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German Standard

May 2009

DIN 5510-2

ICS 13.220.40; 45.060.01

Vorbeugender Brandschutz in Schienenfahrzeugen


Teil 2: Brennverhalten und Brandnebenerscheinungen von
Werkstoffen und Bauteilen
Klassifizierung, Anforderungen und Prfverfahren
Preventive fire protection in railway vehicles
Part 2: Fire behavior and fire side effects of materials and parts
Classification, requirements and test methods
Protection preventive contre les incendies des vehicules ferroviaires
Partie 2: Comportement au feu et effets secondaires des matieres et
pieces Classification, exigences et methodes d'essai

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DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Beginning of validity
This standard is to be in effect from 2009-05-01.

Deadline of implementation
From 2012-05-01, vehicles developed after 2009-05-01 must conform to this standard.

Transition period
At the latest, from 2014-05-01, only the vehicles, which comform to this standard, can be
delivered.

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DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Contents
Page

Preface ...................................................................................................................................................5
1 Area of application ......................................................................................................................6
2 Normative references .....................................................................................................................6
3 Terms .................................................................................................................................................9
3.1 Composite ....................................................................................................................................9
3.2 Material composite ..................................................................................................................9
3.3 Sandwich.........................................................................................................................................9
4 Classification of the fire behavior and fire side effects and respective test ...9
4.1 General ..........................................................................................................................................9
4.2 Flammability class and test ...................................................................................................10
4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................................................10
4.2.2 Flammability class S1.............................................................................................................10
4.2.3 Flammability classes S2 to S5 .............................................................................................10
4.2.4 Flammability classes SF1 to SF3 for floor coverings ....................................................11
4.2.5 Seats ...........................................................................................................................................12
4.3 Smoke generation classes and testing .................................................................................14
4.4 Drop forming classes and test methods...............................................................................15
4.5 Toxicity testing of fire effluents ..............................................................................................15
5 Requirements on the fire behaviour and fire side effects of materials and parts used
in vehicle construction.....................................................................................................................15
5.1 General ..........................................................................................................................................15
5.2 Requirements on vehicle parts requiring certification......................................................15
5.2.1 General .......................................................................................................................................15
5.2.2 Electrical equipment ...............................................................................................................16
5.2.3 Tables giving requirements on vehicle parts requiring certification .........................17
5.3 Requirements on vehicle parts not requiring certification ..............................................28
5.4 Materials and components which are deemed to meet the requirements ...................29
5.5 Permanence of the fire protection properties .....................................................................29
6 Inspection certificate.....................................................................................................................30
Appendix A(normative) Testing seats as in 4.2.5 .......................................................................31
A.1 Arrangement in the test room .................................................................................................31
A.2 Slitting of seat upholstery........................................................................................................31
A.3 Paper cushion .............................................................................................................................32
A.4 Calibrating the exhaust hood..................................................................................................33
Appendix B(normative) Smoke production calculation .........................................................35
Appendix C (normative) Determining the toxicity of fire effluents......................................36
C.1 General..........................................................................................................................................36
C.2 Fire effluent generation models .............................................................................................36
C.2.1 General ......................................................................................................................................36
C.2.2 Test chamber as defined in DIN EN ISO 5659-2 ..............................................................36
C.2.2.1 General ...................................................................................................................................36
C.2.2.2 Specimen preparation ........................................................................................................37
C.2.2.3 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................37
C.2.3 Testing seats and cables (alternative test methods).....................................................38
C.2.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................38
C.2.3.2 Testing seats.........................................................................................................................39
C.2.3.3 Testing cables ......................................................................................................................39
C.3 Fire effluent toxicity requirements.........................................................................................39
C.3.1 General ......................................................................................................................................39
C.3.2 Calculation of results of tests as described in DIN EN ISO 5659-2............................40
C.3.3 Calculations of results of tests made on products under real conditions ..............40
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DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

C.3.4 Requirements on vehicle parts requiring a certificate ..................................................42


