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Aircraft

Aircraft Performance,
Performance, Stability
Stability and
and Control
Control
with
with Experiments
Experiments in
in Flight
Flight

Dr. A. K. Ghosh
Mr. Yogendra Singh
Dr. Deepu Philip
Department of Aerospace Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Module-1
Lecture-1
Introduction

Introduction
Introduction to Flight Mechanics
The important/relevant topics in flight mechanics are to be familiarized with, before conducting any experiment. Atmospheric flight mechanics encompasses two major disciplines;
namely performance and flight stability and control, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Flight mechanics: Classification

1. Aircraft performance: mainly deals with the estimation of performance characteristics such as range, endurance, rate of climb, etc.
(a) Range: The total distance that an aircraft can travel on a given full tank of
fuel.
(b) Endurance: The total time that an aircraft can stay in air for a given tank
of fuel.
(c) Rate of climb: The rate of change of altitude of an aircraft in flight.
2. Flight Stability and control: deals with the handling qualities of an aircraft
under the influence of external forces and/or internal forces.

Warm up
What does the term experiment imply in engineering and physical sciences?
In engineering and other physical sciences, experiments are used to test
theories and hypotheses about how physical process work under given conditions
For successfully conducting any experiment, the following preparations are required:
1. Conduct initial research/studies on the topic of interest/research problem.
2. Postulate the problem/exercise/hypotheses to be tested based on initial research
findings.
3. Design appropriate experiment(s) to test the hypotheses/theories associated with
the problem/exercise.
4. Record the data and other details.
5. Replicate the experiment to validate and verifying the findings.
6. Document the process, data and findings as a technical report.

Target audience
The target audience of this course is upper level undergraduate and graduate
students, along with practicing engineers.
This course is structured in the following manner:
1. Introduction to various aerodynamic and flight dynamic models routinely used to
estimate performance characteristics of an airplane in flight.
2. Introduction to the concept of aircraft stability and control.
3. Development of analytical expressions for estimation of neutral point (stick fixed
and free) and maneuvering point (stick fixed and free).

4. Description of experiments (flight maneuvers) and associated theories/hypotheses


that are typically tested.
5. Familiarization of various sensors used to acquire flight data such air relative speed,
angle of attack, side slip angle, linear & angular accelerations, etc.
6. Acquisition and analysis of flight data.
7. Accept/reject the hypotheses and draw appropriate conclusions.
8. Technically report writing.

Flight testing
PURPOSE : Broadly speaking, flight testing of aircraft may be conducted for various
purpose in mind.
Acceptance Flight Testing : To determine the actual characteristics of aircraft and
to compare it with the computed / predicted or with that claimed by the manufacturer.
Such test may be conducted by :
1. Airline operator
2. Airforce
3. Prospective owner
4. Prototype testing by manufacturer himself
Overhauled airplanes may also need to conduct tests for obtaining flight airworthiness
certificates.
The procedures for flight testing are basically same irrespective of the purpose of it being
acceptance testing or research and development testing. The major differneces lie only in
the manner in which the final corrected data is presented.
Flight Test Program : The major steps involved in any flight test programs are :
1. Develop plan & establish objectives
2. Theoretical estimates of results to be obtained from flight testing
3. Determine mass characteristics
3

4. Instrumentation
5. Design and perform flight maneuver
6. Measure and record data
7. Pre-process data
8. Analyse data
9. Evaluate results
10. Present results
A statement of the objectives is the first element of any test plan. The statement must
be :
1. Concrete
2. Include acceptable forms of the results

The aim is to design the test program to provide the desired results for the least cost in
time and money within the limitations of available manpower and equipment
Example:
Let us consider an example where stick fixed and stick free longitudinal static stability
characteritics are to be studied. To define the objective more preciously, we say :
To obtain the location of stick fixed and stick free neutral points from some fixed reference
point
Let us see what needs to be known :
While preparing for the experiment we need to
1. Know the longitudinal static stability theory of aircraft.
2. Know how to relate this theory to flight test technique for obtaining the desired
results.
3. Obtain some pre-flight data; c.g. location
4. Identify the instrumentation requirement, say elevator position, stick force, airdata
(speed, altitude, outside air temperature).
4

5. Calibrate ground and flight instruments.


6. Have airborne data acquisition system or system to telemeter data to ground station.
7. Identify the flight maneuver and convey the same to the pilot and instrumentation
(recorder) team.
8. Check if any pre processing of data is required or not (say, correction for fuel burnt
and its effect on c.g. location)
Analysis is carried out to evaluate results and these are finally presented in the form as
stated in the objectives of the test plan
Preflight Data :
We need to collect some data before the test begin. These primarily include predicted
aerodynamic characteristics, aircraft mass characteristics and atmospheric conditions. Of course, we need a thorough understanding of the instrumentation system and
aircraft control system.
Predicted Aerodynamic Characteristics :
There are many purpose for which we need predicted values of what we wish to determine
from flight testing. The objective itself may be validation of such predicted values. We
need this information for test maneuver design. Predicted values could be obtained from:
1. Analytical relation
2. CFD computation
3. Wind tunnel test
The wind tunnel data must be properly transformed into a form suitable for our analysis.
Care is also to be excercised to ensure that the predicted values and flight test results
have used the same geometric values like ; area, span, chord and also values are defined
with respect to the same refernece point.
Aircraft Mass Characteristics:
The aircraft mass characteristics relevant to rigid body motion are :
1. Weight
2. Center of gravity
3. Moment of inertia
5

Weight and longitudinal center of gravity position are easy to measure and are routinely
monitored. This is a routine maintenance activity approved by civil aviation airworthy
organisation. Determination of moment of inertia and vertical and lateral C.G. positions
require special tests.
1. Flight test plan should provide for accurate monitoring of the mass characteristics
throughout the flight test program.
2. In preparing for each test flight, it should be checked that all the required mass data
is available, because it is not possible to reliably re-construct mass data once the
aircraft is handed over.
3. If we have inaccurate mass data, we will have inaccurate test results, so mass data
deserves some care and attention to detail as the flight instrumentation system.
Common source for mass data collection
The commen source of mass data is ground based measurement.
1. The weight and the longitudinal and lateral components of the C.G. can be accurately measured by scales under each wheel.
2. Swing test measure the moment of inertia, using springs with known spring constants.
3. A second good source of mass data is manufacturers records of component build up.
These records can give total aircraft moment-of-inertia data that one more accurate
than those from swing test.

Reference material
Much of the lecture material is taken from these books:
1. Anderson, John D. Introduction To Flight.: McGraw-Hill, 1978.
2. Phillips, Warren F. Mechanics Of Flight.: J. Wiley, 2004.
3. Nelson, Robert C. Flight Stability And Automatic Control.: McGraw-Hill, 1989.
4. Napolitano, Marcello R. Aircraft Dynamics.: J. Wiley, 2012.
5. Perkins, C.D. & Hage, R.E., Aircraft performance, stability and control.: J. Wiley
1949.
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Module-1
Lecture-2
Standard Atmosphere

Standard Atmosphere
It is important to understand the definition of various altitudes that are
usually used to analyze/compare the performance of flying vehicles in standard atmosphere.

The gravitational force experienced by any aircraft varies with altitude. Also, an aircraft experiences variation in aerodynamic forces with altitude. This is simply because of
the fact that the atmospheric properties viz; Pressure, density and Temperature (P, , T )
also changes with altitude. Aerodynamic forces are strong function of these atmospheric
properties (P, , T ). It is a necessity to specify the altitude that will help in postulating
gravitational and aerodynamic forces explicitly.

Why do we need to define a standard atmosphere?


Standard atmosphere is defined in order to relate flight tests, wind tunnel tests
general airplane design and performance to a common reference.

Before proceeding further, let us define certain terms that are essential to understand and
characterize standard atmosphere.
1. Absolute altitude (ha ) The altitude as measured from the center of the earth
2. Geometric altitude (hg ) The altitude as measured from the mean sea level
3. Geo-potential altitude (h) The geometric altitude corrected for the gravity
variation. We will discuss this later in detail.
From Figure 1, it can be concluded that the absolute altitude is the sum of geometric altitude and mean radius of the earth. Mathematically, this relationship can be numeralized
1

Figure 1: Schematic diagram representing geometric altitude and absolute altitude


as
ha = hg + r

(1)

where,
r is the mean radius of earth.

Acceleration due to gravity and altitude relationship


Now that various concepts about altitudes are familiarized, the variations of acceleration
due to gravity with altitude needs to be understood. It can be obtained using Newtons
universal law of gravitation.
1. If gravitational acceleration at the sea level is go and the local gravitational constant
is g for a given absolute altitude ha ; then the relationship between g and go follows
 2

2
r
r
g = go
= go
(2)
ha
r + hg
Why are we discussing these altitudes and their dependencies?
To express the thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere (P, , T ) as a function of
altitude; these concepts are required..
2

Geo-potential and geometric altitudes


1. The hydrostatic equation of an infinitesimal fluid is given by
dP = gdhg

(3)

where, P - hydostatic pressure (P a),


- fluid density kg/m3 and
g - acceleration (m/s2 ) due to gravity corresponding to the geometric altitude hg
2. In order to obtain the hydrostatic pressure (P ) at a particular geometric altitude
(hg ), the above expression has to be integrated. Density and acceleration due to
gravity, are functions of altitude makes integration a bit more complex/difficult.
3. In order to simplify this integration, the concept of geo-potential altitude (h) has
been introduced. We will consider this concept next.

Geo-potential altitude (h)


1. It is a fictitious altitude corrected for the gravity variation, which is typically used
to ease the integration process (Equation 3). In simple terms, it can be called as
gravity adjusted height. The adjustment uses Earths mean sea level as reference.
2. Now we can rewrite the hydrostatic equation, by replacing the geometric altitude
with geo-potential altitude (h).
dP = go dh

(4)

where, go is the acceleration due to gravity at mean sea level.


3. Using the two hydrostatic equations, viz, Equation 3 & Equation 4, we can derive
the relationship between geometric and geo-potential altitude
1=

go dh
g dhg
g
dhg
go

(5)

r2
dhg
(r + hg )2

(6)

dh =
dh =

4. Integrating dh from sea level up to any given value of h (different from hg ) at a


given point in atmosphere where geometric altitude is hg , we get
Z

hg

Z
dh =
0

r2
dhg
(r + hg )2

hg

dhg
(r + hg )2
0

hg
1
2
h=r
r + hg 0


1
1
2
+
=r
r + hg r


r + r + hg
2
=r
r(r + hg )
=

Thus,

h=

r
r + hg


hg

(7)

Definition of standard atmosphere


1. By now we studied about the different types of altitudes. So now we will proceed
further to discuss about the standard atmosphere. From early on, researchers conducted experiments with sounding rockets and hot air balloons to study about the
variation of temperature with altitude.
2. Typical pattern of variation of temperature to altitude is shown in Figure 2. One
can easily notice that there are some vertical lines (known as constant temperature
or isothermal regions) and inclined lines (known as gradient regions).

Figure 2: Plot representing variation of temperature with altitude

Modelling the atmosphere


The plot of variation of temperature with altitude (Figure 2) was obtained from using
experimental data, However, a similar experiment about the thermodynamic properties
of interest to us (pressure and density) is not available. Hence, we proceed to derive the
pressure and density variation with altitude with the help of the temperature vs altitude
plot shown in Figure 2.
1. The modified hydrostatic equation is
dP = go dh

(8)

2. Divide by the equation of state, (P = RT ), we have


dP
go dh
go
=
=
dh
P
RT
RT

(9)

3. First we will consider the isothermal region where the temperature remain relatively
constant. Temperature, pressure and density at the base of isothermal region are

T1 , P1 , and 1 . Substituting the parameters in Equation 8, we get :


Z P
Z h
dP
go
=
dh
RT h1
P1 P
ln

(10)

go
P
=
(h h1 )
P1
RT

Equilently we can write,


P
= e[go /(RT )](hh1 )
P1

(11)

4. Again using the equation of state,


P
T

=
=
P1
1 T1
1

(12)

= e[go /(RT )](hh1 )


1

(13)

Thus,

5. Now consider the gradient region, and the temperature variation can be written as,
T T1
dT
=

h h1
dh

(14)

where, is specified constant known as Lapse rate. Thus,


dh =

1
dT

(15)

6. Substituting the value of dh from Equation 15 in Equation 9, we get,


dP
go dT
=
P
R T

(16)

7. Integrating Equation 16 between the base and some given altitude h, yields,
Z T
Z P
dP
go
dT
=
R T1 T
P1 P
P
go
T
=
ln
P1
R T1
go
  R
P
T
=
P1
T1

ln

(17)

8. Using equation of state P = RT , we can write,


P
T
=
P1
1 T1

(18)

9. Hence, Equation 17 can be re written using Equation 18 to,


T
=
1 T1

T
T1

=
1

T
T1

go
 R

go
 R
1

or,

=
1

T
T1

go
( R
+1)

(19)

The computation of pressure and density at different layer using standard expressions, listed in Table 1.

Table 1: Gradient & isothermal layer equation


Variables
Pressure
Density

Gradient layer
go
  R
P
T
= T1
P1
go
 ( R
+1)

T
=
1
T1

Isothermal layer
P
P1

= e[go /(RT )](hh1 )

= e[go /(RT )](hh1 )

In a normal day, the standard atmosphere will always be reliable, since the assumptions
used to develop the mathematical models are not violated. But on a non-standard day,
this model cannot be completely relied upon. Hence, it is necessary to define two more
new altitudes based on the standard atmosphere model, which will be discussed in the
next section of this course.

Module-1
Lecture-3
Altitude and Airspeed

Pressure Altitude
In the previous module, we studied the concept of standard atmosphere and the behavior
of pressure and density at isothermal and gradient layers. Now, we introduce the concept
of pressure and density altitudes.
Pressure altitude is the altitude associated with a given pressure assuming standard atmosphere or standard atmospheric conditions. In other words, pressure altitude is the
altitude an airplane would be at, if it was a standard day.
The airplanes altimeters measures the altitude based on the sea level pressure (101325 P a), for a standard atmosphere. So, when the pilot starts the
airplane, he sets the altimeter for this sea level pressure setting.

While pressure altitude provides a correction for pressure, it does not take into consideration the ambient temperature of the air - a factor that, on a hot day when performance
of the aircraft is degraded, is far more critical.

Density Altitude
Density altitude is defined as the altitude at which the density of the Standard Atmosphere
is same as the density of the air being evaluated. The density altitude is the pressure
altitude corrected for the standard temperature.
Solved Example 1:
Calculate the standard atmosphere values of T , P , and at a Geo-potential altitude of 15
km.
Solution:
From temperature altitude map, T = 288.16 K (sea level condition)
The calculation will be carried out first from sea level to 11km and then from 11km to
15km.
Gradient Region: from h = 0 to h = 11.0km, with lapse rate of = 6.5K/km. So,

P = P1

= 1

T
T1

T
T1

go
 R

go
[ R
+1]

Using standard atmosphere conditions, we have


P1 = Ps = 1.01325 105 N/m2
1 = s = 1.2250kg/m3
T1 = Ts = 288.16K
The pressure and density at 11 km are then obtained as follows.
P11 = 0.26 104 N/m2
11 = 0.367kg/m3
Isothermal region : From 11km to 14km
go

P15 = P11 e[ RT ](hh1 )


go

15 = 11 e[ RT ](hh1 )

(1)

Here the subscript 11 refers to the values at h = 11.0km. The calculations result in
pressure and density at h = 15.0km as :
P15 = 1.2112 104 N/m2
15 = 0.1947kg/m3
Solved Example 2:
If an airplane is flying at an altitude where the actual pressure and temperature are
4.72 104 N/m2 and 255.7K respectively, calculate the pressure, temperature and density altitudes?
Solution:
Using standard atmospheric table, we find that
Pressure altitude = 6km (i.e. altitude corresponding to pressure = 4.7 104 N/m2 in
standard atmosphere table/figure)
Temperature altitude = 5km (or 38.2 or 59.5km) (altitude corresponding to Temp =
255.7K is standard atmosphere)
Use equation of state = P/RT to find the density as; = 0.643kg/m3
And then using the standard atmosphere table, as obtain:
Density altitude = 6.24km.

