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DOI 10.1007/s10714-013-1561-6

RESEARCH ARTICLE

string spacetime

K. Bakke

Received: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published online: 30 June 2013

Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Abstract In this contribution, we study the Dirac oscillator under the influence of

noninertial effects of a rotating frame in the cosmic string spacetime. We show that

both noninertial effects and the topology of the cosmic string spacetime restrict the

physical region of the spacetime where the quantum particle can be placed, and discuss

two different cases of bound states solutions of the Dirac equation by analysing the

behaviour of the Dirac oscillator frequency.

Keywords Dirac oscillator Rotating frame Hard-Wall confining potential

Noninertial effects Cosmic string Relativistic bound states solutions

1 Introduction

In recent decades, the Dirac oscillator [13] has attracted a great interest in studies of

the JaynesCummings model [4,5], the Ramsey-interferometry effect [6] and quantum

phase transitions [7,8]. In Ref. [5], an exact mapping of the Dirac oscillator onto the

JaynesCummings model [9] has achieved a description of the interaction of a twolevel atom with a quantized single-mode field. Besides, the results of Ref. [4] have

shown that the entanglement of the spin with the orbital motion is produced in a way

similar to what is observed in the model of the JaynesCummings model when the

limit the strong spin-orbit coupling of the Dirac oscillator is considered.

The Dirac oscillator was proposed in Ref. [1] with the aim of recovering the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian from the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation. In

short, by considering the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation describing the

K. Bakke (B)

Departamento de Fsica, Universidade Federal da Paraba, Caixa Postal 5008,

Joo Pessoa, PB 58051-970, Brazil

e-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br

123

1848

K. Bakke

interaction between a Dirac particle with the harmonic oscillator potential, the impossibility of recovering the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian occurs due to the presence

of a quadratic potential [13,10] in the second order differential equation. Therefore,

in order to solve this problem, the relativistic harmonic oscillator has been investigated recently by introducing scalar and vector potentials which are quadratics in

coordinates [11] and by introducing a new coupling into the Dirac equation [1]. In

particular, the new coupling proposed in Ref. [1] is introduced in such a way that the

Dirac equation remains linear in both spatial coordinates and momenta, and recover

the Schrdinger equation for a harmonic oscillator in the nonrelativistic limit of the

Dirac equation. The Dirac oscillator has also been analyzed in a series of physical systems, such as in a thermal bath [12], in the presence of an external magnetic field [13],

in the point of view of the Lie algebra [14], in studies of covariance properties [15], in

the hidden supersymmetry [1518], by using the shape invariant method [19], in the

presence of the AharonovBohm quantum flux [2023], conformal invariance properties [24], in the FermiWalker reference frame [25] and for a system of a charged

particle interacting with a topological defect [26]. Recently, a model of a quantum

ring based on the Dirac oscillator has been proposed to confine relativistic spin-1/2

particles [27].

The aim of this paper is the study the Dirac oscillator under the influence of noninertial effects of a rotating frame in the cosmic string spacetime. Studies of noninertial effects have discovered interesting quantum effects such as the Sagnac effect

[2830], the Mashhoon effect [31], persistent currents in quantum rings [32], the coupling between the angular momentum and the angular velocity of the rotating frame

[3335] and spin currents [36]. Other works that worth mentioning are studies involving rotational and gravitational effects in quantum interference [3739], Dirac fields

[40], scalar fields [41,42], the influence of Lorentz transformations [43], the weak

field approximation [44], the LandauHeMcKellarWilkens quantization [45] and

confinement of a neutral particle to a quantum dot [4648]. In this work, we show

that both noninertial effects and the topology of the cosmic string spacetime restrict

the physical region of the spacetime where the quantum particle can be placed. By

analysing the behaviour of the oscillator frequency, we discuss two different cases of

bound states solutions of the Dirac equation.

