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Embryology

Reference: The Developing Human by Moore


Prepared by: PixelStringer

CHAPTER 1& 2
Introduction: Human Development
begins when an oocyte (ovum) is
fused with a sperm (spermatozoon) to
produce a totipotent cell (capable of
giving rise to any cell type) called the
zygote that will soon become a
multicellular human being. Processes
involved in transformation: cell
division, cell migration, growth and
differentiation.
Neonatal period (first four weeks),
Infancy (first year), childhood (2 years
to puberty), adolescence (11 to 19
years).
Development does not stop at birth,
only changes.

Developmental Periods
1. Prenatal-before birth
2. Postnatal- after birth

Development of a human from


fertilization of an oocyte to
birth
1. Embryonic Period- starts after
fertilization and terminates at
the end of 8 weeks
2. Fetal Period-extending from 9
weeks to birth
-during this period,
differentiation and growth of
tissues and organs occur and
the rate of the body growth
increases.
Stages of Embryonic Development
Early development is describe in
stages because of the variable period

it takes for the embryo to develop


certain morphologic characteristics.
Stage 1: Begins at Fertilization
Stage 23: Embryonic development
ends at this stage which occurs on day
NOTE: SEE PAGES 2-3. FIG 1.1
Trimester- is a period of 3 months, 1/3
of the 9month period of gestation
First trimester (13 weeks)- the most
critical stage of development when
embryonic and fetal development is
occurring.

Infancy

is the period of extrauterine (outside


the uterus) life or the first year after
birth. During this period, the body
grows rapidly like total length is
increased by and weight is tripled.
By one year, infants have 6 to 8 teeth.

Neonate- an infant age 1 month or


younger.

Childhood

This is the period between infancy and


puberty. During this stage, there is an
active ossification (formation of
bones)
Prepubertal Growth Spurt- growth
accelerates before puberty.

Puberty

Is the period when humans become


functionally capable of procreation.
Reproduction-the process by which
organisms produce children.
Females-puberty start before 8 years
old

Males-puberty starts at 9 years old

starts at 9 years and is completed


by age 18

Adulthood

Attainment of full growth and maturity


is reached between the ages 1821
years. Ossification and growth are
completed during the early
adulthood (21-25)

Significance of Embryology
1. Clinically oriented Embryologyrefers to the study of embryos.
The term means prenatal
development of embryos,
fetuses and neonates
2. Developmental Anatomy-refers
to the structural changes of a
human from fertilization to
adulthood. Includes
embryology, fetology and
postnatal development.
3. Teratology-is the division of
embryology and pathology that
deals with abnormal
development. Concerned with
various genetic and
environmental factors

Clinical Oriented Problems


1. What sequence of events
occurs during puberty? Are the
events the same in males and
females? At what age does
presumptive puberty occur in
males and females?
The secondary sexual
characteristics develop,
reproductive function begin and
sexual dimorphism becomes more
obvious during puberty. The
pubertal changes are not the same
in males and females. In girls,
puberty starts after 8 years and is
completed by age 1. In boys, it

Gametogenesis
Is the process of formation and
development of specialized
generative cells called gametes
(oocytes and sperms) from
precursor cells.
-prepares sex cells for
fertilization
-the chromosome number is
reduced by half
-the shape of cell is altered
Chromosome is defined by the
presence of centromere (the
constricted portion of the a
chromosome)
Gamete Maturation:
Spermatogenesis and
Oogenesis

Meiosis
-involves two meiotic cell
division
-Diploid germ cells give rise to
haploid gametes
First Meiotic Division
-Reduction division. It is called
as such because chromosome
number is reduced from diploid
to haploid by pairing
homologous chromosomes in
prophase (first stage of meiosis)
and their segregation at
anaphase (stage when the
chromosome moves from the
equatorial plate)
X and Y are not homologs but
they have homologous
segments at the tips of their
short arms which they pair in
these regions only.

Second Meiotic Division


-without an intervening step of
DNA replication
-each double chromatid
chromosome divides retaining
the haploid number of
chromosomes
-similar to mitosis except that
the chromosome number of the
cell entering the 2nd Meiotic
Division is haploid.
Nondisjunction- results in the
formation of chromosomally
abnormal gametes. (down
syndrome or trisomy;
monosomy)

Spermatogenesis

-Spermatogonia (primordial
germ cell and dormant in the
seminiferous tubules) are
transformed into mature sperm
cells
-begins at puberty
- Spermatogonia are
transformed into primary
spermatocyte and undergo 1st
meiotic division (reduction
division) to give rise to two
haploid secondary
spermatocyte which again
undergo another division to
form four spermatids which
later become mature sperms in
the process called
spermiogenesis.
-the process takes
approximately two months.
-when spermiogenesis is
complete, the sperm enters the
lumina of the seminiferous
tubules.
Sertoli Cells- lining the
seminiferous tubules support
and nurture the germ cells (sex
cells) and are involved in the
regulation of spermatogenesis.

