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Bands WCDMA Used

1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz


Frequency channel number = central frequency5, for main band:
UL frequency channel number: 96129888
DL frequency channel number: 1056210838

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Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals.


Identical signals means Correlation = 1 (auto correlation)
Orthogonal signals means Correlation = 0
Different signals means Cross correlation.

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Process Gain = 10 log( chip rate/ bit rate)


For voice: PG= 10 log (3840/12.2) = 24
Eb= signal energy/ bit rate, No= Noise energy/ band width.
Eb/No= SNR* Chip rate/ Bit rate= SNR* PG
When Eb/No somehow indicates how far the user from the BS.
SNR= Ec/Io= RSCP/RSSI= CPICH PWR/ 5MHz total PWR= Eb/No PG (dB) >= -12dB
The acceptable Eb/No for voice is about 5dB 5= SNR+24 SNR (Ec/ Io)= -19
Typically, the wideband power of a cell is approximately [10 powered (-13)]W. we can
estimate that a voice user must provide at least 1% of the wideband power received by a cell
(so 100 voice connections would be regarded as the pole capacity of a cell). But the thermal
(back ground) noise is approximately equals the power from the users limiting the number

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to 50 connections. Also the noise generated by users of other cells reduces the capacity to
approximately 30 voice connections.
Note that the more connections you allow, the greater the noise rise in order to win the
interference, the terminals have to increase their TX-power when the interference grows
in the cell, the most far away terminal from the NB cannot win the interference even with
maximum TX-power new users cant access the cell from distance the cell range
decreased (cell breathing).
If a single users power is 3dB more than necessary, that user is using the allocation for two
users: capacity is decreased.

Process gain differs for each service. If the service bit rate is greater, the process gain is
smaller, UE needs more power for this service, then the coverage of this service will be
smaller, and vice versa.

Note that it seems that WCDMA and GSM 1800 admit pretty same speech coverage.

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The target UL load shouldnt be greater than 75%, as the UL load is hard to manage. And it
shouldnt be too low which results coverage holes and capacity problems.
The DL load can be dimensioned to be higher than UL load as the DL load is usually bigger
than the UL, and also the DL is not hard to manage when close to the maximum loading. So
DL resources will usually be utilized in full (available capacity is given to the users in the cell
no wasting of air interface happy users).

More power given to CCHs better channel estimation, which improves the Eb/No
performance and thus improves coverage.
More power to DCHs better capacity.
We can decrease the transmit power per carrier by adding a new one which can gain
capacity also as mentioned in the following table:

The results of calculating the link budget is that the system is UL limited for 384kbps service,
and DL limited for 12.2kbps speech service. And the cell range for 384kbps is about 330m,

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but of 12.2kbps speech is about 500m (UL). In practice, they are even smaller in urban areas
due to more realistic parameters.
However, the following tables show estimation about the M pole before doing the link budget
calculations:

Pilot pollution:
Pilot pollution is faced on a certain area when there are no clearly dominant CPICHs over the
others.
The pilot pollution results:

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Increased interference level.


Poor service quality, decreased throughput, or increased delay.
Decreased service access.
Frequent changes in Active Set and potential risk for unnecessary handovers.
Higher non-controllable load.

Pilot pollution can be (at least partly) avoided by planning the CPICH, SCH, and DCH
powers, the design of the antennas, and SHO parameters so that throughout the network
there is only 2-3 CPICHs available for the UEs, strong enough to be included in the Active
Set.
All CPICH outside Active Set (which can produce unnecessary interference) should be
clearly weaker.
The list of neighbors play an important role since WCDMA is interference limited. Insufficient
planning of neighbor relations will lead to unnecessary high interference. E.g. if suitable SHO
candidate is not in the monitored set and thus it is not selected to active set then its turning
to a pilot poIIuter. On the other hand, unnecessary neighbors increase signaling and effect
the SHO selection negatively.
An accurate neighbor relation planning is much more important than in GSM. In GSM it is
possible to hide cell planning mistakes by frequency planning, in CDMA such inaccuracies
will affect the system capacity.
The parameters to control the neighbor relations and the algorithms how system evaluates
neighbors for cell lists depend on vendor:
Minimum CPICH RSCP or Ec/lo.
Ec/lo margin.
Maximum number of neighbors.
Soft/Softer HO planning and correct operation is one of the most important means of
optimizing WCDMA networks.
SHO Advantages:
Required to avoid near-far effects.
Coverage & capacity increase when more distant users can connect.
Alongside with PC, SHO is the main interference mitigation means in WCDMA.
SHO Inconvenient:
Requires more connections, thus eats DL transmission power and decreases
capacity.
Introduces more interference to DL.
Increases the traffic in lub 40%. (SHO probability1.4 times the traffic!).
Note that too high SHO% results in excess overlapping between cells other-cell
interference increases capacity decreases.
Too high SHO% also leads to poorly utilized network capacity (unnecessary links).
With too low SHO% the full potential of network is not utilized and transmission powers
cannot be minimized trouble with interference.

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Quality of Service:
User domain: throughput, accuracy, dependability (reliability, availability)
Provider domain: delay, loss, utilization

Radio Access Bearer QoS:


Main task of the UTRAN is to create and maintain RAB for communication between UE and
CN. The RAB is build up in order to give for CN elements an illusion about fixed
communication path to UE.
The network builds up the end-to-end QoS connection from small pieces, which compose a
complete chain without bottlenecks. These pieces are called Bearers.
When the connection is set up, the network elements negotiate the QoS requirements of the
bearers set up between them, and the result is a compromise, in which the QoS
requirements and networks capacity is taken into account.

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In early UMTS R99 all conversational and streaming class traffic were offered over the CS
bearer (Voice, RT multimedia /e.g. video-telephony/). In early R99, only Interactive and
background class traffic utilizes the PS bearer, R4 capable networks introduce some
streaming class traffic on PS bearer as well, and R5 brings along a full portfolio of PS
bearers also utilized for conversational traffic.
The QoS over the air interface is implemented by matching each radio bearer with a
transport channel whose format set defines the QoS parameters.
The mapping is performed during the establishment of the RAB. And the RNC performs the
mapping of RAB characteristics to actual resource requirements (vendor dependent).
Operators can define the wanted QoS profile (in HLR) per subscriber.
Users can be categorized (QoS differentiation) for various tariffing schemes.
Traffic handling priorities can be set (THP).

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Spreading factor:

The number of chips per data symbol is called the Spreading Factor (SF). (SF= chip rate /
symbol rate).
Channelization uses orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes.
SF in uplink is from 4 to 256, SF in downlink is from 4 to 512.

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There are (2 power 24) long uplink scrambling codes which are assigned by RNC.
For downlink, they are 8192, 512 primary scrambling codes divided into 64 primary
scrambling code groups (there are 8 primary scrambling codes in every group), and the
others are secondary codes (15 sec for each primary).
The Spreading factor utilization in DL is: 1&2 are not used, 4 is not used in current
implementation, 8 used for PS 384, 16 is used for PS 128 and HSDPA, 32 is used for PS or
CS 64 (video call), 64 is not often used, 128 is used for voice, and 256 is used for common
or dedicated control channels. After the spreading, the chip rate of different service all
become 3.84Mcps.
R99 & R4 use QPSK (2 data bits per symbol), R5 (HSDPA) uses QPSK & 16QAM (4 data
bits per symbol).

16QAM requires good radio conditions to work well. As seen, with 16QAM also the amplitude
of the signal matters.
A QPSK system with a chip rate of 3.84Mcps could theoretically transfer 2 3.84 = 7.68
Mbps, and a 16QAM system could transfer 4 3.84 Mbps = 15.36 Mbps. (Note that these
numbers are for the SF= 1 which is not used).
In the physical layer:
The time slot= one PWR CTRL period= 2560 chips= 0.6667ms.
The radio frame= 15TS= 10ms.
The super frame= 72RF= 720ms.
HSDPA sub-frame= 3TS = 2ms (1 HS-DSCH Transport Time interval (TTI))
All the HS-channels use the sub-frame timing. As the HSDPA sub-frame is only 2ms long, it
alleviates the need for power control.
The Fast fading is caused by multi-path, and the Slow fading is caused by shadowing.