C.3.5 Requirements on vehicle parts not requiring certification ..........................................47
C.3.6 Materials and components that are deemed to meet the requirements ...................47
C.4 Test report....................................................................................................................................47
Appendix D(informative) Analysis methods for testing the toxicity of fire effluents .....49
D.1 General..........................................................................................................................................49
D.2 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy................................................................49
D.2.1 General ......................................................................................................................................49
D.2.2 FTIR discontinuous gas analysis ....................................................................................49
D.2.3 Sampling ...................................................................................................................................50
D.2.4 FTIR spectroscopy gas cell..................................................................................................51
D.2.5 FTIR spectrometer ..................................................................................................................51
D.2.6 Test procedure.........................................................................................................................52
D.2.6.1 Preparation ............................................................................................................................52
D.2.6.2 Procedure ..............................................................................................................................52
D.2.7 Data evaluation ........................................................................................................................53
D.3 Wet chemical analysis method ...............................................................................................54
D.3.1 General ......................................................................................................................................54
D.3.2 Sampling ...................................................................................................................................55
D.3.3 Analyses....................................................................................................................................56
D.4 Colorimetric measurements ....................................................................................................56
References ..........................................................................................................................................58

DIN 5510-2:2009-05

Preface
This standard includes safety related technical requirements.
This standard was issued in NA 087-00-14 AA fire protection. It includes the
requirements on the fire behaviour and fire side effects (smoke formation and drop
forming) for the materials and parts used in the production of railway vehicles. These
requirements are regarded as necessary within the DIN regulations for the preventive
fire protection in railway vehicles (see explanations for DIN 5510-1).
As for the categorization of the vehicles according to their fire protection degree (see
DIN 5510-1) and installation position of the applied materials and parts in the vehicles
(ceiling area more critical than floor area), the requirements are defined risk-oriented
in form of flammability class, smoke emission class, drop forming class and toxicity
parameters under the condition of permissible exposure duration.
Within the general protection objective personal protection, the requirements cover
the protection objective part 1 Prevention of fire in passenger compartment caused
by incendiaries, regarding the definition of this part of the protection objective
described in the explanations of the DIN 5510-1, i.e., the risks of ignition and fire
development during the use of small and medium ignition source are removed.
The results of the specially implemented fire protection research plan TV 8520 fire
experiment in railway vehicles, phase 1, fire development and incendiaries, which is
promoted by the federal minister for research and technology, form the basis for the
definition of the technical requirements for fire protection which are included in this
standard.
Special requirements are applied to seats. The technical verification of suitability
for fire protection to cover the protection objective part 1 (see explanation for DIN
5510-1) is completed in terms of use through ignition on the original seats with a
paper pillow. In order to cover the protection objective part 2 (see explanations for
DIN 5510-1), the definition of the requirements on the fire behavior of electro
technical products as well as cable and lines for the traction vehicles and wagons is
orientated to the requirements of the current VDE regulations and the current
technical status in the production of railway vehicles.
In terms of fire behavior as well as fire side effects (smoke formation, toxicity), the
requirements of this standard make no essential contribution to cover the protection
objective part 3. Because this part of the protection objective is covered with the
measures in DIN 5510-4 to DIN 5510-6 and a European standard on this is in
preparation.
DIN 5510-1 Preventive fire protection in railway vehicles consists of:

Part 1: Fire protection degree, technical measures and certificates for fire
protection
Part 2: Fire behavior and fire side effects of materials and parts;
Classification, requirements and test methods
Part 4: Constructive design of the vehicles, safety related
technical requirements
Part 5: Electrical equipment; safety related technical
requirements
Part 6: Accompanying measures, function of the emergency brake device,
fire alarm system, fire fighting equipment, safety related technical
requirements

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

1 Area of application
This standard is valid for railway vehicles (called vehicles in the following),
which fall into the scope of the Ordinance on the Construction and Operation of
Railways (EBO), the Ordinance on the Construction and Operation for narrow
gauge railway (ESBO), the Ordinance on the Construction and Operation for
Maglev (MbBO) and the Ordinance on the Construction and Operation for
tramway, metro and light rail (BOStrab). It has the purpose of determining,
Classification of the fire behaviour and the fire side effects,
the necessary test methods for it,
Necessary requirements on the fire behavior and fire side effects of the materials
and parts used for the production of vehicles for the reason of preventive fire
protection

This standard is not valid for requirements on equipment for storage and
transmission of fluid and gasiform fuels. A corresponding standard is in preparation.

