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You are on page 1of 178

Aircraft Performance,

Performance, Stability

Stability and

and Control

Control

with

with Experiments

Experiments in

in Flight

Flight

Dr. A. K. Ghosh

Mr. Yogendra Singh

Dr. Deepu Philip

Department of Aerospace Engineering

IIT Kanpur

Module-1

Lecture-1

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction to Flight Mechanics

The important/relevant topics in flight mechanics are to be familiarized with, before conducting any experiment. Atmospheric flight mechanics encompasses two major disciplines;

namely performance and flight stability and control, as shown in Figure 1.

1. Aircraft performance: mainly deals with the estimation of performance characteristics such as range, endurance, rate of climb, etc.

(a) Range: The total distance that an aircraft can travel on a given full tank of

fuel.

(b) Endurance: The total time that an aircraft can stay in air for a given tank

of fuel.

(c) Rate of climb: The rate of change of altitude of an aircraft in flight.

2. Flight Stability and control: deals with the handling qualities of an aircraft

under the influence of external forces and/or internal forces.

Warm up

What does the term experiment imply in engineering and physical sciences?

In engineering and other physical sciences, experiments are used to test

theories and hypotheses about how physical process work under given conditions

For successfully conducting any experiment, the following preparations are required:

1. Conduct initial research/studies on the topic of interest/research problem.

2. Postulate the problem/exercise/hypotheses to be tested based on initial research

findings.

3. Design appropriate experiment(s) to test the hypotheses/theories associated with

the problem/exercise.

4. Record the data and other details.

5. Replicate the experiment to validate and verifying the findings.

6. Document the process, data and findings as a technical report.

Target audience

The target audience of this course is upper level undergraduate and graduate

students, along with practicing engineers.

This course is structured in the following manner:

1. Introduction to various aerodynamic and flight dynamic models routinely used to

estimate performance characteristics of an airplane in flight.

2. Introduction to the concept of aircraft stability and control.

3. Development of analytical expressions for estimation of neutral point (stick fixed

and free) and maneuvering point (stick fixed and free).

that are typically tested.

5. Familiarization of various sensors used to acquire flight data such air relative speed,

angle of attack, side slip angle, linear & angular accelerations, etc.

6. Acquisition and analysis of flight data.

7. Accept/reject the hypotheses and draw appropriate conclusions.

8. Technically report writing.

Flight testing

PURPOSE : Broadly speaking, flight testing of aircraft may be conducted for various

purpose in mind.

Acceptance Flight Testing : To determine the actual characteristics of aircraft and

to compare it with the computed / predicted or with that claimed by the manufacturer.

Such test may be conducted by :

1. Airline operator

2. Airforce

3. Prospective owner

4. Prototype testing by manufacturer himself

Overhauled airplanes may also need to conduct tests for obtaining flight airworthiness

certificates.

The procedures for flight testing are basically same irrespective of the purpose of it being

acceptance testing or research and development testing. The major differneces lie only in

the manner in which the final corrected data is presented.

Flight Test Program : The major steps involved in any flight test programs are :

1. Develop plan & establish objectives

2. Theoretical estimates of results to be obtained from flight testing

3. Determine mass characteristics

3

4. Instrumentation

5. Design and perform flight maneuver

6. Measure and record data

7. Pre-process data

8. Analyse data

9. Evaluate results

10. Present results

A statement of the objectives is the first element of any test plan. The statement must

be :

1. Concrete

2. Include acceptable forms of the results

The aim is to design the test program to provide the desired results for the least cost in

time and money within the limitations of available manpower and equipment

Example:

Let us consider an example where stick fixed and stick free longitudinal static stability

characteritics are to be studied. To define the objective more preciously, we say :

To obtain the location of stick fixed and stick free neutral points from some fixed reference

point

Let us see what needs to be known :

While preparing for the experiment we need to

1. Know the longitudinal static stability theory of aircraft.

2. Know how to relate this theory to flight test technique for obtaining the desired

results.

3. Obtain some pre-flight data; c.g. location

4. Identify the instrumentation requirement, say elevator position, stick force, airdata

(speed, altitude, outside air temperature).

4

6. Have airborne data acquisition system or system to telemeter data to ground station.

7. Identify the flight maneuver and convey the same to the pilot and instrumentation

(recorder) team.

8. Check if any pre processing of data is required or not (say, correction for fuel burnt

and its effect on c.g. location)

Analysis is carried out to evaluate results and these are finally presented in the form as

stated in the objectives of the test plan

Preflight Data :

We need to collect some data before the test begin. These primarily include predicted

aerodynamic characteristics, aircraft mass characteristics and atmospheric conditions. Of course, we need a thorough understanding of the instrumentation system and

aircraft control system.

Predicted Aerodynamic Characteristics :

There are many purpose for which we need predicted values of what we wish to determine

from flight testing. The objective itself may be validation of such predicted values. We

need this information for test maneuver design. Predicted values could be obtained from:

1. Analytical relation

2. CFD computation

3. Wind tunnel test

The wind tunnel data must be properly transformed into a form suitable for our analysis.

Care is also to be excercised to ensure that the predicted values and flight test results

have used the same geometric values like ; area, span, chord and also values are defined

with respect to the same refernece point.

Aircraft Mass Characteristics:

The aircraft mass characteristics relevant to rigid body motion are :

1. Weight

2. Center of gravity

3. Moment of inertia

5

Weight and longitudinal center of gravity position are easy to measure and are routinely

monitored. This is a routine maintenance activity approved by civil aviation airworthy

organisation. Determination of moment of inertia and vertical and lateral C.G. positions

require special tests.

1. Flight test plan should provide for accurate monitoring of the mass characteristics

throughout the flight test program.

2. In preparing for each test flight, it should be checked that all the required mass data

is available, because it is not possible to reliably re-construct mass data once the

aircraft is handed over.

3. If we have inaccurate mass data, we will have inaccurate test results, so mass data

deserves some care and attention to detail as the flight instrumentation system.

Common source for mass data collection

The commen source of mass data is ground based measurement.

1. The weight and the longitudinal and lateral components of the C.G. can be accurately measured by scales under each wheel.

2. Swing test measure the moment of inertia, using springs with known spring constants.

3. A second good source of mass data is manufacturers records of component build up.

These records can give total aircraft moment-of-inertia data that one more accurate

than those from swing test.

Reference material

Much of the lecture material is taken from these books:

1. Anderson, John D. Introduction To Flight.: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

2. Phillips, Warren F. Mechanics Of Flight.: J. Wiley, 2004.

3. Nelson, Robert C. Flight Stability And Automatic Control.: McGraw-Hill, 1989.

4. Napolitano, Marcello R. Aircraft Dynamics.: J. Wiley, 2012.

5. Perkins, C.D. & Hage, R.E., Aircraft performance, stability and control.: J. Wiley

1949.

6

Module-1

Lecture-2

Standard Atmosphere

Standard Atmosphere

It is important to understand the definition of various altitudes that are

usually used to analyze/compare the performance of flying vehicles in standard atmosphere.

The gravitational force experienced by any aircraft varies with altitude. Also, an aircraft experiences variation in aerodynamic forces with altitude. This is simply because of

the fact that the atmospheric properties viz; Pressure, density and Temperature (P, , T )

also changes with altitude. Aerodynamic forces are strong function of these atmospheric

properties (P, , T ). It is a necessity to specify the altitude that will help in postulating

gravitational and aerodynamic forces explicitly.

Standard atmosphere is defined in order to relate flight tests, wind tunnel tests

general airplane design and performance to a common reference.

Before proceeding further, let us define certain terms that are essential to understand and

characterize standard atmosphere.

1. Absolute altitude (ha ) The altitude as measured from the center of the earth

2. Geometric altitude (hg ) The altitude as measured from the mean sea level

3. Geo-potential altitude (h) The geometric altitude corrected for the gravity

variation. We will discuss this later in detail.

From Figure 1, it can be concluded that the absolute altitude is the sum of geometric altitude and mean radius of the earth. Mathematically, this relationship can be numeralized

1

as

ha = hg + r

(1)

where,

r is the mean radius of earth.

Now that various concepts about altitudes are familiarized, the variations of acceleration

due to gravity with altitude needs to be understood. It can be obtained using Newtons

universal law of gravitation.

1. If gravitational acceleration at the sea level is go and the local gravitational constant

is g for a given absolute altitude ha ; then the relationship between g and go follows

2

2

r

r

g = go

= go

(2)

ha

r + hg

Why are we discussing these altitudes and their dependencies?

To express the thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere (P, , T ) as a function of

altitude; these concepts are required..

2

1. The hydrostatic equation of an infinitesimal fluid is given by

dP = gdhg

(3)

- fluid density kg/m3 and

g - acceleration (m/s2 ) due to gravity corresponding to the geometric altitude hg

2. In order to obtain the hydrostatic pressure (P ) at a particular geometric altitude

(hg ), the above expression has to be integrated. Density and acceleration due to

gravity, are functions of altitude makes integration a bit more complex/difficult.

3. In order to simplify this integration, the concept of geo-potential altitude (h) has

been introduced. We will consider this concept next.

1. It is a fictitious altitude corrected for the gravity variation, which is typically used

to ease the integration process (Equation 3). In simple terms, it can be called as

gravity adjusted height. The adjustment uses Earths mean sea level as reference.

2. Now we can rewrite the hydrostatic equation, by replacing the geometric altitude

with geo-potential altitude (h).

dP = go dh

(4)

3. Using the two hydrostatic equations, viz, Equation 3 & Equation 4, we can derive

the relationship between geometric and geo-potential altitude

1=

go dh

g dhg

g

dhg

go

(5)

r2

dhg

(r + hg )2

(6)

dh =

dh =

given point in atmosphere where geometric altitude is hg , we get

Z

hg

Z

dh =

0

r2

dhg

(r + hg )2

hg

dhg

(r + hg )2

0

hg

1

2

h=r

r + hg 0

1

1

2

+

=r

r + hg r

r + r + hg

2

=r

r(r + hg )

=

Thus,

h=

r

r + hg

hg

(7)

1. By now we studied about the different types of altitudes. So now we will proceed

further to discuss about the standard atmosphere. From early on, researchers conducted experiments with sounding rockets and hot air balloons to study about the

variation of temperature with altitude.

2. Typical pattern of variation of temperature to altitude is shown in Figure 2. One

can easily notice that there are some vertical lines (known as constant temperature

or isothermal regions) and inclined lines (known as gradient regions).

The plot of variation of temperature with altitude (Figure 2) was obtained from using

experimental data, However, a similar experiment about the thermodynamic properties

of interest to us (pressure and density) is not available. Hence, we proceed to derive the

pressure and density variation with altitude with the help of the temperature vs altitude

plot shown in Figure 2.

1. The modified hydrostatic equation is

dP = go dh

(8)

dP

go dh

go

=

=

dh

P

RT

RT

(9)

3. First we will consider the isothermal region where the temperature remain relatively

constant. Temperature, pressure and density at the base of isothermal region are

Z P

Z h

dP

go

=

dh

RT h1

P1 P

ln

(10)

go

P

=

(h h1 )

P1

RT

P

= e[go /(RT )](hh1 )

P1

(11)

P

T

=

=

P1

1 T1

1

(12)

1

(13)

Thus,

5. Now consider the gradient region, and the temperature variation can be written as,

T T1

dT

=

h h1

dh

(14)

dh =

1

dT

(15)

dP

go dT

=

P

R T

(16)

7. Integrating Equation 16 between the base and some given altitude h, yields,

Z T

Z P

dP

go

dT

=

R T1 T

P1 P

P

go

T

=

ln

P1

R T1

go

R

P

T

=

P1

T1

ln

(17)

P

T

=

P1

1 T1

(18)

T

=

1 T1

T

T1

=

1

T

T1

go

R

go

R

1

or,

=

1

T

T1

go

( R

+1)

(19)

The computation of pressure and density at different layer using standard expressions, listed in Table 1.

Variables

Pressure

Density

Gradient layer

go

R

P

T

= T1

P1

go

( R

+1)

T

=

1

T1

Isothermal layer

P

P1

In a normal day, the standard atmosphere will always be reliable, since the assumptions

used to develop the mathematical models are not violated. But on a non-standard day,

this model cannot be completely relied upon. Hence, it is necessary to define two more

new altitudes based on the standard atmosphere model, which will be discussed in the

next section of this course.

Module-1

Lecture-3

Altitude and Airspeed

Pressure Altitude

In the previous module, we studied the concept of standard atmosphere and the behavior

of pressure and density at isothermal and gradient layers. Now, we introduce the concept

of pressure and density altitudes.

Pressure altitude is the altitude associated with a given pressure assuming standard atmosphere or standard atmospheric conditions. In other words, pressure altitude is the

altitude an airplane would be at, if it was a standard day.

The airplanes altimeters measures the altitude based on the sea level pressure (101325 P a), for a standard atmosphere. So, when the pilot starts the

airplane, he sets the altimeter for this sea level pressure setting.

While pressure altitude provides a correction for pressure, it does not take into consideration the ambient temperature of the air - a factor that, on a hot day when performance

of the aircraft is degraded, is far more critical.

Density Altitude

Density altitude is defined as the altitude at which the density of the Standard Atmosphere

is same as the density of the air being evaluated. The density altitude is the pressure

altitude corrected for the standard temperature.

Solved Example 1:

Calculate the standard atmosphere values of T , P , and at a Geo-potential altitude of 15

km.

Solution:

From temperature altitude map, T = 288.16 K (sea level condition)

The calculation will be carried out first from sea level to 11km and then from 11km to

15km.

Gradient Region: from h = 0 to h = 11.0km, with lapse rate of = 6.5K/km. So,

P = P1

= 1

T

T1

T

T1

go

R

go

[ R

+1]

P1 = Ps = 1.01325 105 N/m2

1 = s = 1.2250kg/m3

T1 = Ts = 288.16K

The pressure and density at 11 km are then obtained as follows.

P11 = 0.26 104 N/m2

11 = 0.367kg/m3

Isothermal region : From 11km to 14km

go

go

15 = 11 e[ RT ](hh1 )

(1)

Here the subscript 11 refers to the values at h = 11.0km. The calculations result in

pressure and density at h = 15.0km as :

P15 = 1.2112 104 N/m2

15 = 0.1947kg/m3

Solved Example 2:

If an airplane is flying at an altitude where the actual pressure and temperature are

4.72 104 N/m2 and 255.7K respectively, calculate the pressure, temperature and density altitudes?