The structure of this paper is: in Sect. 2, we introduce the Dirac oscillator [13]

and discuss the influence of the noninertial effects of a rotating frame on the Dirac

oscillator in the cosmic string spacetime. We show the restriction imposed by both

noninertial effects and the topology of the cosmic string spacetime on the physical

region of the spacetime where the quantum particle can be placed and analyse two

different cases of bound states solutions of the Dirac equation; in Sect. 3, we present

our conclusions.

We start this section by introducing the Dirac oscillator [13]. In the following, we

introduce the classical background of this work, build a rotating frame and discuss the

influence of noninertial effects of a rotating frame and the topology of the classical

123

1849

background on the Dirac oscillator. Finally, we analyse the behaviour of the oscillator frequency by showing two different cases of bound states solutions of the Dirac

equation.

As we have pointed out in the introduction, the term Dirac oscillator was denominated by Moshinsky and Szczepaniak [1] based on the introduction of a coupling

in such a way that the Dirac equation remains linear in both spatial coordinates and

momenta. This new coupling introduced into the Dirac equation is given by

p p im ,

(1)

one of the standard Dirac matrices, = x 2 + y 2 is the radial coordinate and is a

unit vector in the radial direction.

Let us introduce the scenario of general relativity which corresponds to the cosmic

string spacetime. The cosmic string spacetime is described by a line element given by

[49,50] (we work with the units h = c = 1)

ds 2 = dT 2 + d R 2 + 2 R 2 d2 + d Z 2 ,

(2)

4 , with being the linear mass density of the cosmic string. In the cosmic string

spacetime, the parameter can assume only values in which < 1. All values > 1

would correspond to a spacetime with negative curvature which does not make sense

in the general relativity context [5153]. The azimuthal angle varies in the interval:

0 < 2 . Besides, the geometry described by the line element (2) possesses a

conical singularity represented by the curvature tensor

,

=

R,

1

2 (

r ),

4

(3)

where 2 (

h = c = 1. The behaviour of the curvature tensor (3) is denominated as a conical

singularity [54] which gives rise to the curvature concentrated on the cosmic string axis

with a null curvature in all other points of the spacetime. In recent decades, a great deal

of works have discussed the influence of the topology of the cosmic string spacetime,

for instance, in the problem of string sources in (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity [55], in

the KaluzaKlein theory [56], in the gravitational analogue of the AharonovBohm

effect [57], in the FermiWalker transport [38], in the relativistic quantum scattering

[58], in the Lorentz symmetry violation background [59] and the AharonovBohm

effect for bound states [60].

Now, let us make a coordinate transformation: T = t, R = , = + t and

Z = z, where is the constant angular velocity of the rotating frame. Thereby, the

line element (2) becomes

ds 2 = 1 2 2 2 dt 2 + 22 2 d dt + d 2 + 2 2 d 2 + dz 2 .

(4)

123

1850

K. Bakke

We can note that the line element (4) is defined for values of the radial coordinate

inside the range:

0 < < 1/.

(5)

Therefore, all values for the radial coordinate given by > 1/ mean that the

particle is placed outside of the light-cone because the velocity of the particle is

greater than the velocity of the light [61]. In this way, the range (5) imposes a spatial

constraint where the wave function must be defined. This restriction on the radial

coordinate imposed by both noninertial effects and the topology of the cosmic string

spacetime gives rise to a hard-wall confining potential, that is, it imposes that the wave

function of the Dirac particle must vanish at 1/.

Further, in order to work with Dirac spinors in a rotating frame in a topological

defect spacetime having a non-null curvature concentrated on the symmetry axis,

we use the formulation of spinors in curved spacetime [62,63]. In a curved spacetime background, spinors are defined locally. Each spinor transforms according to

the infinitesimal Lorentz transformations, that is, (x) = D ((x)) (x), where

D ((x)) corresponds to the spinor representation of the infinitesimal Lorentz group

and (x) corresponds to the local Lorentz transformations [62]. Locally, the reference frame of the observers can be build via a noncoordinate basis a = ea (x) d x ,

where the components ea (x) are called tetrads and satisfy the relation [6264]:

g (x) = ea (x) eb (x) ab , where ab = diag( + ++) is the Minkowski ten

sor. The inverse of tetrads is defined as d x = e a (x) a , where we have the relations:

a

a

a

e (x) e b (x) = b and e a (x) e (x) = . Observe that the indices , . . . indicate the spacetime indices, while the indices a, b, c = 0, 1, 2, 3 indicate the local

reference frame. From this perspective, let us consider the following local reference

frame for the observers [65,66]:

ea (x)