2 Normative references
The documents quoted as followed are necessary for the use of this document. Only
the referred version is valid for the dated references. The latest version of those
referred documents is valid for the undated references (including all changes).
DIN 4102-1, Fire behavior of building materials and building components - Part 1:
Building materials; concepts, requirements and tests
DIN 4102-8, Fire behaviour of building materials and building components - Part 8:
Small scale test furnace
DIN 4102-14, Fire behaviour of building materials and elements - floor covering and
floor coatings - determination of the burning behaviour of floor covering systems
using a radiant heat source
DIN 5510-1, Preventive fire protection in railway vehicles; levels of protection, fire
preventive measures and certification

DIN 5510-4, Preventive fire protection in railway vehicles - vehicle design - safety
requirements
DIN 5510-5, Preventive fire protection in railway vehicles - electrical equipment safety requirements
DIN 5510-6, Preventive fire protection in railway vehicles - auxiliary measures,
emergency brake operating function; information systems, fire alarms, firefighting
equipment - safety requirements
DIN 53290, testing of sandwiches - definitions of terms

DIN 53438-1 Testing of combustible materials - response to ignition by a


small flame; general data
DIN 53438-2 Testing of combustible materials - response to ignition by
a small flame; edge ignition
DIN 53438-3 Testing of combustible materials - response to ignition by
a small flame; surface ignition
DIN 54341, Testing of seats in railways for public traffic - determination
of burning behaviour with a paper pillow ignition source
DIN 54837, Testing of materials, small components and component

DIN 5510-2:2009-05
sections for railway vehicles - Determination of burning behavior using
a gas burner
DIN EN 438-1, High-pressure decorative laminates (HPL) - Sheets based on
thermosetting resins (usually called laminates) - Part 1: Introduction and
general information
DIN EN 597-1, Furniture - Assessment of the ignitability of mattresses
and upholstered bed bases - Part 1: Ignition source: Smoldering
cigarette
DIN EN 597-2, Furniture - Assessment of the ignitability of mattresses
and upholstered bed bases - Part 2: Ignition source: Match flame
equivalent
DIN EN 1021-1, Furniture - Assessment of the ignitability of upholstered
furniture - Part 1: Ignition source smoldering cigarette
E DIN EN 2826, Aerospace series - Burning behavior of non metallic
materials under the influence of radiating heat and flames Determination of gas components in the smoke
DIN EN 13501-1, Fire classification of construction products and building
elements - Part 1: Classification using data from reaction to fire tests
DIN EN 13501-2:2003-12, Fire classification of construction products
and building elements - Part 2: Classification using data from fire
resistance tests, excluding ventilation services; German version EN
13501-2:2003
DIN EN 14390, Fire test of construction products - Large-scale room
reference test for surface products
E DIN EN 45545-2, Railway applications - Fire protection on railway
vehicles - Part 2: Requirements for fire behavior of materials and
components
E DIN EN 50264-1 (VDE 0260-264-1), Railway applications - Railway
rolling stock power and control cables having special fire performance Part 1: General requirements
DIN EN 50266-2-4 (VDE 0482-266-2-4), Common test methods for cables
under fire conditions - Test for vertical flame spread of vertically-mounted
bunched wires or cables - Part 2-4: test methods, sort of test C
DIN EN 50266-2-5 (VDE 0482-266-2-5), Common test methods for cables
under fire conditions - Test for vertical flame spread of vertically-mounted
bunched wires or cables - Part 2-5: test methods, small cables, sort of test C
DIN EN 50305 (VDE 0260-305):2003-03, Railway applications - Railway
rolling stock cables having special fire performance - Test methods;
German version EN 50305:2002
E DIN EN 50306-1 (VDE 0260-306-1), Railway applications - Railway
rolling stock cables having special fire performance - Thin wall - Part 1:
General requirements
E DIN EN 50399, Common test methods for cables under fire
conditions - Heat release and smoke production measurement on
cables during flame spread test - Test apparatus, procedures,
results
DIN EN 60332-1-2 (VDE 0482-332-1-2), Tests on electric and optical fiber
cables under fire conditions - Part 1-2: Test for vertical flame propagation for