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The Diversity technology means that after receiving two or more input signals with mutually
uncorrelated fading at the same time, the system demodulates these signals and adds them
up. Thus, the system can receive more useful signals and overcome fading.

L1 is composed of transport channel entity, and a physical channel entity. And they are
controlled by the layer 1 management (L1M) entity.
It is in charge of measurements functions: Frame Error Rate (FER), Signal to Interference
Ratio (SIR), interference power, transmit power.

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The physical layer functions: Spreading, dispreading, modulation and demodulation,


Inner-loop power control.
All processes (channel coding, interleaving, etc.) is done by the transport sub-layer in
order to provide different services and their associated QoS.
The layer 2 protocol is responsible for providing functions such as mapping, ciphering,
retransmission and segmentation. It is made of four sub-layers: MAC (Medium Access
Control), RLC (Radio Link Control), PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) and BMC
(Broadcast/Multicast Control).
The layer 3 is split into 2 parts: the access stratum made of RRC (Radio Resource
Control) entity and duplication avoidance entity in CN.
And the non-access stratum: The higher layer signaling such as Mobility Management
(MM) and Call Control (CC).
RRC layer functions:
1. Establishment, re-establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection
between the UE and UTRAN.
2. Establishment, reconfiguration and release of Radio Bearers: a number of Radio
Bearers can be established for a UE at the same time.
3. Assignment, reconfiguration and release of radio resources (e.g. channelization and
scrambling codes, shared channels) for the RRC connection.
4. Paging/Notification.
5. Broadcasting of information, this corresponds to system information regularly
repeated.
6. UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting.
7. Outer loop power control.
8. Control of ciphering.
The RLCs main function is the transfer of data from either the user or the control plane
over the Radio interface. Two different transfer modes are used: transparent and nontransparent. In non-transparent mode, 2 sub-modes are used: acknowledged or
unacknowledged.
The RLC functions are:
1. Data transfer (transparent, acknowledged and unacknowledged modes).
2. QoS setting.
3. Error correction: done by retransmission (acknowledged mode only).
4. Notifies the upper layers of errors that cannot be resolved by RLC.
5. Mapping between higher layer PDUs and logical channels.
6. Segmentation/reassembly of variable-length higher layer PDUs into/from smaller RLC
Payload Units. The RLC size is adjustable to the actual set of transport formats
(decided when service is established). Concatenation and padding may also be used.
7. Ciphering: for non-transparent RLC mode.
8. Flow control.
MAC services include:
1. Data transfer.
2. Reporting of measurements.
3. Priority handling between the data flows of one UE.
4. Priority handling between UEs.

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5. Ciphering: for transparent RLC mode.


6. Access Service Class (ACS) selection for RACH transmission: the RACH resources
are divided between different ACSs in order to provide different priorities on a random
access procedure.
7. Mapping between logical channels and transport channels.
PDCP:
1. UMTS supports several network layer protocols, using these protocols (and new
ones) shall be possible without any changes to UTRAN protocols. In order to perform
this requirement, the PDCP layer has been introduced. Then, functions related to
transfer of packets from higher layers shall be carried out in a transparent way by the
UTRAN network entities.
2. PDCP shall also be responsible for implementing header compression algorithms.
Compression algorithms exist for TCP/IP, RTP/UDP/IP,
3. Another function of PDCP is to provide numbering of PDUs.
BMC:
1. Storage of cell broadcast message.
2. Traffic volume monitoring and radio resource request for CBS.
3. Scheduling of BMC message.
4. Transmission of BMC message to UE.
5. Delivery of cell broadcast messages to the upper layer.
The UMTS layer 1 offers data transport services to higher layers. These services are
provided by radio links which are managed by the layer 1 management entity. The radio
link is a logical association between the UE and the UTRAN access point (the NB). One
radio link is made of one or several transport channels, and one physical channel. Its
physical realization comprises one or more radio bearer transmissions.
RB: The service provided by the layer 2 for transfer of user data between User Equipment
and Serving RNC.
RAB: The service that the access stratum provides to the non-access stratum for transfer
of user data between User Equipment and CN.
RAB is the carrier in user plane, which is for transferring the voice service, data service or
multiple media service between UE and CN.

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RABs types:
1. Conversational speech (12.2kbps CS).
2. Conversational 64kbps CS (video telephony).
3. Streaming (video, audio) 57.6kbps CS (offered to support a specific modem).
4. Streaming max bit rate: 16/64kbps PS.
5. Interactive (corporate access, web browsing, WAP..) or BG (E-mail, internet access,
downloads) PS: RACH/FACH, 64/64, 64/128, 64/384, 64/HS, 384/HS.
6. Multi RABs: combination of conversational speech & interactive 64/64.
Logical Channel = information container (What type of information is transferred). It is
divided into two types: control channel and traffic channel.
Transport Channel = characteristics of transmission (How and with what characteristics
data is transmitted over the radio interface). It is the interface between radio interface
layer 2 and layer 1.
Physical Channel: provides the real transmission resource, maybe a frequency, a specific
set of codes and phase..
Logical Channels:
Traffic channel:
1. Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH): a point-to-point bi-directional channel.
2. Common Traffic Channel (CTCH): a point-to-multipoint downlink channel for transfer
of dedicated user information for all or a group of specified UEs. This channel is used
to broadcast BMC messages.
Control channels:
1. Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH): a downlink channel that broadcasts all system
information types. UEs decode system information on the BCH except when in
Cell_DCH mode. In that case, they can decode system information type 10 on the
FACH and other important signaling is sent on a DCCH.
2. Paging Control Channel (PCCH): a downlink channel that transfers paging
information. It is used to reach a UE (or several UEs) in idle mode or in connected
mode (Cell_PCH or URA_PCH state). The paging type 1 message is sent on the
PCCH. When a UE receives a page on the PCCH in connected mode, it shall enter
Cell_FACH state and make a cell update procedure.
3. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH): a point-to-point bi-directional channel used for
dedicated signaling after an RRC connection has been done. For example, it is used
for inter-frequency handover procedure, for dedicated paging, for the active set
update procedure and for the control and report of measurements.
4. Common Control Channel (CCCH): a bi-directional channel for transmitting control
information between network and UEs. It is used to send messages related to RRC
connection, cell update and URA update. This channel is a bit like the DCCH, but will
be used when the UE has not yet been identified by the network (or by the new cell).
For example, it is used to send the RRC connection request message, which is the
first message sent by the UE to get into connected mode. The network will respond
on the same channel, and will send him its temporary identities (cell and UTRAN
identities). After these initial messages, the DCCH will be used.
Transport channels:
1. Broadcast Channel (BCH): a downlink channel used for broadcast of system
information into the entire cell.
2. Paging Channel (PCH): a downlink channel used for broadcast of control information
into the entire cell, such as paging.

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3. Random Access Channel (RACH): a contention based uplink channel used for initial
access or for transmission of relatively small amounts of data (non real-time
dedicated control or traffic data).
4. Forward Access Channel (FACH): a common downlink channel used for dedicated
signaling (answer to a RACH typically), or for transmission of relatively small
amounts of data.
5. Dedicated Channel (DCH): a channel dedicated to one UE used in uplink or
downlink.
6. High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH): A Downlink transport channel
shared by several UEs. The HS-DSCH is associated with one or several Shared
Control Channels (HS-SCCH). It operates on a 2 ms Transmission Time Interval
(TTI).
Downlink Physical Channels:
Downlink Dedicated Physical Channels:
1. Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH): Downlink DPDCH and DPCCH is time
division multiplexing (TDM), SF of downlink DPCH is from 512 to 4.
Basically, there are two types of downlink DPCH. They are distinguished by the use or
non-use of the TFCI field. TFCI bits are not used for fixed rate services or when the
TFC doesnt change.

The parameter k in the figure above determines the total number of bits per time slot. It
is related to the SF, which ranges from 4 to 512.
2. Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH): used to carry dedicated control
information generated in layer 1 (such as pilot, TPC and TFCI bits).
Pilot: the (mandatory) pilot bits are used for channel estimation for coherent detection.
And if the pilot bits on the DPCCH are not sufficient for channel estimation, the CPICH
bits can be used for support.
TFCI: the (optional) Transport Format Combination indicator informs the receiver (the
UE) about the instantaneous transport format combination of the transport channels.
FBI: the (optional) Feedback indicator is used to adjust the closed outer loop transmit
diversity parameters (between the UE and the RNC regarding the quality of the link
(the Eb/No)).