Solution:

Using standard atmospheric table, we find that

Pressure altitude = 6km (i.e. altitude corresponding to pressure = 4.7 104 N/m2 in

standard atmosphere table/figure)

Temperature altitude = 5km (or 38.2 or 59.5km) (altitude corresponding to Temp =

255.7K is standard atmosphere)

Use equation of state = P/RT to find the density as; = 0.643kg/m3

And then using the standard atmosphere table, as obtain:

Density altitude = 6.24km.

Airspeed

Airspeed is the speed of the aircraft relative to air. In aviation industry, synonyms like

indicated air speed (IAS), true air speed (TAS), calibrated air speed(CAS), etc. are used

to denote the same. It is important to know the subtle difference among them.

Using pitot-static tube.

Pitot-static tubes typically face free oncoming airflows to measure the difference of total

and static pressure, which is used to find out the velocity of the flight vehicle using

Equation 2

s

v=

2(Po P )

(2)

What is the value of density that has to be used in order to find the velocity?

Various Speeds

1. Indicated Air Speed (IAS):

The speed indicated by the airspeed indicator in the cockpit, which is based on the

Pitot - static tube attached to the airplane.

2. Calibrated Air Speed (CAS):

The indicated airspeed correct for the position and instrument errors. In standard

atmospheric conditions, this is equal to the True Air Speed (TAS).

3. Equivalent Air Speed (EAS):

The calibrated air speed corrected for adiabatic and compressibility effects. The altitude effects are included in this speed.

To explain the three airspeed, let us assume that an aircraft is in cruise at an altitude of h, where the density is , dynamic pressure is q and the corresponding

velocity is v. Now if we want to simulate the same dynamic pressure at mean sea

level (qo ), the corresponding velocity is known as equivalent air speed.

4. True Air Speed (TAS)

The airspeed of the airplane relative to the undisturbed air.

True Air Speed (TAS) & Equivalent Air Speed (EAS) relation:

Suppose an airplane is flying at an altitude (ha ) and experiencing dynamic pressure (Pa ).

3

We define equivalent airspeed as that speed with which the aircraft needs to fly at sea

level to duplicate the actual dynamic pressure (ha ) at a given altitude.so, we can write;

1

1

2

a VT2AS = o VEAS

2

2

The relationship between true airspeed and indicated airspeed is given by Equation 3.

Hence,

r

vT AS = vEAS

(3)

where,

o - Density of air at sea level

- Density of air at a given altitude

Pitot-Static tube

of two concentric tubes, say A and B.

2. The rear ends of these two tubes are connected to a differential pressure sensor.

Typically a pressure sensor is a micro electro-mechanical device that is capable of

measuring pressure and provides an equivalent analog output.

4

3. The front end of the tube A is open to free stream to trap the total pressure (Po )

during the flight.

4. Whereas tube B is a closed mouth tube having equally spaced peripheral holes to

communicate with the surrounding air. Thus, tube B will be capturing the static

pressure (Ps ).

5. The output of the pressure sensor is usually in volts (V ). In order to use this

setup for velocity measurement, one has to calibrate the pressure sensor. Once the

calibration chart is available for the specific pressure sensor, we can convert voltage

(V ) to Pascal (P a).

Stagnation Pressure or Total Pressure (Po )

It is the pressure measured at a point where the molecules are brought to rest isentropically.

Static Pressure (Ps )

It is the pressure exerted by the fluid due to its random motion.

Step 1: Connect the Total pressure port of the sensor to a hand pump with manometer

attached to it. The movements will allow to measure the input pressure.

Step 2: Connect the Output terminals of the sensor to a voltmeter. The voltmeter helps to

record the output voltage.

Step 3: Now apply the known pressure in steps (both increasing and decreasing) and record

the corresponding output voltage.

Step 4: Plot applied pressure vs. output voltage. For applications, consider the linear region

of the sensor.

Module-2

Lecture-4

Introduction to Performance of Flight and

Experiments

Performance of flight

Module Agenda

Aerodynamic nomenclature used for flight performance

Definition of forces, in steady and symmetrical straight line flight

Cruise flight

Thrust and power required

Thrust and power available

Maximum flight velocity

Altitude effects on power available and power required

Range and endurance.

Climb performance

Maximum angle of climb

Maximum rate of climb

Altitude effects on power available and power required

Estimation of profile Drag coefficient (CDo ) and Oswalds efficiency (e) of

an aircraft from experimental data obtained is steady and level flight.

performance

Figure 1: Definition of angles, axes and velocities in steady, symmetrical and straight line

flight

Xb

Xs

Stability axis X-axis (Xs -axis align along the air relative velocity)

Zb

Zs

horizon

Xb and the horizon

horizon

Vv

Vh

Horizontal-velocity component

the thrust line of action (T is Zero in Figure 1)

RC

Rate of Climb

2

straight line flight

In flight an airplane, can be said to be under the influence of four main forces:

1. The Lift, L, acting vertically upwards and is perpendicular to the air relative velocity.

2. The Weight of the airplane, W , acting vertically downwards through the centre of

gravity.

3. The Thrust T , delivered by the engine or engine(s).

4. The Drag, D, acting in the direction opposite to the air relative velocity.

These forces are depicted in Figure 2.

Module-2

Lecture-5

Steady and level flight - Equations of motion, Drag

polar and Thrust required

Typically, cruise flight is also known as steady and level flight. Aircraft considered is

subjected to aerodynamic, propulsive, and gravity forces. The general equations of motion

of an airplane in flight (longitudinal motion). Summation of all forces in direction along

the aircrafts air-relative velocity i.e. V (assuming mass of the aircraft is not changing )

can be represented as given below:

X

F|| = ma = m

dv

dt

(1)

Next, the summation of all forces in the direction perpendicular to the aircrafts airrelative velocity, V , can similarily be represented by Equation 2.

X

F =

mV 2

r

(2)

P

F|| and

F as given in

Equation 3 & 4

dV

dt

X

mV 2

F = T sin + T + L W cos =

r

where,

(3)

(4)

F||

velocity, V

relative velocity, V

mV 2

r

centripetal acceleration

Assuming that there is no change in the mass of the aircraft i.e. fuel consumption is

negligible and assuming that the aircraft velocity remain constant i.e. no acceleration,

Equation 3 & 4 can be simplified to as given in Equation 5 & 6

X

F = T sin + T + L W cos = 0

0

T 0

Then we also have

+ T 0

Also note that = 0 for cruise. Equation 5 & 6 then can be simplified to

T D =0

LW =0

2

(5)

(6)

T =D

(7)

L=W

(8)

Figure 2 depicts the steady, symmetrical, straight line flight where Equation 7 & 8 are

satisfied.

Note: Cruise flight is a steady (no acceleration), level flight ( 0, wings level) where

the aerodynamic drag of the aircraft is balanced by the thrust delivered by engine, and the

aerodynamic lift balances the weight of the aircraft

Consider an airplane in steady, level flight, flying at a velocity V , trimmed at design CL

& CD . Then the thrust to be delivered by engine to balance the drag can be modeled

using Equation 9.

1

Treq = D = V 2 SCD = qSCD

2

(9)

By combining Equation 7 & 8, the thrust required for a cruise flight can be expressed as

a function of aerodynamic efficiency CL /CD as show in Equation 10.

Treq =

W

L

D

W

CL

CD

(10)

Expression given in Equation 10 suggests that for cruising with the minimum thrust

required (which is to be delivered by engine); the aircraft needs to fly such that the ratio

of CL /CD is at maximum. For a given Reynolds number and Mach number, CL , CD

and CL /CD are functions of the angle of attack.

Reynolds number is a dimensionless quantity used in fluid mechanics to predict

similar flow pattern in different fluid flow situation. Similarly , Mach number is also

a dimensionless quantity that is the ratio of speed of an object moving in a fluid to

that of the speed of sound in the medium/fluid.

The typical variations of CL with CD is depicted in Figure 3. The relationship

between CL and CD is traditionally known as the Drag Polar, as given in Equation

11

CD = CDo + KCL2

3

(11)

Similarly, a typical variation of CL /CD with respect to angle of attack is presented

in Figure 5.

As it can be seen from Figure 5, for a particular aircraft,[CL /CD ]max could be

achieved max only at a particular (fixed) angle of attack. We now try to find out

what is that angle of attack for any given aircraft.

For that we first need to have an insight through [CL /CD ]max . The maximum value

of aerodynamic efficiency (Emax ) and the value of CL at which CL /CD is maximum

4

could be found out using the following procedure:

L

CL

CL

=

=

D

CD

CDo + KCL2

E

CL

=

=0

CL Emax

CL CDo + KCL2

E=

[CDo + KCL2 ]

=0

CDo KCL2 = 0

thus,

where, CLEmax = CL at

CLEmax =

h i

CL

CD

CDo

K

CDEmax = 2CDo

(12)

max

Emax

1

CL

= p

=

CD max

2 CDo K

(13)

The above expressions in Equation 12 and 13 suggest how to estimate the value

for [CL /CD ]max and the value of coefficient of lift at [CL /CD ]max . That is, estimate

CLEmax by using known values of CDo & K.

From the lift curve slope i.e. CL vs curve of the aircraft, we can determine that

at what angle of attack () the CL,a/c has the value same as we obtained for CLEmax

p

(i.e. CDo /K). This is the angle of attack at which the aircraft should fly to ensure

[CL /CD ]max i.e. maximum aerodynamic efficiency.

5

Example:

Now, if an aircraft with wing loading W/S is cruising at a fixed altitude and at a particular

to ensure CL /CD is maximum then what should be the velocity of the aircraft to maintain

cruise flight?

Solution:

To solve this question, One should clearly understand the requirement for cruise condition.

For an aircraft to cruise at a given altitude, the weight of the aircraft should be balanced

by the lift generated by the aircraft. Thus, for a given CL , the velocity of the aircraft

should be sufficient enough to generate enough lift to balance its weight. To identify the

velocity that will generate enough lift to balance the aircrafts weight can be obtained using

the following steps. To estimate this, consider;

1

L = V 2 SCL = W

2

Here the CL is for maximum aerodynamic efficiency, i.e. CLEmax so,

1

W = V 2 SCLEmax

2

s

2W

S

V =

CLEmax

as

CDo

CLEmax =

K

v

u 2W

u

VminTreq = t q S

C

KDo

(14)

So this is the velocity with which the aircraft should fly at a particular for [CL /CD ]max

(i.e. for CLEmax ) to maintain cruise.

For an aircraft to cruise at a particular altitude (for thrust required minimum), the pilot

should be requested to trim the aircraft at a velocity as given by Equation 14.To calculate

that speed apriori , using Equation 14 for a given aircraft, the following parameters are

necessary:

1. Wing loading W/S

2. CDo from Drag polar

3. K from drag polar or could be calculated for low subsonic aircraft using K =

1/ARe

Thus, the desired speed can easily be computed by substituting parameters W/S, CDo &

K in Equation 14.

Module-2

Lecture-6

Cruise Flight - Power required, Velocity for

Minimum Power required

minimum power required

Preq = Treq V = DV =

WV

Preq

CL

CD

s

=

2

2W 3 CD

SCL3

(1)

1

3

CL2

CD

3/2

3/2

The airplane needs to have sufficient speed so that the lift produced by the aircraft

h

i

3/2

at CL corresponding to CL for CL /CD

is able to balance the weight of the

max

aircraft.

Now an interesting question arises that how the power required is dependent

on the velocity of an aircraft?

In order to find an answer to this question let us write Equation 1 in another way

CL2

Preq = DV = qSV CD = CDo +

qSV

ARe

2

qS

qSV

Preq = CDo +

ARe

W2

Preq

1

1

V S

= V 3 SCDo + 2

2

ARe

(2)

Referring to the figure it can easily be interpretted that there is a particular speed

at which power required to maintain level flight is minimum.

For minimum power required,

Preq

=0

V

2 Preq

>0

V 2

1

So differentiating Equation 1 and equating it to zero, we will get:

W2

1

Preq

3

V 2 S

= V 2 SCDo 2

=0

V

2

ARe

W2

3 2 4 2

3

V S

=0

V 2 S CDo 4

2

ARe

1 2

C

3 2

3 L

V S CDo

=0

2

ARe

1

CDo CDi = 0

3

where CDi is the induced drag.

So the aerodynamic condition for minimum power required is

CDi = 3CDo

(3)

Now to calculate CL for minimum power required we know that, induced drag

coefficient,

CDi = KCL2

Using Equation 2 we can write:

KCL2 = 3CDo

r

3CDo

CLminPreq =

K

2

(4)

3/2

Once we get CLminPreq , then what is the velocity for cruise at which CL /CD

value is maximum (for minimum power required)?

As it is well known that, lift needs to balance weight in cruise. So,

1

L = V 2 SCL = W

2

This could also be written as

1

W = V 2 SCLminPreq

2

s

2 W

S

V =

CLminPreq

So by using the result obtained in Equation 3 the velocity for minimum power

required can be shown to be:

VminPreq

v

u 2 W

u

=t qS

3CDo

(5)

Hence once the altitude is decided, the pilot should be instructed to trim the airplane

at VminPreq to satisfy the minimum power required condition.

This speed at a given altitude could easily be obtained by substituting the values

of W/S, CDo , K in Equation 5.

Module-2

Lecture-7

Cruise Flight - Thrust and Power available,

Maximum and minimum cruise velocity, Effects of

altitude on power

Thrust available

As we have seen earlier, thrust and power requirements are dictated by the aerodynamic characteristics and weight of the airplane. In contrast, thrust and power

available are strictly associated with the engine of the aircraft.

The thrust delivered by typical reciprocating piston engines used in aircraft with

propellers varies with velocity as shown in Figure 1(a).

It should be noted that the thrust at zero velocity (static thrust) is maximum and

it decreases with increase in forward velocity. The reason for this behavior is that

the blade tip of the propellers encounter compressibility problems leading to abrupt

decrease in the available thrust near speed of sound.

However, as seen from Figure 1(b), the thrust delivered by a turbojet engine stays

relatively constant with increase in velocity.