Airspeed
Airspeed is the speed of the aircraft relative to air. In aviation industry, synonyms like
indicated air speed (IAS), true air speed (TAS), calibrated air speed(CAS), etc. are used
to denote the same. It is important to know the subtle difference among them.

How to measure the speed of the aircraft?


Using pitot-static tube.
Pitot-static tubes typically face free oncoming airflows to measure the difference of total
and static pressure, which is used to find out the velocity of the flight vehicle using
Equation 2
s
v=

2(Po P )

(2)

What is the value of density that has to be used in order to find the velocity?
Various Speeds
1. Indicated Air Speed (IAS):
The speed indicated by the airspeed indicator in the cockpit, which is based on the
Pitot - static tube attached to the airplane.
2. Calibrated Air Speed (CAS):
The indicated airspeed correct for the position and instrument errors. In standard
atmospheric conditions, this is equal to the True Air Speed (TAS).
3. Equivalent Air Speed (EAS):
The calibrated air speed corrected for adiabatic and compressibility effects. The altitude effects are included in this speed.
To explain the three airspeed, let us assume that an aircraft is in cruise at an altitude of h, where the density is , dynamic pressure is q and the corresponding
velocity is v. Now if we want to simulate the same dynamic pressure at mean sea
level (qo ), the corresponding velocity is known as equivalent air speed.
4. True Air Speed (TAS)
The airspeed of the airplane relative to the undisturbed air.
True Air Speed (TAS) & Equivalent Air Speed (EAS) relation:
Suppose an airplane is flying at an altitude (ha ) and experiencing dynamic pressure (Pa ).
3

We define equivalent airspeed as that speed with which the aircraft needs to fly at sea
level to duplicate the actual dynamic pressure (ha ) at a given altitude.so, we can write;
1
1
2
a VT2AS = o VEAS
2
2
The relationship between true airspeed and indicated airspeed is given by Equation 3.
Hence,
r
vT AS = vEAS

(3)

where,
o - Density of air at sea level
- Density of air at a given altitude

Pitot-Static tube

Figure 1: Schematic diagram representing the function of Pitot-Static tube

1. A schematic drawing of a pitot-static tube is presented in the Figure 1. It consists


of two concentric tubes, say A and B.
2. The rear ends of these two tubes are connected to a differential pressure sensor.
Typically a pressure sensor is a micro electro-mechanical device that is capable of
measuring pressure and provides an equivalent analog output.
4

3. The front end of the tube A is open to free stream to trap the total pressure (Po )
during the flight.
4. Whereas tube B is a closed mouth tube having equally spaced peripheral holes to
communicate with the surrounding air. Thus, tube B will be capturing the static
pressure (Ps ).
5. The output of the pressure sensor is usually in volts (V ). In order to use this
setup for velocity measurement, one has to calibrate the pressure sensor. Once the
calibration chart is available for the specific pressure sensor, we can convert voltage
(V ) to Pascal (P a).
Stagnation Pressure or Total Pressure (Po )
It is the pressure measured at a point where the molecules are brought to rest isentropically.
Static Pressure (Ps )
It is the pressure exerted by the fluid due to its random motion.

Pressure sensor calibration procedure:


Step 1: Connect the Total pressure port of the sensor to a hand pump with manometer
attached to it. The movements will allow to measure the input pressure.
Step 2: Connect the Output terminals of the sensor to a voltmeter. The voltmeter helps to
record the output voltage.
Step 3: Now apply the known pressure in steps (both increasing and decreasing) and record
the corresponding output voltage.
Step 4: Plot applied pressure vs. output voltage. For applications, consider the linear region
of the sensor.

Module-2
Lecture-4
Introduction to Performance of Flight and
Experiments

Performance of flight

Module Agenda
Aerodynamic nomenclature used for flight performance
Definition of forces, in steady and symmetrical straight line flight
Cruise flight
Thrust and power required
Thrust and power available
Maximum flight velocity
Altitude effects on power available and power required
Range and endurance.
Climb performance
Maximum angle of climb
Maximum rate of climb
Altitude effects on power available and power required
Estimation of profile Drag coefficient (CDo ) and Oswalds efficiency (e) of
an aircraft from experimental data obtained is steady and level flight.

Aerodynamic nomenclature used for flight


performance

Figure 1: Definition of angles, axes and velocities in steady, symmetrical and straight line
flight

Air relative velocity of airplane

Xb

Body fixed X-axis (Along fuselage reference or chord line)

Xs

Stability axis X-axis (Xs -axis align along the air relative velocity)

Zb

Body fixed Z-axis

Zs

Stability axis Z-axis

Angle of attack, defined as the angle between Xb and the


horizon

Airplane pitch attitude angle, defined as the angle between


Xb and the horizon

Flight path angle, defined as the angle between V and the


horizon

Vv

Vertical-velocity component, also known as the rate-of-climb

Vh

Horizontal-velocity component

Thrust force inclination, defined as the angle between Xb and


the thrust line of action (T is Zero in Figure 1)

RC

Rate of Climb
2

Definition of forces, in steady and symmetrical


straight line flight
In flight an airplane, can be said to be under the influence of four main forces:
1. The Lift, L, acting vertically upwards and is perpendicular to the air relative velocity.
2. The Weight of the airplane, W , acting vertically downwards through the centre of
gravity.
3. The Thrust T , delivered by the engine or engine(s).
4. The Drag, D, acting in the direction opposite to the air relative velocity.
These forces are depicted in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Definition of forces in steady, symmetrical and straight line flight

Module-2
Lecture-5
Steady and level flight - Equations of motion, Drag
polar and Thrust required

Cruise flight: equation of motion


Typically, cruise flight is also known as steady and level flight. Aircraft considered is
subjected to aerodynamic, propulsive, and gravity forces. The general equations of motion
of an airplane in flight (longitudinal motion). Summation of all forces in direction along
the aircrafts air-relative velocity i.e. V (assuming mass of the aircraft is not changing )
can be represented as given below:
X

F|| = ma = m

dv
dt

(1)

Next, the summation of all forces in the direction perpendicular to the aircrafts airrelative velocity, V , can similarily be represented by Equation 2.
X

F =

mV 2
r

From Figure 1, Using Equation 1 & 2, it is easy to express

(2)
P

F|| and

F as given in

Figure 1: Aerodynamic forces on an aircraft


Equation 3 & 4
dV
dt
X
mV 2
F = T sin + T + L W cos =
r

F|| = T cos( + T ) D W sin = m

where,

(3)
(4)

F||

summation of forces parallel to the aircraft air relative


velocity, V

summation of forces perpendicular to the aircraft air


relative velocity, V

mass of the aircraft

mV 2
r

centripetal acceleration

Assuming that there is no change in the mass of the aircraft i.e. fuel consumption is
negligible and assuming that the aircraft velocity remain constant i.e. no acceleration,
Equation 3 & 4 can be simplified to as given in Equation 5 & 6
X

F|| = T cos( + T ) D W sin = 0

F = T sin + T + L W cos = 0

For very small values of , T ; i.e.,


0
T 0
Then we also have
+ T 0
Also note that = 0 for cruise. Equation 5 & 6 then can be simplified to

Figure 2: Forces in steady, symmetrical, straight and level flight

T D =0
LW =0
2

(5)
(6)

T =D

(7)

L=W

(8)

Figure 2 depicts the steady, symmetrical, straight line flight where Equation 7 & 8 are
satisfied.

Note: Cruise flight is a steady (no acceleration), level flight ( 0, wings level) where
the aerodynamic drag of the aircraft is balanced by the thrust delivered by engine, and the
aerodynamic lift balances the weight of the aircraft

Cruise flight: thrust required & drag polar


Consider an airplane in steady, level flight, flying at a velocity V , trimmed at design CL
& CD . Then the thrust to be delivered by engine to balance the drag can be modeled
using Equation 9.
1
Treq = D = V 2 SCD = qSCD
2

(9)

where, q is the free stream dynamic pressure.


By combining Equation 7 & 8, the thrust required for a cruise flight can be expressed as
a function of aerodynamic efficiency CL /CD as show in Equation 10.
Treq =

W
L
D

W
CL
CD

(10)

Expression given in Equation 10 suggests that for cruising with the minimum thrust
required (which is to be delivered by engine); the aircraft needs to fly such that the ratio
of CL /CD is at maximum. For a given Reynolds number and Mach number, CL , CD
and CL /CD are functions of the angle of attack.
Reynolds number is a dimensionless quantity used in fluid mechanics to predict
similar flow pattern in different fluid flow situation. Similarly , Mach number is also
a dimensionless quantity that is the ratio of speed of an object moving in a fluid to
that of the speed of sound in the medium/fluid.
The typical variations of CL with CD is depicted in Figure 3. The relationship
between CL and CD is traditionally known as the Drag Polar, as given in Equation
11
CD = CDo + KCL2
3

(11)

A typical drag polar graph is depicted in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Variation of CL with CD

Typical variations of CL & CD with respect to angle of attack is shown in Figure 4.


Similarly, a typical variation of CL /CD with respect to angle of attack is presented
in Figure 5.

Figure 4: Variation of CL & CD with

As it can be seen from Figure 5, for a particular aircraft,[CL /CD ]max could be
achieved max only at a particular (fixed) angle of attack. We now try to find out
what is that angle of attack for any given aircraft.
For that we first need to have an insight through [CL /CD ]max . The maximum value
of aerodynamic efficiency (Emax ) and the value of CL at which CL /CD is maximum
4

Figure 5: Variation of L/D or CL /CD with


could be found out using the following procedure:
L
CL
CL
=
=
D
CD
CDo + KCL2




E

CL
=
=0
CL Emax
CL CDo + KCL2
E=

[CDo + KCL2 ] CL [0 + 2KCL ]


[CDo + KCL2 ]

=0

CDo KCL2 = 0
thus,

where, CLEmax = CL at

CLEmax =
h i
CL
CD

CDo
K

CDEmax = 2CDo

(12)

max

Emax



1
CL
= p
=
CD max
2 CDo K

(13)

The above expressions in Equation 12 and 13 suggest how to estimate the value
for [CL /CD ]max and the value of coefficient of lift at [CL /CD ]max . That is, estimate
CLEmax by using known values of CDo & K.
From the lift curve slope i.e. CL vs curve of the aircraft, we can determine that
at what angle of attack () the CL,a/c has the value same as we obtained for CLEmax
p
(i.e. CDo /K). This is the angle of attack at which the aircraft should fly to ensure
[CL /CD ]max i.e. maximum aerodynamic efficiency.
5

Example:
Now, if an aircraft with wing loading W/S is cruising at a fixed altitude and at a particular
to ensure CL /CD is maximum then what should be the velocity of the aircraft to maintain
cruise flight?
Solution:
To solve this question, One should clearly understand the requirement for cruise condition.
For an aircraft to cruise at a given altitude, the weight of the aircraft should be balanced
by the lift generated by the aircraft. Thus, for a given CL , the velocity of the aircraft
should be sufficient enough to generate enough lift to balance its weight. To identify the
velocity that will generate enough lift to balance the aircrafts weight can be obtained using
the following steps. To estimate this, consider;
1
L = V 2 SCL = W
2
Here the CL is for maximum aerodynamic efficiency, i.e. CLEmax so,
1
W = V 2 SCLEmax
2
s
2W
S
V =
CLEmax
as

CDo
CLEmax =
K
v
u 2W
u
VminTreq = t q S
C
KDo

(14)

So this is the velocity with which the aircraft should fly at a particular for [CL /CD ]max
(i.e. for CLEmax ) to maintain cruise.

How can a pilot take advantage of the cruise at maximum efficiency?


For an aircraft to cruise at a particular altitude (for thrust required minimum), the pilot
should be requested to trim the aircraft at a velocity as given by Equation 14.To calculate
that speed apriori , using Equation 14 for a given aircraft, the following parameters are
necessary:
1. Wing loading W/S
2. CDo from Drag polar
3. K from drag polar or could be calculated for low subsonic aircraft using K =
1/ARe
Thus, the desired speed can easily be computed by substituting parameters W/S, CDo &
K in Equation 14.

Module-2
Lecture-6
Cruise Flight - Power required, Velocity for
Minimum Power required

Cruise flight: power required & velocity for


minimum power required
Preq = Treq V = DV =

WV

Preq

CL
CD

s
=

2
2W 3 CD
SCL3

(1)

1
3

CL2
CD

Thus, following conclusions can be made from the above expression:


3/2

For power required to be minimum, CL /CD should be maximum.


3/2

The airplane needs to be flown at CL such that CL /CD is maximum.


The airplane needs to have sufficient speed so that the lift produced by the aircraft
h
i
3/2
at CL corresponding to CL for CL /CD
is able to balance the weight of the
max

aircraft.
Now an interesting question arises that how the power required is dependent
on the velocity of an aircraft?
In order to find an answer to this question let us write Equation 1 in another way


CL2
Preq = DV = qSV CD = CDo +
qSV
ARe

 2

qS
qSV
Preq = CDo +

ARe

W2

Preq

1
1
V S
= V 3 SCDo + 2
2
ARe

(2)

A typical variation of power required, Preq with velocity is presented in Figure 1.


Referring to the figure it can easily be interpretted that there is a particular speed
at which power required to maintain level flight is minimum.
For minimum power required,
Preq
=0
V
2 Preq
>0
V 2
1

Figure 1: Power available and power required as a function of speed


So differentiating Equation 1 and equating it to zero, we will get:
W2

1
Preq
3
V 2 S
= V 2 SCDo 2
=0
V
2
ARe

W2
3 2 4 2
3
V S
=0
V 2 S CDo 4
2
ARe


1 2 
C
3 2
3 L
V S CDo
=0
2
ARe
1
CDo CDi = 0
3
where CDi is the induced drag.
So the aerodynamic condition for minimum power required is
CDi = 3CDo

(3)

Now to calculate CL for minimum power required we know that, induced drag
coefficient,
CDi = KCL2
Using Equation 2 we can write:
KCL2 = 3CDo
r
3CDo
CLminPreq =
K
2

(4)

3/2

Once we get CLminPreq , then what is the velocity for cruise at which CL /CD
value is maximum (for minimum power required)?
As it is well known that, lift needs to balance weight in cruise. So,
1
L = V 2 SCL = W
2
This could also be written as
1
W = V 2 SCLminPreq
2
s

2 W
S
V =
CLminPreq
So by using the result obtained in Equation 3 the velocity for minimum power
required can be shown to be:
VminPreq

v
u 2 W
u
=t qS
3CDo

(5)

Hence once the altitude is decided, the pilot should be instructed to trim the airplane
at VminPreq to satisfy the minimum power required condition.
This speed at a given altitude could easily be obtained by substituting the values
of W/S, CDo , K in Equation 5.

Module-2
Lecture-7
Cruise Flight - Thrust and Power available,
Maximum and minimum cruise velocity, Effects of
altitude on power

Thrust available
As we have seen earlier, thrust and power requirements are dictated by the aerodynamic characteristics and weight of the airplane. In contrast, thrust and power
available are strictly associated with the engine of the aircraft.
The thrust delivered by typical reciprocating piston engines used in aircraft with
propellers varies with velocity as shown in Figure 1(a).
It should be noted that the thrust at zero velocity (static thrust) is maximum and
it decreases with increase in forward velocity. The reason for this behavior is that
the blade tip of the propellers encounter compressibility problems leading to abrupt
decrease in the available thrust near speed of sound.
However, as seen from Figure 1(b), the thrust delivered by a turbojet engine stays
relatively constant with increase in velocity.