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TPC: the Transmit Power Control carries in uplink the power control commands for the
node B transmitter (fast inner loop power control) (between the UE and NB regarding
the SNR).
Downlink Common Physical Channels:
3. Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH): fixed rate
(SF=256) (Cch,256,1 / 30kbps) (Chip rate/ SF= Symbol rate= 15ksps Bit rate=
30kbps) downlink physical channel used to carry the BCH transport channel. It is
broadcasted continuously over the entire cell like the P-CPICH. The P-CCPCH only
has one fix predefined transport format combination, and the only bits transmitted are
data bits from the BCH transport channel. The SCH and the P-CCPCH are time
multiplexed on every time slot.

4. Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH): used to carry the FACH
and PCH transport channels. Unlike the P-CCPCH, it is not broadcasted continuously.
It is only transmitted when there is a PCH or FACH information to transmit. At the
mobile side, the mobile only decodes the S-CCPCH when it expects a useful message
on the PCH or FACH. It will expect a message on the PCH after indication from the
PICH (page indicator channel), and it will expect a message on the FACH after it has
transmitted something on the RACH.
The FACH and the PCH can be mapped on the same or on separate S-CCPCHs. If
they are mapped on the same S-CCPCH, TFCI bits have to be sent to support multiple
transport formats.
The figure below shows the frame structure of the S-CCPCH. The pilot bits here are
used for demodulation.
The SF ranges from 4 to 256. The channelization code is assigned by the RRC layer
as is the scrambling code, and they are fixed during the communication. They are sent
on the BCCH so that every UE can decode the channel.
As said before, FACH can be used to carry user data. The difference with the
dedicated channel is that it cannot use fast power control, nor soft handover. The
advantage is that it is a fast access channel.

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5. Synchronization Channel (SCH): Carries Primary and Secondary Synch Codes (sent
in parallel at the first 256 chips of every time slot (10% of it), time-multiplexed with
PCCPCH).

Each cell of a NodeB has its own SCH timing, so that there is no overlapping.
DL, broadcasted over the entire cell, not scrambled, and it is used for cell search
procedure.
The P. Synch code is the same for all the cells and enables the mobiles to detect the
existence of the UMTS cell and to synchronize itself on the time slot boundaries.
The S-SCH provides the information required to find the frame boundaries, and the S.
Synch Code (SSC) indicates which of the 64 scrambling code groups the cells
downlink scrambling code belongs to (The scrambling code /one out of 8/ can be
determined afterwards by decoding the P-CPICH. The mobile will then be able to
decode the BCH). There is one specific SSC transmitted in each time slot, giving us a
sequence of 15 SSCs. There is a total of 64 different sequences of 15 SSCs,
corresponding to the 64 primary scrambling code groups. These 64 sequences are
constructed so that one sequence is different from any other one. The UE correlates
the received signal with the 16 SSCs and identifies the maximum correlation value.

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6. Paging Indicator Channel (PICH): fixed rate (30kbps /300 bits per frame/, SF=256)
physical channel used by the NodeB to inform a UE (or a group of UEs) that a paging
information will soon be transmitted on the PCH. Thus, the mobile only decodes the
SCCPCH when it is informed to do so by the PICH.

Depending on the configuration of the cell, 18, 36, 72 or 144 paging indicators can be
multiplexed in time on one PICH radio frame. Thus, the number of bits reserved for
each PI depends of the number of PIs per radio frame. For example, if there is 72 PIs
in one radio frame, there will be 4 (288/72) consecutive bits for each PI. These bits are
all identical. If the PI in a certain frame is 1, it is an indication that the UE (or a group
of UEs) associated with that PI should read the corresponding frame of the S-CCPCH.
The UE will listen periodically to the PICH depending on the number of PIs in the cell.
So if it is configured to be 144, the UE will listen only 2 bits per frame to the PICH
(DRX), which will save the battery of the UE but it also needs a high quality radio
channel as the relevant PICH bits are repeated only once.
7. Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH): used to inform a UE that the network has
received its access request. It carries the Acquisition Indicators (AI), each
corresponding to a signature on the PRACH (uplink).

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The AICH consists of a burst of data transmitted regularly every access slot frame.
One access slot frame is formed of 15 access slots, and lasts 2 radio frames (20 ms).
Each access slot consists of two parts, an acquisition indicator part of 32 real-valued
symbols and a long part during which nothing is transmitted to avoid overlapping due
to propagation delays.
A maximum of 16 AIs can be sent in each access slot (so it is like PICH, the AI can be
repeated once minimum. And in the access slot frame, we have a maximum 15*16=
240 AIs).
The SF used is 256.
8. Common Pilot Channel (CPICH): Sends the scrambling code of the cell, aids channel
estimation (for handover and cell selection). And also used for coherent detection of
common channels (SCH, P-CCPCH, AICH, PICH and DL DPCH). They (P & S)
indicate the phase reference.
The channelization code used to spread the PCPICH is always Cch,256,0 (all ones).
Thus, the P-CPICH is a fixed rate channel (30Kbps). Also, it is always scrambled with
the primary scrambling code of the cell. Broadcasted over the entire cell, not linked to
any transport channel, it consists of a sequence of known bits that are transmitted in
parallel with the primary and secondary CCPCH.
Finding the primary scrambling code is done during the cell search procedure through
a symbol-by-symbol correlation with all the codes within the code group. After the
primary scrambling code has been identified, the UE can decode system information
on the P-CCPCH.
9. High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH): carries user data and
layer 2 overhead bits mapped from the transport channel: HS-DSCH.
The user data and layer 2 overhead bits from HS-DSCH is mapped onto one or
several HS-PDSCH and transferred in 2ms subframe (3 time slots constituted) using
one or several channelization code with fixed SF=16.
It is shared by several UEs. It supports Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and
16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM) and multi code transmission. It is
allocated to a user at 2 ms intervals.
There is no transport channel multiplexing in HSDPA so the information contained in
HS-PDSCH subframe is from a single HS-DSCH transport channel.

A UE is a member of one of 12 categories, as a function of its hardware capabilities.


Each category represents different values of the following parameters:
Number of simultaneous HS-PDSCH codes (5, 10, or 15).
Maximum transport block size.
Inter-TTI interval: minimum time between consecutive assignments.

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Incremental redundancy buffer size: used to soft-combine symbols from


retransmissions.

10. High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH): 3 time slots constitutes one TTI (
2ms ), fixed rate (60 kbps, SF=128) downlink physical channel used to carry downlink
signaling related to HS-DSCH transmission (The UE monitors this channel
continuously to determine when to read its data from the HS-DSCH).
Carries the following information (7 items):
1. Modulation scheme (Xms) (1bit): (QPSK or 16QAM which can change from one
assignment to the next).
2. Channelization code set (Xccs) (7bits): The HS-SCCH indicates which of the
OVSF codes allocated to the HS-PDSCHs will be used. HS-PDSCH uses multicode transmission, which means that multiple OVSF codes may be assigned to
one UE at the same time.
3. Transport block size (Xtbs) (6bit): The HS-SCCH indicates how much data will
be sent during the next assignment.
4. HARQ process number (Xhap) (3bit).
5. Redundancy version (Xrv) (3bit): The HARQ protocol supports retransmissions
and incremental redundancy. These parameters allow the UE to differentiate new
transmissions from retransmissions.
6. New data indicator (Xnd) (1bit).
7. UE identity (Xue) (16bit): Multiple UEs may be monitoring the same set of HSSCCHs. Each UE has an assigned identity called the H-RNTI.
The timing of HS-SCCH starts two slots prior to the start of the HS-PDSCH subframe.
In each 2 ms interval corresponding to one HS-DSCH TTI, one HS-SCCH carries
physical-layer signaling to a single UE. As there should be a possibility for HS-DSCH
transmission to multiple users in parallel (code multiplex), multiplex HS-SCCH may be

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needed in a cell. The specification allows for up to four HS-SCCHs can be decoded by
four UEs.