Figure 1: Variation in available thrust with velocity of the (a) reciprocating enginepropeller powered aircraft and (b) turbojet engine powered aircraft

Power

Power required for any aircraft is a characteristic of the aerodynamic design and weight

of that aircraft. However, the power available, PA is a characteristic of the power plant

(engine) of the aircraft. Typically, a piston engine generates power by burning fuel in the

cylinders and then using this energy to move pistons in a reciprocating fashion (Figure

2). The power delivered to the piston driven propeller engine by the crankshaft is termed

as the shaft brake power P . Actual power available is always less than the shaft brake

power i.e. PA < P . In fact, power available is modeled as

PA = P

Here is propeller efficiency, < 1. It is a direct product of the aerodynamics of the

propeller. Both and P are considered to be known quantities for a given aircraft. Figure

3 graphic the relationship between power available and power required with respect to

speed for a propeller driven engine. A jet engine derives its thrust from compressing

incoming air and then mix it with fuel to burn it and then exhausting the hot gases

at high velocities through a nozzle. The power available from a jet engine is given by

Equation:

PA = TA V

Referring to Figure 1(b), it can be seen that the thrust from a jet engine remains reasonably constant with respect to velocity. Thus the power-available curve varies linearly

with V as shown in Figure 4.

2

Figure 3: Power required and power available variation with velocity (propeller driven

aircraft)

Figure 4: Power required and power available with velicity (jet engine)

For both the propeller and jet-powered aircrafts, the maximum flight velocity at a given

altitude is determined by the high speed intersection of the maximum power available,

Pavailable and the Prequired curves as depicted in Figure 3 & 4.

From the relations obtained in the previous discussions, i.e,

s

2

WV

2W 3 CD

Preq = Treq V = DV = CL =

SCL3

C

D

and

W2

Preq

1

1

V S

= V 3 SCDo + 2

2

ARe

s

Vo =

s

PR,o =

2 W

S

o CL

(1)

2

2W 3 CD

So CL3

(2)

s

2 W

S

Valt =

CL

s

2

2W 3 CD

PR,alt =

SCL3

(3)

(4)

For a fixed value of CL and CD between sea level and altitude, dividing Equation 3

by Equation 1 and Equation 4 by Equation 2, we obtain

r

o

Valt = Vo

r

o

PR,alt = PR,o

(5)

(6)

So, from the known values of power required, PR,o and velocity, Vo of an aircraft at

sea level we can obtain power required, PR,alt and velocity, Valt at an altitude.

A typical variation of PR v/s V for various altitudes has been presented in Figure

5. It could be seen that power required curves experience an upward and rightward

translation and as well as slight clockwise rotation as altitude increases.

In this discussion we will assume that PA and TA are directly proportional to the altitude

density. The variation of maximum power available and power required both at sea level

and at an altitude is shown in Figure 6. It can be understood that by plotting power

available and power required as function of velocity for various altitudes, one can quickly

estimate the maximum speed at a given altitude.

Figure 6: Change in the power required and power available curve with altitude

Module-2

Lecture-8

Cruise Flight - Range and Endurance of Propeller

Driven Aircraft

Range is defined as the total distance (measured with respect to ground) traversed by the

airplane on a full tank of fuel.

Endurance is defined as the total time that an airplane stays in the air on a full tank of

fuel.

For different applications, it may be desirable to maximize one or other, or both characteristics. The parameters that maximize range are different from those that maximizes the

endurance. Additionally, these parameters are also different for propeller and jet powered

aircrafts.

For a propeller driven aircraft, the most important factor that influences range and endurance is the specific fuel consumption of the reciprocating engine.

Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC), is defined as the weight of the fuel consumed by

the reciprocating engine per unit power per unit time.

SF C =

N (f uel)

(J/s)(s)

(1)

Endurance

In order to stay airborne for the longest duration, i.e. for maximum endurance the engine

must use minimum Newtons of fuel per unit time. From the Equation 1, we can see that:

N (f uel)

SF C(PR )

(s)

1

(2)

So from Equation 2 depicting the proportionality, we quickly conclude that for maximum

endurance, the power required by the airplane should be minimum. We have already

shown in our previous discussions, that for an aircraft to fly at the minimum power

3/2

product c.P.dt, where P is engine power and dt is a small increment in time, we have:

cP dt =

N (f uel) J

s = N (f uel)

(J/s)(s)

s

(3)

Thus, cP dt represents the differential change in the weight of fuel over a small interval of

time, dt. Let,

Wo - gross weight of the airplane

W1 - weight of the airplance without fuel

Wf - weight of the fuel

Then, we have:

W1 = Wo Wf

(4)

dWf = dW = cP dt

(5)

and

dt =

dW

cP

(6)

Denoting endurance as E

E

W1

dt =

0

Wo

W1

E=

Wo

dW

cP

dW

cP

(7)

Range

Now considering range; in order to cover the longest distance, we must ensure minimum

weight of fuel consumed per unit distance. From the relations discussed above, we can

get the proportionality:

N (f uel)

SF C(PR )

(m)

V

Thus for obtaining maximum range for any flight, the ratio PR /V should be minimum.

[PR /V ]min for cruise flight implies that thrust required is minimum and for TR to be

minimum, CL /CD should be maximum. Minimum value of PR /V precisely corresponds

to the tangent point in Figure 1, which also corresponds to [L/D]max or [CL /CD ]max . Now

L

D max

Z

W1

V dW

cP

ds = V dt =

Wo

Wo

ds =

0

W1

Wo

R=

W1

V dW

cP

V dW

cP

(8)

Breguet Formula

For a propeller driven aircraft, we know that:

PA = P

thus,

P =

DV

PA

=

Z Wo

Z Wo

Z Wo

V dW

V dW

dW

R=

=

=

cP

cDV

cD

W1

W1

W1

(9)

(10)

Multiplying Equation 10 by W/W and noting that for steady, level flight, W = L, we get:

Z Wo

Z Wo

L dW

W

R=

dW =

W1 c D W

W1 cD W

Z

CL Wo dW

c CD W1 W

3

thus,

R=

CL W o

ln

c CD W1

(11)

Similarly by using Equation 7 and Equation 9 and by applying steady, level flight condition, L = W , we get:

Z

Wo

E=

W1

dW

=

cP

Wo

W1

dW

=

cDV

Wo

W1

L dW

c DV W

Substituting,

1

L = W = V 2 SCL and then V =

2

2 W

S

CL

we get:

Z

Wo

E=

W1

CL

c CD

SCL dW

2 W 32

(12)

3

1

CL2 S 2 h 1 iWo

E = 2

W 2

c CD 2

W1

3

1

CL2

1

1

(2S) 2 W1 2 Wo 2

E=

c CD

(13)

Module-2

Lecture-9

Cruise Flight - Range and Endurance of Jet driven

Aircraft.

In case of jet powered aircrafts specific fuel consumption is given as Thrust Specific

Fuel Consumption and it is defined as weight of fuel consumed per unit thrust per

unit time.

Here thrust is used in contrast to power in case of propeller driven aircraft.

T SF C =

N (f uel)

(N (thrust))(s)

N (f uel)

= (T SF C)TA

s

(1)

(2)

Endurance

For level, un-accelerated flight, the pilot adjusts the throttle such that thrust available, TA equals the thrust required, TR . Therefore, weight of fuel consumed per

hour will be minimum when thrust required is minimum.

We know that for minimum thrust required, CL /CD should be maximum.

Therefore for a jet aircraft, maximum endurance occurs when the airplane is flying

at a velocity such that TR is minimum.

Let us calculate the expression for endurance of a jet aircraft.

Let dW be the very small change in the weight of the airplane due to fuel consumption over a time increment dt. Then

dW = ct TA dt

dt =

dW

ct TA

Z W1

dW

E=

Wo ct TA

Z W1

1 L dW

E=

W o ct D W

thus,

1 CL W o

E=

ln

ct CD W1

1

(3)

(4)

Range

Similarily to obtain the expression for range, we know from earlier discussions that

in order to cover the longest distance, the aircraft should only consume minimum

weight of fuel per unit distance. For a jet aircraft:

N (f uel)

(T SF C)TA

=

(m)

V

For steady, level flight, TA = TR , minimum weight of fuel per unit distance corresponds to a minimum TA /V . Kindly note that, since TA = TR , hence range of

aircraft (with jet engine) will be maximum if N (f uel)/m is minimum or TR /V is

minimum.

[TR /V ]min corresponds to tangent point shown in Figure 1

TR

V

min

1

V 2 SCD

TR

D

1

1

=

= 2

= V SCD = S

V

V

V

2

2

TR

1

1

V

CL2

2 W

S

CL

(5)

CD

Hence maximum range for a jet aircraft occurs when the aircraft is flying at a

1/2

velocity such that CL /CD is maximum. It can be shown that such a requirement

corresponds to:

r

CL =

3CDo

K

The expression for overall range for a Jet aircraft can be derived as:

ds = V dt =

R

V dW

ct TA

W1

ds =

R=

Wo

V

W ct TA

d

For steady, level flight, the pilot adjusts the throttle such that TR = TA and recalling

for steady, level flight L = W and T = D, we get:

Z Wo

V CL dW

R=

ct C D W

W1

since,

s

V =

2W

SCL

R becomes,

1

Wo

R=

CL2

CD

dW

S ct W 12

W1

thus,

1

r

1

2 1 CL2 21

R=2

Wo W12

S ct C D

(6)

Module-2

Lecture-10

Climb Performance - Introduction and Equations of

Motion.

Climb performance

velocity along the flight path is V , and the flight path itself is inclined to the

horizontal at angle (flight path angle).

The governing equations for a steady (no acceleration) climb flight are:

T D W sin = 0

L W cos = 0

Re-arrange the above equations, to get:

V T = V D + V W sin

VT VD

= V sin

W

also,

dh

= V sin = RC

dt

where, RC - Rate of climb

Let V T is the power available and V D is the power required for the level flight.

For climbing flight, V D is not equal to the power required, because power is required

to overcome a component of weight.

V T V D = excess power

so,

RC =

excess power

W

(1)

rate of climb for a given altitude.

Referring Figure 2(a), one could easily recognize that V1 is the speed for maximum

rate of climb (due to maximum excess power) & V2 is the speed at which rate of

climb is zero (no excess power).

Referring Figure 2(b), one can see the variation of excess power RC with speed.

Excess power increases to maximum and then reduce with speed (Refer Figure 2(a)).

Similar is tha variation of RC with speed (Refer Figure 2(b)).

Maximum angle of climb and maximum rate of climb: Are they same?

By plotting RC vs V one may find the max RC at corresponding altitude.

By plotting max RC vs altitude (straight line plot), the service ceiling and absolute

ceiling can be obtained easily by linear extrapolation.

What is service ceiling and absolute ceiling?

Service ceiling

Service ceiling is defined as the height at which, under standard atmospheric conditions, an

aircraft is unable to climb faster than a specified rate (100 feet or 30 meters per minute).

Absolute ceiling

On the other hand, absolute ceiling is defined as is the highest altitude at which an airplane

can sustain level flight, which means the altitude at which the thrust of the engines at full

power is equal to the total drag at minimum drag speed. In other words it is defined as

the altitude where the maximum sustained rate of climb is zero.

Velocity hodograph

In the analysis of climb performance, it can be useful to produce a plot of the vertical

velocity against the horizontal velocity for a given altitude Figure 3.

This plot is called a velocity hodograph.

The maximum angle of climb max can be obtained by drawing a tangent to the

above curve through the origin.

The angle between the tangent and Vx axis gives the value of max .

A tangent parallel to Vx axis gives the maximum rate of climb.

Module-3

Lecture-11

Stability and Control - Discussion on Equilibrium,

Static and Dynamic Stability

Static Stability and Trim

Center of pressure and aerodynamic center

Wing and tail contribution on static stability

Static margin

Stick fixed Neutral Point

Stick free Neutral Point

Equilibrium

If a system in an equilibrium state, returns to equilibrium following a small disturbance, the state is said to be stable equilibrium Figure 1.

On the other hand, if the system diverges from equilibrium when slightly disturbed,

the state is said to be an unstable equilibrium.

Strictly speaking, Figure 1(d) is also a case of stable equilibrium, because a very

small disturbance from equilibrium would result in a force and moment imbalance

that would return the ball to its original equilibrium state.

But a little extra disturbance, towards right could cause the ball to move past the

apex, which would produce a force and moment imbalance that would cause the

ball to move away from its original equilibrium state.

This type of stable equilibrium can sometime occur with an aircraft in trimmed flight:

a very dangerous situation.

Static Stability

If an airplane disturbed from equilibrium state has Initial Tendency to return to

its equilibrium state, then the aircraft is assumed to have static stability.

Dynamic Stability

Not only initial tendency, but also the amplitudes of the response due to disturbance

decay in finite time to attain the equilibrium state.

In general, when aircraft is being referred to be in stable equilibrium, we mean dynamic

stability. However, it so happen that for most of the cases, for conventional aircraft, if it

is statically stable, it also automatically satisfies dynamic stability criterion but not all

aircraft! Handling qualities may be different.

Static equilibrium occurs whenever there is no acceleration (linear or angular) of the

aircraft. Un-accelerated flight requires that the summations of forces and moments

acting on the aircraft are zero.

Static equilibrium also requires that the side force acting on the airplane is also

zero.

Additionally, the summation of moments about the centre of gravity (CG) in roll,

pitch and yaw must all be zero for equilibrium (Trimmed flight).

Small translational disturbances in axial, normal or side slip velocity must all result in

a return to the original trimmed equilibrium condition. This is also referred to as pitch

stability.

An object moving through the air will experience drag that opposes the motion.

If angle of attack remains fixed, this drag will increase with speed. (Drag opposes

increase in speed)

3

Thrust developed by engine is either constant with airspeed or decrease with increasing air speed. (Drag increase in speed)

In static equilibrium with regard to translational in the direction of motion, the

forward component of thrust must balance the drag (T = D)

At constant angle of attack, a small increase in airspeed will result in

Increase in Drag

Either a decrease in Thrust or No change in Thrust

Therefore, this force imbalance in the axial direction will result in a deceleration,

which will tend (initial tendency) to restore the airspeed to the original value.

Conversely, if airspeed is decreased by a small disturbance with no change in angle

of attack, the drag will become less than the thrust and the aircraft will accelerate

back (tends to) to the equilibrium airspeed.

dV is negative; dD will tend to increase the speed as in that case T > D.

Module-3

Lecture-12

Stability and Control - Some frequently used

notations, Trim - A pilots perspective

Camber Line is the locus of points midway between the upper and lower surface

of an airfoil section as measured perpendicular to itself.

Leading Edge (LE) is the most forward point on the camber line.

Trailing Edge (TE) is the most rearward point on the camber line.

Chord Line is a straight line connecting the leading edge and the trailing edge.

Maximum Camber is the maximum distance between the chord line and the

camber line as measured perpendicular to the chord line.

Local Thickness at any point along the chord line is the distance between the

upper and lower surface as measured perpendicular to the camber line.

Maximum Thickness is the maximum distance between the upper and lower

surfaces as measured perpendicular to the camber line.