Figure 1: Variation in available thrust with velocity of the (a) reciprocating enginepropeller powered aircraft and (b) turbojet engine powered aircraft

Power
Power required for any aircraft is a characteristic of the aerodynamic design and weight
of that aircraft. However, the power available, PA is a characteristic of the power plant
(engine) of the aircraft. Typically, a piston engine generates power by burning fuel in the
cylinders and then using this energy to move pistons in a reciprocating fashion (Figure
2). The power delivered to the piston driven propeller engine by the crankshaft is termed

Figure 2: Schematic of a reciprocating engine


as the shaft brake power P . Actual power available is always less than the shaft brake
power i.e. PA < P . In fact, power available is modeled as
PA = P
Here is propeller efficiency, < 1. It is a direct product of the aerodynamics of the
propeller. Both and P are considered to be known quantities for a given aircraft. Figure
3 graphic the relationship between power available and power required with respect to
speed for a propeller driven engine. A jet engine derives its thrust from compressing
incoming air and then mix it with fuel to burn it and then exhausting the hot gases
at high velocities through a nozzle. The power available from a jet engine is given by
Equation:
PA = TA V
Referring to Figure 1(b), it can be seen that the thrust from a jet engine remains reasonably constant with respect to velocity. Thus the power-available curve varies linearly
with V as shown in Figure 4.
2

Figure 3: Power required and power available variation with velocity (propeller driven
aircraft)

Figure 4: Power required and power available with velicity (jet engine)

Maximum flight velocity


For both the propeller and jet-powered aircrafts, the maximum flight velocity at a given
altitude is determined by the high speed intersection of the maximum power available,
Pavailable and the Prequired curves as depicted in Figure 3 & 4.

Effect of altitude on power required


From the relations obtained in the previous discussions, i.e,
s
2
WV
2W 3 CD
Preq = Treq V = DV = CL =
SCL3
C
D

and

W2

Preq

1
1
V S
= V 3 SCDo + 2
2
ARe

for sea level conditions, we have:


s
Vo =
s
PR,o =


2 W
S
o CL

(1)

2
2W 3 CD
So CL3

(2)

At an altitude where density is , these relations are:


s

2 W
S
Valt =
CL
s
2
2W 3 CD
PR,alt =
SCL3

(3)

(4)

For a fixed value of CL and CD between sea level and altitude, dividing Equation 3
by Equation 1 and Equation 4 by Equation 2, we obtain
r
o
Valt = Vo

r
o
PR,alt = PR,o

(5)
(6)

So, from the known values of power required, PR,o and velocity, Vo of an aircraft at
sea level we can obtain power required, PR,alt and velocity, Valt at an altitude.
A typical variation of PR v/s V for various altitudes has been presented in Figure
5. It could be seen that power required curves experience an upward and rightward
translation and as well as slight clockwise rotation as altitude increases.

Figure 5: Change in the power required curve with altitude

In this discussion we will assume that PA and TA are directly proportional to the altitude
density. The variation of maximum power available and power required both at sea level
and at an altitude is shown in Figure 6. It can be understood that by plotting power
available and power required as function of velocity for various altitudes, one can quickly
estimate the maximum speed at a given altitude.

Figure 6: Change in the power required and power available curve with altitude

Module-2
Lecture-8
Cruise Flight - Range and Endurance of Propeller
Driven Aircraft

Range and Endurance


Range is defined as the total distance (measured with respect to ground) traversed by the
airplane on a full tank of fuel.
Endurance is defined as the total time that an airplane stays in the air on a full tank of
fuel.
For different applications, it may be desirable to maximize one or other, or both characteristics. The parameters that maximize range are different from those that maximizes the
endurance. Additionally, these parameters are also different for propeller and jet powered
aircrafts.

Range & Endurance : Propeller driven aircraft


For a propeller driven aircraft, the most important factor that influences range and endurance is the specific fuel consumption of the reciprocating engine.
Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC), is defined as the weight of the fuel consumed by
the reciprocating engine per unit power per unit time.

SF C =

N (f uel)
(J/s)(s)

(1)

Endurance
In order to stay airborne for the longest duration, i.e. for maximum endurance the engine
must use minimum Newtons of fuel per unit time. From the Equation 1, we can see that:
N (f uel)
SF C(PR )
(s)
1

(2)

So from Equation 2 depicting the proportionality, we quickly conclude that for maximum
endurance, the power required by the airplane should be minimum. We have already
shown in our previous discussions, that for an aircraft to fly at the minimum power
3/2

required, CL /CD should be maximum. Designating SF C as c and considering the


product c.P.dt, where P is engine power and dt is a small increment in time, we have:
cP dt =

N (f uel) J
s = N (f uel)
(J/s)(s)
s

(3)

Thus, cP dt represents the differential change in the weight of fuel over a small interval of
time, dt. Let,
Wo - gross weight of the airplane
W1 - weight of the airplance without fuel
Wf - weight of the fuel
Then, we have:
W1 = Wo Wf

(4)

dWf = dW = cP dt

(5)

and

dt =

dW
cP

(6)

Denoting endurance as E
E

W1

dt =
0

Wo

W1

E=
Wo

dW
cP

dW
cP

(7)

Range
Now considering range; in order to cover the longest distance, we must ensure minimum
weight of fuel consumed per unit distance. From the relations discussed above, we can
get the proportionality:
N (f uel)
SF C(PR )

(m)
V
Thus for obtaining maximum range for any flight, the ratio PR /V should be minimum.
[PR /V ]min for cruise flight implies that thrust required is minimum and for TR to be
minimum, CL /CD should be maximum. Minimum value of PR /V precisely corresponds
to the tangent point in Figure 1, which also corresponds to [L/D]max or [CL /CD ]max . Now

Figure 1: Power required curve to determine

L
D max

to calculate the range, from Equation 7:


Z

W1

V dW
cP

ds = V dt =
Wo

Wo

ds =
0

W1

Wo

R=
W1

V dW
cP

V dW
cP

(8)

Breguet Formula
For a propeller driven aircraft, we know that:
PA = P
thus,
P =

DV
PA
=

Substitute Equation 9 in Equation 8, we get:


Z Wo
Z Wo
Z Wo
V dW
V dW
dW
R=
=
=
cP
cDV
cD
W1
W1
W1

(9)

(10)

Multiplying Equation 10 by W/W and noting that for steady, level flight, W = L, we get:
Z Wo
Z Wo
L dW
W
R=
dW =
W1 c D W
W1 cD W
Z
CL Wo dW

c CD W1 W
3

thus,
R=

CL W o
ln
c CD W1

(11)

Similarly by using Equation 7 and Equation 9 and by applying steady, level flight condition, L = W , we get:
Z

Wo

E=
W1

dW
=
cP

Wo

W1

dW
=
cDV

Wo

W1

L dW
c DV W

Substituting,
1
L = W = V 2 SCL and then V =
2


2 W
S
CL

we get:
Z

Wo

E=
W1

CL
c CD

SCL dW
2 W 32

(12)

Assuming CL , CD , , c and (constant altitude) are all constant, Equation 12 becomes:


3 
1
CL2 S 2 h 1 iWo
E = 2
W 2
c CD 2
W1
3


1
CL2
1
1
(2S) 2 W1 2 Wo 2
E=
c CD

(13)

Module-2
Lecture-9
Cruise Flight - Range and Endurance of Jet driven
Aircraft.

Range & Endurance - Jet powered aircraft


In case of jet powered aircrafts specific fuel consumption is given as Thrust Specific
Fuel Consumption and it is defined as weight of fuel consumed per unit thrust per
unit time.
Here thrust is used in contrast to power in case of propeller driven aircraft.
T SF C =

N (f uel)
(N (thrust))(s)

N (f uel)
= (T SF C)TA
s

(1)
(2)

Here TA is thrust available.

Endurance
For level, un-accelerated flight, the pilot adjusts the throttle such that thrust available, TA equals the thrust required, TR . Therefore, weight of fuel consumed per
hour will be minimum when thrust required is minimum.
We know that for minimum thrust required, CL /CD should be maximum.
Therefore for a jet aircraft, maximum endurance occurs when the airplane is flying
at a velocity such that TR is minimum.
Let us calculate the expression for endurance of a jet aircraft.
Let dW be the very small change in the weight of the airplane due to fuel consumption over a time increment dt. Then
dW = ct TA dt
dt =

dW
ct TA

Then, the overall endurance can be computed from Equation 3 as:


Z W1
dW
E=
Wo ct TA
Z W1
1 L dW
E=
W o ct D W
thus,
1 CL W o
E=
ln
ct CD W1
1

(3)

(4)

Range
Similarily to obtain the expression for range, we know from earlier discussions that
in order to cover the longest distance, the aircraft should only consume minimum
weight of fuel per unit distance. For a jet aircraft:
N (f uel)
(T SF C)TA
=
(m)
V
For steady, level flight, TA = TR , minimum weight of fuel per unit distance corresponds to a minimum TA /V . Kindly note that, since TA = TR , hence range of
aircraft (with jet engine) will be maximum if N (f uel)/m is minimum or TR /V is
minimum.
[TR /V ]min corresponds to tangent point shown in Figure 1

Figure 1: Thrust required curve to determine

 TR 
V

min

For steady flight, TR = D. Thus,


1
V 2 SCD
TR
D
1
1
=
= 2
= V SCD = S
V
V
V
2
2

TR
1
1
V
CL2


2 W
S
CL
(5)

CD

Hence maximum range for a jet aircraft occurs when the aircraft is flying at a
1/2

velocity such that CL /CD is maximum. It can be shown that such a requirement
corresponds to:
r
CL =

3CDo
K

The expression for overall range for a Jet aircraft can be derived as:
ds = V dt =
R

V dW
ct TA
W1

ds =

R=

Wo

V
W ct TA
d

For steady, level flight, the pilot adjusts the throttle such that TR = TA and recalling
for steady, level flight L = W and T = D, we get:
Z Wo
V CL dW
R=
ct C D W
W1
since,
s
V =

2W
SCL

R becomes,
1

Wo

R=

CL2
CD

dW

S ct W 12

W1

thus,
1
r
1
2 1 CL2  21
R=2
Wo W12
S ct C D

(6)

Module-2
Lecture-10
Climb Performance - Introduction and Equations of
Motion.

Climb performance

Figure 1: Forces in steady, symmetrical, straight line, climbing flight

Consider an airplane in steady, symmetrical, straight line, climbing flight. The


velocity along the flight path is V , and the flight path itself is inclined to the
horizontal at angle (flight path angle).
The governing equations for a steady (no acceleration) climb flight are:
T D W sin = 0
L W cos = 0
Re-arrange the above equations, to get:
V T = V D + V W sin
VT VD
= V sin
W
also,
dh
= V sin = RC
dt
where, RC - Rate of climb

Let V T is the power available and V D is the power required for the level flight.
For climbing flight, V D is not equal to the power required, because power is required
to overcome a component of weight.
V T V D = excess power
so,
RC =

excess power
W

(1)

Figure 2: (a) Plot representing PR and PA vs Velocity (b) Determination of maximum


rate of climb for a given altitude.

Referring Figure 2(a), one could easily recognize that V1 is the speed for maximum
rate of climb (due to maximum excess power) & V2 is the speed at which rate of
climb is zero (no excess power).

Referring Figure 2(b), one can see the variation of excess power RC with speed.
Excess power increases to maximum and then reduce with speed (Refer Figure 2(a)).
Similar is tha variation of RC with speed (Refer Figure 2(b)).
Maximum angle of climb and maximum rate of climb: Are they same?
By plotting RC vs V one may find the max RC at corresponding altitude.
By plotting max RC vs altitude (straight line plot), the service ceiling and absolute
ceiling can be obtained easily by linear extrapolation.
What is service ceiling and absolute ceiling?

Service ceiling
Service ceiling is defined as the height at which, under standard atmospheric conditions, an
aircraft is unable to climb faster than a specified rate (100 feet or 30 meters per minute).
Absolute ceiling
On the other hand, absolute ceiling is defined as is the highest altitude at which an airplane
can sustain level flight, which means the altitude at which the thrust of the engines at full
power is equal to the total drag at minimum drag speed. In other words it is defined as
the altitude where the maximum sustained rate of climb is zero.

Velocity hodograph
In the analysis of climb performance, it can be useful to produce a plot of the vertical
velocity against the horizontal velocity for a given altitude Figure 3.
This plot is called a velocity hodograph.
The maximum angle of climb max can be obtained by drawing a tangent to the
above curve through the origin.
The angle between the tangent and Vx axis gives the value of max .
A tangent parallel to Vx axis gives the maximum rate of climb.

Figure 3: Velocity hodograph

Module-3
Lecture-11
Stability and Control - Discussion on Equilibrium,
Static and Dynamic Stability

Stability & Control

Module Road Map


Static Stability and Trim
Center of pressure and aerodynamic center
Wing and tail contribution on static stability
Static margin
Stick fixed Neutral Point
Stick free Neutral Point

Equilibrium
If a system in an equilibrium state, returns to equilibrium following a small disturbance, the state is said to be stable equilibrium Figure 1.
On the other hand, if the system diverges from equilibrium when slightly disturbed,
the state is said to be an unstable equilibrium.

Figure 1: States of equilibrium

Strictly speaking, Figure 1(d) is also a case of stable equilibrium, because a very
small disturbance from equilibrium would result in a force and moment imbalance
that would return the ball to its original equilibrium state.
But a little extra disturbance, towards right could cause the ball to move past the
apex, which would produce a force and moment imbalance that would cause the
ball to move away from its original equilibrium state.
This type of stable equilibrium can sometime occur with an aircraft in trimmed flight:
a very dangerous situation.

Static Stability and Trim


Static Stability
If an airplane disturbed from equilibrium state has Initial Tendency to return to
its equilibrium state, then the aircraft is assumed to have static stability.
Dynamic Stability
Not only initial tendency, but also the amplitudes of the response due to disturbance
decay in finite time to attain the equilibrium state.
In general, when aircraft is being referred to be in stable equilibrium, we mean dynamic
stability. However, it so happen that for most of the cases, for conventional aircraft, if it
is statically stable, it also automatically satisfies dynamic stability criterion but not all
aircraft! Handling qualities may be different.
Static equilibrium occurs whenever there is no acceleration (linear or angular) of the
aircraft. Un-accelerated flight requires that the summations of forces and moments
acting on the aircraft are zero.
Static equilibrium also requires that the side force acting on the airplane is also
zero.
Additionally, the summation of moments about the centre of gravity (CG) in roll,
pitch and yaw must all be zero for equilibrium (Trimmed flight).

Stable Trim - Longitudinal (Axial)


Small translational disturbances in axial, normal or side slip velocity must all result in
a return to the original trimmed equilibrium condition. This is also referred to as pitch
stability.
An object moving through the air will experience drag that opposes the motion.
If angle of attack remains fixed, this drag will increase with speed. (Drag opposes
increase in speed)
3

Thrust developed by engine is either constant with airspeed or decrease with increasing air speed. (Drag increase in speed)
In static equilibrium with regard to translational in the direction of motion, the
forward component of thrust must balance the drag (T = D)
At constant angle of attack, a small increase in airspeed will result in
Increase in Drag
Either a decrease in Thrust or No change in Thrust
Therefore, this force imbalance in the axial direction will result in a deceleration,
which will tend (initial tendency) to restore the airspeed to the original value.
Conversely, if airspeed is decreased by a small disturbance with no change in angle
of attack, the drag will become less than the thrust and the aircraft will accelerate
back (tends to) to the equilibrium airspeed.

Figure 3: Pitch Stability

Figure 4: dD will oppose dV . If dV is positive; dD will act to reduce/marginalize dV .If


dV is negative; dD will tend to increase the speed as in that case T > D.

Module-3
Lecture-12
Stability and Control - Some frequently used
notations, Trim - A pilots perspective

Some frequently used notations

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of a cambered wing

Camber Line is the locus of points midway between the upper and lower surface
of an airfoil section as measured perpendicular to itself.
Leading Edge (LE) is the most forward point on the camber line.
Trailing Edge (TE) is the most rearward point on the camber line.
Chord Line is a straight line connecting the leading edge and the trailing edge.
Maximum Camber is the maximum distance between the chord line and the
camber line as measured perpendicular to the chord line.
Local Thickness at any point along the chord line is the distance between the
upper and lower surface as measured perpendicular to the camber line.
Maximum Thickness is the maximum distance between the upper and lower
surfaces as measured perpendicular to the camber line.
D: Drag parallel to V (opposite to motion)
L: Lift perpendicular to V
A: Axial Force parallel to chord
N : Normal force perpendicular to chord

M : Pitching Moment (positive nose up)


D, L, A, N CD , CL , CA , CN
m Cm

F
1
V 2 Sref
2

M
1
V 2 Sref c
2

where,
CD , CL , CA , CN are force coefficients
Cm is pitching moment coefficient.