1 2 0

22

0

0

1

0

1 2

0

; e (x) =

a

1 2

1 2

0

0

0

1 2

1 0

0

,

1 2

0

0

0

0

1

(6)

The Dirac equation is defined in a curved spacetime background by considering the

covariant derivative of a spinor, whose components are defined as = + (x),

where is the partial derivative and (x) = 2i ab (x) ab is the spinorial connec

tion [64,63]. The term ab of the spinorial connection is defined as ab = 2i a , b .

The a matrices correspond to the standard Dirac matrices in the Minkowski spacetime [67]:

0 = =

123

I 0

0 I

;

i = i =

0 i

i 0

;

i =

i 0

0 i

,

(7)

1851

and I being the spin vector and the 2 2 identity matrix, respectively. The

with

matrices i are the Pauli matrices and satisfy the relation i j + j i = 2i j . The

matrices are related to the a matrices via = e a (x) a [63]. Moreover, the term

ab (x) of the spinorial connection is called the spin connection and can be obtained

a b(x) d x b = 0 in the

by solving the MaurerCartan structure equations d a +

absence of torsion [64]. By solving the MaurerCartan structure equations, we obtain

the following components of the spinorial connection [65,66]:

1 2 2 1 i

3;

2

2 1

2 1 2

1

2 ;

=

2 1 2

t =

(8)

1 2

i

=

1

3.

2

2 1

2 1 2

Hence, by introducing the Dirac oscillator coupling (1) into the Dirac equation in

curved spacetime background, we have [25]

i + i (x) + i m0 0 = m.

(9)

By using the tetrads given in Eq. (6) and the components of the spinorial connection

given in Eq. (8), we can write the Dirac equation (9) in the form [66]:

1

2

1

0

+ i

+ i +

+ m0

m =

t

2

1 2

1 2 t

i

2

2

0

.

+

i 2

+i 3

2

2

z

2

1

2

1

1

(10)

in the last term of Eq. (10) which is related

Observe the presence of the term

to the rotation-spin coupling as pointed in Ref. [35].

From now on, our goal is to solve the Dirac equation (10), then, we rewrite it in the

form:

1

2

0

1

0

2

2

+ i

= m 1 i 1 +

+ m0

i

t

t

2

2

i

+ i2 2

i 1 2 3

z

1

.

+

(11)

2 1 2

The solution of Eq. (11) is given in the form: = ei E t ( ), where and

are two-spinors. Substituting this solution into (11), we obtain two coupled equations

123

1852

K. Bakke

1

1

3

1

2

2

+

= i

1

E m 1

m0

2 1 2

2

2

+ i2 2

i 1 2 3

E 2 ,

z

i

(12)

while the second coupled equation is

1

1

3

2

+ m0

E +m 1

= i 1 1 2 +

2 1 2

2

2

+ i2 2

i 1 2 3

E 2 .

z

i

(13)

In order to solve the two coupled Eqs. (12) and (14), we consider the velocity of

rotation being small

compared with the velocity of the light, that is, 1. In this

way, we can write 1 2 1 21 2 + . After some calculations, we obtain the

following second order differential equation:

3 2

2

1

1

i 3

2

E

+ 2+

m0

m = 2

2

E 3

+i2 3

2m0 3

+m 2 02 2 + i

+ 2 m0 2 3

2

1 2

2

2

2 2

+ 2 2 2 + i 2E

2

z

+ O 2 + O m 2 .