Uplink Physical Channels:


Uplink Dedicated Physical Channels:
1. Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (Uplink DPDCH):
Uplink DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code division multiplexed (CDM) within each radio
frame.
DPDCH is used to carry the DCH transport channel, (carries data generated at Layer 2
and higher layer).
2. Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (Uplink DPCCH): used to carry the
physical sub-layer control bits, (carries control information generated at Layer 1).
Each DPCCH time slot consists of Pilot, TFCIFBI (used for the FBTD / Feedback TX
Diversity/ between UE and RNC regarding the quality (Eb/No) of the link), TPC (used
to transport power control command between UE and NB regarding the SNR).
Pilot is used to help demodulation.

The parameter k determines the number of symbols per slot. It is related to the
spreading factor (SF) of the DPDCH by this simple equation: SF=256/2k. The DPDCH
SF ranges from 4 to 256. The SF for the uplink DPCCH is always 256, which gives us
10 bits per slot. The exact number of pilot, TFCI, TPC and FBI bits is configured by
higher layers.
3. High-Speed Dedicated Physical Channel (HS-DPCCH): SF=256, TTI=2ms (3 time
slots), Fixed rate of 15kbps.

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It carries no upper layer information, and therefore has no logical or transport channel
mapping.
In HSDPA operating mode, it carries 2 types of HSDPA uplink physical layer control
message: ACK/NACK, and CQI.
ACK and NACK notify the NodeB that the UE has received correct downlink data or not
each HS-DSCH assignment. UTRAN may configure the UE to repeat the ACK/NACK,
up to a maximum of 4 transmissions. The first ACK/NACK for a given HS-DSCH
assignment is sent 5 ms (7.5 slots) after the end of the HS-DSCH transmission. (The
field defines like this: 1-NACK, 0-ACK).
The UE measures the channel quality of the Downlink CPICH and computes a CQI
value. The value is an index into a table, and corresponds to the maximum data rate
that the UE can decode with an error rate of less than 10%, assuming the channel
conditions dont change.

UTRAN may configure the UE to repeat the CQI up to a maximum of 4 transmissions.


UTRAN may also configure the periodicity of CQI reporting, ranging from 2 ms to 160
ms.
As the HS-DPCCH uses SF=256, there are a total of 30 channel bits per 2 ms subframe (3 time slot). The HS-DPCCH information is divided in such a way that the
HARQ acknowledgement is transmitted in the first slot of the sub-frame while the
channel quality indication is transmitted in the rest slots.

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Uplink Common Physical Channels:


4. Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH): used by the UE to access the network
and to carry small data packets. It carries the RACH transport channel.
The PRACH is an open loop power control channel, with contention resolution
mechanisms (ALOHA approach) to enable a random access from several users.
The PRACH is composed of two parts: the preamble part and the message part that
carries the RACH message. The preamble is an identifier which consists of 256
repetitions of a 16 chip long signature (total of 4096 chips). There are 16 possible
signatures, basically, the UE randomly selects one of the 16 possible preambles and
transmits it at increasing power until it gets a response from the network (on the AICH)
(the power of the transmitted preamble is based on an estimation of downlink loss from
the received signal strength of the common pilot channel, CPICH). That preamble is
scrambled before being sent. If the UE doesnt get a response from the network, it has
to select a new signature to transmit.
The message part (which is sent in a power level according to the successful
preamble) is 10 or 20 ms long (split into 15 or 30 time slots) and is made of the RACH
data and the layer 1 control information.
This message can be used for packet data transmission, and can be used to update
location area and routing area information.

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poweroffsetPO= PowerRampStepPRACHpreamble (in NSN)


poweroffsetPpM= PowerOffsetLastPreamblePRACHmessage (in NSN)
preambleRetransMax= PRACH_preamble_retrans (in NSN)

The data and control bits of the message part are processed in parallel. The SF of the
data part can be 32, 64, 128 or 256 while the SF of the control part is always 256. The
control part consists of 8 pilot bits for channel estimation and 2 TFCI bits to indicate
the transport format of the RACH (transport channel), for a total of 10 bits per slot.
The OVSF codes to use (one for RACH data and one for control) depend on the
signature that was used for the preamble (for signatures s=0 to s=15: OVSFcontrol=
Cch,256,m, where m=16s + 15; OVSFdata= Cch,SF,m, where m=SF*s/16).
The PRACH transmission is based on the access frame structure. The access frame is
access of 15 access slots and lasts 20 ms (2 radio frames).
To avoid too many collisions and to limit interference, a UE must wait at least 3 or 4
access slots between two consecutive preambles.

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The PRACH resources (access slots and preamble signatures) can be divided
between different Access Service Classes (ASC) in order to provide different priorities
of RACH usage. The ASC number ranges from 0 (highest priority) to 7 (lowest priority).

In HSDPA, Besides 3 physical channels on top. There is another physical channel named
DPCH (DPDCH, DPCCH), which is a dedicated channel in UL & DL. DPCH is also called
associated channel used for signaling transmission and power control (for HSPA!!).
DPCH does not carry service generally, sometimes carry real time (RT) service such as
AMR service.

When a DL RAB is mapped onto the HS-DSCH, UL DCH is set up regardless of the
existence of UL data. When the UE is in soft handover or softer handover, the HS-DSCH
data can be transmitted only in the HSDPA serving cell while the DCH data can be
transmitted in all the cells in the active set.

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F-DPCH (Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel) is a new downlink physical channel in


release 6. The Purpose of F-DPCH introduction is to keep the closed loop power control
working for HSDPA users without an assigned DPCH (A-DPCH). And it is the difference of
HSDPA physical channels between Release5 and Release6.
The F-DPCH is a special case of the Downlink DPCCH. It has only TPC control bits
information generated at layer 1, no Pilot or TFCI or data fields are carried. The TPC bits
forwarded on the F-DPCH are needed to control the power of the HS-DPCCH (Uplink
channel).

Tslot = 2560 chips, corresponding to one power-control period, SF=256 each user occupy
one Symbol in one slot to bear TPC command, It multiplexes the TPC bits for a maximum of
10 UEs with different frame offsets.

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The advantage of F-DPCH introduction is that the code utilization efficiency is improved up to
90%, especially used for large number of VoIP users. But the problem of F-DPCH
introduction is that the code utilization efficiency could be downgraded in SHO due to the
timing restrictions on when TPC bits can be transmitted to UEs in SHO zones.

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HSDPA & R99 Layer Channels mapping:

This diagram shows possible mappings of logical, transport, and physical channels in the
control and user planes for UMTS Release 99 & HSPA.
Some channels exist only in Physical Layer (CPICH, SCH, DPCCH, AICH, PICH). These
channels carry no upper layer signaling or user data.
A UE operating in HSDPA mode also has at least one R99 dedicated channel
(DCH/DPDCH) allocated, to ensure that RRC and NAS signaling can always be sent, even if
the UE is not able to receive the high speed channels.

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HSDPA Physical Channels Timing:


Start of HS-SCCH is aligned with the start of PCCPCH.
HS-PDSCH, subframe is transmitted two slots after the associated HS-SCCH subframe.

HSDPA channel timing is based on a time interval of 2 ms, or 3 slots:


The UE measures the Downlink channel quality and sends a CQI report on the
HSDPCCH.
An ACK or NACK from a previously received block may also be included in this
transmission.
2. If the Node B decides to send data to the UE, it will send information on the HS-SCCH to
assign the physical channel and give the UE information about how the data was
encoded.
3. During the next 2ms HS-DSCH transmission time, one or more HS-PDSCHs carry the
UEs data. The HS-SCCH transmission overlaps the HS-PDSCH transmission.
4. After the UE decodes the data, it sends an ACK or NACK on the HS-DPCCH. The UE
must send the ACK or NACK 5ms (i.e. 7.5 slots) after the end of the HS-DSCH
transmission. If the UE sends a NACK, the Node B may send the data again during a
later time slot, or may choose not to retransmit the data. A CQI report may also be
included in this transmission.
1.

Each HSDPA sub-frame has 3 slots and each slot is comprised of symbols. The number of
symbols in a slot depends on the spreading factor used for that channel. HS-PDSCH, HSSCCH, and HS-DPCCH use SF 16, 128, and 256 respectively, giving number of symbols per
slot as 160 (HS-PDSCH), 20 (HS-SCCH), and 10 (HS-DPCCH).
Before initiating the Random Access attempt, the UE receives the following (by system info):
1. SC of the cell.
2. The available Random Access Signature, and the set of RACH sub-channels.
3. The available spreading factors.
4. The message length (10ms, or 20ms).
5. Initial preamble PWR parameter.
6. Power ramping factor, and power ramping step.
7. Preamble retransmission parameter.
8. AICH transmission timing parameter.