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

a single insulated wire or cable


DIN EN 60332-2-2 (VDE 0482-332-2-2), Tests on electric and optical fiber
cables under fire conditions - Part 2-2: Test for vertical flame propagation for
a single small insulated wire or cable - Procedure for diffusion flame
DIN EN 60529 (VDE 0470-1):2003-12, Degrees of protection provided by
enclosures (IP Code) (IEC 60529:1989 + A1:1999); German version EN
60529:1991 + A1:2000
DIN EN 60695-11-10 (VDE 0471-11-10), Fire hazard testing - Part 11-10:
Test flames - 50 W horizontal and vertical flame test methods
DIN EN 60695-11-10 (VDE 0471-11-10), Fire hazard testing - Part 11-10:
Test flames - 50 W horizontal and vertical flame tests
DIN EN 61034-1 (VDE 0482-1034-1), Measurement of smoke density of
cables burning under defined conditions - Part 1: Test apparatus
DIN EN ISO 4589-2, Plastics - Determination of burning behavior by oxygen
index - Part 2: Ambient-temperature test
DIN EN ISO 5659-2, Plastics - Smoke generation - Part 2: Determination of
optical density by a single-chamber test
DIN EN ISO 9239-1, Reaction to fire tests for floorings - Part 1:
Determination of the burning behaviour using a radiant heat source
ISO 554, Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing
- Specifications
ISO 19701:2005, Methods for sampling and
analysis of fire effluents
ISO 19702:2006, Toxicity testing of fire effluents Guidance for analysis
of gases and vapours in fire effluents using FTIR gas analysis
ISO/TR 9705-2, Reaction-to-fire tests - Full-scale room tests for surface
products - Part 2: Technical background and guidance
BOStrab, technical regulations on the the Construction and Operation for
tramway, metro and light rail (the Ordinance on the Construction and
Operation for tramway, metro and light rail)1)
EBO, Ordinance on the Construction and Operation of Railways 1)
ESBO, the Ordinance on the Construction and Operation for narrow gauge
railway 1)
Temporary guidance for the preventive fire protection on personal vehicles in
accordance with the Ordinance on the construction and operation for tramway,
metro and light rail2)
MbBO, the Ordinance on the Construction and Operation for Maglev1)

1)

Verified in the DITR databank of the DIN Software GmbH, to obtain at: Beuth Verlag
GmbH, 10772 Berlin.

2)

To obtain through: Federal ministry for Transport, Building and Urban Development, office
in Bonn, Department EW 14, Robert-Schumann-Platz 1, 53175 Bonn.

DIN 5510-2:2009-05
3 Terms
The following terms are valid for the application of this document:

3.1 Composite
Multilayer material in delivery status

3.2 Material composite


Fully connected or partly connected (e.g. sticked, welded, clipped) material
combination or placed in a distance up to 20 mm without connection during the
installation in vehicles

3.3 Sandwich
The body from a relative thick core with lower gross density and relative thin top
layer, the core and the top layer are tightly connected with each other
REMARK Stratified materials such as plywood, laminated chipboards and coated sheet are
not sandwiches of this definition.

4 Classification of the fire behavior and fire side effects and respective
test
4.1 General
For the categorization of the fire behavior and the fire side effects (smoke formation,
dropping behavior) of materials and parts, the inflammableness class, smoke development
class and drop forming class are defined, and toxicity parameters under the condition of
permissible exposure duration are determined.