D: Drag parallel to V (opposite to motion)

L: Lift perpendicular to V

A: Axial Force parallel to chord

N : Normal force perpendicular to chord

D, L, A, N CD , CL , CA , CN

m Cm

F

1

V 2 Sref

2

M

1

V 2 Sref c

2

where,

CD , CL , CA , CN are force coefficients

Cm is pitching moment coefficient.

Important Relations

CL = CN cos CA sin

CD = CA cos + CN sin

Similarly,

CN = CL cos + CD sin

CA = CD cos CL sin

Since CD CL so, axial force coefficient CA is often negative

When the controls are set so that the resultant forces and the moments about the

center of gravity are all zero, the aircraft is said to be in Trim, which simply means

static equilibrium.

Airplane in cruise is a typical example of an airplane in static equilibrium.

Primary control surfaces are:

Ailerons: To control the rolling moment

Elevator: To control the pitching moment

Rudder: To control the yawing moment

These control surfaces provide two functions:

1. The control surfaces must be able to maintain static trim over the entire range of

airspeed and altitude for which the aircraft is able to fly. This includes being able

to trim the aircraft against any asymmetric thrust force.

2. The control surfaces must provide sufficient moment necessary to maneuver the

aircraft in range of speed and altitudes.

Asymmetric Thrust Force: When one or more engine fails in a multiengine configuration

Never To Forget The ease with which a pilot is able to maintain trim is one of the

most important aspects of the aircraft characteristics, known as handling quality. If

the pilot cannot maintain trim with relative ease, the aircraft will be difficult or even

dangerous to fly.

3

The ease of maintaining static trim is related to a property of the equilibrium state

- static stability.

A rigid airplane in free flight has six degrees of freedom:

Three translational (u, v, w)

Three rotational (p, q, r)

Important to Understand

For an airplane to be in fully stable trim, there can be no instability in any of the

six degrees of freedom. Hence,

Small translational disturbances in axial, normal or side slip velocity must all result

in a return to the original trimmed equilibrium condition.

Similarly, rotational disturbances in roll, pitch and yaw must all result in a return

to the original equilibrium attitude.

With few exceptions, if the rotational degrees of freedom of an airplane are stable,

translational stability will not be a problem.

Module-3

Lecture-13

Stability and Control - Discussion on Center of

Pressure, Aerodynamic Center and Trim

The resultant aerodynamic force and moment acting on body must have the same effect

as the distributed load. The resultant moment will depend on where ever the resultant

force is placed on the body. For example, let x be the coordinate measured along the

chord line of an airfoil, from the leading edge towards the trailing edge. The resultant

moment about some arbitrary point on the chord line a distance x from the leading edge

be Mx . Then

MLE = Mx xN

x

CmLE = Cmx CN

c

Two particular locations along the chord line are of special interest.

xcp Center of pressure: The point about which the resultant moment is zero.

xac Aerodynamic center: The point about which the change in the resultant

moment with respect to the angle of attack is zero.

By definition,

Cmcp = 0

For x = xcp , this gives,

xxp

x

CN

CmLE = Cmx CN =

c

c

xcp

x Cm x

=

c

c

CN

Hence, the location of xcp at any given angle of attack () can be determined from

the normal force coefficient and moment coefficient about any point on the airfoil

chord line.

In general, xcp may vary significantly with .

For x = xac , we have,

x

xac

CmLE = Cmx CN = Cmac

CN

c

c

x

x

ac

Cmac = Cmx +

CN

c

c

From definition of aerodynamic center,

Cmac

Cmac

=0

Cmx xac x CN

=

+

=0

c

c

Thus,

xac

x

=

c

c

Cmx

CN

The location of the aerodynamic centre can be determined from the knowledge of

how the normal force coefficient and moment coefficient about any point on the

chord line vary with angle of attack.

For most of the airfoils, the position of aerodynamic centre is very nearly constant

at quarter chord.

Note:

Location of aerodynamic centre does not depend on magnitude of the

aerodynamic coefficient. It depends on the derivative of the aerodynamic

coefficient with respect to angle of attack.

xac

x

=

c

c

Cmx

CN

aerodynamic coefficient.

x Cm x

xcp

=

c

c

CN

Knowing the airfoil terminology, we will now explore the requirements for trim and then

examine the pitch stability of the equilibrium state.

Assumptions

Wing is symmetric in the span wise direction

Motion of the wing through the air is in a direction normal to the span.

This results in no side force, no rolling moment and no yawing moment.

C.G., a.c. are aligned with the thrust vector, which is aligned with the direction of

flight.

For this symmetric flight condition, the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing can be

resolved into a lift force L, a drag force D and a pitching moment about the aerodynamic

centre of the wing mac shown in Figure 3.

3

For wing to be trimmed (i.e. equilibrium) the summation of forces in both the

horizontal and vertical directions must be zero. This requires,

T =D

L=W

mcg = 0

From Figure 3, we can see that,

mcg = mac xac L

At trim,

m = mac xac L

1

1 2

xac

V S

cCm = V 2 S

c Cmac,w

CL = 0

2

2

c

Cm = Cmac,w xac CL = 0

Note:

For a given weight and airspeed, the lift coefficient is fixed by the trim

requirement (L = W ).

The moment coefficient about aerodynamic centre is fixed by the wing

geometry Cmac . Thus, for a given geometry, weight and airspeed, xac is

given by,

Cmac

c for trim Cm = 0

CL

x

Cmac

ac

= xac =

c

CL

xac =

CL is always positive

Cmac is negative for cambered airfoil

4

Conclusion A

For equilibrium (trim), the aerodynamic center of cambered wing must be forward of

the center of gravity.

Let us check if this equilibrium is a statically stable equilibrium or not?

Static Stability

For static stability, a small increase in angle of attack must produce a negative

pitching moment about the center of gravity, to decrease the angle of attack back

towards trim.

Conversely, a small decrease in angle of attack must produce a positive pitching

moment to increase the angle of attack to restore the trim.

Thus, the pitching moment about CG must vary with angle of attack such that

any change in angle of attack produces a change of opposite sign in the pitching

moment about center of gravity.

Cm

1

M

= V 2 S

c

<0

Cm

< 0 This is also called pitch stiffness

Cm Cmac

xac CL

c

From definition of aerodynamic center,

Cmac

=0

this gives,

xac CL

<0

c

but

CL

xac

>0

>0

c

This is for less than stall

5

Conclusion B

xac /c > 0 implies, for static stability, the aerodynamic centre must be aft of the

centre of gravity.

From conclusion A, for trim, ac must be ahead CG (cambered)

From conclusion B, for stability, ac must be behind/aft of CG.

Conclusion A and B are opposite. Thus a simple cambered wing is not statically

stable in free flight

For trim,

xac =

Cmac

CL

c

For stability,

xac CL

<0

c

Cmac CL

<0

CL

For trim, CL / > 0 for below stall as lift coefficient must be positive to support

the weight.

Thus to get stable trim Cmac must be positive.

If stable trim is to be maintained, a single wing with no tail must always produce a

positive pitching moment coefficient about aerodynamic centre. We know that,

Symmetric airfoil produces Cmac = 0

Cambered airfoil produces Cmac < 0

To produce Cmac , airfoil section must have negative camber over atleast some section

of the chord.

Note:

An airfoil with negative camber throughout the chord is inefficient in

producing positive lift and has a low maximum lift coefficient.

A better choice is an airfoil that has negative camber over only some

portion of the chord near the trailing edge i.e.

Reflex aerofoil.

See

Figure 4

It is possible to design an aircraft consisting of only a single flying wing with no

tail, so that stable trim flight can be achieved.

However, such designs are not preferred as this is prone to poor handling qualities

(damping is less). A better option usually is to combine a wing with a conventional

tail.

Module-3

Lecture-14

Static Stability - Wing contribution, Tail

contribution and Static Margin

Wing Contribution

Mcg = Lw cos (w iw ) [xcg xac,w ] + Dw sin (w iw ) [xcg xac,w ]

+Lw sin (w iw ) [zcg ] Dw cos (w iw ) [zcg ] + Moacw

Divide by V 2 Sc/2

[xcg xac,w ]

[xcg xac,w ]

+ CDw sin (w iw )

hz i c

hcz i

cg

cg

+CLw sin (w iw )

CDw cos (w iw )

+ Cmacw

c

c

Since,

cos (w iw ) 1

sin (w iw ) w iw

CL CD

zcg 0

Hence,

Cmc g = CLw (xcg xac,w ) + Cmacw

CLw = CLo + CL

Cmcg = Cmacw + (CLo + CL ) (xcg xac,w )

Cmcg = Cmacw + CLo (xcg xac,w ) + CL (xcg xac,w )

1

Cm,w = CL,w (xcg xac,w )

Cmo,w = Cmac,w + CL (xcg xac,w )

Angle of attack at tail in presence of wing, (t ) is given by:

t = w iw + it

(1)

where,

: Downwash at tail

iw : Wing setting angle

it Tail setting angle

Moment about c.g. due to lift and drag at tail.

Kindly note that lift at tail will be perpendicular to the local velocity at tail (which

is different from the velocity free stream). Similarly, drag experienced at tail will be

along the local velocity at tail. The free stream velocity and local velocity directions

differ by downwash angle . Hence,

Mc.g.,t = lt [Lt cos ( iw ) + Dt sin ( iw )] + zt Lt sin ( iw )

zt Dt cos ( iw ) + Cma.c,t

For small angle approximation along with

CL CD

2

zcg 0

Cma.c,t = 0 Tail airfoil symmetric aerofoil

cos(w iw ) 1

sin(w iw ) (w iw )

We have,

1

Mc.g,t = Lt .lt = Vt2 St CLt lt

2

Note Lt at tail is proportional to dynamic pressure at tail and not free stream

dynamic pressure.

Cmc.g,t =

Cmc.g,t

M

c.g,t

1

V 2 f reestream

2

Cw

St lt

CL where, =

=

Sw Cw t

St lt

CL

Sw Cw t

1

V 2 t

2

1

V 2 f s

2

CLt = CL,t t = CL,t [w iw + it ]

: Downwash due to wing at tail

= o +

2CL,w

Assuming e = 1

ARw

Elliptic lift distribution

2CL,w

ARw

CLt = CL,t

w iw + it o

w

w

Cmc.g,t =

St lt

CL = VH t CLt

Sw cw t

w

Cmc.g,t = t VH CL,t w iw + it o

w

(2)

Cmc.g,t

w

= VH CL,t {iw + o it } VH CL,t 1

Cmc.g,t = Cmo +

(3)

Cm

Cm

= VH CL,t 1

c.g,t

Cm

Cm

Cm

+

+

w

t

f s

Cmcg

a/c

+Cmf s

where,

Cmow = Cmacw + CLo (xcg xac,w )

Cmot = VH CL,t (o + iw it )

From the expression for Cmcg

(Cm )a/c = CLw

a/c

+ C m f s

or Cm /CL vanishes (= 0) Neutrally Stable. Hence,

0 = CLw (xcg xac,w ) VH t CL,t

+ C m f s

Which gives,

xnp = xac,w

C m f s

CLw

CL

+ t VH ,t

CL,t

1

= N

Stick Fixed: elevator is fixed not allowed to move or float.

SM=xnp xcg = N xcg

Typically transport aircraft SM 5% to 15% of the mean aerodynamic chord.

Approximate expression for SM relating Cm /CL :

Cmf s

xnp = xac,w

1

CLw

+ C m f s

(Cm )a/c = CLw (xcg xac,w ) VH t CL,t 1

CL

+ t VH ,t

CL,t

(4)

CL

Cm

= xcg xac,w VH ,t

C L w

CLw

+

C m f s

CLw

Cm

CL

Cm

CL

a/c

a/c

CL,t

= xcg xac,w VH

C L w

CL,t

= xcg xac,w VH

CLw

+

Cmf s

CLw

Cm

1

+

CL f s

equivalently Cm /CL = 0

CL

0 xcg xac,w VH ,t

CLw

+

Cm

CL

fs

xcg xnp

CL,t

Cm

xnp = xac,w + VH

1

CLw

CL f s

(

)

C

C

Cm

L

m

,t

= xcg xac,w + VH

CL a/c

CLw

CL f s

Cm

CL a/c

Typical values: 5% to 15% based on mean aerodynamic chord.

(5)

Module-3

Lecture-15

Static Stability and Control - Elevator Control

power, Elevator Angle to trim and Estimation of

Stick Fixed Neutral Point

Longitudinal Control

Control of the pitch attitude of the airplane can be achieved by deflecting the elevator.

Elevator Effectiveness

When the elevator is deflected, it changes the lift and the pitching moment of the airplane.

Change in lift for the airplane, CL ;

CL = CLe e

where,

CLe =

CL

e

Similarly change in the pitching moment, Cm

Cm = Cme e

where,

Cme =

Cm

e

(Cm )a/c = Cmo + Cm + Cme e

The variation of Cm with e in presented in Figure 1. Kindly note that Slope Cm /

remains same when elevator is deflected.

Expression for CLe and Cme The change in lift of the airplane due to deflecting the

elevator is equal to the change in lift force acting on the tail

L = Lt = CLt qt St

Let,

qt - dynamic pressure at tail

CL =

Lt

1

V 2 Sw

2

St CLt

e

Sw e

CLt

: Elevator Effectiveness

e

1

The elevator effectiveness is proportional to the size of the flap being used.

CLt , t

CLt

=

.

= CL,t

e

, t e

Typical value of lies between 0.2 to 0.6.

CL =

St

St CLt

e =

CL,t e

Sw e

Sw

CLe =

St

CL,t

Sw

(1)

lt

lt

St

Cm = CL = CL,t

e

c

Sw

c

St lt

Cm =

CL,t e

Sw c

Cme = VH CL,t

This is known as elevator control power.

(2)

An aircraft is said to be trimmed if the net forces and moments acting on the airplane

are zero.