Important Relations

Figure 2: Axial force coefficient

CL = CN cos CA sin
CD = CA cos + CN sin
Similarly,
CN = CL cos + CD sin
CA = CD cos CL sin
Since CD  CL so, axial force coefficient CA is often negative

Figure 3: Schematic diagram of Static equilibrium

Trim - A pilots perspective


When the controls are set so that the resultant forces and the moments about the
center of gravity are all zero, the aircraft is said to be in Trim, which simply means
static equilibrium.
Airplane in cruise is a typical example of an airplane in static equilibrium.

Aircraft control surfaces


Primary control surfaces are:
Ailerons: To control the rolling moment
Elevator: To control the pitching moment
Rudder: To control the yawing moment
These control surfaces provide two functions:
1. The control surfaces must be able to maintain static trim over the entire range of
airspeed and altitude for which the aircraft is able to fly. This includes being able
to trim the aircraft against any asymmetric thrust force.
2. The control surfaces must provide sufficient moment necessary to maneuver the
aircraft in range of speed and altitudes.
Asymmetric Thrust Force: When one or more engine fails in a multiengine configuration
Never To Forget The ease with which a pilot is able to maintain trim is one of the
most important aspects of the aircraft characteristics, known as handling quality. If
the pilot cannot maintain trim with relative ease, the aircraft will be difficult or even
dangerous to fly.
3

The ease of maintaining static trim is related to a property of the equilibrium state
- static stability.

Degree of Freedom: Rigid body: Airplane

Figure 4: Degree of freedom


A rigid airplane in free flight has six degrees of freedom:
Three translational (u, v, w)
Three rotational (p, q, r)
Important to Understand
For an airplane to be in fully stable trim, there can be no instability in any of the
six degrees of freedom. Hence,
Small translational disturbances in axial, normal or side slip velocity must all result
in a return to the original trimmed equilibrium condition.
Similarly, rotational disturbances in roll, pitch and yaw must all result in a return
to the original equilibrium attitude.
With few exceptions, if the rotational degrees of freedom of an airplane are stable,
translational stability will not be a problem.

Module-3
Lecture-13
Stability and Control - Discussion on Center of
Pressure, Aerodynamic Center and Trim

Center of pressure and Aerodynamic center


The resultant aerodynamic force and moment acting on body must have the same effect
as the distributed load. The resultant moment will depend on where ever the resultant

Figure 1: Resultant aerodynamic force and moment


force is placed on the body. For example, let x be the coordinate measured along the
chord line of an airfoil, from the leading edge towards the trailing edge. The resultant

Figure 2: Various coordinate on chord line


moment about some arbitrary point on the chord line a distance x from the leading edge
be Mx . Then
MLE = Mx xN
x
CmLE = Cmx CN
c
Two particular locations along the chord line are of special interest.
xcp Center of pressure: The point about which the resultant moment is zero.
xac Aerodynamic center: The point about which the change in the resultant
moment with respect to the angle of attack is zero.

Center of Pressure (xcp)


By definition,
Cmcp = 0
For x = xcp , this gives,
xxp
x
CN
CmLE = Cmx CN =
c
c
xcp
x Cm x
=
c
c
CN
Hence, the location of xcp at any given angle of attack () can be determined from
the normal force coefficient and moment coefficient about any point on the airfoil
chord line.
In general, xcp may vary significantly with .

Aerodynamic Center (xac)


For x = xac , we have,
x
xac
CmLE = Cmx CN = Cmac
CN
c
c
x
x
ac
Cmac = Cmx +

CN
c
c
From definition of aerodynamic center,

Cmac

Cmac
=0

Cmx  xac x  CN
=
+

=0

c
c

Thus,
xac
x
=
c
c

Cmx

CN

The location of the aerodynamic centre can be determined from the knowledge of
how the normal force coefficient and moment coefficient about any point on the
chord line vary with angle of attack.
For most of the airfoils, the position of aerodynamic centre is very nearly constant
at quarter chord.
Note:
Location of aerodynamic centre does not depend on magnitude of the
aerodynamic coefficient. It depends on the derivative of the aerodynamic
coefficient with respect to angle of attack.
xac
x
=
c
c

Cmx

CN

In contrast, location of centre of pressure depends on the magnitude of


aerodynamic coefficient.
x Cm x
xcp
=
c
c
CN

Stability and Trim


Knowing the airfoil terminology, we will now explore the requirements for trim and then
examine the pitch stability of the equilibrium state.
Assumptions
Wing is symmetric in the span wise direction
Motion of the wing through the air is in a direction normal to the span.
This results in no side force, no rolling moment and no yawing moment.
C.G., a.c. are aligned with the thrust vector, which is aligned with the direction of
flight.
For this symmetric flight condition, the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing can be
resolved into a lift force L, a drag force D and a pitching moment about the aerodynamic
centre of the wing mac shown in Figure 3.
3

Figure 3: Relation between lift, drag and pitching moment


For wing to be trimmed (i.e. equilibrium) the summation of forces in both the
horizontal and vertical directions must be zero. This requires,
T =D
L=W
mcg = 0
From Figure 3, we can see that,
mcg = mac xac L
At trim,
m = mac xac L

1
1 2
xac 
V S
cCm = V 2 S
c Cmac,w
CL = 0
2
2
c
Cm = Cmac,w xac CL = 0
Note:
For a given weight and airspeed, the lift coefficient is fixed by the trim
requirement (L = W ).
The moment coefficient about aerodynamic centre is fixed by the wing
geometry Cmac . Thus, for a given geometry, weight and airspeed, xac is
given by,
Cmac
c for trim Cm = 0
CL


x 
Cmac
ac
= xac =
c
CL

xac =

CL is always positive
Cmac is negative for cambered airfoil
4

Thus, xac < 0


Conclusion A

For equilibrium (trim), the aerodynamic center of cambered wing must be forward of
the center of gravity.
Let us check if this equilibrium is a statically stable equilibrium or not?

Static Stability
For static stability, a small increase in angle of attack must produce a negative
pitching moment about the center of gravity, to decrease the angle of attack back
towards trim.
Conversely, a small decrease in angle of attack must produce a positive pitching
moment to increase the angle of attack to restore the trim.
Thus, the pitching moment about CG must vary with angle of attack such that
any change in angle of attack produces a change of opposite sign in the pitching
moment about center of gravity.
Cm
1
M
= V 2 S
c
<0

Thus for static stability,


Cm
< 0 This is also called pitch stiffness

Cm = Cmac,w xac CL = 0 At trim/equilibrium


Cm Cmac
xac CL

< 0 Static stability requirement



c
From definition of aerodynamic center,
Cmac
=0

this gives,

xac CL
<0
c

but
CL
xac
>0
>0

c
This is for less than stall
5

Conclusion B

xac /c > 0 implies, for static stability, the aerodynamic centre must be aft of the
centre of gravity.
From conclusion A, for trim, ac must be ahead CG (cambered)
From conclusion B, for stability, ac must be behind/aft of CG.
Conclusion A and B are opposite. Thus a simple cambered wing is not statically
stable in free flight
For trim,

xac =

Cmac
CL


c

For stability,

xac CL
<0
c

Substitute xac as in above equation

Cmac CL
<0
CL

For trim, CL / > 0 for below stall as lift coefficient must be positive to support
the weight.
Thus to get stable trim Cmac must be positive.
If stable trim is to be maintained, a single wing with no tail must always produce a
positive pitching moment coefficient about aerodynamic centre. We know that,
Symmetric airfoil produces Cmac = 0
Cambered airfoil produces Cmac < 0
To produce Cmac , airfoil section must have negative camber over atleast some section
of the chord.
Note:
An airfoil with negative camber throughout the chord is inefficient in
producing positive lift and has a low maximum lift coefficient.

A better choice is an airfoil that has negative camber over only some
portion of the chord near the trailing edge i.e.

Reflex aerofoil.

See

Figure 4
It is possible to design an aircraft consisting of only a single flying wing with no
tail, so that stable trim flight can be achieved.
However, such designs are not preferred as this is prone to poor handling qualities
(damping is less). A better option usually is to combine a wing with a conventional
tail.

Figure 4: Schematic diagram of a reflexed airfoil

Module-3
Lecture-14
Static Stability - Wing contribution, Tail
contribution and Static Margin

Wing Contribution

Figure 1: Line diagram showing wing contribution in stability

Summing up moments about CG,


Mcg = Lw cos (w iw ) [xcg xac,w ] + Dw sin (w iw ) [xcg xac,w ]
+Lw sin (w iw ) [zcg ] Dw cos (w iw ) [zcg ] + Moacw
Divide by V 2 Sc/2
[xcg xac,w ]
[xcg xac,w ]
+ CDw sin (w iw )
hz i c
hcz i
cg
cg
+CLw sin (w iw )
CDw cos (w iw )
+ Cmacw
c
c

Cmcg = CLw cos (w iw )

Since,
cos (w iw ) 1
sin (w iw ) w iw
CL  CD
zcg 0
Hence,
Cmc g = CLw (xcg xac,w ) + Cmacw
CLw = CLo + CL
Cmcg = Cmacw + (CLo + CL ) (xcg xac,w )
Cmcg = Cmacw + CLo (xcg xac,w ) + CL (xcg xac,w )
1

This gives wing contribution as,


Cm,w = CL,w (xcg xac,w )
Cmo,w = Cmac,w + CL (xcg xac,w )

Wing and Tail Contribution

Figure 2: Line diagram showing wing and tail contribution in stability


Angle of attack at tail in presence of wing, (t ) is given by:
t = w iw + it

(1)

where,
: Downwash at tail
iw : Wing setting angle
it Tail setting angle
Moment about c.g. due to lift and drag at tail.
Kindly note that lift at tail will be perpendicular to the local velocity at tail (which
is different from the velocity free stream). Similarly, drag experienced at tail will be
along the local velocity at tail. The free stream velocity and local velocity directions
differ by downwash angle . Hence,
Mc.g.,t = lt [Lt cos ( iw ) + Dt sin ( iw )] + zt Lt sin ( iw )
zt Dt cos ( iw ) + Cma.c,t
For small angle approximation along with
CL  CD
2

zcg 0
Cma.c,t = 0 Tail airfoil symmetric aerofoil
cos(w iw ) 1
sin(w iw ) (w iw )
We have,
1
Mc.g,t = Lt .lt = Vt2 St CLt lt
2
Note Lt at tail is proportional to dynamic pressure at tail and not free stream
dynamic pressure.
Cmc.g,t =

Cmc.g,t

M
 c.g,t
1
V 2 f reestream
2

Cw

St lt
CL where, =
=
Sw Cw t

St lt
CL
Sw Cw t
1
V 2 t
2

1
V 2 f s
2

For symmetric tail:


CLt = CL,t t = CL,t [w iw + it ]
: Downwash due to wing at tail
= o +

o = Downwash at = 0 (for cambered wing)




2CL,w

Assuming e = 1

ARw
Elliptic lift distribution
2CL,w

ARw

CLt = CL,t

w iw + it o
w
w

Cmc.g,t =

St lt
CL = VH t CLt
Sw cw t

where, VH : tail volume ratio (typical value 0.5 to 1.0)



  

w
Cmc.g,t = t VH CL,t w iw + it o


  

= VH CL,t {iw + it o } VH CL,t w


w

(2)

Cmc.g,t


 

w
= VH CL,t {iw + o it } VH CL,t 1

Cmc.g,t = Cmo +

(3)

Cm

Cm,t = VH CL,t {iw + o it }






Cm
= VH CL,t 1
c.g,t

Adding the effects of wing, tail & fuselage (w = a/c ):









Cm
Cm
Cm
+
+

Cmcg a/c = Cmow + Cmot + Cmo,f s +


w
t
f s
Cmcg


a/c

= Cmow + Cmot + Cmof s + CL (xcg xac,w ) VH CL,t

+Cmf s
where,
Cmow = Cmacw + CLo (xcg xac,w )
Cmot = VH CL,t (o + iw it )
From the expression for Cmcg
(Cm )a/c = CLw


a/c




(xcg xac,w ) VH t CL,t 1


+ C m f s

Definition of Neutral Point (Stick Fixed): It is that c.g. location at which Cm /


or Cm /CL vanishes (= 0) Neutrally Stable. Hence,

0 = CLw (xcg xac,w ) VH t CL,t


+ C m f s

Which gives,
xnp = xac,w

C m f s
CLw

CL
+ t VH ,t
CL,t




1
= N

xnp = N o Stick Fixed Neutral Point.


Stick Fixed: elevator is fixed not allowed to move or float.

Static margin (SM)


SM=xnp xcg = N xcg
Typically transport aircraft SM 5% to 15% of the mean aerodynamic chord.
Approximate expression for SM relating Cm /CL :
Cmf s




xnp = xac,w
1
CLw




+ C m f s
(Cm )a/c = CLw (xcg xac,w ) VH t CL,t 1

CL
+ t VH ,t
CL,t

(4)

Dividing LHS & RHS by CLw


CL
Cm
= xcg xac,w VH ,t
C L w
CLw


+

C m f s
CLw

Under the assumption CL,w CL,a/c (approximately)




Cm

CL


Cm
CL


a/c

a/c

CL,t

= xcg xac,w VH
C L w

CL,t

= xcg xac,w VH
CLw


+

Cmf s
CLw


 


Cm
1
+

CL f s

According to the definition of neutral point, it is the xcg at which Cm / = 0 or


equivalently Cm /CL = 0
CL
0 xcg xac,w VH ,t
CLw


+

Cm
CL


fs

xcg xnp

 

CL,t

Cm
xnp = xac,w + VH
1

CLw

CL f s
(

 
 )


C
C
Cm

L
m
,t

= xcg xac,w + VH
CL a/c
CLw

CL f s


Cm

= N xcg = Static Margin


CL a/c
Typical values: 5% to 15% based on mean aerodynamic chord.

(5)

Module-3
Lecture-15
Static Stability and Control - Elevator Control
power, Elevator Angle to trim and Estimation of
Stick Fixed Neutral Point

Longitudinal Control
Control of the pitch attitude of the airplane can be achieved by deflecting the elevator.

Elevator Effectiveness
When the elevator is deflected, it changes the lift and the pitching moment of the airplane.
Change in lift for the airplane, CL ;
CL = CLe e
where,
CLe =

CL
e

(CL )a/c = CL + CLe e


Similarly change in the pitching moment, Cm
Cm = Cme e
where,
Cme =

Cm
e

Cme : Elevator Control Power


(Cm )a/c = Cmo + Cm + Cme e
The variation of Cm with e in presented in Figure 1. Kindly note that Slope Cm /
remains same when elevator is deflected.
Expression for CLe and Cme The change in lift of the airplane due to deflecting the
elevator is equal to the change in lift force acting on the tail
L = Lt = CLt qt St
Let,
qt - dynamic pressure at tail
CL =

Lt
1
V 2 Sw
2

St CLt

e
Sw e

CLt
: Elevator Effectiveness
e
1

Figure 1: Graph showing relation between Cm and CL or


The elevator effectiveness is proportional to the size of the flap being used.
CLt , t
CLt
=
.
= CL,t
e
, t e
Typical value of lies between 0.2 to 0.6.
CL =

St
St CLt
e =

CL,t e
Sw e
Sw
CLe =

St
CL,t
Sw

(1)

The increment in pitching moment, Cm


 
lt
lt
St
Cm = CL = CL,t
e
c
Sw
c


St lt
Cm =
CL,t e
Sw c
Cme = VH CL,t
This is known as elevator control power.