Theses classes serve to determine the requirements on inflammableness and fire


side effects for the parts and materials installed in vehicles.
This classification comes from the tests with specified test methods for the
respective classes.
The mean values are formed from the results of the single tests. They serve as
basis for the evaluation and categorization.
The single results and mean values of the tests as well as the categorization in
classes must be included in the test reports. Special observations during the test
are to be indicated as well.
The test pieces are to be describe clearly. With undefined moulding geometries, the
essential dimensions and their measures are to be indicated through drawings,
sketches and so on. For standard test pieces, their thickness must always be
indicated. In addition, the structure and the composition of matter of the test pieces
are to be described. During the unsymmetrical tests in thickness direction, the side
for ignition must be specified. When burning out, it must be noted in the test reports.
The verification of suitability for fire protection of the seats except those in
accordance with 4.2.5.6 is completed in terms of use through ignition on the
original seats with a paper pillow The photo of one untested seat and the photo of all
tested seats must be enclosed with the reports.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

4.2 Flammability class


and test
4.2.1 General
The flammability classes are defined for the fire behavior of vehicle parts
(materials and parts). The classification is in chapter 5. Tests, requirements and
so on are described from 4.2.2 to 4.2.4.
Additionally, please notice the definitions according to Table 9.
The tests and requirements for passenger seats are defined in 4.2.5.

4.2.2 Flammability class S1


Testing: As in DIN 53438-1 to DIN 53438-3
Number of specimens: Five
Specimen dimensions: Small part (see 5.3 b); as an alternative: specimen dimensions as
defined in DIN 53438-1 to DIN 53438-3
Flame exposure arrangement: As installed
The most critical flame exposure arrangement for the small part as installed in the vehicle
shall be chosen:
surface ignition if the edges of the small part are normally concealed when the part is installed,
or
edge ignition if the edges of the small part are normally exposed when the part is installed.
Requirements: The tips of the flames emitted from the small part specimen shall not exceed
a height of 15 cm, measured from the point at which the burner flame is applied.
4.2.3 Flammability classes S2 to S5
Testing: As in DIN 54837
Number of specimens: Five
Specimen dimensions: The specimen dimensions shall be 190 mm x 500 mm x product
thickness. In the case of components such as headrests, armrests, folding tables, coverings
etc. from which 190 mm x 500 mm specimens cannot be taken due to their design or
dimensions, the entire component or suitable component sections shall be tested. If it is not
possible to assess the required fire behaviour of such components, tests may be conducted
on flat models 190 mm x 500 mm in size.
Unless otherwise specified in Table 5, specimens of 500 mm length shall be taken from
profiled components such as window and door seals, covering strips, struts, tubes, hoses etc.
The parts that are to be tested may be multilayered (composite materials) as supplied. If
materials are not joined, either over their entire surface or over part of their surface (glued,
welded, stapled etc.), until installed in the vehicle, or are installed at a distance of up to 20
mm from one another without a direct joint until the materials are built into the vehicle, the
resulting material combination shall be tested according to the specifications set down in
Table 5. The thickness of the test specimens of material combinations can be limited to 40
mm provided that the damage depth does not exceed 10 mm.

DIN 5510-2:2009-05
Where sandwich constructions as specified in DIN 53290 are butt-jointed as installed, or
where cut edges may be exposed to flame attack, butt-jointed specimens shall be tested. The
butt joint shall be located at the centre of the width and be parallel to the longitudinal edge of
the specimen.
If materials with an oriented structure (such as films, leather and textiles) are to be tested, 5
specimens of each material are to be tested in the longitudinal direction and 5 specimens in
the lateral direction.
Flame exposure arrangement: As specified in DIN 54837
If the test specimens are asymmetrical in the thickness direction, both surfaces are to be
exposed to the flame. Flame exposure may be limited to one side if:
this is permitted in Tables 5 to 8, or if
proof can be provided that the surface exposed to the flame is the critical one.
The test report shall state which surface was exposed to the flame.
Requirements: As in Table 1
Table 1 Requirements for flammability classes S2 to S5
Flammability class

S2

S3

S4

30 cm

25 cm

20 cm

S5
b

Length of destroyed
s
area

Afterflame time

0 cm

Specimen may continue


burning until end of test
with subsequent
extinguishing

100 s
(no individual
value
120 s)

10 s

0s

In addition to the criteria specified in DIN 54837, areas in which holes have melted through the material are
deemed destroyed areas.