Cm = Cmo + Cm + Cme e

At trim, Cm = 0

0 = Cmo + Cm trim + Cme etrim

The lift coefficient at trim is CLtrim

CLtrim = CL trim + CLe (e)trim

[CLtrim CLe (e)trim ]

CL

trim =

(3)

We have

etrim

Cmo CL + Cm CLtrim

=

Cme CL Cm CLe

or

etrim =

Cme

Cm

C

Cmo

CL Ltrim

CCmL CLe

Cme CCmL CLe

Assuming,

Cm

CL Cme

CL e

We have,

etrim

Cmo

=

Cme

Cm

C

CL Ltrim

Cme

Cm

Cm

=

CL

CL

so

Cm

CL

Cm o

CLtrim

Cme

Cme

e

= eo +

CL

CL trim trim

etrim =

(e)trim

where

eo =

Cmo

Cme

C

m

e

C

= L

CLtrim

Cme

(4)

etrim = eo +

e

CLtrim

CLtrim

(5)

This equation can be used to estimate the value of elevator deflection required to trim a

given aircraft at a particular CLtrim

etrim = eo +

e

CLtrim

CLtrim

m

etrim

CL

=

CLtrim

Cme

Therefore, at neutral point,

etrim

=0

CLtrim

Above equation can be used to estimate stick fixed neutral point.

Fly at different center of gravity configuration and execute cruise

Estimate corresponding

CLtrim =

2W/S

1

V 2

2

and record e

Plot etrim v/s CLtrim

Cross plot [e/CL ]trim v/s xcg to get neutral point.

no

x cg =0.4

e trim

CL

x cg =0.2

d e

dC L

trim

x cg =0.3

x cg

x cg =0.4

x cg =0.3

x cg =0.2

Module-3

Lecture-16

Stick Free Stability and Control

Stick-Free Stability

Each control surface on an aircraft is mounted through a hinge. A deflection of

control surface results in modified aerodynamic moment about the hinge line. The

pilot (or some mechanism) must supply adequate force/ moment to counter this

hinge moment.

Moment acting at hinge line of an elevator is to be overcome by pilot exerting a

force on the control stick.

He = Che

1

2

e V

Se ce

2

where,

Se - Area aft of the hinge line

ce - Chord from hinge line to T.E. of flap

Reversible Controls

In reversible control system, the pilot controls are connected to the control surfaces.

This is generally done by using pulleys, cables and push rods.

Therefore, if pilot moves the control stick then the corresponding control surface also

sets deflected. Similarly, if control surface is deflected then the control stick also gets

deflected.

Irreversible Controls

1

In irreversible control system, despite the controls are directly connected to surfaces;

there is additional boost system that requisite force, moment to the controls.

As a consequence, when pilot moves the stick then the control surface moves. However, movement of control surface will not move the stick.

The boost system is supposed to hold the control surface in a fixed position once it

is set at that position.

For a reversible system in hands off condition (pilot let go off the stick!) the control

surface will float to the position where there is no hinge moment (force or moment

applied to the control surface disappear).

The condition where the hinge moment is equal to zero is called stick free condition. It is important to note that under this condition, the aerodynamic characteristics including the neutral point change.

Ch = Cho + Cht t + Che e + Cht t

Let us assume, there is no tab, t = 0 Cht t = 0.

Also let us assume that the tail has symmetric airfoil cross-section

Cho = 0

Ch = Cht t + Che e

When elevator is set free, then Ch = 0

Ch = Cht t + Che e = 0

(e )f ree = (e )f loat =

Cht

Cht

!

t

Usually Cht and Cht are negative, so elevator floats up when t is positive.

CLt = CLt t + CLe CLe

CLt = CLt t +

"

CLt = CLt

Cht

Cht

f ree

!

t CLe

#

CLe Cht

1

t

CLt Cht

let

CLt

CLe

dt

=

=

CLt

de

Cht

= CLt 1

t

Che

Cht

f = 1

Che

CLt = CLt f t

is positive, Cht < 0 and Che < 0

C 0Lt = CLt f

which implies f < 1

C 0Lt < CLt

This is provided Cht < 0 and Che < 0

To derive expression for stick free neutral point we start realizing that stick-fixed case

and stick-free case differ by the modified lift curve slope as modeled for stick free case.

dCm

Cmcg = Cmo +

CL Stick fixed

dce

C 0mcg = C 0mo +

dCm

dce

0

CL Stick free

Cmo = Cmow + Cmot + CLt VH (iw it + o )

and

C 0Lt

dCm

dCm

= xcg xac +

VH 1

dCL

dCL f s CLw

Module-3

Lecture-17

Stick Free Stability and Control - Stick free Neutral

Point, Stick force and Estimation of Stick free

neutral Point.

0

This is the location of xcg for which (dCm /dCL ) = 0 which means,

0

C

dC

e

L

m

t

+

VH t 1

- - - Stick free

n

0o = xac,w

dCL f s CLw

we know

dCm

n

o = xac,w

dCL

CLt

+

VH t 1

- - - Stick fixed

CLw

fs

since,

Cht

and f = 1

Che

C 0Lt = f CLt

We can show that,

0

n

o n

o =

CLt

CLw

Cht

VH t 1

Cht

As,

Cht < 0

CLt > 0

CLw > 0

Che < 0

Therefore,

n

o n

0o > 0

Therefore, it can easily be understood that stick free neutral point is always ahead

of stick fixed neutral point as represented in the given Figure 1

The static margin will be (

n0o xcg )

dCm

dCL

0

= xcg n

0o

Therefore,

n

0o xcg =

dCm

dCL

0

Stick Force

At CLtrim , net stick force is zero since Ch = 0 (Hinge moment at elevator) as pilots

hands are desired to be free. Thus, at trim,

Cht

t

(e)f loat =

Che

Suppose we want to change from CLtrim to CL , The pilot has to apply force to bring

e to desired position. At CLtrim , e floats at such an angle that net Cmcg . When

new CL is aimed, e again takes new float position.

dCm

Cm =

{CL CLtrim }

dCL f ree

To achieve equilibrium, elevator has to be moved to balance this increase in Cmcg

(Cm )e + (Cm )CL = 0

dCm

Cme e +

{CL CLtrim } = 0

dCL f ree

dCm

CL CLtrim

e =

dCL f ree

Cme

Hinge moment due to this additional e

Ch = Che e

dCm

CL CLtrim

Ch = Che

dCL f ree

Cme

This need to be balanced by stick force, Fs

Fs = He /lg

where, lg is the length of the effective lever arm associated with the mechanism.

Fs He

2

1

Fs = G V 2 Se ce Che

2

"

dCm

dCL

0

f ree

CL CLtrim

Cme

#

we know that

CL =

2W/S

2W/S

and

C

=

L

trim

2

V 2

Vtrim

Hence,

dCm

Fs

dCL

0

V2

W Che

1 2

GSe ce

Vtrim

S Cme

f ree

0

dFs

2V

dCm

2

dV

Vtrim

dCL f ree

At V = Vtrim

0

dFs

2

dCm

dV

Vtrim

dCL f ree

dFs /dV < 0 implies we need to pull to increase CL and decrease speed and still

maintain cruise flight.

Step 1: Cruise the aircraft at different speed.

Step 2: Note down the stick force Fs required for each trim.

Step 3: Using equation:

dFs

q

dCm

dCL

dCL

h

i

0

= xcg n

o

f ree

Step 4: Plot (dFs /q)/dCL vs xcg

0

o (

xcg ) at which (dFs /q)/dCL

Fs

q

CL

n'o

dF s /q

dC L

x cg =0.4

x cg =0.3

x cg =0.2

x cg

x cg =0.4

x cg =0.3

x cg =0.2

Module-4

Lecture-18

Maneuvering Flight: Introduction, Steady

Coordinated turn.

Turning Flight

Generally both trim and static stability are defined only for an equilibrium flight

condition. We need to understand how a pilot uses control surfaces to accelerate

from one equilibrium to another.

Lift is the primary force to provide these accelerations.

Angle of attack governs the magnitude of lift; the elevator controls the angle of

attack.

The ailerons are used to control the direction of lift vector as the rudder is generally

used only to coordinate the maneuver and eliminate the side slip.

Coordinated turn Turning Without Sideslip

Turning can be done by two ways:

Using aileron through bank

Using rudder

For large turn rate: aileron is used. The airplane is banked using aileron and

component of lift is used to make a turn.

Rudder can also be used for turn rate of smaller magnitudes.

The aircraft needs to be kept such that it does not loose altitude and at the same

time no side slip, i.e.

One component of lift should balance the weight.

Other component should provide enough force to generate centripetal acceleration.

By resolving lift to satisfy above requirements, we need to fly such that

L cos = W = mg

and

L sin =

mV 2

R

tan =

V2

V2

R=

Rg

g tan

Pitch rate due to (yaw rate), when the aircraft is turning using component of lift

(bank angle is )

q = sin

and

V

V = R =

R

2

V

q = sin = sin

R

Since,

R=

V2

g tan

Therefore,

q=

g

sin tan

V

Load factor,

n=

lif t

L

L

1

=

=

=

weight

mg

L cos

cos

1

n=

cos

Now,

1

cos =

n

n2 1

sin =

n

tan = n2 1

g

q = sin tan

V

g n2 1

=

n2 1

V

n

g n2 1

=

V

n

1 g

q = n

n V

Module-4

Lecture-19

Maneuvering Flight: Steady Pull up, Relationship

between stick fixed Neutral and Maneuvering point.

Steady pull-up

Figure 1: Figure representing free body diagram of an aircraft during pull up maneuver

Lw =

mV 2

R

L = nW

(n 1)W =

mV 2

R

As, W = mg and q = V /R

q=

g

(n 1)

V

R=

V2

1

g (n 1)

Hence,

Note:

Pull-up:

q=

g

(n 1)

V

q=

1

n

n

g

V

g

k

q=

n

V

n

k = n for pull up, k = 1 for steady coordinated turn

Because of the pitch rate q tail will experience additional angle of attack

t = q

lt

V

Because of this t there will be additional lift on the tail during maneuver. Therefore,

elevator needs to be deflected up to nullify this additional nose down moment (due to

additional lift at tail).

Recall, = dt /de; i.e. how much tail angle changes per unit elevator deflection.

e should be such that e compensates additional angle qlt /V . So we can write:

e + q

e =

lt

=0

V

qlt

V

A factor of 1.1 is generally used to account for the contribution to stability due to

pitch rate from the fuselage position ahead of wing. So:

e = 1.1

qlt

V

g

k

q=

n

V

n

where k = n for pull-up and k = 1 for steady coordinated turn. We have:

1.1glt

k

e =

n

V 2

n

2

Thus, during maneuver (with pitch rate q), the elevator required to trim a/c at

CL = nW /(V 2 S/2) pitching at the rate q will be given by

1.1glt

k

de

CL

n

e = eo +

dCL

V 2

n

de

nW

1.1glt

k

e = eo +

n

dCL 12 V 2 S

V 2

n

By differentiating the above expression with respect to n one can show that,

"

( 2W

)#

de

1 1.1glt

k0

dC

m

S

= 2

1+ 2 +

dn

V

n

Cme dCL f ix

where,

k 0 = 0 for pull-up

k 0 = 1 for steady coordinated turn

Maneuvering Point (Pull Up)

Stick fixed maneuvering point is the c.g. location at which de/dn = 0

Using above equation, we get:

dCm

1.1glt Cm e

=

dCL f ix

2W

S

xcg n

o =

xcg = n

o

1.1glt Cm e

2W

S

1.1glt Cm e

=n

m

2W

S

n

m = n

o

1.1glt Cm e

2W

S

So, n

m > n

o i.e. stick fixed maneuvering point is aft of stick fixed neutral point.

This is consistent as the pitch rate provides additional stability through tail.

Module-4

Lecture-20

Maneuvering Flight: Stick Fixed Maneuvering point

Stick fixed maneuvering point is the c.g. location at which de/dn = 0

"

( 2W

)#

de

1 1.1glt

k0

dC

m

S

= 2

1+ 2 +

dn

V

n

Cme dCL f ix

#

"

k0

de

1 2 W

1.1glt Cme

S

1 + 2 + xcg n

= 2

o

dn

V Cme

n

2 W

S

1.1glt Cme

k0

xcg n

o =

1+ 2

n

2 W

S

(1)

(2)

Pull-up; k 0 = 0

xcg n

o =

1.1glt Cme

2 W

S

xcg = n

m

so Equation 2 becomes,

1.1glt Cme

n

0 = n

m +

2 W

S

k0

1+ 2

n

(3)

"

#

0

0

1 2 W

de

1.1gl

C

k

1.1gl

C

k

t

m

t

m

S

e 1 + 2 + xcg n

e 1 + 2

= 2

m

W

dn

V Cme

n

n

2 W

2

S

S

de

1 2 W

S

= 2

(

xcg n

m)

dn

V Cme

We know that stick fixed neutral point is that c.g. location at which de/dn = 0, equivalently at xcg = n

m ; de/dn = 0

1 2 W

de

S

= 2

(

xcg n

m)

dn

V Cme

n

m xcg is called maneuvering margin

The significant points to be made about the above equation are:

For more forward c.g. location, more elevator will be required to obtain the limit

load factor. Therefore, as the c.g. moves forward, more elevator deflection is

necessary to obtain a given load factor.

The lower positive speed (higher the CL ) more elevator will be necessary to set

the limit load factor. Thus, at low speeds more elevator deflection is necessary

to obtain a desired load factor than is required to obtain at a higher speed.

The derivative de/dn should be linear with respect to c.g. at a constant CL .

Module-4

Lecture-21

Maneuvering Flight: Stick free maneuvering point,

Stick force Gradient

(Cm )maneuver

dCm

=

dCL

(CL CLtrim )

f ree

where,

CL =

nW

1

V 2 S

2

This (Cm ) is required to be balanced by additional e deflection. So,

(Cm )maneuver = Cme e

The equilibrium equation to calculate e is given below:

dCm

Cme e +

(CL CLtrim ) = 0

dCL f ree

(CL CLtrim )

dCm

e =

dCL f ree

Cme

This e deflection will create a hinge moment Ch given by:

Ch = Che e

dCm

Che

=

(CL CLtrim )

dCL f ree Cme

Stick froce to balance it, Fs

1

Fs = GSe ce V 2 Ch

2

where, G is gearing constant.

"

#

1 2

dCm

Che

Fs = GSe ce V

(CL CLtrim )

2

dCL f ree Cme

"

#

Che

nW

W

1 2

1

V 2 S

V S

f ree Cme

2

2

W Che dCm

Fs = GSe ce

(n 1)

S Cme dCL f ree

1

Fs = GSe ce V 2

2

dCm

dCL

dFs

W Che

= GSe ce

xcg n0m

dn

S Cme

where,

n0m = n0o +

1.1Che

Cme

glt Che

W

Che 2

S

1

(1)

Recall: n0m (stick free) maneuvering point is that cg location at which dFs /dn = 0

Note:

Stick force gradient is very important design parameter

As cg shifts aft; Fs per g reduces.

Most aft cg may be limited by it.

Most forward cg may be limited by maximum value of stick free gradient.