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9. The PWR offset between preamble and the message part.


10. Transport format parameters.
WCDMA limiting factors:
1. All UEs share a single (BS) transmit power, so the number of users depends on their
location in the cell.
2. DL channels are orthogonal at the Tx reference point, but they may not be at the
receiving end causing noise-like interference due to cross correlation properties.
3. More traffic more interference less coverage (cell breathing).
4. Interference from other BSs affects the capacity.
5. All UEs have their own PWR PBGT (in the same cell and in other cells).
6. HW limitation.
7. Iub capacity limitation.

UE Working Modes and States

Idle Mode
Connected Mode:
1. CELL_DCH
2. CELL_FACH
3. CELL_PCH
4. URA_PCH

If RRC connection does not exist between UE and RNC, then the UE is in idle mode. (The
UE has no relation to UTRAN, only to CN. And it camps on a cell which enables it to receive
system information from the PLMN, also the UE can monitor PICH of a cell for paging).
If RRC connection exists between UE and RNC, then the UE is in connected mode.
Based on UE mobility and activity UE in connected mode may be allocated to four different
states: CELL_DCH, CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH and URA_PCH.
If there is huge data to be transmitted, it must allocate dedicated channel. Thus UE will be in
Cell-DCH. UE in Cell-DCH state is communicating via DCH (downlink and uplink) with
UTRAN. And the UTRAN knows which cell UE stays in.
If there is only few data to be transmitted, there is no need to allocate dedicated channel.
Thus UE will be in Cell-FACH. UE in Cell-FACH state is communicating via FACH (downlink)
and RACH (uplink) with UTRAN. UE needs to monitor the FACH for its relative information
because FACH is shared (common) for all users in the cell. And also the UTRAN knows
which cell UE stays in.
If UE has no data to be transmitted or received, UE will be in Cell-PCH or URA-PCH (which
lower the power consumption of the UE). In these two states, UE needs to monitor PICH to
receive its paging. UTRAN knows which cell or URA UE is now in. The UTRAN here has to
update cell information of UE when UE roams to another cell. UE migrates to cell-FACH
state to complete the cell update. If there is also no data to be transmitted or received, UE is
back to CELL-PCH state after cell update. If the cell update times in a fixed time reach a
preset value, UTRAN will let UE migrate to URA-PCH. URA is an area of several cells.
URA-PCH is the same as the CELL-PCH state. UE should migrate to CELL-FACH state to
complete the URA update. (UTRAN only knows which URA that UE stays, and UTRAN
updates UE information only after UE has roamed to other URA, and URA-PCH is a better
way to reduce the resource occupancy and signaling transmission).

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WCDMA Channel Switching:


In WCDMA there are different types of channels that can be used to carry data in order to
maximize the total traffic throughput. The two most basic ones are common channels and
dedicated channels. Channel type switching functionality is used to move subscribers
between the common and the dedicated channel, depending on how much information the
subscriber needs to transmit.

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To summarize:
The down switch happened when one of these cases appeared: Bad coverage, Bad quality,
Inactivity, SHO failure, Throughput, and Congestion.
And the up switch happened due to Buffer size, Activity, and Throughput.
Single RAB state transitions:
1. Dedicated to Common (cell_DCH to cell_FACH).
2. Common to Dedicated (cell_FACH to Cell_DCH 64/64, 64/HS, EUL/HS).
3. Common to URA_PCH (cell_FACH to URA_PCH).
4. URA_PCH to Common (URA_PCH to Cell_FACH).
5. URA_PCH to IDLE.
6. Dedicated to Dedicated single RAB (cell_DCH to cell_DCH).

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Channel Switching Algorithms:


Common to dedicated evaluation: due to a large amount of user data buffered in the RNC
or the UE.
Dedicated to common evaluation: due to a decrease in transmitted user data.
Common to URA evaluation: This algorithm releases UEs with no activity in order to free
resources and decrease the power consumption of the UE.
URA to idle evaluation: This algorithm requests a switch to idle mode if a UE has been
allocated to URA_PCH state for a certain time interval.
The coverage triggered down-switch evaluation algorithm monitors whether a switch to a
lower rate dedicated channel is required due to coverage reasons.
A down-switch is requested if all legs in the AS use a Transmitted Code Power close to the
max allowed code power.
Dedicated to dedicated up-switch evaluation monitors UL & DL throughput and DL
Transmitted Code Power.
An up-switch is requested if all radio links in the AS are able to provide the power required
for the next higher bit rate radio bearer.
Idle mode behavior is managed by the system information that is sent on the Broadcast
Control Channel (BCCH) in each cell. The system information contains parameters that
control cell selection and reselection, paging, location updating, access and also parameters
related to other functions.
The Idle mode tasks may be divided into five different processes:
PLMN selection and reselection.
Cell selection and reselection.
Location area (LA) and routing area (RA) registration.
Paging procedure.
Reading system information.
Note that the processes for cell reselection, LA & RA registration, paging and reading of
system information are also applicable for UEs in Cell_FACH state.
The Cell Selection Criteria:
Squal = Qqualmeas- qQualMin > 0
Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas qRxLevMin Pcompensation > 0
Where Pcompensation = max(maxTxPowerUL P;0)
P: the UE maximum output power according to its class.
qQualmin: (exactly found in HUAWEI & NSN) sent in the broadcast information and indicates
the minimum required quality value for the cell. The UE measures the received quality,
Qqualmeas, on the CPICH (CPICH Ec/No) and calculates Squal.
qRxLevMin: (exactly found in HUAWEI & NSN) sent the system information and indicates
the minimum required signal strength. The UE measures the received signal Code Power
(CPICH RSCP) and obtains Srxlev.

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Cell selection cases:


The cell selection process is run when:
1. The UE is switched on.
2. The UE returns to idle mode from connected mode.
3. After a number of failed attempts of RRC connection request when the UE is in idle
mode and tries to establish an RRC connection.
4. After a number of failed attempts of cell update, when the UE returns to idle mode
from connected mode on common channels (Cell_FACH state).
5. When the UE returns to idle mode after an emergency call on any PLMN.
6. When a UE moves from dedicated mode to state CELL_FACH or URA_PCH.
Cell reselection:
The cell reselection procedure is valid both for UEs in idle mode and connected mode (in
state CELL_FACH and URA_PCH).
The Cell Reselection process is run when:
1. The cell on which the UE is camping is no longer suitable.
2. The UE, in camped normally state, has found a better neighboring cell than the cell
on which it is camping.
3. The UE is in limited service state on an acceptable cell.
When the UE triggers a cell reselection evaluation process, it ranks cells that fulfill the cell
selection criteria and also the so called H criteria. If no cell fulfils the H-criteria, the UE shall
not consider the HCS priority when ranking the cells. The UE ranks the cells according to the
R-criteria.

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The Hierarchical Cell Structures (HCS) optional feature makes it possible to control camping
of UEs in Idle mode and in states CELL_FACH and URA_PCH, not only according to best
cell using the measurement quantity CPICH RSCP or CPICH Ec/No, but also according to
cell hierarchy which gives superior traffic steering capabilities between frequencies (HCS is
applied only between inter-frequency relations). For example we can keep Idle Mode UEs on
a cell layer that does not provide HSPA in order to reserve capacity for HS. And also it
enables simple introduction of in-building systems.
Concepts of Mobility Management:
In order to track the MSs, the cells in GPRS/UMTS service area are partitioned into several
groups.
To deliver services to an MS, the cells in the group covering the MS will page the MS to
establish the radio link.
In the CS domain, cells are partitioned into location areas (LAs). The LA of an MS is tracked
by the VLR.
In the PS domain, the cells are partitioned into routing areas (RAs). A RA is typically a
subset of a LA. The RA of an MS is tracked by the SGSN.
In GPRS, the SGSN also tracks the cell of an MS in PS connection (i.e., when packets are
delivered between the MS and the SGSN).
In UMTS, the cells in a RA are further partitioned into UTRAN RAs (URAs). The URA and
the cell of an MS are tracked by the UTRAN.
The load control in general consists of:
1. Handover control.
2. Power control.
3. Admission control.
4. Packet control.
Power Control:
The open loop PWR control is used for beginning the connection (the PRACH process), and
it is used until the inner loop is established.
The inner loop PWR control (fast) uses TPC bits to avoid the near-far problem and to reduce
the interference.

