IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 01, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

A Mixed Approach of Color Image Feature Enhancement
Lalit1 Ankur Gupta2
M.Tech scholar 2Assistant Professor
1,2
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
1,2
GIMT Kanipla, Kurukshetra
1

Abstract— The process of image enhancement to improve
image in form of brightness and contrast in different
parameters. Many images suffer from poor contrast. Image
enhancement improves an image appearence by increasing
dominance of some parameters in image. Histogram
equalization (HE) is that which is widely used for enhancing
image due to its functionality which is simple. And another
technique
is
Brightness
preserving
Bi-histogram
equalization (BBHE) which is widely used for for enhancing
brightness of the image. In this paper, hybrid approach by
combining both these techniques to get more suitable result
than original result is proposed.
Key words: Image enhancement, Cumulative density
function, HE, Probability density function
I. INTRODUCTION
Image enhancement is the digital signal processing
technique treating the image as two-dimensional signal and
applying standard signal processing to it. Two broad
categories of image enhancement are known as Spatial
domain technique and Frequency domain technique. Spatial
domain is to the image plane itself and in this image direct
manipulation are also. And other is modification of the
fourier- transform known as frequency domain technique.
Spatial domain refers to pixels composing an image to the
aggregate value. They operate on the pixels of the image.
The most important image processing technology is digital
image enhancement to improve the visual appearance of the
image or to provide a better transform representation for
various image processing such as image analysis, detection,
segmentation and recognition. Many images due to
insufficient illumination have low dynamic range of
intensity value need to be processed before being displayed.
There are large number of techniques which has focused on
the enhancement of gray level images in the spatial domain.
These are the techniques which include to equalize the
image, high pass filtering, low pass filtering,
homomorphism filtering, etc. In the field of digital image
processing an important area is enhancement of image in
contrast and brightness for human vision. In graphics,
instead of being acquired (via imaging devices such as
cameras) from natural scenes, as in most animated movies,
images are manually made. On the other hand, it is often
considered as that type of processing of image out of which
a machine/computer/software propose to translate the
physical contents of an image or a sequence of images. In
the image enhancement processing contrast Enhancement is
a specific characteristics enhancement. In which histogram
equalization (HE) is the popular technique of contrasting the
image, enhancement the histogram of the gray-level image
represent the occurance of all gray -levels in the image.
Histogram equalization well divide the pixels over the full
range.

II. RELATED ISSUES
Image enhancement is done in order to increase the quality
of the image such that image that is enhanced is better than
the normal image. Several image enhancement techniques
have been proposed in both spatial and transform domains
but the results obtained are not efficient. A very popular
technique for contrast enhancement is to Equalize the
histogram of an image that is Histogram equalization (HE),
which is simple and has better performance compared to
nearly all images, earlier local histogram equalization
technique (LHE) was used it would over enhanced the
image, but was not able to the preserve the brightness of the
image and as a result the image is over enhanced, then came
BBHE, though it was considered to be better than the LHE
.As Bi-HE (BBHE) divides the input image into two parts
based on the mean of histogram. This BBHE is that which
preserve the brightness of the image only. Histogram
equalization is performed on the image to drive cumulative
density function [14] and intensity mapping is derived of
each pixel to equalize image histogram. In the previous
works, histogram equalization was used [5] to preserve
image in form of Brightness with maximum entropy. To
eliminate background noise from image to improve the
quality of image for purpose of determining the focal areas
such as nucleus, Auer rode and nucleoli in acute leukaemia
[9] image. For preserving the Brightness of image to better
level without losing [11] image features was also proposed.
DSIHE method [4] uses entropy value for histogram
separation. Though these are the methods which can
perform good enhancement in case of contrast, but they also
cause some more annoying side effects which are depending
on the variation of gray level distribution in the histogram of
images. Various techniques have been proposed for
enhancing the image but all have some error of overenhancing, noise etc. which we need to improve.
So there is need to proposed a new technique in
which both the contrast and the brightness of the image is
preserved , so that the quality of the image by enhancing is
increased and the resultant is better than the original image.
III. PROPOSED WORK
To increase the quality of the image enhancement is
performed. Many techniques of the image enhancement
have been proposed earlier but they were not that much
efficient to give the desired result, so by studying pervious
approaches of image enhancement, a new technique is
proposed. This technique is basically a hybrid technique in
which the problem of the traditionally using techniques is
solved to some extent. In this two techniques namely
Histogram Equalization (HE) and Brightness Preserving BiHistogram Equalization (BHHE) are combined. Though
LHE cannot modify to partial light information, it still overenhances some portions depending on its window size but

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53

A Mixed Approach of Color Image Feature Enhancement
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 01/2016/016)

the contrast of the image can be preserved by it and BBHE
can preserve the brightness of the image. So in this approach
both the brightness and the contrast of the image are
preserved. Firstly the Histogram equalization is applied on
the selected image and then the Brightness Preserving BiHistogram Equalization (BBHE) is applied that result in
both contrast and brightness preservation of the image. The
resultant enhanced image is better than the original image
and its quality is increased. So this approach is considered to
be better than the previous traditional approach of image
enhancement.
IV. METHODOLOGY SECTION

