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General lighting

ambient lightin

enables people to perceive th overall shape and size of a space

establishes the mood or character of an interior

should be based upon the purpose of the space and the needs of its

to have an adequate level of illumination, the space must have several

indirect fixturs in various locations. any light fixture that provides
indirect light could be used for general lighting, or it may be
supplemented with light that is integrated into walls, ceilings, or

Task lighting

for specific activities and tasks

illumination level should be at approximately three times of the level of

general lighting

Potential problems should be considered. The light source may create

glarem veiling reflections, or shadows. Glare and veiling reflections
occur when the light source is reflected on the work space.

To reduce strain on the eyes, a designer can do other things besides

increasing the brightness of the lighting. One possibility would be to
increase the contrast or size of the objects used in a task.

consider the design and placement of each luminaire. Luminaire for

task lighting include portable fxtures, pendants, and recessed, track,
and structural lighting.

Daylight can also be a part of task lighting. Daylight is excellent for

helping people to discern critical details, for example, in reading and
writing, and to make color distinctions.

Accent and Decorative Lighting

to bring attention to an object or element in a space. creates drama,

variety, interest, and excitement

The location and aiming angle must be chosen so as to avoid direct

glare to the eyes of users. The preferred angle to a wall is 30 degrees.

An illumination level that is the same for both the accented item and
the surrounding area will not emphasize the item effectively.

chiaroscuro- tehcnique in painting that emphasizes patterns of light,

shade, and shadows

To create enough contrast to accent an object requires a minimum

ratio of 5 to 1 between accent and general lighting. Extreme drama
can be accomplished with a 10 to 1 ratio, but the ratio should not
exceed 20 to 1.

grazing- technique that light source be close to object to reveal

textures and form of an object

backlight- illumination directly behind an object, creates silhouette

Light fixtures used are: uplights, recessed spots, spotlight projectors

Decorative lighting is designed to be an ornamental element of an


Flourescent Lamps

discharge lamps- made or glass, use mercury or sodium vapor, and

require a ballast to start the lamp and control the electrical current

electric-discharge lamps operate on low or high pressure and do not

have the filaments that exist in incandescent lamps

energy efficient, have a high lumen output, have a long life, radiate
less heat than incandescent lamps, have a moderate initial cost and
operating cost, and have a variety of color options

The phophorous coating determines the color of the light produced.

operate system that includes a ballast. Ballast starts the lamp and
then regulates the flow of electrical current to it. Available in magnetic
and electronic versions

Compact flourescent lamp (CFL)- a lamp made with one or more small,
folded flourescent tubes and equipped with a screw base. energysaving lightbulb. Available in twin, triple, and quadruple tubes.

High-intensity discharge lamp (HID)- electric discharge lamp with a

light-producing arc stabilized by bulb temperature, including mercury,

metal halide, and high-pressure sodium

Mercury lamp (MV)- uses radiation from mercury vapor for illumination

Fiber optic lighting

can be used for general, task, accent, and decorative applications

electrical light source that utilizes a remote source fir illumination. light
is transmitted from the source through a bundle of optical fibers

illuminator- box that contains the light source for a fiber optic lighting

fibers only transmit light and do not carry an electrical current- makes
it possible to place the fibers in wet spaces while the illuminator is
installed at a remote dry location

excellent choice for heat-sensitive products, artwork, and other

decorative objects, and fragile museum artifacts

Electroluminescent lamps

1907 Henry Joseph Round discovered electroluminescence

operate through an interaction between an electrical field and a


include light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lamps used for instrument

panels and liquid crystal displays

lightweight, have long life, require high-voltage drivers and use very
little electricity

transformer is needed to operate the lamps with a direct current

the light is focused by lenses or scattered by diffusers

LEDs are durable and small, have a long life, use minimal electrical
power, have a directional source, do no emit UV or IR radiation, do not
have glass or filaments that can break. Primarily used for signage,
display backlights, automobiles, and pedestrian signals.