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The outer loop PWR control (slow) is used to keep the quality of the communication at the
SIR target. (If the UL Rx Qual is high SIR target is low and vice versa).
In the uplink we have the near-far problem as following: if we have two UEs, UE1 (cell
center) and UE2 (cell edge) in a cell, there can be a large path loss difference between them.
If both UEs are transmitting with the same power, then UE1 will block UE2 (and other cell
edge users too). So power control will drive transmission powers of UE1 and UE2 to the
minimum level that is required to meet QoS. And finally the Node B received powers from
UE1 and UE2 will be the same for same services.

Then, Uplink & Downlink Power Control increase the maximum number of connections that
can be served with the required Quality of Service (QoS), while reducing both the
interference and the total amount of radiated power in the network.

Uplink outer loop PC:


The goal is to control the target SIR in order to maintain the BLER as required with
minimum transmit power and regardless of UE environment and mobility.
Update frequency from 10 Hz up to 100 Hz.
Downlink outer loop PC:
Implemented in UE to set SIR target on DL traffic channels as in the UL.
No SIR target change if Node B power reaches maximum or network congestion
occurs.

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Uplink inner loop:


Update rate 1.5 kHz fast enough to track and compensate fast fading.
If received SIR > target SIR in Node B UE is commanded to decrease its transmit
power. Similarly UE is commanded to increase its transmission power if received SIR
< target SIR.
Down link inner loop:
Similar as UL fast PC:
UE measures SIR on DL DPCCH during the pilot period.
UE maintains the QoS by sending fast power control commands (TPC bits)
requesting power adjustment.

CRC= Cyclic Redundancy Check


Open Loop Power Control is used to estimate the power required for the Access Preamble,
Random Access Channel (RACH) message and the initial uplink and downlink Dedicated
Physical Control and Data Channels (DPCCH/DPDCH).
Once the Dedicated channel is established, Outer and Inner Loops will work together to
maintain the required BLER, regardless of the UEs location and mobility.

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Admission Control:
Admission control blocks new incoming calls as well as handover attempts when the load in
the system is high, thus reducing the call-dropping probability.
Admission control controls system load to maintain a sufficient resources for urgent
requirements and an acceptable service quality for connected users.
If air interface loading is allowed to increase too much, the coverage of the cell will be
reduced below the planned value. And the Admission control decides whether to accept the
terminals request for new radio access bearer by calculating how much interference new
bearer would create to the cell in both UL and DL. So if either UL or DL interference
threshold is exceeded the new RAB is not admitted.

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The AC depends on the following inputs:


1. Downlink transmit carrier power (to keep sufficient power for UEs in connected mode
or experiencing a poor service quality due to fading).
2. Spreading Factor usage (limiting the number of users of a certain SF, and checking if
we have the SF that specifically handle the service of the new user).
3. Code tree usage.
4. Number of Compressed Mode radio links (Indication of the processor load that the
Compressed mode radio links causes in the node B. /Important due to hardware
limitations in the Node B/).
5. Air-interface Speech Equivalent (ASE) usage in uplink and downlink:
=

max

max

Activity factor for speech is 50%, and for data could reach to 100%.
Example:
384 0.65
=

= 40
12.2 0.5

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Congestion Control:

The Congestion control is responsible of returning the network back into desired
target load in case of overload.
Overloads occur due to fluctuations in the downlink power. (For example
because of: inter-cell interference and variations in the traffic on individual
connections).
Congestion Control is triggered only in the case of (near) overload in a cell.
Congestion control based on 3 consecutive steps:
1. Restricts admission.
2. Delay packet transmission, by reducing the packet bit rate (channel
switching).
3. If this does not solve the congested situation, it releases radio links until
congestion ceases.

From WCDMA radio network features trainer 31-10-2010:


When a cell is congested, the RNC acts as following:
1. Packet control (and buffering).
2. Ch. Down switching and power control.
3. Blocking new connections.
4. Intra frequency, Inter frequency, or IRAT HO.
5. Releasing the connections according to the following order:
a) The UE with best effort service (not guaranteed service).
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b) The UE with higher data rates services.


c) The UE with lower data rates services.
d) The UE with CS services.
And this order is applied for SHO connections then for single RL connections.

Packet scheduler:
1. Determines the available radio resources for Non-Real Time traffic (NRT) radio
bearers.
2. Share the available radio resources between NRT radio bearers.
3. Monitor the allocations for NRT radio bearers.
4. Initiate the switching between common, shared and dedicated channels when
necessary.
5. Monitor the system loading.
6. Perform load control actions for the NRT radio bearers when necessary.
In general, capacity can be divided between non-controllable and controllable traffic.
Load caused by real time traffic, interference from other cell users and noise together is
called non-controllable load.
The part of the available capacity that is not used for non-controllable load can be used for
NRT radio bearers on best effort basis (controllable load).
PS (Packet Scheduler) takes care of filling the controllable capacity with NRT traffic.

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The amount of scheduled capacity depends on:


1. UE and BTS capabilities.
2. The current load in the cell.
3. The availability of physical resources.

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Handover:

Hard handovers:
In HHO (Intra & Inter-frequency HHOs), all the old radio links of a UE are released before the
new radio links are established. Real time bearers will face short disconnection in
transmission.
HHO is not recommended in WCDMA unless there is an urgent need because HHO
increases interference easily since the real-time user is disconnected temporarily and the
used power must be re-evaluated. This decreases the capacity in heavy traffic situations and
can worsen the near-far effect.
In compressed mode UE stops UL transmission for few milli-seconds within a radio frame
(10ms) in order to enable measurements of different carriers/systems.
Compressed mode is needed if the UE needs to perform inter-frequency or inter-RAT HOs.
In inter-frequency and inter-RAT HOs, the handovers can be triggered due to Ec/No criteria,
RSCP criteria, and UE Tx power.
The Intra-Frequency hard handover is triggered by 1D event.
In the HHO, no data will be lost, but it will be kept in the buffer until finishing the HO.

Soft handovers:
In SHO, MS always keeps at least one radio link to UTRAN.
Soft HO: MS is simultaneously controlled by two or more cells belonging to different BTS of
the same RNC or to different RNC.
Softer HO: MS is controlled by at least two cells under one BTS.
Dedicated channels (Cell_DCH state) are used for SHO.
Handover can be either network or UE initiated, and serving RNC makes the decisions in
both cases.
SHO helps avoid near-far effect.

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The Inter-frequency feature covers functions for both inter-frequency handover for UEs
on dedicated channel and for inter-frequency cell re-selection on common channel and
in Idle Mode.
Event 1 (Ec/No or RSCP):
1A: Primary CPICH enters the reporting range (for intra freq SHO). (The quality of a cell is
close to the quality of the best cell in the active set. A relatively high combined gain can
be achieved when the cell is added to the active set).
1B: P-CPICH leaves the reporting range (for intra freq SHO).

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1C: Non-active P-CPICH becomes better than an active P-CPICH (for intra freq SHO).
1D: Change of current best cell with new P-CPICH (for intra freq SHO).
1E: A PCPICH exceeds an absolute threshold (IF & IRAT).
1F: The used frequency becomes worse (falls below) an absolute threshold (for
triggering IF & IRAT Emergent blind handover).
1J: The estimated quality of a cell not included in the E-DCH active set but included in DCH
active set becomes better than the quality of the worst cell in the E-DCH active set.
Event 2 for Inter-Frequency HO:
2A: Change of Best Frequency.
2B: The estimated quality (Ec/No or RSCP) of the currently used frequency is below a
certain threshold and the estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain
threshold (used to make coverage-based or QoS-based HO (in the decision phase)).
2C: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold.
2D: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold (used
to trigger coverage-based /inter freq. & IRAT/ HO measurement (the compressed mode) (in
the triggering phase)).
2E: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is below a certain threshold.
2F: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold (used
by the RNC to stop the compressed mode and the coverage /inter freq. & IRAT/ handover (in
the triggering phase)).
Event 2D and event 2F are used to enable and disable the compressed mode respectively in
inter-RAT measurement.
To enable the compressed mode earlier, increase the threshold of triggering event 2D,
otherwise, decrease the threshold of triggering event 2D.
To prevent the frequent enabling and disabling of the compressed mode, increase the
difference between the thresholds of triggering event 2D and event 2F.
Event 3 for Inter-RAT HO:
3A: The estimated quality (Ec/No or RSCP) of the currently used UTRAN frequency is below
a certain threshold and the estimated quality of other systems frequency is above a certain
threshold (used to make coverage-based or QoS-based HO (in the decision phase)).
3B: The estimated quality of other systems frequency is below a certain threshold.
3C: The estimated quality of other systems frequency (GSM RSSI) is above a certain
threshold.
Event 4 for State Transition:
4A: The traffic volume is greater than the event 4A threshold.
4B: The traffic volume is less than the event 4B threshold.