Module-5

Lecture-22

Lateral and Directional Aerodynamic Model

First, there are two moment equations and one force equation and the moment

equations are coupled kinematically through the product of inertia as well as aerodynamically.

Second, the lateral mode (roll) has no inherent static stability; no aerodynamic

restoring moment is generated directly by rolling. Rather, a secondary moment is

generated through the directional axis due to sideslip and dihedral effect becomes

the dominant factor.

Third, the controls used to produce moments about either of the axes also produce

moment about the other.

Aileron deflection produces yawing moments and the rudder produces significant

rolling moment.

In spite of these three facts, it is still instructive to measure the static directional

stability and the dihedral effect through steady state tests and to quantify the

control authorities about the x and z axes with steady state maneuvers.

These steady state test methods are discussed in the following sections. For this introduction to static lateral-directional flight test methods, it is sufficient to represent

the equations of motion as described below

We will be referring to the usual body axis system as presented in Figure 1 for future

reference

c.g.

xb

yb

Figure 1: Body fixed axis system

Force Equation

Fy = m(v + ru pw)

1

N = Ixz p + Ix r + pq(Iy Iz ) + Ixz qr

Rolling Moment Equation

l = Ix p Ixz r + qr(Ix Iy ) Ixz pq

mg

Fy = (Fy )gravity + (Fy )aerodynamics

Referring to above figure, we can express components of weight (mg) along body

fixed y and z axis as:

(Fy )gravity = mg cos sin

(Fz )gravity = mg cos cos

where, and are the pitch and bank angle respectively.

Fy aerodynamics : The aerodynamic force along y direction can be expressed as function

of roll rate p, yaw rate r, side slip angle , aileron deflection a , and rudder deflection

r . The following aerodynamic model is assumed:

1 2

pb

rb

Fy aerodynamics = VT S Cyp

+ C yr

+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r

2

2VT

2VT

where,

VT =

u2 + v 2 + w2

u, v, w are the components of total air relative velocity VT along body fixed axes x,

y, z respectively.

2

Using,

Cy =

Fy

1

VT2 S

2

we have:

1

Fy = V T 2 SCy + mg cos sin = m(v + ru pw)

2

where,

pb

rb

+ Cyr

+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r

2VT

2VT

C y = C yp

Yawing Moment (N )

The yawing moment is also function of p, r, , a and r and hence it can be

experessed as:

1

N = VT2 SbCn

2

where,

Cn = Cn p

pb

rb

+ Cnr

+ Cn + Cna a + Cnr r

2VT

2VT

The rolling moment coefficient Cl , can also be expressed as:

Cl = Clp

pb

rb

+ Cl r

+ Cl + Cla a + Clr r

2VT

2VT

Thus, Lateral-Directional stability can be studied by the help of following three equations:

1 2

pb

rb

Fy = VT S Cyp

+ Cyr

+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r + mg cos sin

2

2VT

2VT

= m(v + ru pw)

pb

1 2

rb

+ Cnr

+ Cn + Cna a + Cnr r

N = VT Sb Cnp

2

2VT

2VT

= Ixz p + Ix r + pq(Iy Iz ) + Ixz qr

1 2

pb

rb

L = VT Sb Clp

+ Cl r

+ Cl + Cla a + Clr r

2

2VT

2VT

= Ix p Ixz r + qr(Ix Iy ) Ixz pq

Module-5

Lecture-23

Directional Stability and Control

Directional stability

Directional or weathercock stability is related to stability of the aircraft about z-axis.

An airplane is said to possess static directional stability, if it has initial tendency

to comeback to its equilibrium condition when subjected to some form of yawing

disturbance.

Figure 1: Static directional stability (a) Equilibrium condition of zero yaw (b) Sideslip

disturbance

From Figure 1, the airplane will have directional stability, if it generates positive

yawing moment to counter positive yaw () disturbance. (Cn > 0)

Wing: The contribution of the wing to directional static stability is quite small (for

small angle of attack).

Fuselage/Engine/Nacells usually create destabilizing contribution towards directional stability.

Cn,wing+f uselage = K1 K2

Sf lf

(per degree)

Sw b

where,

K1

function of the fuselage geometry

K2

Sf

lf

Vertical tail needs to be properly designed to ensure adequate directional stability

Aircraft in positive side slip generates restoring moment through vertical tail. The

restoring moment can be expressed as:

N = lv CLv ( + ) Qv Sv

where,

lv

the vertical tail

CLv

sidewash angle

1

v 2 vertical tail

yN

lv Sv

2

Cn = 1 2

=

CLv ( + ) 1 2

S

b

v

S

b

v f ree stream

w

w

2

2

d

Cn

Cn =

= V v v C L v 1 +

d

where,

1

v 2 vertical tail

2

1

2

v

2

f ree stream

v =

Z

d

Sv /S

+ 0.4 w + 0.009ARw

v 1 +

= 0.724 + 3.06

d

d

1 + cos c/4

where,

S

Wing area

Sv

fuselage senter-line

Zw

chord to fuselage reference line

c/4

The component of the free stream velocity normal to the quarter chord line primarily

decides the aerodynamic forces.

V

+

V cos (

)

V cos (

al

(Norm ent to

n

compo edge of

leading )

g

the win

+ )

y

in g

Right W

From Figure 3, the right wing will experience more dynamic pressure (as the velocity

seen by wing leading edge is V cos( )) as compared to the left wing.

Yawing moment due to drag force on right wing will be

Sw

1 2

NwR = V SCD

y cos2 ( )

2

2

1 2

Sw

NwL = V SCD

y cos2 ( + )

2

2

Differential yawing moment is

Sw

y cos2 ( ) cos2 ( + )

2

Sw

1 2

y {4 cos sin cos sin }

= V CD

2

2

1

Nw = V 2 CD

2

1

Nw = CD Sw y V 2 sin 2

2

(Cn )w =

Cn

Nw

1

V 2 Sb

2

w

y

= CD sin 2

b

y

= CD sin 2 > 0

b

Directional Control

Yawing moment produced by the rudder deflection depends on the change in sideforce on the vertical tail due to deflection of the rudder.

For a positive rudder deflection, a positive side force (Yv ) is generated by vertical

tail. This side force creates a negative yawing moment.

N = lv Yv

4

Yv = CLv Qv Sv

lv Sv dCLv

r

Sw b dr

dCLv

lv Sv

Cn = v Vv

r ; Vv =

dr

Sw b

Cn =

1

V 2 Sw

2

= v

Cn = Cnr r

Cnr = v Vv

dCLv

dr

dCLv

dCLv dv

=

= CLv

dr

dv dr

is the flap effectiveness parameter which depends on ratio of rudder area to vertical

fin area

The sign of Cnr is negative

Module-5

Lecture-24

Lateral Stability and Control

Lateral stability

An airplane is said to have roll (lateral) stability, if a restoring moment is generated when

it is disturbed in bank orientation ().

The restoring moment is function of side slip angle, .

The requirement for roll stability is that Cl < 0.

The rolling moment created in airplane due to side slip angle also depends on

Wing dihedral

Wing sweep

Position of wing and fuselage

Vertical tail

The major contributor to Cl is the wing dihedral angle, .

When an aircraft is disturbed from a wing-level attitude, it will begin to side slip.

Decre

ase

in ang

Rolling moment

le of

a

ttack

as

Incre

f

ngle o

e in a

attack

v n=V sin

V (due to side slip)

On wing 1,

vn

u

V sin

=

u

v

=

u

=

On wing 2, angle of attack will decrease. Resulting in negative rolling moment to

positive side slip angle.

Cl < 0

Lw,R

b

2

1

= V 2 CL,w

2

c(y).y.dy

0

Lw,L

1

= V 2 CL,w

2

c(y).y.dy

2b

1

Lw = 2 V 2 CL,w

2

b

2

cydy

0

Z b

2

2

cydy

= and y =

Sw 0

1

S

Lw = 2 V 2 CL,w y

2

2

Lw

y

(Cl,w ) = 1 2 = CL,w

b

V Sb

2

Cl = CL

y

b

Cl,w > 0, Destabilizing for < 0 : Anhedral

Cl : Due to wing sweep

(Lw )R, = CL

(Lw )L, = CL

S1 2

V y cos2 ( )

22

S1 2

V y cos2 ( + )

22

Hence,

(Lw ),T otal = CL

S1 2 2

V y cos ( ) cos2 ( + )

22

Assume to be small; cos 1 and sin

1

(Lw ),T otal = CL V2 y. sin 2

2

y

(Clw ) = CL sin 2

b

y

Cl = CL sin 2

b

Cl < 0 Stabilizing

2

zv

c .g.

Cl : Due to vertical tail

The rolling moment due to vertical tail when aircraft is side slipping can be written

as

1

l = V 2 v Sv

2

dCL

d

.zv

v

hence,

Cl

v

= v

Sv zv

CL,v

Sw b

Roll control

It is achieved by differential deflection of small flaps called ailerons.

The basic principle lies on the fact that due to differential deflection of ailerons, the

lift distribution over the wing becomes unequal, causing a rolling moment.

An approximate expression for roll control power can be obtained using simple strip

integration method.

Wing

y1

y

y2

Center line

3

= (Lift).y

Cl =

L

Cl Qcydy

Cl cydy

=

=

qSb

QSb

Sb

Cl = CL .

d

.a = CL ..a

da

Z

2CL,w a y2

Cl =

cydy

Sb

y1

Z

2CL,w y2

Cla =

cydy

Sb

y1

Module-6

Lecture-25

Various Coordinate System

With respect to a 2- Dimensional flow problem (airfoil cross section) Figure 1, x axis is assigned to the general flow direction with origin at nose of the body under

consideration.

y - axis is naturally chosen normal to the x-axis in the upward direction.

predicts z - axis to be pointing in the spanwise direction.

This coordinate system is referred to as aerodynamic coordinates.

Disadvantages:

Since aerodyanamic coordinate system is fixed to the aircraft, the position

and orientation of the aircraft cant be described in terms of aerodynamic

coordinates.

Position and Orientation of an aircraft are expressed in terms of an earth fixed

coordinate system.

(xf yf ) plane is normal to the local gravitation vector with xf - axis pointing east

and the yf axis pointing north.

zf - axis points up, completing the right handed Cartesian system.

This coordinate system is also known as inertial coordinate system under the following assumptions.

Radius of earth is very large compared to distance traveled by an aircraft.

Earth is assumed to be flat.

Effects due to earths rotation and revolution are neglected.

Aerodynamic forces and moments are described in terms of atmosphere fixed coordinate system.

Denoted by (xa , ya , za ), all axes are parallel to earth-fixed coordinate system.

Atmosphere fixed coordinate system moves at a constant velocity relative to earth

fixed coordinate system i.e., wind.

The inertia tensor is most conveniently described in terms of body fixed coordinate

system.

Origin is located at the aircraft center of gravity and is moving along with the

aircraft.

xb - axis point forward along some convenient axis of the fuselage in the aircrafts

plane of symmetry.

yb - axis is normal to the plane of symmetry and points towards the direction of

right wing.

3

zb - axis points downwards in the aircraft plane of symmetry, completing the righthanded Cartesian system.

Ground Speed (Vg ):

Velocity of the body fixed coordinate relative to the earth fixed coordinate system.

Airspeed (V ):

The velocity of the body fixed coordinate system relative to the atmosphere fixed coordinate

system.

Ground speed and airspeed are related as:

Vg = V + Vw

where,

Vw is the velocity of atmosphere relative to earth, or wind.

(1)

Module-6

Lecture-26

6 DOF equations of motion

c.g.

xb

at c.g.

yb

xI

yI

Inertial

Frame

zI

Figure 1: Inertial frame and body fixed frame

X

F =

X

d

d

M=

H

mV ;

dt

dt

H : Angular Momentum

mV : Linear Momentum

Consider an airplane as shown in Figure 2

m

xb

yb

Figure 2: m element

Let V be the velocity of the elemental mass, m of the airplane. V is the velocity

of m with respect to inertial frame.

Let F be the resulting force acting on the mass m. By Newtons second law

(assume mass is constant; not changing with time).

F = m

dV

dt

also

X

F = F

V = Vc +

Vc

dr

dt

Then

X

d X

dr

Vc +

m

dF = F =

dt

dt

dVc

d X dr

F =m

+

m

dt

dt

dt

d2 X

dVc

+ 2

F =m

rm

dt

dt

X

rm = 0

F =m

dVc

dt

Moment equation:

d

d d

H =

(r V ) m

dt

dt dt

dr

V = Vc +

= Vc + r

dt

M =

H=

H =

(r Vc ) m +

[r ( r) m]

Vc is constant with respect to the summation and can be taken outside the summation sign.

H=

(rm) Vc +

r ( r) m

rm = 0 (Definition of c.g.)

X

H=

r V m

Let

= pi + qj + rk

r = xi + yj + z k

Solving for H, with and r yields

Hx = p

X

X

X

X

y 2 + z 2 m q

xym r

xzm

X

X

x2 + z 2 m r

yzm

X

X

X

x2 + y 2 m

Hz = p

xzm q

yzm + r

Hy = p

xym + q

Z Z Z

Ix =

y +z

Z Z Z

Ixy =

Z Z Z

Iz =

Z Z Z

m ; Iy =

x2 + z 2 m

Z Z Z

xym ; Ixz =

x2 + y 2 m ; Iyz

xzm

Z Z Z

=

yzm

Hy = pIxy + qIy rIyz

Hz = pIxz qIyz + rIz

If the reference frame (in this case inertial frame) is not rotating, then as the airplane

rotates the moments and the product of inertia will vary with time.

To avoid this difficulty, we fix the axis system to the aircraft (in this case at c.g.

body axis system)

Since the body fixed axis is not inertial frame, we need to use the following definition

of derivative of a vector

dA

dA

=

+A

dt Inertial

dt Body

So

dVc

F =m

+ Vc

dt B

dH

M=

+H

dt B

Solving these two equations, we get

Fx = m (u + qw rv)

Fy = m (v + ru pw)

Fz = m (w + pv qu)

L = Ix p Ixz r + qr(Iz Iy ) Ixz pq

M = Iy q + rp (Ix Iz ) + Ixz p2 r2

Since the airplane is choosen to be symmetric about xz plane;

Iyz = Ixy = 0

Fy = Fygravity + Fypropulsion + Fyaerodynamic

Fz = Fzgravity + Fzpropulsion + Fzaerodynamic

Fxgravity = mg sin

Fygravity = mg cos sin

Fzgravity = mg cos cos

Module-6

Lecture-27

Euler angles & Kinematic equations

Euler Angles

Formulas described in previous lecture provide linear and angular velocity w.r.t.