(2)

Elevator angle to trim


An aircraft is said to be trimmed if the net forces and moments acting on the airplane
are zero.
Cm = Cmo + Cm + Cme e
At trim, Cm = 0
0 = Cmo + Cm trim + Cme etrim
The lift coefficient at trim is CLtrim
CLtrim = CL trim + CLe (e)trim
[CLtrim CLe (e)trim ]
CL

trim =

(3)

Combining trim and CLtrim equations,


We have


etrim

Cmo CL + Cm CLtrim
=
Cme CL Cm CLe

or
etrim =

Cme

Cm
C
Cmo
CL Ltrim

CCmL CLe
Cme CCmL CLe

Assuming,
Cm
CL  Cme
CL e
We have,
etrim

Cmo
=

Cme

Cm
C
CL Ltrim

Cme

Cm
Cm
=
CL
CL
so

Cm
CL

Cm o

CLtrim
Cme
Cme


e
= eo +
CL
CL trim trim

etrim =
(e)trim

where
eo =

Cmo
Cme
C

m
e
C
= L
CLtrim
Cme

(4)


etrim = eo +

e
CLtrim


CLtrim

(5)

This equation can be used to estimate the value of elevator deflection required to trim a
given aircraft at a particular CLtrim

Estimation of Neutral Point (Stick Fixed)



etrim = eo +

e
CLtrim


CLtrim

m
etrim
CL
=
CLtrim
Cme

Neutral point is the c.g. location at which Cm /CL = 0


Therefore, at neutral point,
etrim
=0
CLtrim

Flight test to estimate Stick Fixed Neutral Point


Above equation can be used to estimate stick fixed neutral point.
Fly at different center of gravity configuration and execute cruise
Estimate corresponding
CLtrim =

2W/S
1
V 2
2

and record e
Plot etrim v/s CLtrim
Cross plot [e/CL ]trim v/s xcg to get neutral point.

no
x cg =0.4

e trim

CL
x cg =0.2

d e
dC L
trim

x cg =0.3

x cg

x cg =0.4
x cg =0.3
x cg =0.2

Module-3
Lecture-16
Stick Free Stability and Control

Stick-Free Stability
Each control surface on an aircraft is mounted through a hinge. A deflection of
control surface results in modified aerodynamic moment about the hinge line. The
pilot (or some mechanism) must supply adequate force/ moment to counter this
hinge moment.
Moment acting at hinge line of an elevator is to be overcome by pilot exerting a
force on the control stick.

Figure 1: Hinge moment



He = Che


1
2
e V
Se ce
2

where,
Se - Area aft of the hinge line
ce - Chord from hinge line to T.E. of flap

Reversible and Irreversible Controls


Reversible Controls
In reversible control system, the pilot controls are connected to the control surfaces.
This is generally done by using pulleys, cables and push rods.
Therefore, if pilot moves the control stick then the corresponding control surface also
sets deflected. Similarly, if control surface is deflected then the control stick also gets
deflected.
Irreversible Controls
1

In irreversible control system, despite the controls are directly connected to surfaces;
there is additional boost system that requisite force, moment to the controls.
As a consequence, when pilot moves the stick then the control surface moves. However, movement of control surface will not move the stick.
The boost system is supposed to hold the control surface in a fixed position once it
is set at that position.
For a reversible system in hands off condition (pilot let go off the stick!) the control
surface will float to the position where there is no hinge moment (force or moment
applied to the control surface disappear).
The condition where the hinge moment is equal to zero is called stick free condition. It is important to note that under this condition, the aerodynamic characteristics including the neutral point change.
Ch = Cho + Cht t + Che e + Cht t
Let us assume, there is no tab, t = 0 Cht t = 0.
Also let us assume that the tail has symmetric airfoil cross-section
Cho = 0
Ch = Cht t + Che e
When elevator is set free, then Ch = 0
Ch = Cht t + Che e = 0
(e )f ree = (e )f loat =

Cht
Cht

!
t

Usually Cht and Cht are negative, so elevator floats up when t is positive.

Figure 2: Schematic diagram representing elevator trim

At trim (hands off), the elevator is (e ) up.


CLt = CLt t + CLe CLe
CLt = CLt t +
"
CLt = CLt

Cht

Cht


f ree

!
t CLe

#
CLe Cht
1
t
CLt Cht

let

CLt

CLe
dt
=
=
CLt
de


Cht
= CLt 1
t
Che

So the tail lift curve slope is modified by f ,




Cht
f = 1
Che
CLt = CLt f t
is positive, Cht < 0 and Che < 0
C 0Lt = CLt f
which implies f < 1
C 0Lt < CLt
This is provided Cht < 0 and Che < 0
To derive expression for stick free neutral point we start realizing that stick-fixed case
and stick-free case differ by the modified lift curve slope as modeled for stick free case.


dCm
Cmcg = Cmo +
CL Stick fixed
dce
C 0mcg = C 0mo +

dCm
dce

0
CL Stick free

We know, for stick fixed case,


Cmo = Cmow + Cmot + CLt VH (iw it + o )
and




C 0Lt
dCm
dCm

= xcg xac +

VH 1
dCL
dCL f s CLw

Module-3
Lecture-17
Stick Free Stability and Control - Stick free Neutral
Point, Stick force and Estimation of Stick free
neutral Point.

Stick-Free Neutral Point


0

This is the location of xcg for which (dCm /dCL ) = 0 which means,




0
C
dC
e
L
m

t
+
VH t 1
- - - Stick free
n
0o = xac,w
dCL f s CLw

we know


dCm
n
o = xac,w
dCL



CLt

+
VH t 1
- - - Stick fixed
CLw

fs

since,


Cht
and f = 1
Che

C 0Lt = f CLt
We can show that,
0

n
o n
o =

CLt
CLw



Cht

VH t 1

Cht

As,
Cht < 0
CLt > 0
CLw > 0
Che < 0
Therefore,
n
o n
0o > 0
Therefore, it can easily be understood that stick free neutral point is always ahead
of stick fixed neutral point as represented in the given Figure 1
The static margin will be (
n0o xcg )


dCm
dCL

0

= xcg n
0o

Therefore,
n
0o xcg =

dCm
dCL

0

Figure 1: Location of stick fixed and stick free neutral point

Stick Force
At CLtrim , net stick force is zero since Ch = 0 (Hinge moment at elevator) as pilots
hands are desired to be free. Thus, at trim,


Cht
t
(e)f loat =
Che
Suppose we want to change from CLtrim to CL , The pilot has to apply force to bring
e to desired position. At CLtrim , e floats at such an angle that net Cmcg . When
new CL is aimed, e again takes new float position.


dCm
Cm =
{CL CLtrim }
dCL f ree
To achieve equilibrium, elevator has to be moved to balance this increase in Cmcg
(Cm )e + (Cm )CL = 0


dCm
Cme e +
{CL CLtrim } = 0
dCL f ree




dCm
CL CLtrim
e =
dCL f ree
Cme
Hinge moment due to this additional e
Ch = Che e




dCm
CL CLtrim
Ch = Che
dCL f ree
Cme
This need to be balanced by stick force, Fs
Fs = He /lg
where, lg is the length of the effective lever arm associated with the mechanism.
Fs He
2

1
Fs = G V 2 Se ce Che
2

"

dCm

dCL

0

f ree

CL CLtrim
Cme

#

we know that
CL =

2W/S
2W/S
and
C
=
L
trim
2
V 2
Vtrim

Hence,


dCm
Fs
dCL

0



V2
W Che
1 2
GSe ce
Vtrim
S Cme
f ree


0
dFs
2V
dCm
2

dV
Vtrim
dCL f ree
At V = Vtrim


0
dFs
2
dCm

dV
Vtrim
dCL f ree

dFs /dV < 0 implies we need to pull to increase CL and decrease speed and still
maintain cruise flight.

Flight test to estimate stick-free neutral point


Step 1: Cruise the aircraft at different speed.
Step 2: Note down the stick force Fs required for each trim.
Step 3: Using equation:
dFs
q

dCm

dCL
dCL

h
i
0
= xcg n
o
f ree

Plot Fs /q vs CL for various xcg locations.


Step 4: Plot (dFs /q)/dCL vs xcg
0

Step 5: Extrapolate to get n


o (
xcg ) at which (dFs /q)/dCL

Fs
q

CL

n'o
dF s /q
dC L

x cg =0.4
x cg =0.3
x cg =0.2

x cg

x cg =0.4
x cg =0.3
x cg =0.2

Module-4
Lecture-18
Maneuvering Flight: Introduction, Steady
Coordinated turn.

Turning Flight

Longitudunal control and Maneuverability


Generally both trim and static stability are defined only for an equilibrium flight
condition. We need to understand how a pilot uses control surfaces to accelerate
from one equilibrium to another.
Lift is the primary force to provide these accelerations.
Angle of attack governs the magnitude of lift; the elevator controls the angle of
attack.
The ailerons are used to control the direction of lift vector as the rudder is generally
used only to coordinate the maneuver and eliminate the side slip.
Coordinated turn Turning Without Sideslip
Turning can be done by two ways:
Using aileron through bank
Using rudder
For large turn rate: aileron is used. The airplane is banked using aileron and
component of lift is used to make a turn.
Rudder can also be used for turn rate of smaller magnitudes.

Figure 1: Figure representing forces acting on aircraft during turning flight

Steady coordinated turn


The aircraft needs to be kept such that it does not loose altitude and at the same
time no side slip, i.e.
One component of lift should balance the weight.
Other component should provide enough force to generate centripetal acceleration.
By resolving lift to satisfy above requirements, we need to fly such that
L cos = W = mg
and
L sin =

mV 2
R

Combining these two equations, we have


tan =

V2
V2
R=
Rg
g tan

Pitch rate due to (yaw rate), when the aircraft is turning using component of lift
(bank angle is )
q = sin
and
V
V = R =
R
2

Therefore, the pitch rate can also be expressed as


V
q = sin = sin
R
Since,
R=

V2
g tan

Therefore,
q=

g
sin tan
V

Load factor,
n=

lif t
L
L
1
=
=
=
weight
mg
L cos
cos
1
n=
cos

Now,
1
cos =
n

n2 1
sin =
n

tan = n2 1
g
q = sin tan
V
 g  n2 1
=
n2 1
V
n
 g   n2 1 
=
V
n


1 g
q = n
n V

Module-4
Lecture-19
Maneuvering Flight: Steady Pull up, Relationship
between stick fixed Neutral and Maneuvering point.

Steady pull-up

Figure 1: Figure representing free body diagram of an aircraft during pull up maneuver

Lw =

mV 2
R

L = nW
(n 1)W =

mV 2
R

As, W = mg and q = V /R
q=

g
(n 1)
V

R=

V2
1
g (n 1)

Hence,

Note:

Pull-up:
q=

g
(n 1)
V

Steady coordinated turn:



q=

1
n
n

g
V

Thus, in compact form we can write the following:




g
k
q=
n
V
n
k = n for pull up, k = 1 for steady coordinated turn
Because of the pitch rate q tail will experience additional angle of attack
t = q

lt
V

Because of this t there will be additional lift on the tail during maneuver. Therefore,
elevator needs to be deflected up to nullify this additional nose down moment (due to
additional lift at tail).

How much e is required?


Recall, = dt /de; i.e. how much tail angle changes per unit elevator deflection.
e should be such that e compensates additional angle qlt /V . So we can write:
e + q
e =

lt
=0
V
qlt
V

A factor of 1.1 is generally used to account for the contribution to stability due to
pitch rate from the fuselage position ahead of wing. So:
e = 1.1

qlt
V

will be used for future derivation. Using,




g
k
q=
n
V
n
where k = n for pull-up and k = 1 for steady coordinated turn. We have:


1.1glt
k
e =
n
V 2
n
2

Thus, during maneuver (with pitch rate q), the elevator required to trim a/c at
CL = nW /(V 2 S/2) pitching at the rate q will be given by




1.1glt
k
de
CL
n
e = eo +
dCL
V 2
n




de
nW
1.1glt
k
e = eo +

n
dCL 12 V 2 S
V 2
n
By differentiating the above expression with respect to n one can show that,
"

 ( 2W 
 )#
de
1 1.1glt
k0
dC
m
S
= 2
1+ 2 +
dn
V

n
Cme dCL f ix
where,
k 0 = 0 for pull-up
k 0 = 1 for steady coordinated turn

Relationship between Stick fixed Neutral and


Maneuvering Point (Pull Up)
Stick fixed maneuvering point is the c.g. location at which de/dn = 0
Using above equation, we get:


dCm
1.1glt Cm e
=
dCL f ix

2W
S
xcg n
o =
xcg = n
o

1.1glt Cm e

2W
S

1.1glt Cm e
=n
m

2W
S

n
m = n
o

1.1glt Cm e

2W
S

So, n
m > n
o i.e. stick fixed maneuvering point is aft of stick fixed neutral point.
This is consistent as the pitch rate provides additional stability through tail.

Module-4
Lecture-20
Maneuvering Flight: Stick Fixed Maneuvering point

Stick fixed maneuvering point


Stick fixed maneuvering point is the c.g. location at which de/dn = 0
"

 ( 2W 
 )#
de
1 1.1glt
k0
dC
m
S
= 2
1+ 2 +
dn
V

n
Cme dCL f ix
#
"


k0
de
1 2 W
1.1glt Cme
S

1 + 2 + xcg n
= 2
o
dn
V Cme
n
2 W
S


1.1glt Cme
k0

xcg n
o =
1+ 2
n
2 W
S

(1)
(2)

Pull-up; k 0 = 0
xcg n
o =

1.1glt Cme

2 W
S

xcg = n
m
so Equation 2 becomes,
1.1glt Cme

n
0 = n
m +
2 W
S



k0
1+ 2
n

(3)

Put Equation 3 in 1 to get;


"



#
0
0
1 2 W
de
1.1gl
C
k
1.1gl
C
k
t
m
t
m
S
 e 1 + 2 + xcg n
 e 1 + 2
= 2
m
W
dn
V Cme
n
n
2 W
2
S
S

de
1 2 W
S
= 2
(
xcg n
m)
dn
V Cme
We know that stick fixed neutral point is that c.g. location at which de/dn = 0, equivalently at xcg = n
m ; de/dn = 0

Stick fixed maneuvering point - a closer look



1 2 W
de
S
= 2
(
xcg n
m)
dn
V Cme
n
m xcg is called maneuvering margin
The significant points to be made about the above equation are:

The derivative de/dn varies with maneuver margin.


For more forward c.g. location, more elevator will be required to obtain the limit
load factor. Therefore, as the c.g. moves forward, more elevator deflection is
necessary to obtain a given load factor.
The lower positive speed (higher the CL ) more elevator will be necessary to set
the limit load factor. Thus, at low speeds more elevator deflection is necessary
to obtain a desired load factor than is required to obtain at a higher speed.
The derivative de/dn should be linear with respect to c.g. at a constant CL .

Module-4
Lecture-21
Maneuvering Flight: Stick free maneuvering point,
Stick force Gradient

Stick-free maneuvering point

(Cm )maneuver

dCm
=
dCL


(CL CLtrim )
f ree

where,
CL =

nW
1
V 2 S
2

and n is the load factor.


This (Cm ) is required to be balanced by additional e deflection. So,
(Cm )maneuver = Cme e
The equilibrium equation to calculate e is given below:


dCm
Cme e +
(CL CLtrim ) = 0
dCL f ree


(CL CLtrim )
dCm
e =
dCL f ree
Cme
This e deflection will create a hinge moment Ch given by:
Ch = Che e


dCm
Che
=
(CL CLtrim )
dCL f ree Cme
Stick froce to balance it, Fs
1
Fs = GSe ce V 2 Ch
2
where, G is gearing constant.
" 
#

1 2
dCm
Che
Fs = GSe ce V
(CL CLtrim )
2
dCL f ree Cme
"


#
Che
nW
W
1 2
1
V 2 S
V S
f ree Cme
2
2


W Che dCm
Fs = GSe ce
(n 1)
S Cme dCL f ree

1
Fs = GSe ce V 2
2

dCm
dCL


dFs
W Che
= GSe ce
xcg n0m
dn
S Cme
where,
n0m = n0o +




1.1Che
Cme


glt Che
W

Che 2
S
1

(1)

Recall: n0m (stick free) maneuvering point is that cg location at which dFs /dn = 0
Note:
Stick force gradient is very important design parameter
As cg shifts aft; Fs per g reduces.
Most aft cg may be limited by it.
Most forward cg may be limited by maximum value of stick free gradient.

