to find? Sons.
Therefore, Sons present age = x
Well first make the present ages equation with dad and son only cause it
makes things easier to proceed from the present!
At present the fathers age is 4 times that of his son, i.e., Fathers present age
= 4x.
Fathers age four years ago was 8 times the age of his son four years ago
will simple mean, subtracting 4 from the present ages of BOTH father and son;

## and the whole equation will stand as :

(4x 4) = 8 x (x 4)
Solving it x = 7 years,
The sons present age = 7 years. Easy does it, doesnt it?

Question 3: At present, the ratio between the ages of Amar and Norman is
4:3. After 6 years, Amars age will be 26 years. What is the age of Norman at
present?
Solution. Whos present age do we need to find? Normans.
But they have also have given the ration of present ages, 4:3.
So we can use x to denote both their present ages to be 4x and 3x, i.e.,
Amars and Normans respectively.
Next, Amars age 6 years later, = (4x + 6) = 26.
x = 5 years.
Normans present age = 3x = 3 x 5 = 15 years.
Question 4: The ratio of the fathers age to the sons age is 4:1 the product of
their ages is 196. What will the ratio of their ages after 5 years?
Ans.: 11:4

Question 5: Sams age is one-fourth of his fathers age and two-third of his
sister Ritas. What is the ratio of the ages of Sam, Rita and their father
respectively?
Ans.: 2:3:8

## Question 6: The average age of boys in a class of 30 is 15 years. If 10 more

boys join the class, the average of the whole class gets reduced by a year. What
is the average age of newcomers? [This mixes age and average a real IBPS

worthy question!]
Ans.: 11years

Question 7: Present age of Vinny is 8 lesser than Amus present age. If 3 years
ago Amus age was X, what will be Vinnys present age?
Ans.: (X-5) years

Question 8: The ratio between the present ages of P and R is 5:3. The ratio
between Ps age four years ago and Rs age four years hence is 1:1. What is the
ratio between Ps age 4 years hence and Bs age four years ago? [Hence means
future. And this is one gem of a question!]
Ans.: 3:1

Question 9: The ratio between the present ages of Doom and Room is 2:3. 4
years ago the ratio between their ages was 5:8. What will be Dooms age after 7
years?
Ans.: 31 years

Question 10: The age of Rani is 5 times the age of her daughter. After 12
years the age of Rani will be thrice the age of her daughter. Find the present
age of Ranis daughter.
Ans.: 12 years.

## Age Problems - Concepts and Tricks

Age problems are one of the most common topics in IBPS, CAT, GMAT and
otherbanks exams. Students waste lots of time in this question as it look very

simple but when they start solving with triditional methods, it takes a lot of
time. Today I am solving few solving with shortcut trick. In case of any problem,

Best way to solve Age questions is to assume fixed period with which further
conditions will be compared. For example taking 2000 as fixed year.

## APPLICATION OF THIS RULE

Example 1
Raman's age after 15 years will be 5 times his age 5 years back. What is his
present age ?
Solution - Let's assume right now it is year 2000

## Age of Raman in 1995 = x

Age of Raman in 2015 = 5x
Present age of Raman (in 2000) = x+5 or 5x-15

## X= 5. Then Raman's present age becomes = x +5 = 10

Example 2
Rahul was 4 times old as his son 8 years back and he will be 2 times old as his
son after 8 years. Calculate Rahul and his son's age.

## Assume that currently it is year 2000.

In 1992 Rahul's age = 4x, Age of Rahul's son = x
In 2008 Rahul's age = 2y and Age of Rahul's son = y

## Now we get two equations 2y - 4x = 16 and y - x = 16

By solving this equation x = 8, so Rahul' son's current age = 16 years and
Rahul's age = 40 years.

## Problems based on Ages - Tricks

To solve the problems based on ages, you need to have knowledge of linear
equations. This method needs some basic concepts as well as some more time
than it deserves. Sometimes it is easier to solve the problems by taking the
given choices in account. But this hit-and-trial method proves costly sometimes,
when we reach our solution much later. We have tried to evaluate some easier
as well as quicker methods to solve this type of questions. Although we are not
able to cover each type of questions in this section, our attempt is to minimize
I have already shared a trick related to this chapter here.

## Have a look at the following questions:

Ques 1.
The age of the father 3 years ago was 7 times the age of his son. At present the
fathers age is five times that of his son. What are the present ages of the father
and son?

Ques 2.

At present the age of the father is five times that age of his son.Three years
hence, the fathers age would be four times that of his son. Find the present
ages of the father and son.

Ques 3.
Three years earlier the father was 7 times as old as his son. Three years hence
the fathers age would be four times that of his son. What are the present ages
of the father and son?

## Solving using Conventional Method:

Solution: 1 Let the present age of son = x yrs.
Then, the present age of father = 5x yrs.

## 3 years ago, 7(x 3) = 5x 3

Or, 7x 21 = 5x 3
Or, 2x = 18
Therefore, sons age = 9 yrs. Fathers age = 45 years.

## 3 years hence, 4(x + 3) = 5x + 3

Or, 4x + 12 = 5x + 3
X = 9 yrs.

## Solution: 3. Let the present age of son = x yrs.

And the present age of father = y yrs.
3 yrs earlier

3 yrs hence

## Solving (i) & (ii) we get, x = 9 yrs & y = 45 yrs.

Quicker Method:

Ques 4.
10 yrs ago, Sitas mother was 4 times older than her daughter. After 10 yrs, the
mother will be twice older than the daughter. What is the present age of Sita?

Ques 5.
One years ago the ratio between Samirs age and Ashoks age was 4 : 3. One
year hence the ratio of their ages will be 5 : 4. What is the sum of their present
ages in yrs.