(X, Y , Z) Body fixed coordinate system.

Now analysis of the relative motion of body fixed reference frame and inertial reference frame is required.

There are several methods of tracking the orientation of the X, Y , Z frame with

respect to earth based inertial frame X 0, Y 0, Z 0.

The most common approach is based on Euler angles.

The introduction of Euler angle is based on a rigorous sequence that involves the

introduction of a number of reference frames based on successive rotations.

Step1: Introduce a reference frame X1 , Y1 , Z1 that moves with the aircraft

center of gravity while being parallel to the earth based frame X 0, Y 0, Z 0.

Step2: Rotation around Z1 of an angle from the frame X1 , Y1 , Z1 to a new

frame X2 , Y2 , Z2 with Z1 = Z2 .

Step3: Rotation around Y2 of an angle from the frame X2 , Y2 , Z2 to a new

frame X3 , Y3 , Z3 with Y2 = Y3 .

Step4: Rotation around X3 of an angle from the frame X3 , Y3 , Z3 to the

aircraft body frame X, Y , Z with X3 = X.

Kinematic Equations

Angular velocities in body frame can be expressed in terms of rate of change of the

Euler angles.

+

+

=

= P i + Q

j + Rk

Starting with the transformation X1 , Y1 , Z1 X2 , Y2 , Z2 , we have Z1 = Z2 which

implies k1 = k2 . Therefore

=

k1 =

k2

implies j2 = j3 . Therefore

=

j2 =

j3

implies i3 = i. Therefore

= i3 = i

+

+

=

k2 +

j3 + i

=

= P i + Q

j + Rk

In transformation X2 , Y2 , Z2 X3 , Y3 , Z3 ,

U3

U2

cos 0 sin

1

0 V3

V2 = 0

W3

sin 0 cos

2

i3

i

cos

0

sin

=

0

j2

1

0 j3

sin

0

cos

k

2

3

Similarly, in the transformation X3 , Y3 , Z3 X, Y , Z

U

1

0

0

0 cos sin

V

V3

0 sin cos

W

3

0

0

i3

1

i

j3 = 0 cos sin

j

0 sin cos

k

3

3

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Expression for k2 in i,

j, k

k2 = sin i3 + cos k3 = sin i + cos k3

so

where, k3 = sin

j + cos k,

j + cos cos k

j, k

j3 = cos

j sin k

Now using

+

+

=

k2 +

j3 + i

=

= P i + Q

j + Rk

we have

k2 ( sin i3 + cos sin

+ (cos

+ i

=

j + cos cos k)

j sin k)

P = sin

+ cos sin

Q = cos

sin

R = cos cos

Rearranging in matrix form

P

1

0

sin

Q = 0 cos cos sin

or,

1

sin

tan

cos

tan

0

cos

sin

Q

R

Note:

There is a singularity associated with = 90 . This is one of the reason for using

quaternion for large-scale simulation

Module-6

Lecture-28

Flight Path Equations, Gravity Equations and

Combined 6-DOF Model

Relationship between components of the linear velocities between the body fixed

frame and earth fixed coordinate system.

In X 0, Y 0, Z 0 frame (earth fixed)

V 0 = X 0i + Y 0

j + Z 0k

In X, Y , Z frame (body fixed)

V = X i + Y

j + Z k

Since assumed frame (X1 , Y1 , Z1 ) is parallel to (X 0, Y 0, Z 0) frame, so

U1 = X 1 = X 0

V1 = Y1 = Y 0

W1 = Z1 = Z 0

Using transformation equation from reference frame (X1 , Y1 , Z1 ) to reference frame

(X2 , Y2 , Z2 )

cos sin 0

U

U

U

1

2

X Y Z X Y Z

V1 = sin cos 0 V2 = R 1 1 1 2 2 2 V2

0

0

1

W2

W2

1

Using transformation equation from reference frame (X2 , Y2 , Z2 ) to reference frame

(X3 , Y3 , Z3 )

U

cos

0

sin

U

U

X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3

=

=

R

0

V3

V2

1

0 V3

sin

0

cos

W

W

3

2

3

Using transformation equation from reference frame (X3 , Y3 , Z3 ) to reference frame

(X, Y , Z)

U

0

0

U3

1

X3 Y3 Z3 XY Z

=R

V3 = 0 cos sin V

V

0 sin cos

W

W

3

1

U

U

X

X3 Y3 Z3 XY Z

X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3

X1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2

0

.R

.R

= V1 = R

V

Y

W

Z 0 W

1

X

X

X3 Y3 Z3 XY Z

X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3

X1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2

0

.R

.R

=

R

Y

Y

Z

Z 0

Therefore

U1

X 0

=

V1 =

Y

W

Z 0

1

cos sin 0

cos 0 sin

1

0

0

sin cos 0 0

1

0 0 cos sin V

0

0

1 sin 0 cos 0 sin cos

X 0

=

Y

Z 0

cos cos sin cos + cos sin sin sin sin + cos sin cos

sin cos cos cos + sin sin sin sin cos + sin sin cos

sin

cos sin

cos cos

Gravity equations

g = k0g = k1 g = k2 g = gXi + gY

j + gZ k

From previous discussions

j + cos cos k

so

= gXi + gY

j + cos cos k

j + gZ k

2

gX = g sin

gY = g cos sin

gZ = g cos cos

Figure 1: Block diagram showing the integration of the aircraft equation of motion

Module-7

Lecture-29

Flight Experiment: Instruments used in flight

experiment, pre and post flight measurement of

aircraft c.g.

Module Agenda

Instruments used in flight experiments.

Pre and post flight measurement of center of gravity.

Experimental procedure for the following experiments.

(a) Cruise Performance: Estimation of profile Drag coefficient (CDo ) and Oswalds efficiency (e) of an aircraft from experimental data obtained during

steady and level flight.

(b) Climb Performance: Estimation of Rate of Climb RC and Absolute and

Service Ceiling from experimental data obtained during steady climb flight

(c) Estimation of stick free and fixed neutral and maneuvering point using flight

data.

(d) Static lateral-directional stability tests.

(e) Phugoid demonstration

(f) Dutch roll demonstration

1. Airspeed Indicator: The airspeed indicator shows the aircrafts speed (usually in

knots ) relative to the surrounding air. It works by measuring the ram-air pressure

in the aircrafts Pitot tube. The indicated airspeed must be corrected for air density

(which varies with altitude, temperature and humidity) in order to obtain the true

airspeed, and for wind conditions in order to obtain the speed over the ground.

2. Attitude Indicator: The attitude indicator (also known as an artificial horizon)

shows the aircrafts relation to the horizon. From this the pilot can tell whether

the wings are level and if the aircraft nose is pointing above or below the horizon.

This is a primary instrument for instrument flight and is also useful in conditions

of poor visibility. Pilots are trained to use other instruments in combination should

this instrument or its power fail.

3. Altimeter: The altimeter shows the aircrafts altitude above sea-level by measuring

the difference between the pressure in a stack of aneroid capsules inside the altimeter

1

wikipedia

and the atmospheric pressure obtained through the static system. It is adjustable

for local barometric pressure which must be set correctly to obtain accurate altitude

readings. As the aircraft ascends, the capsules expand and the static pressure drops,

causing the altimeter to indicate a higher altitude. The opposite effect occurs when

descending.

4. Turn Coordinator: the turn and slip indicator (T/S) and the turn coordinator

(TC) variant are essentially two aircraft flight instruments in one device. One

indicates the rate of turn, or the rate of change in the aircrafts heading, the other

part indicates whether the aircraft is in coordinated flight, showing the slip or skid

of the turn. The slip indicator is actually an inclinometer that at rest displays the

angle of the aircrafts lateral axis with respect to horizontal, and in motion displays

this angle as modified by the acceleration of the aircraft.

5. Heading Indicator: The heading indicator (also known as the directional gyro,

or DG; sometimes also called the gyrocompass, though usually not in aviation applications) displays the aircrafts heading with respect to magnetic north. Principle

of operation is a spinning gyroscope, and is therefore subject to drift errors (called

precession) which must be periodically corrected by calibrating the instrument to

the magnetic compass.

6. Vertical Speed Indicator: The VSI (also sometimes called a variometer, or rate

of climb indicator) senses changing air pressure, and displays that information to

the pilot as a rate of climb or descent in feet per minute, meters per second or knots.

7. Yoke: A yoke, alternatively known as a control column, is a device used for piloting

some fixed-wing aircraft. The pilot uses the yoke to control the attitude of the plane,

usually in both pitch and roll. Rotating the control wheel controls the ailerons and

the roll axis.

8. Manifold pressure: The manifold pressure gauge is an engine instrument typically

used in piston aircraft engines to measure the pressure inside the induction system

of an engine. The induction system of couse being the air / fuel mixture that is

between the throttle and the cylinders.

Experiment # 1

Pre and post flight measurement of a/c cg

Center of gravity is calculated as follows:

Let:

X - Distance of the reference point from NOSE wheel

Y - Distance of the reference point from REAR wheel

N - Weight measured in nose wheel

L - Weight measured in left wheel

R - Weight measured in right wheel

Use formula:

Xcg =

(X N ) + {(L + R) Y }

L+R+N

Watch: Landing Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XiJ616XHknU

Watch: Taxiing Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8FDk-UBMzvQ

Module-7

Lecture-30

Flight Experiment: Cruise and Climb performance

Experiment # 2

Estimation of profile Drag coefficient (CDo ) and Oswalds efficiency (e) of an aircraft from experimental

data obtained during steady and level flight.

The following steps will elaborate the procedure to estimate the performance characteristics such as profile drag coefficient (CDo ) and oswalds efficiency factor (e) of a propeller

driven aircraft using flight data obtained during its cruise.

Record the velocity of flight, engine manifold pressure, outside air temperature, rpm

of the engine, during the cruise.

Use the conversion equations and calibration plots to obtain break horse power of

the engine from the above recorded data.

Now, the power required during the steady and level flight is given as:

W2

Preq

1

1

V S

= V 3 SCDo + 2

2

ARe

1

2W 2

PV =

SCDo V 4 +

2

AReS

(1)

Y =mX +c

(2)

Y = PV

1

m = SCDo

2

2

c=

AReS

Since we have measured velocity and calculated power required, if we plot P V vs V 4 we

will get a straight line whose y intercept is c and slope will be m. Now after calculating

slope and y intercept of experimental data, using the Equation 1 & 2 we can estimate the

profile drag coefficient (CDo ) and oswalds efficiency factor (e).

1

Altitude =...........

OAT = ................

V5

MP

Weight: Initial

Time: Start

Weight: Final

Time: End

RPM

MP: Manifold Pressure

RPM: angular speed of propeller blade

Note: The value of these two along with altitude and OAT will be used to calculate

power delivered by engine at that altitude.

2

Experiment # 3

Flight test for steady climb experiment

Step 1: Record the take-off weight (WT ).

Step 2: Note the initial altitude h1 and time t1 and the final altitude h2 and the

corresponding time t2 during the steady climb experiment.

Step 3: Simultaneously record the velocity (V ), rpm of propeller, propeller pitch

setting, manifold pressure of the engine and outside air temperature from the cockpit.

Step 4: Repeat the experiment for different climb velocities.

Step 5: Record the weight after landing (WL ). The weight that has to be considered

for calculations is average of takeoff and landing weights.

W =

(W1 + W2 )

2

Step 6: Find out the rate of climb for each velocity and the corresponding angle of

climb using the following equations.

RC

(h2 h1 )

To

, RCtrue = RCobserved

(t2 t1 )

Ts

sin =

RC

V

Step 8: Plot Angle of climb vs velocity.

Step 9: Plot Rate of climb vs. altitude (h).

If the time required to traverse the altitude band is also recorded, we can easily calculate

true rate of climb at each speed at choosen altitude. The observed rate of change of

pressure altitude is corrected to true rate by using the following relation:

Let the observed temperature be To and standard temperature at altitude be Ts .

Then, since the pressure change recorded is always the true pressure difference for altitude

change shown by the altimeter.

p = s g (H)p

s: standard altitude

p: pressure altitude

(H)T , is the true change in altitude, will have the same pressure difference.

p = T g (H)T

(H)T

To

s

=

(using p = RT )

=

(H)p

T

Ts

Therefore,

RCtrue = RCobserved

To

Ts

Altitude =...........

OAT = ................

V

H1

H2

t1

t2

H = H2 H1

t = t2 t1

V5

H2 : Altitude at which climb ends

t1 : Start time of climb

t2 : End time of climb

4

Module-7

Lecture-31

Flight Experiment: Flight tests to estimate stick free

and fixed, neutral and maneuvering points

Step 1: Cruise the aircraft at different speed.

Step 2: Note down the e required for each trim.

Step 3: Using the following equation:

m

dC

de

n

o xcg

dCL

=

=

dCL

Cme

Cme

Step 4: Plot de/dCL vs xcg

Step 5: Extrapolate to get n

o (

xcg ) at which de/dCL = 0

no

x cg =0.4

e trim

CL

x cg =0.2

d e

dC L

trim

x cg =0.4

x cg =0.3

x cg =0.2

x cg =0.3

V

Altitude

OAT

xcg

Weight: Initial

Weight: Final

x cg

Step 1: Cruise the aircraft at different speed.

Step 2: Note down the stick force Fs required for each trim.

Step 3: Using equation:

dFs

q

dCm

dCL

dCL

h

i

0

= xcg n

o

f ree

Step 4: Plot (dFs /q)/dCL vs xcg

0

Step 5: Extrapolate to get n

o (

CL

n'o

dF s /q

dC L

x cg =0.4

x cg =0.3

Fs

q

x cg =0.4

x cg =0.3

x cg =0.2

x cg =0.2

V

Fs

Altitude

OAT

xcg

Weight: Initial

Weight: Final

x cg

Step 1: Steady pullup the airplane at different n (at different speed).

Step 2: Measure the elevator deflection angle e.

Step 3: Measure V , . Calculate Vtrue .

Step 4: Calculate q in Vtrue

Step 5: Using the following equation:

de

W/S

=

[

xcg n

m]

dn

qCme

Step 6: Plot e vs n for different xcg

Step 7: Plot de/dn vs xcg

Step 8: Intercept at xcg -axis is stick-fixed maneuvering point.

nm

x cg =0.4

x cg =0.3

d e

dn

x cg =0.4

x cg =0.3

x cg =0.2

x cg =0.2

V

Altitude

OAT

xcg

V5

: bank angle

x cg

Step 1: Steady pullup the airplane at different n (at different speed).