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Event 6 for IF and IRAT HO:


6A: the UE Tx power exceeds an absolute threshold.
6B: the UE Tx power falls below an absolute threshold.
6D: the UE Tx power reaches its maximum value.
Referring to the soft handover and active set, there are two terms describing the handling of
the multipath components: micro diversity and macro diversity. Micro diversity means the
situation where the propagating multipath components are combined in the Node B.

WCDMA utilizes what is called Multipath Propagation. This means that the Node-B receiver
is able to determine, differentiate and sum up several signals received from the radio path.
The receiver able to do this is a special type of equipment called a RAKE receiver.
The micro-diversity functionality at the Node B level combines (sums up) different signal
paths received from one cell and, in case of sectored Node B, the outcomes from different
sectors (softer handover).
Because of the fact that the UE may use cells belonging to different Node Bs or even
different RNCs, the macro diversity functionality also exists on the RNC level. (Macro
diversity happens when the UE talks via two Node Bs /via multiple radio links and data in
each radio link is the same/).
The following picture presents a case in which the UE has a 3-cell active set in use and one
of those cells is connected to another RNC. In this case, the Node Bs do signal summing
concerning the radio paths of their own. In the RNC level, the serving RNC evaluates the
frames coming from the Node Bs and chooses the best signal to send towards the CN
domains.

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As a conclusion it can be stated that soft and softer handovers consume radio access
capacity because the UE is occupying more than one radio link connection in the Uu
interface. On the other hand, the added capacity gained from the interference reduction is
bigger and hence the system capacity is actually increased if soft and softer handovers are
used.
In soft handover, the signals from different NodeBs are merged in RNC (even if the Node-Bs
belong to different RNCs but the Iur between the RNCs exist). The UE combines the data in
RAKE receiver. But in uplink, the data are combined with selection combination in SRNC.
In softer handover, the signals from different cells, but from the same NodeB are merged in
NodeB. The NodeB and the UE use the RAKE receiver to combine the data.
The soft handover can be conducted only in the FDD mode.
Active set: The set of cells currently used by the UE.
The maximum allowed number of SHO connections (varies between 1-4, typical default 3).
Too high value decreases capacity (signaling increases and multiple connections occur too
often). Too low value decreases the SHO performance (best candidate cells may be
excluded in some situations).
Monitor set: The set of cells that are not in the active set but are being observed and
measured by the UE. The monitored set can consist of intra-frequency, Inter-frequency and
Inter-RAT relations. When the measurement results satisfy certain conditions, the cells may
be added to the active set. Therefore, the observation set sometimes is also called the
candidate set.
The cells measured by the UE are the sum of the Active Set and the Monitored Set.
The number of Intra-frequency cells in the Monitored Set + the Active Set cells is limited by
3GPP to 32.
The number of Inter-Frequency cells in the Monitored set is limited to 32.
Detected set: The set of cells that have been detected by the UE but do not belong to the
active set or the observation set. The UTRAN can request the UE to report the measurement
result of the detected set. Since the cells in the detected set are not listed in the neighboring
cell list, this set is also called the unlisted set.

Paging:
CN originated paging: CN transmits paging message to the UTRAN, and UTRAN
transmits the paging message from CN to UE which will make the UE initiate a
signaling connection setup process with the CN.
UTRAN originated paging:

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1.

UTRAN will perform a paging process in order to trigger UE in the CELL_PCH or


URA_PCH state to carry out state transition to the CELL_FACH state. Meanwhile, the
UE will initiate a cell update or URA update process, as a reply to the paging.
2. When system messages change, the UTRAN will trigger paging process in order to
inform UE in the idle, CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state to carry out the system message
update, so that the UE can read the updated system message.
Paging type 1:
The message is transmitted in one LA or RA or URA. If UE is in CELL_PCH, URA_PCH or
IDLE state, the paging message will be transmitted on PCCH with paging type1.
Paging type 2:
If UE is in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state, the paging message will be transmitted on
DCCH with paging type 2, and the message will be only transmitted in a cell.
Since it is sent on a dedicated control channel, this message is intended only for one
particular UE.
Call process:
In WCDMA system, a call process includes the following basic signaling flows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

RRC connection flow.


Direct transfer message flow.
Authentication flow (optional), (used for the validity of CN and UE).
Security flow (optional) (includes the encrypt process and integrity protection).
RAB establish flow.
Call proceeding.
NAS signaling before correlative bearer release.
Correlative bearer release.

After the RRC is successfully set up, the UE sets up a signaling connection with the CN via
the RNC for NAS information exchange between the UE and the CN, such as authentication,
service request and connection setup, this exchanged is a direct transfer message.
RAB establishment flow is initiated by the CN and executed by the UTRAN, and it mainly
includes the AAL2 PATH establishment of Iu and Iub interface, also includes the
reconfiguration process of radio resource.
Features of WCDMA in UMTS:
1. DTX (no Tx lower interference higher capacity).
2. Multiplexing PS traffic with CS traffic (for a user: if there is no speech to transmit
the silent times are used for PS traffic).
3. Low MS Tx PWR.
4. UL & DL resource utilization independent: different bit rates for UL & DL can be
allocated for each user.
5. Wide variety of data rates.
6. Improvement of multipath resolution: the wide band width of WCDMA makes it
possible to resolve multipath components by using rake receiver Tx PWR is low
interference is low.
7. No fixed capacity limitation (the only one is interference from subscribers).
8. PWR is the common shared resource in DL.
9. In DCH (dedicated ch.), the Spreading codes assigned per user, Closed loop power
control is used, and SHO is used. But in FACH (common ch.), we have a Common
Spreading code, No closed loop power control, and no SHO.

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HSDPA:
HSDPA benefits:
1. Higher Data Rates (Peak data rate up to 14Mbps per user).
The fast radio channel-dependent scheduling of HSDPA users (every 2ms) is wellsuited to the bursty nature of packet data.
Fast link adaptation (data rates (modulation & coding) adapted to radio conditions
on 2ms time basis) (the 16QAM modulation allocated starting from CQI= 16).
Note that if we dont have a specific data rate (best effort service) the RNC adjusts
the data rate and keeps the Tx PWR constant. This is the so called (fast) link
adaptation.
Link adaptation in DL controls only the rate to adapt to fast fading, when in the UL,
it controls both the PWR and the rate.
HSDPA typically operates at a fixed power, but feedback from the UE can instruct
the NodeB to use lower power when the UE is in good channel conditions. Link
adaptation is used to adjust data rate, coding, and modulation to quickly respond to
changing channel conditions.
The higher order modulation gives higher bit rates and higher capacity.
Fast hybrid ARQ with soft combining less number of retransmissions & shorter
time between retransmissions (reduced round trip delay) higher capacity.
Shorter TTI (Transmission Time Interval) which reduces the RTT (Round Trip
Time).
2. Dynamic PWR allocation (efficient PWR & spectrum utilization).
3. Shared channel transmission in time and code domains (TDM & CDM).
4. PWR ctrl is not supported.
5. SHO is not supported.

Conventional ARQ:
In a conventional ARQ scheme, received data blocks that cannot be correctly decoded are
discarded and retransmitted data blocks are separately decoded.
Hybrid ARQ (HARQ):
In case of Hybrid ARQ with soft combining, received data blocks that cannot be correctly
decoded are not discarded. Instead the corresponding received signal is buffered and soft
combined with later received retransmission of information bits. Decoding is then applied to
the combined signal which increases the effective received Eb/Io for each retransmission
and thus increases the probability for correct decoding of retransmissions.