(14)

i 2m0 2

z

Note in Eq. (14) that is an eigenfunction of 3 , whose eigenvalues are s = 1.

Therefore, we label 3 s = s = ss , where s = (+ , )T . Furthermore, we

can see that the right-hand side of Eq. (14) commutes with the operators Jz = i

[68] and p z = iz , then, we can take the solutions of Eq. (14) in the form:

s = e

123

i l+ 21 ikz

R+ ()

,

R ()

(15)

1853

a planar system. Thus, substituting (15) into (14), we obtain two noncoupled equations

for R+ () and R () given by

s2

d 2 Rs

1 d Rs

+

Rs

d 2

d

2 2

s

+ 1 Rs 2 s2 Rs

2m0 s

[E + (l + 1/2)]2 Rs m 2 Rs =

2s 2 s Rs 2 2 Rs + m 2 02 s2 2 Rs

(16)

+O 2 + O m 2 ,

where we have defined in (16) the parameter s and the effective angular momentum

s as

s = 1 + 2s

1

s

s = l + (1 s) + (1 ).

(17)

2

2

By making a change of variables given by = m 0 s 2 , we can rewrite the radial

Eq. (16) in the form:

d Rs

2

d 2 Rs

s

+

s2 Rs Rs +

Rs = 0,

d

d

4

4

4m0 s

(18)

where

s = [E + (l + 1/2)] m + 2m0

2

s

s

+ 1 + 2 s2 + 2 2 + 2s 2 s .

(19)

A regular solution at the origin is achieved if the solution of the Eq. (18) has the

form Rs ( ) = e 2

|s |

2

|s | 1

|s |

d Fs

s

d 2 Fs

+

1

Fs = 0,

+

d 2

d

4m0 s

2

2

(20)

which is the confluent hypergeometric equation or the Kummer equation [69]. The

solution of Eq. (20) regular at the

origin is called the Kummer function

of first kind,

|s |

|s |

s

1

which is given by Fs ( ) = 1 F1 2 + 2 4m0 s , + 1; . It is well known

in the literature that the radial part of the wave function becomes finite everywhere

s

of the confluent hypergeometric function

when the parameter A = |2s | + 21 4m

0 s

is equal to a nonpositive integer number, which makes the confluent hypergeometric

series to be a polynomial of degree n [70]. Thereby, in order to have a wave function

being normalized inside the range 0 < < 1/, we assume that m0 .

123

1854

K. Bakke

This assumption makes the amplitude of probability being very small for values where

> 1/, because we have that = m0 s 2 1 when 1/. Therefore,

without loss of generality, we consider the wave function being normalized in the

range 0 < < 1/, since Rs ( ) 0 when 1/. In this way, the relativistic

energy levels are

En, l =

|s |

s

1

+

2m0 s

+ 1 2 s2 2 2 2s 2 s

m 2 + 4m0 s n +

2

2

[l + 1/2] .

(21)

where n = 0, 1, 2, . . . and s and s are given in Eq. (17). The relativistic energy levels

(21) correspond to the spectrum of energy of the Dirac oscillator under the influence of

noninertial effects and the topology of the cosmic string spacetime which are obtained

Moreover, we have that the effects of curvature break the degeneracy of the relativistic energy levels of the Dirac oscillator (21). By taking the limit 0, we have

the spectrum of energy of the Dirac oscillator in the Minkowski spacetime under the

influence of noninertial effects of the rotating frame (6). Recently, we have studied

the influence of the noninertial effects of the FermiWalker reference frame on the

Dirac oscillator in the cosmic string spacetime [25]. By comparing the results obtained

in Ref. [25] with the relativistic energy levels (21), we have that new contributions

to the energy levels arise from the noninertial effects of the rotating frame (6). This

stems from the fact that the local reference frameof the observers (6) is not defined

in the rest frame of the observers at each instant 0 = e0t (x) dt in contrast to the

FermiWalker reference frame [43,71]. Finally, we have that in last term of Eq. (21)

the coupling between the quantum number l and the angular velocity .