Hybrid approach by combining HE and BBHE is proposed,
frequency counts the occurrence of each pixels and
probability of each occurrence is calculated by probability
function and cumulative density is calculated which apply
on the input image to get better result from other techniques
in different parameters, which shows Hybrid approach is
better than traditional techniques to see objects clearly.
V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT
To demonstrate the performance of proposed algorithm. In
this we show original image and its histogram with red,
green and blue layer

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1: Methodology Section
The Proposed method flow following steps:

(c)
(d)
Fig. 2: a)Original image b) Enhanced by LHE c) Enhanced
by BBHE d) Enhanced by HYBRID

(a)

Fig. 2: Steps of proposed method
Firstly, select the image from the data set on which
equalization is to be done. Then select local histogram
equalization (LHE) and apply it on the input image by
calculating cumulative density function (CDF), histogram of
image is formed and calculates the result of this technique in
parameters BER, PSNR and MSE. Secondly, select
Brightness preserving bi-histogram equalization (BBHE)
and apply on input image by using normalized function with
lower and upper value image, histogram of image is formed
and calculates results in all three parameters then compare
results of both techniques, BBHE is much better. Now,

(b)

(c)
Fig. 2: Histogram of original image in(a) Red layer (b)Green
layer(c)Blue layer
A. Local histogram equalization
Now we are applying local histogram technique in all three
layers of original image for getting better results. Then we
can see that by applying LHE on the image an enhanced
image is formed with all three layers. In graphs it is showing
that LHE enhances the image in form of contrast. Histogram
equalization accomplishes this by effectively spreading out
the most frequent intensity values. The pixels intensity over

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54

A Mixed Approach of Color Image Feature Enhancement
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 01/2016/016)

the full intensity range well distributed by histogram
equalization
The histogram of red, green and blue layer of
enhanced image are shown below: -

(a)

method (BBHE) and Histogram Equalization method (HE).
One method is for the improvement of contrast enhancement
and other method is for the improvement of brightness
enhancement. By combining both, a result in image is
formed which is better for human viewing. We can see the
histogram for this image which is equalized by Hybrid
Approach and with this image showing is very clear in case
of contrast and brightness in Red, Green and blue layer.

(b)

(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 3: Histogram of image Enhanced by LHE in (a) Red (b)
Green and(c) blue layer
B. Brightness Preserving Bi-Histogram Equalization
Now we are applying brightness preserving bi-histogram in
all three layers of original image for getting better results.
Then we can see that by applying BBHE on the image an
enhanced image is formed with all three layers. In graphs it
is showing that BBHE enhances the image in form of
brightness preserving for human vision. Advantage of
BBHE is that it preserves mean brightness of the image
while enhancing the contrast and, thus, provides much
natural enhancement that can be utilized in electronic
products.
The histogram of red, green and blue layer of
enhanced image BBHE are shown below: -

(a)

(c)
Fig. 5: Histogram of image Enhanced by HYBRID approach
in (a)Red(b)Green and (c)Blue layer
Now we have different parameters for all these three
technique which gives different values.
1) Bit Error Rate
Bit Error rate is defined as the inversely proportional of the
Peak signal to noise ratio.
1
??? =
????

(b)

(c)
Fig. 4: Histogram of image Enhanced by BBHE in (a) Red
(b) Green and(c) blue layer

Fig. 6: Bit Error Rate
2) Peak Signal to Noise Ratio
PSNR is the evaluation standard of the reconstruction image
quality, and is important measurement feature. PSNR is
measured in decibels (db), and is given by:
PSNR=10log(2552 /???)
Where the value 255 is maximum possible value
that can be attained by the image signal. Higher the PSNR
value is, better the reconstructed image is.

C. Hybrid Technology
In this Hybrid approach we combine both the algorithm BiHistogram Brightness preserving Histogram Equalization

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55

A Mixed Approach of Color Image Feature Enhancement
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 01/2016/016)

Fig. 7: Peak Signal Noise Ratio
3) Mean Square Error
MSE quantifies the global difference between a enhanced
image and an original image. It is defined as follows:
?−1
1
MSE= ∑?=0 (xi − yi )2
?

S.no
1
2
3

Fig. 8: Mean Sqaure Error
METHOD
MSE
BER
LHE
0.11417758
8654.6931
BBHE
0.062706217
1653.2638
HYBRID -445.0093
0.04619554
Table 1:

PSNR
8.7582869
15.947382
21.64711

VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a Hybrid approach is proposed for enhancing
the image for better quality. The method is very simple and
effective that makes it easy to implement and use in real
time system. The proposed scheme is implemented with the
help of GUI (Graphical User Interface) in MATLAB. After
that, this process on the basis of PSNR (Peak signal to noise
ratio), MSE (Mean square error), and BER (Bit error rate) is
analysed. The ultimate goal of this proposed method is to
preserve image brightness with contrast. Experimental result
shows that the results are much better than the traditional
approaches which can be further help in using the proposed
work for the application development purpose.
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