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There are many different schemes for HARQ with soft combining:
1. Chase combining (CC): each retransmission is an identical copy of the original
transmission.
2. Incremental Redundancy (IR): each retransmission may add new redundancy.
When the NodeB assigns an HSDPA subframe to a UE, it also assigns a HARQ process to
handle the data transfer. The UE HARQ process is responsible for:
Decoding the initial transmission.
Sending an ACK or NACK.
Soft-combining retransmissions of the data packet until it is successfully decoded or
until NodeB abort the packet.
Shorter TTI (Transmission Time Interval) is necessary to benefit from other functionalities
such as AMC (Adapting Modulation and Coding), scheduling algorithm, and HARQ.

Shared Channel Transmission:


In HSDPA, a new DL transport channel is introduced call HS-DSCH. The idea is that a part
of the total downlink power resource is dynamically shared between HSDPA and R99.
Shared channel transmission implies that a certain amount of radio resource of a cell (code
and power) is seemed as a common resource that is dynamically shared between users.

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The NodeB transmit power allocation algorithm is not specified by the standard, but two
possible schemes are likely:
Static: A fixed amount of power is allocated to HSDPA channels (i.e. the HS-PDSCHs and
HS-SCCHs). Remaining power is distributed among common channels and power controlled
dedicated channels. The overall transmit power fluctuates as a function of the power
controlled channels.
Dynamic: HSDPA channels (i.e. HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH) power is allocated dynamically
as a function of the remaining available power, which fluctuates due to the power controlled
dedicated channels. The overall transmit power of the cell remains constant.
The codes are assigned to HSDPA user only when they are actually to be used for
transmission, which leads to efficient code and power utilization.

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WCDMA R99 uses QPSK data modulation for downlink transmission. To support higher data
rate, higher order data modulation, such as 16QAM can be used.
Compared to QPSK modulation, higher order modulation is more bandwidth efficient i.e. can
carry more bits per Hertz.
Fast Scheduling:
Fast scheduling is about to decide to which terminal the shared channel transmission should
be directed at any given moment.
The basic idea of fast scheduling is to transmit at the fading peaks of the channel in order to
increase the throughput and to use resource more efficiently. But this might lead to large

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variations in data rate of the users. The trade-off is between the cell throughput and fairness
against users.
There are a number of scheduling algorithms that take into consideration the trade-off
between throughput and fairness:
Round Robin (RR): radio resource are allocated to communication links on a sequential
basis, not taking into account the instantaneous radio channel conditions experienced
by each link.
Max C/I: for maximum cell throughput, the radio resource should be as much as
possible be allocated to communication links with the best instantaneous channel
condition.
Proportional Fair (PF): allocates the channel to the user with relatively best channel
quality.
Enhanced Proportional Fair (EPF): allocates the channel to the user according to
relatively best channel quality, fairness, and guarantee bit rate requirement.
In the DL, usually RR or proportional fair is used, but in UL, fair is always used.
Theoretical HSDPA Maximum Data Rate:
Theoretical HSDPA Maximum data rate is 14.4Mbps, done through the following:
1. Multi-code transmission: Node B must allocate all 15 OVSF codes (SF =16) to one
UE during one 2 ms TTI.
2. Consecutive assignments using multiple HARQ process: Node B must allocate all
time slots to one UE, and UE must decode all transmission correctly on the first
transmission (no NACKs and retransmission).
3. Low channel coding gain: using effective code rate (code rate= 4/4= 1) which
requires very good channel conditions to decode.
4. 16QAM: increases the data rate over QPSK by a factor of 2, but requires very good
channel condition.
5. Inter- TTI interval: The interval between consecutive assignments is called the interTTI interval. If the UE supports an inter-TTI interval of 1, then it is capable of
receiving a new HSDPA assignment every 2 ms. Allowed values of the inter-TTI
interval are 1, 2, and 3.
For example:
Assuming:
5 OVSF code for HS-PDSCH 14.4Mbps / 3 = 4.8Mbps.
Consecutive assignment.
QPSK 4.8Mbps / 2 = 2.4Mbps.
Turbo code rate =1/3 2.4Mbps / 3 = 0.8Mbps.
Retransmission:
75% of data block decoded on first transmission
25% of data block decoded on second transmission
0.8Mbps 0.8 = 640 kbps

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The Control Plane is used for all UMTS-specific control signaling. It includes the Application
Protocol (i.e. RANAP in Iu, RNSAP in Iur and NBAP in Iub), and the Signaling Bearer for
transporting the Application Protocol messages. The Application Protocol is used for setting
up bearers to the UE (i.e. the Radio Access Bearer in Iu and the Radio Link in Iur and Iub).
The transport Network Control Plane does not include any Radio Network Layer information.
It includes the ALCAP (Access Link Control Application Protocol) that is needed to set up the
transport bearers (Data Bearer) for the User Plane.
Above the ATM layer we usually find an ATM adaptation layer (AAL). Its function is to
process the data from higher layers for ATM transmission.
This means segmenting the data into 48-byte chunks and reassembling the original data
frames on the receiving side. There are five different AALs (0, 1, 2, 3/4, and 5). AAL0 means
that no adaptation is needed. The other adaptation layers have different properties based on
three parameters:
Real-time requirements.
Constant or variable bit rate.
Connection-oriented or connectionless data transfer.
The Iu interface uses two AALs: AAL2 and AAL5.
AAL2 is designed for the transmission of connection oriented, real-time data streams
with variable bit rates.
AAL5 is designed for the transmission of connectionless data stream with variable bit
rates.

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HSDPA Protocol Stack:


1. In a Release 99 PS network, the NAS layer protocols are terminated at the SGSN. RRC,
RLC, and MAC protocols are terminated at the RNC. The Physical Layer protocol is
terminated at the Node B.
2. The Release 5 specifications define a new sub-layer of MAC called MAC-hs, which
implements the MAC protocols and procedures for HSDPA. This sub-layer operates at
the Node B and the UE.
3. UTRAN MAC-hs is responsible for:

Flow Control: controls the HSDPA data flow between RNC and NodeB to reduce
the transmission time of HSDPA data on the UTRAN side and to reduce the data
discarded and retransmitted when the Iub interface or Uu interface is congested.
The transmission capabilities of the Uu interface and Iub interface are taken into
account in a dynamic manner in the flow control.

Fast scheduling of the HS-PDSCHs to achieve considerable cell throughput


capability and to satisfy user experience.

HARQ: handles the HARQ protocol for each HS-DSCH UE.

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The round trip time at the physical layer is 12 ms. Therefore, it is necessary for one
UE (which has one HARQ entity) to have multiple parallel instances (HARQ
processes) of the stop and wait HARQ protocol to increase the Uu interface
throughput.

TFRC selection: the Transport Format and Resource Combination (TFRC) entity
selects an appropriate transport format and resource for the data to be transmitted
on HS-DSCH based on channel quality. It includes the transport block size and
modulation scheme. The resource includes the power resource and code resource
of HS-PDSCH.

UE MAC-hs is responsible for:

Sending ACK or NACK after decoding a block.


Re-ordering data blocks before submitting to upper layers, if retransmissions
caused data to be received out of order.

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UTRAN MAC Architecture:


The UTRAN MAC protocol consists of three entities:
MAC-hs Responsible for the high speed HSDPA channels and the only entity of MAC
that resides in the Node B. When a UE operates in HSDPA mode, MAC-hs maps user
data and signaling from DCCH and DTCH onto the shared HS-DSCH transport
channels.
MAC-c/sh Responsible for common and shared logical channels (PCCH, BCCH,
CCCH, and CTCH) and transport channels (PCH, BCH, RACH, FACH). MAC-c/sh
resides in the RNC, and there is one MAC-c/sh entity per RNC. When a UE operates in
Cell_FACH state, MAC-c/sh maps user data and signaling from its DCCH and DTCH
onto the common FACH and RACH transport channels.
MAC-d Responsible for mapping data from dedicated logical channels (DCCH and
DTCH) onto dedicated transport channels (DCH). MAC-d resides in the RNC, and
there is one MAC-d entity for each UE to which dedicated logical channels have been
assigned.

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