Let us discuss the nonrelativistic limit of the energy levels (21). The nonrelativistic

limit of Eq. (21) can be obtained by applying the Taylor expansion up to the first order

terms. In this way, the nonrelativistic limit of the energy levels (21) are

|s |

En l m + 20 s n +

2

2

s

s

l +

m

1

2 s2

2 2

s

+1

0 s

2

2m

2m

1

.

2

+

(22)

The first term of the nonrelativistic energy levels (22) corresponds to the rest energy

of the quantum particle. The remaining terms of the energy levels (22) corresponds

to the energy levels of a harmonic oscillator under the influence of noninertial effects

of the rotating frame (6) and the topology of a disclination [72]. By taking 0,

we recover the results of Ref. [72], but for a spin-1/2 quantum particle. Hence, we

also have that influence of the topological defect breaks the degeneracy of the energy

levels of the harmonic oscillator as pointed out in Ref. [72]. In the limit 0, we

have the spectrum of energy of the harmonic oscillator in the absence of defects, but

under the influence of noninertial effects of the rotating frame (6). Besides, we have

123

1855

the presence of the coupling between the quantum number l and the angular velocity

, which corresponds to the PageWerner et al. term [33,34].

Hence, the bound states solutions of the Dirac oscillator in the rotating frame (6)

Without this condition, we cannot consider the amplitude of probability of finding

the Dirac neutral particle in the non-physical region of the spacetime being very

small.

On the other hand, let us discuss the behaviour of the Dirac oscillator without

imposing the condition where he confluent hypergeometric series becomes a polynomial of degree n, then, the radial wave function becomes finite everywhere including

the non-physical region of the spacetime established in Eq. (5). Thereby, a normalized

wave function can be obtained if we impose first m0 is very small. The assumption

m0 1 allows us to consider a fixed radius 0 = 1/ and a fixed value for the

parameter of the confluent hypergeometric function B = |s | + 1 in such a way that

s

the parameter of the confluent hypergeometric function A = |2s | + 21 4m

can

0 s

be considered large, without loss of generality. In this way, we can write the confluent

hypergeometric function in the form [25,47,48,69]:

1B

2

(B) 0 B0

2

2

A

A,

B,

F

=

m

1 1

0

0 s 0

0

2

B

, (23)

cos

2B0 4 A0

+

2

4

where (B) is the gamma function. Hence, our last step in order to obtain a normalized

wave function in the range 0 < < 1/ is to impose that the radial wave function

vanishes at 1/, that is,

Rs (0 ) = Rs ms 02 = 0,

(24)

|s |

e 2 2 1 F1 (A, B, ) in terms of the expression given in Eq. (23) and by applying the boundary condition (24), we obtain

En, l

|s |

3 2

1

s

+

+

1

2 s2 2 2 2s 2 s

2

m

n

+

s

0

2

4

02

1

,

l +

(25)

2

m2 +

The relativistic energy levels (25) correspond the spectrum of energy of the Dirac

oscillator under the influence of noninertial effects of the rotating frame (6) and the

topology of the cosmic string spacetime by imposing the conditions of vanishing the

radial wave function at 1/ and m0 1. This corresponds to the spectrum

123

1856

K. Bakke

of energy of the Dirac oscillator under the influence of a hard-wall confining potential

induced by noninertial effects. In this case, the geometry of the spacetime plays the role

of a hard-wall confining potential due to the presence of noninertial effects that restricts

the physical region of the spacetime [25,47,48]. Observe the difference between the

relativistic energy levels obtained in Eqs. (21) and (25) stems from the restriction of

the physical region of the spacetime imposed by noninertial effects and the conditions

imposed on the Dirac oscillator frequency 0 . We can also see that the curvature

effects on the relativistic energy levels (25) change the degeneracy of the spectrum

of energy. Besides, by taking the limit 1, the effects of curvature vanish and

we obtain that Eq. (25) is the relativistic spectrum of energy of the Dirac oscillator

under the influence of noninertial effects of the rotating frame (6) in the Minkowski

spacetime. Again, we can see that the noninertial effects of the rotating frame (6) yield

new contributions to the relativistic energy levels (25) in contrast to the results of Ref.