Epididymis-where sperms are


stored and mature during
puberty which is continuous
with the ductus deferens.

Passage way of sperm. (They


are transported passively)
S. tubulesepididymisductus
deferensurethra
Sperm
-Are free swimming, actively
motile cells consisting of the
head and a tail.
-the head forms most of the
bulk and contains the nucleus. It
is covered with acrosome (a
caplike organelle containing
several enzymes that facilitates
in the entry of egg cell
-the tail consists of three
segments: middle (contains the
mitochondria), principal and
end tail.

Oogenesis
-oogonia (primordial germ

cell)are transformed into


mature oocyte
-all oogonia develop into
primary oocyte BEFORE BIRTH
-continues to menopause
Prenatal Maturation of
Oocytes
-oogonia proliferate by mitosis
-oogonia enlarge to form
primary oocyte before birth and
as they form, they are
surrounded by follicular cells
and then constitutes to
primordial follicle
-oogonia enlarges during
puberty, the follicle surrounding
them becomes primary follicle
-Soon, the primary oocyte is
surrounded by an amorphous,

acellular, glycoprotein called the


zona pellucida.
-primary oocyte begins first
meiotic division before birth but
completion of prophase.
-The follicular cells secrets the
oocyte maturation inhibition
which keeps the meiotic process
of the oocyte arrested. It makes
only up to its prophase state
Postnatal Maturation of
Oocytes
-Begins during puberty
-no primary oocytes form after
birth. It only remains dormant in
ovarian follicle UNTIL PUBERTY.
-As follicle matures, the primary
oocyte increases in size and
before ovulation (release of
oocyte) completes the first
division and give rise to the
secondary oocyte and the first
polar body (small and destined
for degeneration)
-at ovulation, the nucleus of the
secondary oocyte begins the
second meiotic division BUT
PROGESSES ONLY TO
METAPHASE
-Second division will only be
completed if the oocyte is
fertilized and if fertilized, it will
give rise to a second polar body
and a zygote.

Comparison of the
gametes
Karyogamy-fusion
two sex cells.
Oocyte
-Massive
-immotile
motile
-one kind of
Normal primary
X)
Oocyte
-covered with
Follicular cells

of nuclei of
Sperm
-Smaller
-highly
-two kinds of
sperm, (23,
(23, Y)
-not covered
with any

(Corona radiata)
;zona pellucida

connective
tissue

NOTES:
1. The ideal biologic maternal
age for reproduction is from
20 to 35 years.

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
TRACT

Uterus
-thick walled and pear shaped
muscular organ
-consist of two major parts: the
body (fundus and isthmus) and
cervix (cervical canal, internal
os and external os)
The walls of the body of the
uterus consist of three
layers
1. Perimetrium- thin, external
layer
2. Myometrium- thick smooth
muscle layer
3. Endomentrium- thin, internal
layer.
Three layers of
endometrium
1. Compact layer (thin)-consist
of densely packed
connective tissue
2. Spongy Layer(thick)composed of edematous
connective tissue
3. Basal Layer (thin)containing the blind ends of
the uterine glands. Has its
own blood supply
Legend:
-Functional Layers which
disintegrate and are shed
during menstruation and
after parturition (delivery of
an offspring)

-not sloughed off during


menstruation
Uterine Tubes
-divided into four parts:
infundibulum, ampulla (site of
fertilization), isthmus and
uterine part
-conveys or carries the cleaving
zygote to the uterine cavity
Ovaries
-almond shaped glands that
produces oocytes and hormones
estrogen (responsible for the
development of secondary sex
characteristics) and
progesterone (for regulation of
pregnancy)

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
CYCLES

Gonadotropin-releasing
hormone- is synthesized by
neurosecretory cells in the
hypothalamus
-carried by a capillary network
in the hypothalamus called the
portal hypophyseal
circulation
Hypothalamus Gonadotropinreleasing hormonepituitary
glandGonadotropic
Hormones LSH and FSH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
-stimulates the development of
ovarian follicle
-production of estrogen by the
follicular cell
Luteinizing Hormone
-serves as the trigger for
ovulation (release of the
secondary oocyte)
-stimulates the follicular cells
and corpus luteum to produce
progesterone