Module-5
Lecture-22
Lateral and Directional Aerodynamic Model

Aerodynamic model: lateral and directional


First, there are two moment equations and one force equation and the moment
equations are coupled kinematically through the product of inertia as well as aerodynamically.
Second, the lateral mode (roll) has no inherent static stability; no aerodynamic
restoring moment is generated directly by rolling. Rather, a secondary moment is
generated through the directional axis due to sideslip and dihedral effect becomes
the dominant factor.
Third, the controls used to produce moments about either of the axes also produce
moment about the other.
Aileron deflection produces yawing moments and the rudder produces significant
rolling moment.
In spite of these three facts, it is still instructive to measure the static directional
stability and the dihedral effect through steady state tests and to quantify the
control authorities about the x and z axes with steady state maneuvers.
These steady state test methods are discussed in the following sections. For this introduction to static lateral-directional flight test methods, it is sufficient to represent
the equations of motion as described below
We will be referring to the usual body axis system as presented in Figure 1 for future
reference

c.g.

xb

yb
Figure 1: Body fixed axis system

Force Equation
Fy = m(v + ru pw)
1

Yawing Moment Equation


N = Ixz p + Ix r + pq(Iy Iz ) + Ixz qr
Rolling Moment Equation
l = Ix p Ixz r + qr(Ix Iy ) Ixz pq

Side Force (Fy )

mg

Figure 2: Airplane at positive bank ()

The side force Fy , has aerodynamic and gravitational components:


Fy = (Fy )gravity + (Fy )aerodynamics
Referring to above figure, we can express components of weight (mg) along body
fixed y and z axis as:
(Fy )gravity = mg cos sin
(Fz )gravity = mg cos cos
where, and are the pitch and bank angle respectively.
Fy aerodynamics : The aerodynamic force along y direction can be expressed as function
of roll rate p, yaw rate r, side slip angle , aileron deflection a , and rudder deflection
r . The following aerodynamic model is assumed:


1 2
pb
rb
Fy aerodynamics = VT S Cyp
+ C yr
+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r
2
2VT
2VT
where,
VT =

u2 + v 2 + w2

u, v, w are the components of total air relative velocity VT along body fixed axes x,
y, z respectively.
2

Using,
Cy =

Fy
1
VT2 S
2

we have:
1
Fy = V T 2 SCy + mg cos sin = m(v + ru pw)
2
where,
pb
rb
+ Cyr
+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r
2VT
2VT

C y = C yp

Yawing Moment (N )
The yawing moment is also function of p, r, , a and r and hence it can be
experessed as:
1
N = VT2 SbCn
2
where,
Cn = Cn p

pb
rb
+ Cnr
+ Cn + Cna a + Cnr r
2VT
2VT

Rolling Moment (L)


The rolling moment coefficient Cl , can also be expressed as:
Cl = Clp

pb
rb
+ Cl r
+ Cl + Cla a + Clr r
2VT
2VT

Thus, Lateral-Directional stability can be studied by the help of following three equations:


1 2
pb
rb
Fy = VT S Cyp
+ Cyr
+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r + mg cos sin
2
2VT
2VT
= m(v + ru pw)


pb
1 2
rb
+ Cnr
+ Cn + Cna a + Cnr r
N = VT Sb Cnp
2
2VT
2VT
= Ixz p + Ix r + pq(Iy Iz ) + Ixz qr


1 2
pb
rb
L = VT Sb Clp
+ Cl r
+ Cl + Cla a + Clr r
2
2VT
2VT
= Ix p Ixz r + qr(Ix Iy ) Ixz pq

Module-5
Lecture-23
Directional Stability and Control

Directional stability
Directional or weathercock stability is related to stability of the aircraft about z-axis.
An airplane is said to possess static directional stability, if it has initial tendency
to comeback to its equilibrium condition when subjected to some form of yawing
disturbance.

Figure 1: Static directional stability (a) Equilibrium condition of zero yaw (b) Sideslip
disturbance

From Figure 1, the airplane will have directional stability, if it generates positive
yawing moment to counter positive yaw () disturbance. (Cn > 0)

Figure 2: Cn vs for directional stability

Contribution of airplane component toward Cn


Wing: The contribution of the wing to directional static stability is quite small (for
small angle of attack).
Fuselage/Engine/Nacells usually create destabilizing contribution towards directional stability.
Cn,wing+f uselage = K1 K2

Sf lf
(per degree)
Sw b

where,
K1

an emperical wing-body interference factor that is a


function of the fuselage geometry

K2

an emperical correlation factor that is a function of fuselage Reynolds number

Sf

projected side area of the fuselage

lf

length of the fuselage

Mostly wing-fuselage contribution to directional stability is destabilizing


Vertical tail needs to be properly designed to ensure adequate directional stability
Aircraft in positive side slip generates restoring moment through vertical tail. The
restoring moment can be expressed as:
N = lv CLv ( + ) Qv Sv
where,
lv

tail arm length (w.r.t. c.g) from aerodynamic center of


the vertical tail

CLv

lift curve slope of vertical tail

side slip angle

sidewash angle

Yawing moment coefficient Cn



1
v 2 vertical tail
yN
lv Sv
2
Cn = 1 2
=
CLv ( + ) 1 2 
S
b
v
S
b
v f ree stream
w
w
2
2


d
Cn
Cn =
= V v v C L v 1 +

d
where,
1
v 2 vertical tail
2

1
2
v
2
f ree stream

v =

A simple equation to estimate d/d (approximate value)




Z
d
Sv /S
 + 0.4 w + 0.009ARw
v 1 +
= 0.724 + 3.06
d
d
1 + cos c/4
where,
S

Wing area

Sv

Vertical tail area including the submerged area to the


fuselage senter-line

Zw

Distance parallel to the z-axis, from wing root quarter


chord to fuselage reference line

Maximum diameter of the fuselage

c/4

Quarter chord sweep angle of wing

Directional stability due to wing sweep


The component of the free stream velocity normal to the quarter chord line primarily
decides the aerodynamic forces.

V
+
V cos (

)
V cos (
al
(Norm ent to
n
compo edge of
leading )
g
the win

+ )
y

in g
Right W

Figure 3: Effect of sweep on directional stability

From Figure 3, the right wing will experience more dynamic pressure (as the velocity
seen by wing leading edge is V cos( )) as compared to the left wing.
Yawing moment due to drag force on right wing will be
 
Sw
1 2
NwR = V SCD
y cos2 ( )
2
2

Yawing moment due to drag force on left wing will be


 
1 2
Sw
NwL = V SCD
y cos2 ( + )
2
2
Differential yawing moment is



Sw
y cos2 ( ) cos2 ( + )
2
 
Sw
1 2
y {4 cos sin cos sin }
= V CD
2
2

1
Nw = V 2 CD
2

For small ; sin = , cos = 1


1
Nw = CD Sw y V 2 sin 2
2
(Cn )w =
Cn

Nw
1
V 2 Sb
2

w

y
= CD sin 2
b

y
= CD sin 2 > 0
b

Directional Control

Figure 4: Sign convention of rudder deflection

Directional control is primarily achieved by rudder, located on the vertical tail.


Yawing moment produced by the rudder deflection depends on the change in sideforce on the vertical tail due to deflection of the rudder.
For a positive rudder deflection, a positive side force (Yv ) is generated by vertical
tail. This side force creates a negative yawing moment.
N = lv Yv
4

Yv = CLv Qv Sv
lv Sv dCLv
r
Sw b dr


dCLv
lv Sv
Cn = v Vv
r ; Vv =
dr
Sw b
Cn =

1
V 2 Sw
2

= v

Cn = Cnr r
Cnr = v Vv

dCLv
dr

dCLv
dCLv dv
=
= CLv
dr
dv dr
is the flap effectiveness parameter which depends on ratio of rudder area to vertical
fin area
The sign of Cnr is negative

Module-5
Lecture-24
Lateral Stability and Control

Lateral stability
An airplane is said to have roll (lateral) stability, if a restoring moment is generated when
it is disturbed in bank orientation ().
The restoring moment is function of side slip angle, .
The requirement for roll stability is that Cl < 0.
The rolling moment created in airplane due to side slip angle also depends on
Wing dihedral
Wing sweep
Position of wing and fuselage
Vertical tail
The major contributor to Cl is the wing dihedral angle, .
When an aircraft is disturbed from a wing-level attitude, it will begin to side slip.
Decre
ase

in ang

Rolling moment
le of
a

ttack

as
Incre

f
ngle o
e in a

attack

v n=V sin
V (due to side slip)

Figure 1: Wing-body dihedral effect


On wing 1,
vn
u
V sin
=
u
v

=
u

=
On wing 2, angle of attack will decrease. Resulting in negative rolling moment to
positive side slip angle.
Cl < 0

Rolling moment due to right wing


Lw,R

b
2

1
= V 2 CL,w
2

c(y).y.dy
0

Rolling moment due to left wing


Lw,L

1
= V 2 CL,w
2

c(y).y.dy
2b

Rolling moment (total)


1
Lw = 2 V 2 CL,w
2

b
2

cydy
0

Z b
2
2
cydy
= and y =
Sw 0
1
S
Lw = 2 V 2 CL,w y
2
2
Lw
y
(Cl,w ) = 1 2 = CL,w
b
V Sb
2
Cl = CL

y
b

Cl,w < 0, Stabilizing for > 0 : Dihedral


Cl,w > 0, Destabilizing for < 0 : Anhedral
Cl : Due to wing sweep
(Lw )R, = CL
(Lw )L, = CL

S1 2
V y cos2 ( )
22

S1 2
V y cos2 ( + )
22

Hence,
(Lw ),T otal = CL


S1 2  2
V y cos ( ) cos2 ( + )
22

y is the location of resultant lift on the wing half


Assume to be small; cos 1 and sin
1
(Lw ),T otal = CL V2 y. sin 2
2
y
(Clw ) = CL sin 2
b
y
Cl = CL sin 2
b
Cl < 0 Stabilizing
2

zv

c .g.

Figure 2: Effect of vertical tail on lateral stability


Cl : Due to vertical tail
The rolling moment due to vertical tail when aircraft is side slipping can be written
as
1
l = V 2 v Sv
2

dCL
d


.zv
v

hence,
Cl


v

= v

Sv zv
CL,v
Sw b

Roll control
It is achieved by differential deflection of small flaps called ailerons.
The basic principle lies on the fact that due to differential deflection of ailerons, the
lift distribution over the wing becomes unequal, causing a rolling moment.
An approximate expression for roll control power can be obtained using simple strip
integration method.

Wing

y1
y

y2
Center line

Figure 3: Aileron element for integration

(Rolling moment due to a) = l


3

= (Lift).y
Cl =

L
Cl Qcydy
Cl cydy
=
=
qSb
QSb
Sb

Cl = CL .

d
.a = CL ..a
da

Integrating over the region containing the aileron yields


Z
2CL,w a y2
Cl =
cydy
Sb
y1
Z
2CL,w y2
Cla =
cydy
Sb
y1

Module-6
Lecture-25
Various Coordinate System

Various Coordinate System

Aerodynamic coordinate system


With respect to a 2- Dimensional flow problem (airfoil cross section) Figure 1, x axis is assigned to the general flow direction with origin at nose of the body under
consideration.
y - axis is naturally chosen normal to the x-axis in the upward direction.

Figure 1: Airfoil Coordinate System

Now, extending the flow field in 3- dimension, a conventional right-handed system


predicts z - axis to be pointing in the spanwise direction.
This coordinate system is referred to as aerodynamic coordinates.
Disadvantages:
Since aerodyanamic coordinate system is fixed to the aircraft, the position
and orientation of the aircraft cant be described in terms of aerodynamic
coordinates.

Figure 2: Aerodynamic coordinate system

Earth fixed coordinate system


Position and Orientation of an aircraft are expressed in terms of an earth fixed
coordinate system.
(xf yf ) plane is normal to the local gravitation vector with xf - axis pointing east
and the yf axis pointing north.
zf - axis points up, completing the right handed Cartesian system.
This coordinate system is also known as inertial coordinate system under the following assumptions.
Radius of earth is very large compared to distance traveled by an aircraft.
Earth is assumed to be flat.
Effects due to earths rotation and revolution are neglected.

Figure 3: The body fixed and Earth fixed coordinate system

Atmosphere fixed coodinate system


Aerodynamic forces and moments are described in terms of atmosphere fixed coordinate system.
Denoted by (xa , ya , za ), all axes are parallel to earth-fixed coordinate system.
Atmosphere fixed coordinate system moves at a constant velocity relative to earth
fixed coordinate system i.e., wind.

Body fixed coordinate system


The inertia tensor is most conveniently described in terms of body fixed coordinate
system.
Origin is located at the aircraft center of gravity and is moving along with the
aircraft.
xb - axis point forward along some convenient axis of the fuselage in the aircrafts
plane of symmetry.
yb - axis is normal to the plane of symmetry and points towards the direction of
right wing.
3

zb - axis points downwards in the aircraft plane of symmetry, completing the righthanded Cartesian system.
Ground Speed (Vg ):
Velocity of the body fixed coordinate relative to the earth fixed coordinate system.
Airspeed (V ):
The velocity of the body fixed coordinate system relative to the atmosphere fixed coordinate
system.
Ground speed and airspeed are related as:
Vg = V + Vw
where,
Vw is the velocity of atmosphere relative to earth, or wind.

(1)

Module-6
Lecture-26
6 DOF equations of motion

6 DOF equations of motion

c.g.

xb

Body frame fixed


at c.g.

yb
xI
yI

Inertial
Frame
zI
Figure 1: Inertial frame and body fixed frame

Newtons laws, valid only in Inertial Frame


X

F =

 X

d
d
M=
H
mV ;
dt
dt

H : Angular Momentum
mV : Linear Momentum
Consider an airplane as shown in Figure 2

m
xb

yb

Figure 2: m element

Let V be the velocity of the elemental mass, m of the airplane. V is the velocity
of m with respect to inertial frame.
Let F be the resulting force acting on the mass m. By Newtons second law
(assume mass is constant; not changing with time).
F = m

dV
dt

also
X

F = F

The velocity of m with respect to inertial frame can be written as


V = Vc +
Vc

dr
dt

is the velocity of the center of mass

Then
X



d X
dr
Vc +
m
dF = F =
dt
dt
dVc
d X dr
F =m
+
m
dt
dt
dt
d2 X
dVc
+ 2
F =m
rm
dt
dt

Since r is measured from the center of mass, so


X

rm = 0

The force equation becomes


F =m

dVc
dt

Moment equation:

d
d d
H =
(r V ) m
dt
dt dt
dr
V = Vc +
= Vc + r
dt

M =

is the angular velocity of the vehicle

is the position of the mean element measured from center of mass

H=

H =

(r Vc ) m +

[r ( r) m]

Vc is constant with respect to the summation and can be taken outside the summation sign.
H=

(rm) Vc +

r ( r) m

rm = 0 (Definition of c.g.)
X

H=
r V m

Let
= pi + qj + rk
r = xi + yj + z k
Solving for H, with and r yields
Hx = p

X
X

X
X

y 2 + z 2 m q
xym r
xzm
X

X

x2 + z 2 m r
yzm
X
X
X

x2 + y 2 m
Hz = p
xzm q
yzm + r

Hy = p

xym + q

Z Z Z
Ix =

y +z
Z Z Z

Ixy =
Z Z Z
Iz =

Z Z Z
m ; Iy =


x2 + z 2 m

Z Z Z
xym ; Ixz =


x2 + y 2 m ; Iyz

xzm
Z Z Z
=
yzm

Hx = pIx qIxy rIxz


Hy = pIxy + qIy rIyz
Hz = pIxz qIyz + rIz
If the reference frame (in this case inertial frame) is not rotating, then as the airplane
rotates the moments and the product of inertia will vary with time.
To avoid this difficulty, we fix the axis system to the aircraft (in this case at c.g.
body axis system)

Since the body fixed axis is not inertial frame, we need to use the following definition
of derivative of a vector


dA
dA
=
+A
dt Inertial
dt Body
So

dVc
F =m
+ Vc
dt B

dH
M=
+H
dt B
Solving these two equations, we get
Fx = m (u + qw rv)
Fy = m (v + ru pw)
Fz = m (w + pv qu)
L = Ix p Ixz r + qr(Iz Iy ) Ixz pq
M = Iy q + rp (Ix Iz ) + Ixz p2 r2

N = Iz r Ixz p + Iz r + pq (Iy Ix ) + Ixz qr


Since the airplane is choosen to be symmetric about xz plane;
Iyz = Ixy = 0

Fx = Fxgravity + Fxpropulsion + Fxaerodynamic


Fy = Fygravity + Fypropulsion + Fyaerodynamic
Fz = Fzgravity + Fzpropulsion + Fzaerodynamic

Fxgravity = mg sin
Fygravity = mg cos sin
Fzgravity = mg cos cos

Module-6
Lecture-27
Euler angles & Kinematic equations

Euler Angles
Formulas described in previous lecture provide linear and angular velocity w.r.t.
(X, Y , Z) Body fixed coordinate system.
Now analysis of the relative motion of body fixed reference frame and inertial reference frame is required.
There are several methods of tracking the orientation of the X, Y , Z frame with
respect to earth based inertial frame X 0, Y 0, Z 0.
The most common approach is based on Euler angles.
The introduction of Euler angle is based on a rigorous sequence that involves the
introduction of a number of reference frames based on successive rotations.
Step1: Introduce a reference frame X1 , Y1 , Z1 that moves with the aircraft
center of gravity while being parallel to the earth based frame X 0, Y 0, Z 0.
Step2: Rotation around Z1 of an angle from the frame X1 , Y1 , Z1 to a new
frame X2 , Y2 , Z2 with Z1 = Z2 .
Step3: Rotation around Y2 of an angle from the frame X2 , Y2 , Z2 to a new
frame X3 , Y3 , Z3 with Y2 = Y3 .
Step4: Rotation around X3 of an angle from the frame X3 , Y3 , Z3 to the
aircraft body frame X, Y , Z with X3 = X.