[25] obtained in the FermiWalker reference frame [71].

Finally, let us obtain the nonrelativistic limit of the energy levels (25). By applying

the Taylor expansion, then, the nonrelativistic limit of the energy levels (25) are

En l

|s |

s

3 2

2 s2

2 2

1

n

+

s

+

+

1

m+

0

2

4

2m

2m

2m02

1

2 s

l +

,

(26)

s

m

2

where the first term of the nonrelativistic energy levels (26) corresponds to the rest

energy of the quantum particle.

The nonrelativistic energy levels (26) correspond to the spectrum of energy of a

harmonic oscillator under the influence of a hard-wall confining potential induced by

noninertial effects and the topology of a disclination [51,52,72]. We can also observe

that the degeneracy of the energy levels of the harmonic oscillator is broken by the

topology of the defect. By taking the limit 1, we obtain the spectrum of energy of

the harmonic oscillator under the influence of a hard-wall confining potential induced

by noninertial effects in the absence of defects. Furthermore, we have that the energy

levels (26) are proportional to n 2 in contrast to the previous result given in Eq. (22),

whose spectrum of energy is proportional to the quantum number n. However, in both

cases, we have the presence of the PageWerner et al. term [33,34], which is the

coupling between the quantum number l and the angular velocity given by the last

term of Eq. (26).

3 Conclusions

In this paper, we have studied the influence of noninertial effects of a rotating frame and

the topology of the cosmic string spacetime on the Dirac oscillator. We have shown that

both the topology of the cosmic string spacetime and the noninertial effects restrict the

physical region of the spacetime where the quantum particle can be placed. Moreover,

by analysing the behaviour of the oscillatory frequency, we have seen that two different

bound states solutions for the Dirac equation can be obtained.

123

1857

becomes very small for values of the radial coordinate given by > 1/, therefore,

the wave function could be considered to be normalized inside the physical region

of the spacetime defined in the range 0 < < 1/. As a consequence of the

Dirac oscillator under the influence of the noninertial effects of a rotating frame and

the topology of the cosmic string spacetime. Moreover, we have seen that the effects of

curvature concentrated on the cosmic string axis break the degeneracy of the spectrum

of energy of the Dirac oscillator.

On the other hand, without assuming the condition m0 , we have seen that

we cannot normalize the radial wave function by imposing that the confluent hypergeometric series becomes a polynomial of degree n, because the radial wave function

becomes finite either in the physical region of the spacetime and in the non-physical

region of the spacetime. Thereby, we have shown that a normalized wave function can

be obtained by assuming that m0 is very small and by imposing that the radial wave

function vanishes at 1/. In this case, we have obtained the relativistic energy

levels that corresponds to the spectrum of energy of the Dirac oscillator under the

influence of a hard-wall confining potential induced by noninertial effects, where the

geometry of the spacetime plays the role of a hard-wall confining potential [25,47,48].

Again, we have observed that the effects of curvature concentrated on the cosmic string

axis change the degeneracy of the spectrum of energy of the Dirac oscillator under the

influence of a hard-wall confining potential induced by noninertial effects.

Finally, we have discussed in all cases above the nonrelativistic limit of the energy

energy levels correspond to the harmonic oscillator spectrum under the influence of

noninertial effects of the rotating frame (6) and the topology of a disclination [72].

by imposing that the radial wave function vanishes at 1/, we have seen that

the nonrelativistic energy levels (26) correspond to the harmonic oscillator spectrum

under the influence of a hard-wall confining potential induced by noninertial effects

and the topology of a disclination [51,52,72].

Acknowledgments The author would like to thank CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientfico e TecnolgicoBrazil) for financial support.

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