Ovarian Cycle

FSH and LH produce cyclic


changes in the ovaries (ovarian
cycle, ovulation and corpus
luteum formation). Only one
primary follicle usually develops
a mature follicle

Follicular Development
Characterized by:

1. Growth and differentiation of


a primary oocyte
2. Proliferation of follicular cells
3. Formation of the zona
pellucida
4. Development of the theca
folliculi
Theca Folliculi- as the primary
follicle increases in size, the
adjacent connective tissue
organizes into capsule called
-it differentiates into two layers:
a. Internal vascular layer (theca
interna)- produces follicular
fluid, some estrogen and
androgen
b. glandular layer (theca
externa)
-thecal cells are thought to
produce an angiogenesis
factor that promotes growth of
blood vessels in the theca
interna (provides nutritive
support for follicular
development. Also produces
follicular fluid and some
estrogen)
Antrum-fluid filled spaces
appear around the follicular
cells which coalesce to form a
single large cavity called
-contains also follicular fluid
-after its formation, the ovarian
follicle is called a vesicular or
secondary follicle

Cumulus oophorus- the primary


oocyte is pushed to one side of
the follicle where it is
surrounded by a mound of
follicular cells
-projects into the antrum.
-the early development of
ovarian follicle is induced by
FSH
-final stages is requires LH
-growing follicles requires
estrogen (a hormone that
regulates development and and
function of the reproductive
organs
Interstitial gland of the ovarysome estrogen scattered groups
of stromal secretory cells known
collectively as the
Stigma- small and avascular
spot, appears on swelling

OVULATION

-undergoes sudden growth


spurt around the middle of the
ovarian cycle which produces a
cystic swelling or bulge on the
surface of the ovary
-triggers by a surge of LH
production
-The LH surge appears to cause
the stigma to balloon out,
forming a vesicle.
-follows the LH peak by 12 to 24
hours
-Mitogen-activated protein
kinase 3 and 1 (aka
extracellular signal-regulated
kinases 1 and 2) seems to
regulate signalling pathways
that control ovulation
-Plasmins and matrix
metalloproteins appear to
play a role in controlling rupture
of the follicles
-expelled secondary oocyte is
surrounded by a zona

pellucidaand corona radiata


which forms the oocytecumulus complex
NOTE: A sudden rush of
luteinizing hormone from the
brain (LH surge) signals the
ovary that a mature egg
(follicle) is ready to be released.
-The zona pellucida is composed
of three glycoproteins: ZPA, ZPB
AND ZPC which form a network
of filaments with multiple pores
CORPUS LUTEUM
-secretes progesterone and
some estrogen causing the
endometrial glands to secrete
and prepare the endometrium
for implantation of the
blastocyst
-enlarges when oocyte is
fertilized and increases
hormone production
-Human chorionic
gonadotropin prevents
degeneration of the corpus
luteum
-during pregnancy, remains
active throughout the first 20
weeks
-degenerates after 10-12 days
after ovulation and is now called
a corpus luteum of
menstruation
-later transformed into a white
scar tissue in the ovary called
the corpus albicans
Climacteric- the endocrine,
somatic (body) and
psychosocial changes occurring
at the termination of the
reproductive period are called

Menstrual Cycle

-is the time during which the


oocyte matures, is ovulated and
enters the uterine tube

Menstrual cycle (period) or


endometrial cycle- monthly
changes in the internal layer of
the uterus constitutes
-it lasts about 28 days
Endometrium- is a mirror of the
ovarian cycle because it
responds in a consistent
manner to the fluctuation
concentrations of gonadotropic
and ovarian hormone

PHASES OF MENSTRUAL
CYCLE

Menstrual Phase, Proliferative


Phase, Luteal Phase, Ischemia
Menstrual Phase
-functional layers of the uterine
wall is sloughed off and
discarded with the menstrual
flow, called menses (Monthly
bleeding
-lasts about 4-5 days
-after menstruation, the eroded
endometrium is thin
Proliferative Phase
-lasts about 9 days
-coincides with the growth of
ovarian follicle and is estrogen
secreted by the follicles
-there is a two-three fold
increase in the thickness of the
endometrium
-surface epithelium reforms and
covers endometrium
-gland increases in numberand
length
-spiral arteries elongate

-progesterone stimulates the


glandular epithelium to secrete
a glycogen-rich material.
-endometrium thickens due to
progesterone and estrogen from
the corpus luteum and because
of the increase in fluid in the
connective tissue
-spiral arteries become coiled
-direct arteriovenous
anastomoses
Ischemia
-occurs when the oocyte is not
fertilized
-spiral arteries constrict giving
the endometrium a pale
appearance
-the constriction results from
the decrease production of
hormones
-Hormone withdrawal results in
the stoppage of glandular
secretions. (a loss of interstitial
fluid and shrinking of
endometrium
-remnants of spongy and basal
layers remain to undergo
regeneration during the
subsequent proliferative phase
of the endometrium.
Venous stasis and ischemic
necrosis- results from further
constriction of spiral arteries
Venous stasis- congestion and
slowing of circulation in veins.