Figure 1: Introduction of the Euler Angles , ,

Kinematic Equations
Angular velocities in body frame can be expressed in terms of rate of change of the
Euler angles.
+
+

=
= P i + Q
j + Rk
Starting with the transformation X1 , Y1 , Z1 X2 , Y2 , Z2 , we have Z1 = Z2 which
implies k1 = k2 . Therefore
=
k1 =
k2

Similarly, with the transformation X2 , Y2 , Z2 X3 , Y3 , Z3 , we have Y2 = Y3 which


implies j2 = j3 . Therefore
=
j2 =
j3

Similarly, with the transformation X3 , Y3 , Z3 X, Y , Z, we have X3 = X which


implies i3 = i. Therefore
= i3 = i

+
+
=
k2 +
j3 + i
=
= P i + Q
j + Rk
In transformation X2 , Y2 , Z2 X3 , Y3 , Z3 ,

U3
U2
cos 0 sin

1
0 V3
V2 = 0

W3
sin 0 cos
2

i3

i
cos

0
sin

=
0
j2
1
0 j3

sin

0
cos

k
2
3
Similarly, in the transformation X3 , Y3 , Z3 X, Y , Z

U
1
0
0

0 cos sin
V
V3

0 sin cos
W
3

0
0
i3
1
i

j3 = 0 cos sin
j

0 sin cos
k
3
3

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)


Expression for k2 in i,
j, k
k2 = sin i3 + cos k3 = sin i + cos k3
so
where, k3 = sin
j + cos k,

k2 = sin i + cos sin


j + cos cos k

Similarly, Expression for j3 in i,


j, k

j3 = cos
j sin k
Now using
+
+
=
k2 +
j3 + i
=
= P i + Q
j + Rk
we have
k2 ( sin i3 + cos sin

+ (cos
+ i
=
j + cos cos k)

j sin k)

P = sin
+ cos sin

Q = cos
sin

R = cos cos
Rearranging in matrix form

P
1
0
sin


Q = 0 cos cos sin

0 sin cos cos


or,

1
sin

tan

cos

tan

0
cos
sin
Q

0 sin sec cos sec


R
Note:
There is a singularity associated with = 90 . This is one of the reason for using
quaternion for large-scale simulation

Module-6
Lecture-28
Flight Path Equations, Gravity Equations and
Combined 6-DOF Model

Flight path equations


Relationship between components of the linear velocities between the body fixed
frame and earth fixed coordinate system.
In X 0, Y 0, Z 0 frame (earth fixed)

V 0 = X 0i + Y 0
j + Z 0k
In X, Y , Z frame (body fixed)

V = X i + Y
j + Z k
Since assumed frame (X1 , Y1 , Z1 ) is parallel to (X 0, Y 0, Z 0) frame, so
U1 = X 1 = X 0
V1 = Y1 = Y 0
W1 = Z1 = Z 0
Using transformation equation from reference frame (X1 , Y1 , Z1 ) to reference frame
(X2 , Y2 , Z2 )


cos sin 0
U
U
U

1

2

X Y Z X Y Z
V1 = sin cos 0 V2 = R 1 1 1 2 2 2 V2

0
0
1
W2
W2
1
Using transformation equation from reference frame (X2 , Y2 , Z2 ) to reference frame
(X3 , Y3 , Z3 )


U
cos

0
sin

U
U

X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3
=
=
R
0
V3
V2
1
0 V3

sin

0
cos

W
W
3
2
3
Using transformation equation from reference frame (X3 , Y3 , Z3 ) to reference frame
(X, Y , Z)


U
0
0
U3
1

X3 Y3 Z3 XY Z
=R
V3 = 0 cos sin V
V

0 sin cos
W
W
3
1

U
U
X


X3 Y3 Z3 XY Z
X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3
X1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2
0

.R
.R
= V1 = R
V
Y

W
Z 0 W
1

X
X

X3 Y3 Z3 XY Z
X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3
X1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2
0

.R
.R
=
R
Y
Y

Z
Z 0

Therefore


U1

X 0

=
V1 =
Y


W
Z 0
1

cos sin 0
cos 0 sin
1
0
0

sin cos 0 0
1
0 0 cos sin V

0
0
1 sin 0 cos 0 sin cos

X 0

=
Y

Z 0

cos cos sin cos + cos sin sin sin sin + cos sin cos

sin cos cos cos + sin sin sin sin cos + sin sin cos

sin
cos sin
cos cos

Gravity equations

g = k0g = k1 g = k2 g = gXi + gY
j + gZ k
From previous discussions

k2 = sin i + cos sin


j + cos cos k
so


= gXi + gY

g k2 = g sin i + cos sin


j + cos cos k
j + gZ k
2

gX = g sin
gY = g cos sin
gZ = g cos cos

Combined 6-DOF model

Figure 1: Block diagram showing the integration of the aircraft equation of motion

Module-7
Lecture-29
Flight Experiment: Instruments used in flight
experiment, pre and post flight measurement of
aircraft c.g.

Module Agenda
Instruments used in flight experiments.
Pre and post flight measurement of center of gravity.
Experimental procedure for the following experiments.
(a) Cruise Performance: Estimation of profile Drag coefficient (CDo ) and Oswalds efficiency (e) of an aircraft from experimental data obtained during
steady and level flight.
(b) Climb Performance: Estimation of Rate of Climb RC and Absolute and
Service Ceiling from experimental data obtained during steady climb flight
(c) Estimation of stick free and fixed neutral and maneuvering point using flight
data.
(d) Static lateral-directional stability tests.
(e) Phugoid demonstration
(f) Dutch roll demonstration

Instruments used for experiments1

1. Airspeed Indicator: The airspeed indicator shows the aircrafts speed (usually in
knots ) relative to the surrounding air. It works by measuring the ram-air pressure
in the aircrafts Pitot tube. The indicated airspeed must be corrected for air density
(which varies with altitude, temperature and humidity) in order to obtain the true
airspeed, and for wind conditions in order to obtain the speed over the ground.
2. Attitude Indicator: The attitude indicator (also known as an artificial horizon)
shows the aircrafts relation to the horizon. From this the pilot can tell whether
the wings are level and if the aircraft nose is pointing above or below the horizon.
This is a primary instrument for instrument flight and is also useful in conditions
of poor visibility. Pilots are trained to use other instruments in combination should
this instrument or its power fail.
3. Altimeter: The altimeter shows the aircrafts altitude above sea-level by measuring
the difference between the pressure in a stack of aneroid capsules inside the altimeter
1

wikipedia

and the atmospheric pressure obtained through the static system. It is adjustable
for local barometric pressure which must be set correctly to obtain accurate altitude
readings. As the aircraft ascends, the capsules expand and the static pressure drops,
causing the altimeter to indicate a higher altitude. The opposite effect occurs when
descending.
4. Turn Coordinator: the turn and slip indicator (T/S) and the turn coordinator
(TC) variant are essentially two aircraft flight instruments in one device. One
indicates the rate of turn, or the rate of change in the aircrafts heading, the other
part indicates whether the aircraft is in coordinated flight, showing the slip or skid
of the turn. The slip indicator is actually an inclinometer that at rest displays the
angle of the aircrafts lateral axis with respect to horizontal, and in motion displays
this angle as modified by the acceleration of the aircraft.
5. Heading Indicator: The heading indicator (also known as the directional gyro,
or DG; sometimes also called the gyrocompass, though usually not in aviation applications) displays the aircrafts heading with respect to magnetic north. Principle
of operation is a spinning gyroscope, and is therefore subject to drift errors (called
precession) which must be periodically corrected by calibrating the instrument to
the magnetic compass.
6. Vertical Speed Indicator: The VSI (also sometimes called a variometer, or rate
of climb indicator) senses changing air pressure, and displays that information to
the pilot as a rate of climb or descent in feet per minute, meters per second or knots.
7. Yoke: A yoke, alternatively known as a control column, is a device used for piloting
some fixed-wing aircraft. The pilot uses the yoke to control the attitude of the plane,
usually in both pitch and roll. Rotating the control wheel controls the ailerons and
the roll axis.
8. Manifold pressure: The manifold pressure gauge is an engine instrument typically
used in piston aircraft engines to measure the pressure inside the induction system
of an engine. The induction system of couse being the air / fuel mixture that is
between the throttle and the cylinders.

Experiment # 1
Pre and post flight measurement of a/c cg
Center of gravity is calculated as follows:
Let:
X - Distance of the reference point from NOSE wheel
Y - Distance of the reference point from REAR wheel
N - Weight measured in nose wheel
L - Weight measured in left wheel
R - Weight measured in right wheel
Use formula:
Xcg =

(X N ) + {(L + R) Y }
L+R+N

Watch: Take-off Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YIaBKjKYHI0


Watch: Landing Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XiJ616XHknU
Watch: Taxiing Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8FDk-UBMzvQ

Module-7
Lecture-30
Flight Experiment: Cruise and Climb performance

Experiment # 2
Estimation of profile Drag coefficient (CDo ) and Oswalds efficiency (e) of an aircraft from experimental
data obtained during steady and level flight.
The following steps will elaborate the procedure to estimate the performance characteristics such as profile drag coefficient (CDo ) and oswalds efficiency factor (e) of a propeller
driven aircraft using flight data obtained during its cruise.
Record the velocity of flight, engine manifold pressure, outside air temperature, rpm
of the engine, during the cruise.
Use the conversion equations and calibration plots to obtain break horse power of
the engine from the above recorded data.
Now, the power required during the steady and level flight is given as:
W2

Preq

1
1
V S
= V 3 SCDo + 2
2
ARe

The above equation can be further modified as:




1
2W 2
PV =
SCDo V 4 +
2
AReS

(1)

For the sake of convenience we can rewrite the Equation 1 as follows:


Y =mX +c

(2)

By comparing Equation 1 & 2


Y = PV
1
m = SCDo
2
2
c=
AReS
Since we have measured velocity and calculated power required, if we plot P V vs V 4 we
will get a straight line whose y intercept is c and slope will be m. Now after calculating
slope and y intercept of experimental data, using the Equation 1 & 2 we can estimate the
profile drag coefficient (CDo ) and oswalds efficiency factor (e).
1

Figure 1: Graphical representation of variation of P V vs V 4

Record Chart: Cruise


Altitude =...........
OAT = ................

V5

MP

Weight: Initial

Time: Start

Weight: Final

Time: End

RPM

OAT: Outside Air Temperature


MP: Manifold Pressure
RPM: angular speed of propeller blade
Note: The value of these two along with altitude and OAT will be used to calculate
power delivered by engine at that altitude.
2

Experiment # 3
Flight test for steady climb experiment
Step 1: Record the take-off weight (WT ).
Step 2: Note the initial altitude h1 and time t1 and the final altitude h2 and the
corresponding time t2 during the steady climb experiment.
Step 3: Simultaneously record the velocity (V ), rpm of propeller, propeller pitch
setting, manifold pressure of the engine and outside air temperature from the cockpit.
Step 4: Repeat the experiment for different climb velocities.
Step 5: Record the weight after landing (WL ). The weight that has to be considered
for calculations is average of takeoff and landing weights.
W =

(W1 + W2 )
2

Step 6: Find out the rate of climb for each velocity and the corresponding angle of
climb using the following equations.
RC

(h2 h1 )
To
, RCtrue = RCobserved
(t2 t1 )
Ts
sin =

RC
V

Step 7: Plot Rate of climb vs velocity.


Step 8: Plot Angle of climb vs velocity.
Step 9: Plot Rate of climb vs. altitude (h).

Rate of climb (TRUE)


If the time required to traverse the altitude band is also recorded, we can easily calculate
true rate of climb at each speed at choosen altitude. The observed rate of change of
pressure altitude is corrected to true rate by using the following relation:
Let the observed temperature be To and standard temperature at altitude be Ts .
Then, since the pressure change recorded is always the true pressure difference for altitude
change shown by the altimeter.
p = s g (H)p
s: standard altitude
p: pressure altitude
(H)T , is the true change in altitude, will have the same pressure difference.
p = T g (H)T
(H)T
To
s
=
(using p = RT )
=
(H)p
T
Ts
Therefore,
RCtrue = RCobserved

To
Ts

Record Chart: Climb


Altitude =...........
OAT = ................
V

H1

H2

t1

t2

H = H2 H1

t = t2 t1

V5

H1 : Altitude at which climb begins


H2 : Altitude at which climb ends
t1 : Start time of climb
t2 : End time of climb
4

Module-7
Lecture-31
Flight Experiment: Flight tests to estimate stick free
and fixed, neutral and maneuvering points

Flight test to estimate stick-fixed neutral point


Step 1: Cruise the aircraft at different speed.
Step 2: Note down the e required for each trim.
Step 3: Using the following equation:
m
dC
de
n
o xcg
dCL
=
=
dCL
Cme
Cme

Plot (e)trim vs CLtrim for various xcg locations.


Step 4: Plot de/dCL vs xcg
Step 5: Extrapolate to get n
o (
xcg ) at which de/dCL = 0

no
x cg =0.4

e trim

CL
x cg =0.2

d e
dC L
trim

x cg =0.4
x cg =0.3
x cg =0.2

x cg =0.3

Record chart: Neutral Point (Stick Fixed)


V

Altitude

OAT

xcg

Weight: Initial

Weight: Final

x cg

Flight test to estimate stick-free neutral point


Step 1: Cruise the aircraft at different speed.
Step 2: Note down the stick force Fs required for each trim.
Step 3: Using equation:
dFs
q

dCm

dCL
dCL

h
i
0
= xcg n
o
f ree

Plot Fs /q vs CL for various xcg locations.