Step 2: Measure the stick force.

Step 3: Measure V , . Calculate Vtrue .

Step 4: Calculate q in Vtrue

Step 5: Using the following equation:

i

0

W/S h

dFs

xcg n

m

= GqSe ce Che

dn

Cma

Step 6: Plot Fs vs n for different xcg .

Step 7: Plot dFs /dn vs xcg .

Step 8: Intercept at xcg -axis is stick-free maneuvering point.

n'm

Fs

dF s

dn

x cg ,1

x cg ,2

x cg ,3

V

Fs

Altitude

OAT

xcg

V5

x cg

Module-7

Lecture-32

Test methods to determine dominant

lateral-directional stability

coefficients: Estimation of

side slip coefficient Cy , Estimation of yaw moment

coefficient Cn , Estimation of roll derivative Cl

lateral-directional stability

coefficients

The basic test method is the steady, state side slip - a classical, proven way to

determine static directional stability and dihedral effect from single maneuver. It

depends, though, on prior knowledge of the control derivatives like Cla and Cnr .

Like any other stability and control testing, the method also demands appropriate instrumentation, careful attention to trim, and precise control of airspeed and

altitude.

It may also be noted that these flight test techniques, though no longer widely used

since parameter estimation technique have become popular, offers the advantage of

simplicity and relatively uncomplicated instrumentation requirements.

For our purpose, it also serves as a useful way to teach the fundamentals of such

measurements.

The classical steady, state test method is commonly used to obtain measures of Cl

and Cn for all classes of airplanes.

In this test, maneuver data is collected at various constant and stabilized heading.

The pilot should choose a reference point on the distant visual horizon and use it

to fly a stabilized heading for each individual point (side-slip angle).

1

side slip. This cross-controlled condition is an unnatural piloting technique; the

rudder is normally used to maintain zero side slip in all maneuvers.

Using rudder and aileron in opposite directions, particularly at large side slip angles,

gives the pilot a sensation of sliding sideways in the seat due to the lateral force

that are applied.

These unusual sensations and unnatural control applications mean that the pilot

must concentrate carefully on setting up the conditions and maintaining them.

When equilibrium conditions have been attained, the data system should be turned

on to record altitude, outside air temperature, airspeed, side slip angle, bank angle,

control surface deflection, etc.

For steady side slip maneuver (level, = 0), Fy , p, r and v are zero. The y force

can be simplified as shown below:

1

0 = mg sin + VT2 S Cy + Cya a + Cyr r

2

further, for small bank angle, this simplifies to:

1

0 = mg + VT2 S Cy + Cya a + Cyr r

2

Dividing both side by 21 VT2 S, we get:

0=

mg

1

VT2 S

2

+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r

mg

1

VT2 S

2

= CL =

L

1

VT2 S

2

we get:

CL + Cy + Cya a + Cyr r = 0

Generally, Cya is negligible and further if we neglect contribution to side force due

to rudder, (please note rudder has dominating contribution to yawing moment),

then side-force equation can be represented as:

C L + C y = 0

2

(1)

or,

C y

= CL

The derivative Cy can be estimated with the help of measured values of CL , and

. The lift coefficient CL is obtained through CL = W/qS where q = VT2 /2

Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.

Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), bank angle (), and angle of side slip ()

during the steady side slip maneuver.

Step 3: Calculate lift coefficient (CL ) for the experiment using the expression:

CL =

W

1

VT2 S

2

C y

= CL

Yawing Moment Equation:

Cn = Cnp

rb

pb

+ Cnr

+ Cn + Cna a + Cnr r

2VT

2VT

Cn + Cna a + Cnr r = 0

This equation shows that the rudder is required to counteract the weather-cock

stability Cn and the aileron yaw Cna .

It may be noted that, the value of Cn can be estimated using recorded values of

a, r and , provided the values of Cna and Cnr are known a priori. Further, If

we neglect Cna , then one can show that

Cn

= r

r

Cn

where, Cnr is negative and Cn is positive by definition for a stable airplane.

Thus for an aircraft having directional stability, the slope of the plot of v/s r

will be positive.

3

Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.

Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), rudder deflection (r), and angle of side

slip () during the steady side slip maneuver.

Step 3: Now given the value of Cnr the other derivative Cn can be estimated with the help

of the expression.

Cn

= r

r

Cn

Step 4: Plot vs. r, we will find the slope of the plot will be positive.

Note:

Since Cnr is negative and Cnbeta is positive Cnr /Cn will be positive.

Rolling moment equation:

Cl = Clp

rb

pb

+ Clr

+ Cl + Cla a + Clr r

2VT

2VT

Cl + Cla a + Clr r = 0

Knowing the value of Clr and Cla , Cl can be estimated using the above relation.

Usually, Clr is small (not always, specially modern aircraft), and if we neglect its

contribution , then above equation further simplifies to:

Cl + Cla a

or,

Cl

= a

a

Cl

This equation shows that the aileron is deflected to counteract the dihedral effect.

Further, an equation can be generated to obtain the relationship between side slip

angle and aileron deflection required to execute steady side slip maneuver, provided

the value Cla and Cl are known.

4

Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.

Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), aileron deflection (a), and angle of side

slip () during the steady side slip maneuver.

Step 3: Now given the value of Cla the other derivative Cl can be estimated with the help

of the expression.

Cl

= a

a

Cl

Step 4: Plot vs a, we will find the slope of the plot will be negative.

Note:

Since Cla is negative and Cl is negative Cla /Cl will be negative.

Module-7

Lecture-33

Test methods to determine dominant

lateral-directional stability coefficients: Steady

Coordinated turn, Estimation of roll derivative (Clr ),

Estimation of yaw moment coefficient (Cnr )

The aim of this experiment is to determine the lateral and directional control angles required for trim under steady coordinated turn. This study also enables the

estimation of some of the directional and lateral static stability derivatives of the

airplane (in approximate manner).

Watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cpviulm7VNw

The side force equation Fy , for steady coordinated turn is as follows:

1 2

pb

rb

Fy = VT S Cyp

+ C yr

+ Cy + Cya a + Cyr r + mg cos sin

2

2VT

2VT

= m(v + ru pw)

For steady coordinated level turn with small bank angle, v = 0, p = 0, r 6= 0 and

= 0 (no slip). Thus the above force equation gets simplified to:

1 2

rb

+ Cya a + Cyr r = mrVT

mg + VT S Cyr

2

2VT

note, u

= VT

Neglecting Cyr , Cya and Cyr contribution (generally small), we have:

mg = mVT r

VT r + g = 0

This equation indicates a relationship between the rate of turn and the bank angle

at a given flight speed to maintain a steady coordinated turn (no side slip).

Rolling Moment Equation:

Cl = Clp

rb

pb

+ Clr

+ Cl + Cla a + Clr r

2VT

2VT

Cl r

rb

+ Cla a + Clr r = 0

2VT

1

Given the value of Cla and Clr , the drivative Clr can be estimated.

Neglecting Clr contribution, we have:

Clr

rb

+ Cla a = 0

2VT

This rolling moment equation indicates that the aileron is applied solely to counteract the rolling moment due to yaw which generally tends to bring the lower wing

further down. Also

r=

g

g

=

u

VT

since, u

= VT . Substituting this into

Cl r

rb

+ Cla a = 0

2VT

we have:

g

b

Cl r

+ Cla a = 0

VT 2VT

g b

= Cla a

Clr

2 VT2

a

1

2

VT

Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.

Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), aileron deflection (a), and roll angle ()

during the steady coordinated turn maneuver.

Step 3: Now given the value of Cla the other derivative Clr can be estimated with the help

of the following expression.

Cl r

g

2

b

= Cla a

VT2

Yawing Moment Equation:

Cn = Cnp

rb

pb

+ Cnr

+ Cn + Cna a + Cnr r

2VT

2VT

under the steady coordinated turn maneuver (no side slip,p = 0 and = 0), it

reduces to:

Cnr

rb

+ Cna a + Cnr r = 0

2VT

This equation indicates that the rudder is held to counteract the moments due to

yaw damping Cnr and the aileron yaw Cna .

If Cna is neglected then,

rb

= Cnr r

2VT

Cnr 2VT

r

=

r

Cn r

b

Cnr

Generally Cnr , Cnr are negative. Thus, one is expected to see r/r to be negative

for a stable aircraft. Also knowing the numerical values of Cnr , r, r,VT and b, the

dutch roll damping Cnr can be estimated.

Step 1: Record the takeoff weight of the aircraft.

Step 2: Note down the velocity (v), altitude (h), rudder deflection (r), and roll angle ()

during the steady coordinated turn maneuver.

Step 3: Now given the value of Cnr the other derivative Cnr can be estimated with the help

of the following expression.

Cn

r

= r

r

Cn r

2VT

b

Note:

Since Cnr is negative and Cnr is negative Cnr /Cnr will be negative.

Module-7

Lecture-34

Phugoid effect and dutch roll motion

The phugoid is a constant angle of attack but varying pitch angle exchange of airspeed

and altitude.

It can be excited by an elevator pulse (a short, sharp deflection followed by a return

to the centered position) resulting in a pitch increase with no change in trim from

cruise condition.

As speed decays, the nose will drop below the horizon.

Speed will increase, and the nose will climb above the horizon.

Periods can vary from under 30 seconds for light aircraft to minute for larger aircraft.

Micro light aircraft typically shows a Phugoid period of 15-25 seconds, and it

has been suggested that birds and model airplane shows convergence between the

Phugoid and short period modes.

Too forward location of cg results in worse Phugoid.

Watch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pQnNh-0pdg

Dutch roll is a type of aircraft motion, consisting of an out-of-phase combination of

tail-wagging and rocking from side to side.

This yaw-roll coupling is one of the basic flight dynamics modes (others include

Phugoid, short period and spiral divergence).

This motion is normally well damped. Dutch roll modes can experience a degradation in damping, decrease in airspeed and increase in altitude.

Dutch roll stability can be artificially increased by the installation of a yaw damper.

Wings placed well above the center of mass, sweep-back (swept wings) and dihedral

wings tends to increase the roll resting force, and therefore increase the Dutch roll

tendencies this is why high-winged aircraft often are slightly anhedral, and transport

category swept wing aircraft are equipped with yaw dampers.

Dutch roll is a messy combination of rolling, slipping and yawing. Like pedaling a

bicycle backwards.

Watch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOBbAFzXrRg

Questions

Q1. If only the elevator size of a given aircraft is decreased; keeping horizontal tail area

unchanged; then the aircraft will have

a)

b)

c)

d)

increased static stability and reduced elevator control power

no change in static stability but decreased elevator control power

None of the above.

Q2. When aircraft speed decreases from transonic to subsonic speed, the aerodynamic

centre of the wing moves forward, and therefore the Neutral point (stick fixed) of

the aircraft shifts

a) AFT

b) FWD

c) No effect.

Q3. When an aircraft trim speed is changed from 60 m/s to 100 m/s maintaining the

same altitude, the elevator will float

a) More

b) less

c) No effect.

Q4. If only the horizontal tail contribution was considered for derivative, than

how many times will become if tail arm is doubled.

a) two times

b) three times

c) four times

d) remains same.

a) >1

b) <1

c) =1

d) =1.414

1

aircraft

Q7. Most forward C.G. location is more restrictive in (Power on/ Propeller wind

milling) condition

Q8. To reduce the floating tendency of an elevator, hinge line has to be moved

(AFT/FWD)

Q9. In figure below, which aircraft will have higher stability margin

a) A

b) B

c) Equal for A and B

Q10.

a) A

b) B

c) Equal for A and B

Q11.

For an aircraft, following data was obtained in flight for propeller-wind milling

case. Given that prop-wind milling stick fixed neutral point , = 0.45 and

= 20

a) During the landing phase, C.G. was estimated to be at 0.22 , calculate the

maximum lift coefficient at which the equilibrium can be maintained

during landing (assume No ground effect).

b) If the ground effects were also included, will it permit equilibrium at higher

or lower lift coefficient compared to (a) above. Explain briefly

Q12.

= 120

12.0

For the aircraft, stick fixed stability margin was 0.25 and stick free stability margin

was 0.2.

c) Find stick free maneuvering point

d) Find C.G. limits permitted if the magnitude of stick force per 'g'( ) is to

remain within 10 and 30 N per g.

Q13.

Consider the following airplane in propeller-off condition being tested in a

wind-tunnel.

weight = 700

wing MAC= 1.2 ,

0 = 2 ()

= 0

= +2

ARw =6,

ARtail =4,

span wing = 6 ;

span tail = 2

2-d lift curve slope of wing and tail = 0.1 per degree

Distance between tail A.C.(aerodynamic center) and C.G. of the aircraft is 6.5

Elevator Area = 0.52

Elevator chord = 0.25

0 = 3

= 0.4

= 0.5

= 0.9

G=1.5 rad/m

Ch e = .007 per degree

Ch = .005 per degree

Ch = .003 per degree

t

The following Cm v/s CL curve were obtained for elevator fixed and elevator free case

Find:

(a) Stick fixed and stick free Neutral point.

(b) What is the trim airspeed for stick fixed case?

(c) If the aircraft was to be trimmed at airspeed of 200 KMPH, find the tab setting

required and also calculate the magnitude of for the C.G. location of . .

Assume does not change.

Q14. For an airplane (W/S = 400 N/m2) flying at some altitude ( = 0.8

Kg/m3), the following data were recorded.

V(m/sec) X c.g. = 0.20 X c.g. = 0.25

50

2.0 pull

1.0 pull

57.3

0.0

0.0

70.71

4.0 push

2.0 push

Pull +ve

Push -ve

Q15.

For an aircraft having X c.g. = 0.3, the stick force per g for level turn at

= 60 was 50 N per g

dF s

dn

N0 = 0.4, Nm

= 0.5 . Solve the problem graphically.

following information on stick force Fs in newton (N) were available:

Wing loading = 400 Kg/m2 , wing lift curve slope = 0.1deg-1

Speed(m/s) Alpha(deg) Fs N at X c.g. = 0.3 Fs N at X c.g. = 0.35

1.

120

3.8 pull

2.8 pull

2.

120

12

8.0 pull

6.0 pull

Find the stick free maneuver point. Solve the problem graphically.

Q17. Derive from the Abinitio for steady cruise flight conditions the following,

3

(a)

at

= 0.76

(b)

at

= 1.32

Q18. How for a level cruise will change with respect to the following

(a)

(b)

(c)

0 and

3

2

2

2

2

2 0

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