Pregnancy
-menstrual cycle ceases, it
resumes after 6-10 weeks.

Luteal Phase
-13 days
-secretory phase
-coincides with the formation,
functioning and growth of the
corpus luteum.

TRANSPORTATION OF
GAMETES
Peristalsis- movement of the
wall of the tube characterized

by alternate contraction and


relaxation.
SPERM TRANSPORT
The reflex ejaculation of semen
phases
1. Emission- semen passes to
the prostatic part of the
urethra through the
ejaculatory ducts
2. Ejaculation- semen is
expelled from the urethra
though the external orifice
Prostate, seminal glands,
prostate and bulbourethral
glands- produce secretions
that are added to the spermcontaining fluid in the ductus
deferens and urethra.
-accessory organs
Vesiculace- an enzyme
produced by the prostate
gland assist in reducing the
viscosity (liquification) of a
seminal fluid coagulum that
forms shortly after
ejaculation.
Prostaglandins- thought to
stimulate uterine motility at
the time of intercourse and
assist in movement of sperm
to the site of fertilization in
the ampulla of the uterine
tube
Fructose- secreted by the
seminal gland, is an energy
source for the sperms in the
semen
Avergae of 3.5 ml, 2-6ml
(range)- volume of ejaculate
pH- speed of sperm varies
with this

1. Acidity (vagina)- moves


slowly
2. Alkalinity (uterus)- moves
fast

Maturation of sperm

-sperm must undergo a


period of conditioning, called
capacitation
-during this period a
glycoprotein coat and
seminal proteins are
removed from the surface of
the sperm acrosome
-makes the sperm active
-they are capacitated in the
uterus or uterine tubes.
Tyrosine kinase, src kinasecapacitationand acrosome
reaction appear to be
regulated by these enzymes
Acrosome Reactionperforations form in the
acrosome
SEQUENCE OF
FERTILIZATION
-site is in the ampulla of the
uterine tube.
-takes 24 hours
-completes the second
meiotic division of the
oocyte

PHASES OF
FERTILIZATION

1. Passage of a sperm
through the corona
radiata.
2. Penetration of the zona
pellucida
-esterase, acrosin
(proteolytic enzyme,
most important) and
neuraminidase appear to
cause lysis (dissolution
or loosening of the zona
pellucida)

3. Zona Reaction
4. Fusion of cell membranes
of the oocyte and sperm
5. Completion of the second
meiotic division of the
oocyte and formation of
the female pronucleus.
6. Formation of the male
pronucleus
-ootid (oocyte containing
the two haploid pronuclei.
Nearly mature oocyte)
7. The ootid becomes a
zygote
8. The zygote contains a
new combination of
chromosome that is
different from the parents
(biparental inheritance)

CLEAVAGE OF
ZYGOTE

-consists of repeated
mitotic divisions of the
zygote, resulting in a
rapid increase in the
number of cells
(blastomeres)
-occurs as the zygote
passes along the uterine
tube toward the uterus
-during this phase, the
zygote is within the zona
pellucida
-30 hours after
fertilization
Compaction- Is mediated
by cell-surface-adhesion
glycoproteins
-permits cell-cell
interaction
-prerequisite for
segregation of the
internal cells that form
the embryoblast (inner
cell mass) of the
blastocyst

Morula- when there are


12 to 32 blastomeres
-surrounded by
trophoblastic cells
-forms 3 days after
fertilization

FORMATION OF
BLASTOCYST

-As fluid increases in the


blastocystic cavity, it
separates the
blastomeres into two
parts
1. Trophoblast- thin, outer
cell layer which gives rise
to the embryonic part of
the placenta
2. embyoblast- a group of
centrally located
blastomeres which gives
rise to the embryo
Blastocyst- the conceptus
(the embryo and its
membranes
Note: shedding of the
zona pellucida permits
blastocyst to increase in
size
Blastocyst attaches to
endometrial epithelium,
the tropholblast
proliferates rapidly and
differentiates into two
layers
1. cytotrophoblast
inner layer
2. syncytiotrophoblastconsisting of the a
multinucleated
protoplasmic mass. No
cell boundaries
observed