Step 4: Plot (dFs /q)/dCL vs xcg
0

xcg ) at which (dFs /q)/dCL


Step 5: Extrapolate to get n
o (

CL

n'o
dF s /q
dC L

x cg =0.4
x cg =0.3

Fs
q

x cg =0.4
x cg =0.3
x cg =0.2

x cg =0.2

Record chart: Neutral Point (Stick Free)


V

Fs

Altitude

OAT

xcg

Weight: Initial

Weight: Final

x cg

Flight test to estimate stick-fixed maneuvering point


Step 1: Steady pullup the airplane at different n (at different speed).
Step 2: Measure the elevator deflection angle e.
Step 3: Measure V , . Calculate Vtrue .
Step 4: Calculate q in Vtrue
Step 5: Using the following equation:
de
W/S
=
[
xcg n
m]
dn
qCme
Step 6: Plot e vs n for different xcg
Step 7: Plot de/dn vs xcg
Step 8: Intercept at xcg -axis is stick-fixed maneuvering point.

nm

x cg =0.4
x cg =0.3

d e
dn

x cg =0.4
x cg =0.3

x cg =0.2

x cg =0.2

Record chart: Maneuvering Point (Stick Fixed)


V

Altitude

OAT

xcg

V5

: bank angle

x cg

Flight test to estimate stick-free maneuvering point


Step 1: Steady pullup the airplane at different n (at different speed).
Step 2: Measure the stick force.
Step 3: Measure V , . Calculate Vtrue .
Step 4: Calculate q in Vtrue
Step 5: Using the following equation:
i
0
W/S h
dFs
xcg n
m
= GqSe ce Che
dn
Cma
Step 6: Plot Fs vs n for different xcg .
Step 7: Plot dFs /dn vs xcg .
Step 8: Intercept at xcg -axis is stick-free maneuvering point.

n'm

Fs

dF s
dn

x cg ,1
x cg ,2
x cg ,3

Record chart: Maneuvering Point (Stick Free)


V

Fs

Altitude

OAT

xcg

V5

x cg

Module-7
Lecture-32
Test methods to determine dominant
lateral-directional stability
  coefficients: Estimation of
side slip coefficient Cy , Estimation of yaw moment


 
coefficient Cn , Estimation of roll derivative Cl

Test methods to determine dominant


lateral-directional stability
coefficients

Steady Side Slip:


The basic test method is the steady, state side slip - a classical, proven way to
determine static directional stability and dihedral effect from single maneuver. It
depends, though, on prior knowledge of the control derivatives like Cla and Cnr .
Like any other stability and control testing, the method also demands appropriate instrumentation, careful attention to trim, and precise control of airspeed and
altitude.
It may also be noted that these flight test techniques, though no longer widely used
since parameter estimation technique have become popular, offers the advantage of
simplicity and relatively uncomplicated instrumentation requirements.
For our purpose, it also serves as a useful way to teach the fundamentals of such
measurements.
The classical steady, state test method is commonly used to obtain measures of Cl
and Cn for all classes of airplanes.
In this test, maneuver data is collected at various constant and stabilized heading.
The pilot should choose a reference point on the distant visual horizon and use it
to fly a stabilized heading for each individual point (side-slip angle).
1

Rudder and aileron are applied, essentially simultaneously, to set up a stabilized


side slip. This cross-controlled condition is an unnatural piloting technique; the
rudder is normally used to maintain zero side slip in all maneuvers.
Using rudder and aileron in opposite directions, particularly at large side slip angles,
gives the pilot a sensation of sliding sideways in the seat due to the lateral force
that are applied.
These unusual sensations and unnatural control applications mean that the pilot
must concentrate carefully on setting up the conditions and maintaining them.
When equilibrium conditions have been attained, the data system should be turned
on to record altitude, outside air temperature, airspeed, side slip angle, bank angle,
control surface deflection, etc.

Estimation of side slip coefficient (Cy )


For steady side slip maneuver (level, = 0), Fy , p, r and v are zero. The y force
can be simplified as shown below:


1
0 = mg sin + VT2 S Cy + Cya a + Cyr r
2
further, for small bank angle, this simplifies to:


1
0 = mg + VT2 S Cy + Cya a + Cyr r
2
Dividing both side by 21 VT2 S, we get:
0=

mg
1
VT2 S
2

+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r

For small , L = W . i.e. L = mg and noting:


mg
1
VT2 S
2

= CL =

L
1
VT2 S
2

we get:
CL + Cy + Cya a + Cyr r = 0
Generally, Cya is negligible and further if we neglect contribution to side force due
to rudder, (please note rudder has dominating contribution to yawing moment),
then side-force equation can be represented as:
C L + C y = 0
2

(1)

or,
C y

 

= CL

The derivative Cy can be estimated with the help of measured values of CL , and
. The lift coefficient CL is obtained through CL = W/qS where q = VT2 /2

Flight test to estimate side slip coefficient (Cy )


Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.
Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), bank angle (), and angle of side slip ()
during the steady side slip maneuver.
Step 3: Calculate lift coefficient (CL ) for the experiment using the expression:
CL =

W
1
VT2 S
2

Step 4: Estimate Cy using the relation:


C y

 

= CL

Estimation of yaw moment coefficient (Cn )


Yawing Moment Equation:
Cn = Cnp

rb
pb
+ Cnr
+ Cn + Cna a + Cnr r
2VT
2VT

For steady state side slip (static case) Cn = 0, p = 0 r = 0.


Cn + Cna a + Cnr r = 0
This equation shows that the rudder is required to counteract the weather-cock
stability Cn and the aileron yaw Cna .
It may be noted that, the value of Cn can be estimated using recorded values of
a, r and , provided the values of Cna and Cnr are known a priori. Further, If
we neglect Cna , then one can show that

Cn
= r
r
Cn
where, Cnr is negative and Cn is positive by definition for a stable airplane.
Thus for an aircraft having directional stability, the slope of the plot of v/s r
will be positive.
3

Flight test to estimate yawing moment coefficient (Cn )


Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.
Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), rudder deflection (r), and angle of side
slip () during the steady side slip maneuver.
Step 3: Now given the value of Cnr the other derivative Cn can be estimated with the help
of the expression.

Cn
= r
r
Cn
Step 4: Plot vs. r, we will find the slope of the plot will be positive.
Note:
Since Cnr is negative and Cnbeta is positive Cnr /Cn will be positive.

Estiamtion of roll derivative (Cl )


Rolling moment equation:
Cl = Clp

rb
pb
+ Clr
+ Cl + Cla a + Clr r
2VT
2VT

For steady-state (static case) Cl = 0, p = 0, r = 0


Cl + Cla a + Clr r = 0
Knowing the value of Clr and Cla , Cl can be estimated using the above relation.
Usually, Clr is small (not always, specially modern aircraft), and if we neglect its
contribution , then above equation further simplifies to:
Cl + Cla a
or,

Cl
= a
a
Cl
This equation shows that the aileron is deflected to counteract the dihedral effect.
Further, an equation can be generated to obtain the relationship between side slip
angle and aileron deflection required to execute steady side slip maneuver, provided
the value Cla and Cl are known.
4

Flight test to estimate rolling moment coefficient (Cl )


Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.
Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), aileron deflection (a), and angle of side
slip () during the steady side slip maneuver.
Step 3: Now given the value of Cla the other derivative Cl can be estimated with the help
of the expression.

Cl
= a
a
Cl
Step 4: Plot vs a, we will find the slope of the plot will be negative.
Note:
Since Cla is negative and Cl is negative Cla /Cl will be negative.

Module-7
Lecture-33
Test methods to determine dominant
lateral-directional stability coefficients: Steady
Coordinated turn, Estimation of roll derivative (Clr ),
Estimation of yaw moment coefficient (Cnr )

Steady coordinated turn (without side slip, = 0))


The aim of this experiment is to determine the lateral and directional control angles required for trim under steady coordinated turn. This study also enables the
estimation of some of the directional and lateral static stability derivatives of the
airplane (in approximate manner).
Watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cpviulm7VNw
The side force equation Fy , for steady coordinated turn is as follows:


1 2
pb
rb
Fy = VT S Cyp
+ C yr
+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r + mg cos sin
2
2VT
2VT
= m(v + ru pw)
For steady coordinated level turn with small bank angle, v = 0, p = 0, r 6= 0 and
= 0 (no slip). Thus the above force equation gets simplified to:


1 2
rb
+ Cya a + Cyr r = mrVT
mg + VT S Cyr
2
2VT
note, u
= VT
Neglecting Cyr , Cya and Cyr contribution (generally small), we have:
mg = mVT r
VT r + g = 0
This equation indicates a relationship between the rate of turn and the bank angle
at a given flight speed to maintain a steady coordinated turn (no side slip).

Estimation of roll derivative (Clr )


Rolling Moment Equation:
Cl = Clp

rb
pb
+ Clr
+ Cl + Cla a + Clr r
2VT
2VT

For steady coordinated turn (static case) Cl = 0, p = 0, = 0. This implies,


Cl r

rb
+ Cla a + Clr r = 0
2VT
1

Given the value of Cla and Clr , the drivative Clr can be estimated.
Neglecting Clr contribution, we have:
Clr

rb
+ Cla a = 0
2VT

This rolling moment equation indicates that the aileron is applied solely to counteract the rolling moment due to yaw which generally tends to bring the lower wing
further down. Also
r=

g
g
=
u
VT

since, u
= VT . Substituting this into
Cl r

rb
+ Cla a = 0
2VT

we have:



g
b
Cl r
+ Cla a = 0
VT 2VT
 
g b
= Cla a
Clr
2 VT2
a
1
2

VT

Flight test to estimate roll derivative (Clr )


Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.
Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), aileron deflection (a), and roll angle ()
during the steady coordinated turn maneuver.
Step 3: Now given the value of Cla the other derivative Clr can be estimated with the help
of the following expression.

Cl r

g
2

Step 4: Also plot a vs .

b
= Cla a
VT2

Estimation of yawing moment coefficient (Cnr )


Yawing Moment Equation:
Cn = Cnp

rb
pb
+ Cnr
+ Cn + Cna a + Cnr r
2VT
2VT

under the steady coordinated turn maneuver (no side slip,p = 0 and = 0), it
reduces to:
Cnr

rb
+ Cna a + Cnr r = 0
2VT

This equation indicates that the rudder is held to counteract the moments due to
yaw damping Cnr and the aileron yaw Cna .
If Cna is neglected then,
rb
= Cnr r
2VT


Cnr 2VT
r
=
r
Cn r
b
Cnr

Generally Cnr , Cnr are negative. Thus, one is expected to see r/r to be negative
for a stable aircraft. Also knowing the numerical values of Cnr , r, r,VT and b, the
dutch roll damping Cnr can be estimated.

Flight test to estimate yawing moment coefficient (Cnr )


Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.
Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), rudder deflection (r), and roll angle ()
during the steady coordinated turn maneuver.
Step 3: Now given the value of Cnr the other derivative Cnr can be estimated with the help
of the following expression.
Cn
r
= r
r
Cn r

2VT
b

Step 4: Also Plot r vs r. The slope will be negative.


Note:
Since Cnr is negative and Cnr is negative Cnr /Cnr will be negative.

Module-7
Lecture-34
Phugoid effect and dutch roll motion

Flight demonstration of Phugoid effect


The phugoid is a constant angle of attack but varying pitch angle exchange of airspeed
and altitude.
It can be excited by an elevator pulse (a short, sharp deflection followed by a return
to the centered position) resulting in a pitch increase with no change in trim from
cruise condition.
As speed decays, the nose will drop below the horizon.
Speed will increase, and the nose will climb above the horizon.
Periods can vary from under 30 seconds for light aircraft to minute for larger aircraft.
Micro light aircraft typically shows a Phugoid period of 15-25 seconds, and it
has been suggested that birds and model airplane shows convergence between the
Phugoid and short period modes.
Too forward location of cg results in worse Phugoid.
Watch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pQnNh-0pdg

Figure 1: Schematic representation of Phugoid effect

Flight demonstration of dutch roll effect


Dutch roll is a type of aircraft motion, consisting of an out-of-phase combination of
tail-wagging and rocking from side to side.
This yaw-roll coupling is one of the basic flight dynamics modes (others include
Phugoid, short period and spiral divergence).
This motion is normally well damped. Dutch roll modes can experience a degradation in damping, decrease in airspeed and increase in altitude.
Dutch roll stability can be artificially increased by the installation of a yaw damper.
Wings placed well above the center of mass, sweep-back (swept wings) and dihedral
wings tends to increase the roll resting force, and therefore increase the Dutch roll
tendencies this is why high-winged aircraft often are slightly anhedral, and transport
category swept wing aircraft are equipped with yaw dampers.
Dutch roll is a messy combination of rolling, slipping and yawing. Like pedaling a
bicycle backwards.
Watch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOBbAFzXrRg

Figure 2: Schematic representation of dutch roll

Aircraft Performance, Stability and control with experiments in Flight


Questions
Q1. If only the elevator size of a given aircraft is decreased; keeping horizontal tail area
unchanged; then the aircraft will have
a)
b)
c)
d)

increased both static stability and elevator control power


increased static stability and reduced elevator control power
no change in static stability but decreased elevator control power
None of the above.

Q2. When aircraft speed decreases from transonic to subsonic speed, the aerodynamic
centre of the wing moves forward, and therefore the Neutral point (stick fixed) of
the aircraft shifts
a) AFT
b) FWD
c) No effect.
Q3. When an aircraft trim speed is changed from 60 m/s to 100 m/s maintaining the
same altitude, the elevator will float
a) More
b) less
c) No effect.
Q4. If only the horizontal tail contribution was considered for derivative, than
how many times will become if tail arm is doubled.
a) two times
b) three times
c) four times
d) remains same.

Q5. Load factor for an aircraft in steady descend (gliding mode) is


a) >1
b) <1
c) =1
d) =1.414
1

Q6. High wing configurations (increase/ decrease)static longitudinal stabilityof an


aircraft
Q7. Most forward C.G. location is more restrictive in (Power on/ Propeller wind
milling) condition
Q8. To reduce the floating tendency of an elevator, hinge line has to be moved
(AFT/FWD)
Q9. In figure below, which aircraft will have higher stability margin
a) A
b) B
c) Equal for A and B

Q10.

Which airplane has more control power


a) A
b) B
c) Equal for A and B

Q11.

For an aircraft, following data was obtained in flight for propeller-wind milling

case. Given that prop-wind milling stick fixed neutral point , = 0.45 and
= 20

a) During the landing phase, C.G. was estimated to be at 0.22 , calculate the
maximum lift coefficient at which the equilibrium can be maintained
during landing (assume No ground effect).
b) If the ground effects were also included, will it permit equilibrium at higher
or lower lift coefficient compared to (a) above. Explain briefly

Q12.

For an aircraft in pull up maneuver, the following expression was obtained by

a student for C.G. location of 0. 3

= 120

12.0

For the aircraft, stick fixed stability margin was 0.25 and stick free stability margin
was 0.2.
c) Find stick free maneuvering point

d) Find C.G. limits permitted if the magnitude of stick force per 'g'( ) is to
remain within 10 and 30 N per g.

Q13.
Consider the following airplane in propeller-off condition being tested in a
wind-tunnel.
weight = 700
wing MAC= 1.2 ,
0 = 2 ()
= 0
= +2

ARw =6,
ARtail =4,

span wing = 6 ;
span tail = 2

2-d lift curve slope of wing and tail = 0.1 per degree
Distance between tail A.C.(aerodynamic center) and C.G. of the aircraft is 6.5
Elevator Area = 0.52
Elevator chord = 0.25
0 = 3
= 0.4

= 0.5

= 0.9
G=1.5 rad/m
Ch e = .007 per degree
Ch = .005 per degree
Ch = .003 per degree
t

The following Cm v/s CL curve were obtained for elevator fixed and elevator free case

Find:
(a) Stick fixed and stick free Neutral point.
(b) What is the trim airspeed for stick fixed case?
(c) If the aircraft was to be trimmed at airspeed of 200 KMPH, find the tab setting

required and also calculate the magnitude of for the C.G. location of . .
Assume does not change.

Q14. For an airplane (W/S = 400 N/m2) flying at some altitude ( = 0.8
Kg/m3), the following data were recorded.
V(m/sec) X c.g. = 0.20 X c.g. = 0.25
50

2.0 pull

1.0 pull

57.3

0.0

0.0

70.71

4.0 push

2.0 push

Pull +ve

Push -ve

Find the stick free neutral point.

Q15.

For an aircraft having X c.g. = 0.3, the stick force per g for level turn at

= 60 was 50 N per g

dF s
dn

= 50 . If the stick force per g required by the pilot

needs to be within 15 to 35 N per g, find the permissible C.G. range. Given :

N0 = 0.4, Nm
= 0.5 . Solve the problem graphically.

Q16. An airplane was flight tested at an altitude ( = 0.8 Kg/m3) and


following information on stick force Fs in newton (N) were available:
Wing loading = 400 Kg/m2 , wing lift curve slope = 0.1deg-1
Speed(m/s) Alpha(deg) Fs N at X c.g. = 0.3 Fs N at X c.g. = 0.35

1.

120

3.8 pull

2.8 pull

2.

120

12

8.0 pull

6.0 pull

Find the stick free maneuver point. Solve the problem graphically.

Q17. Derive from the Abinitio for steady cruise flight conditions the following,
3

(a)

at

= 0.76

(b)

at

= 1.32

Q18. How for a level cruise will change with respect to the following

(a)
(b)
(c)

0 and

Q19. Show that the sink rate for a glider is given by

3
2

Q20. Show that for sustained level turn ( = )

2
2

2
2 0