Organic layers of a nominal thickness < 0.3 mm in composite materials shall not be taken into account when
evaluating the length of destroyed material.

4.2.4 Flammability classes SF1 to SF3 for floor coverings


Testing: As in DIN 4102-14 or DIN EN ISO 9239-1
Specimen dimensions: As defined in DIN 4102-14 or DIN EN ISO 9239-1
Flame exposure arrangement: The floor covering material is to be tested in a situation
similar to its intended use and shall be applied to a plate made of the original substrate. For
specimens with thicknesses of up to 25 mm, due consideration shall be taken of the influence
of the materials below the floor covering. The tests can be carried out without the complete
supporting structure and/or other underlying materials.
Requirements: As listed in Table 2
Table 2 Requirements for flammability classes SF1 to SF3
Flammability class
Critical heat flux
Integral of smoke obscuration

SF1
2.5

kW/m

SF2
2

No requirements

2.5
2

kW/m

SF3
2

500 (% min)

4.5
750

kW/m

(% min)

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

4.2.5 Seats
4.2.5.1 Test specimens
When testing seats to prove their suitability in terms of fire protection, the tests shall always
be carried out on original seats, including backrests and all original components (see Table 5,
nos. 74 and 75 as well as no. 86 if necessary).
4.2.5.2 Test room and test set-up
Tests shall be conducted in a room having a volume of at least 250 m. The test specimens
shall be placed beneath an exhaust hood as described in DIN EN 14390 or ISO/TR 9705-2
(furniture calorimeter test see Appendix A, Figure A.1). In order to ensure that the entire fire
effluent volume is captured, the lateral steel sheet skirts shall be attached to the exhaust
hood in such a way that the distance between the surface on which the test specimen is
placed and the bottom edge of the skirts attached to the hood is 1,4 m 0,25 m. The volume
3
flow rate of the exhaust hood is to be set to V298 ( (0.6 0.1) m /s. Before the start of the test
the air temperature in the test room before the start of the test shall be ( 20 10) C.
If the exhaust hood used differs from the design described here, the test set-up shall be
calibrated according to the instructions given in Appendix A.4.
An angled mobile partition made of non-flammable sheets of a mineral material and with
dimensions of at least 2 000 mm x 1 200 mm shall be set up for the tests. The smallest
distance between the seat and the sidewalls shall be (15 5) mm and the smallest distance
between the seat and the rear wall shall be (30 10) mm (see Figures A.1 and A.2).
Before commencing the test the temperature of the mobile partition shall not exceed 30 C.
4.2.5.3 Test procedure
The seats shall be conditioned for 48 h in an ISO 554-23/50-2 standard atmosphere before
commencing the test.
The test duration is determined by the relevant requirements (see 4.2.5.4). The test may be
terminated prematurely if the flames have extinguished completely and no more flue gas
absorption can be measured. If the specimen seat fails prematurely or if the test personnel is
endangered, the test is to be aborted by
extinguishing the fire and recording the time of this action.
The light transmission and volume flow rate in the exhaust duct shall be measured at
3-second intervals for the entire duration of the test.
If the backrest is adjustable, it shall be set to maximum upright position (if in the course of
testing there is reason to believe that a different backrest position will lead to a less favorable
outcome, this shall be recorded in the test report).
The head cushion is to be placed at the lowest possible position.
If seats are intended to be used in benches or in rows comprising several adjacent seats,
testing shall always be carried out on at least two seats installed next to one another with the
original spacing.
Benches shall be subdivided according to the nominal number of seats, and the seats thus
defined shall be indicated.
Three tests shall be carried out according to the instructions given in Appendix A.3, each test
using one paper cushion placed on the sitting surface of the corner seat.
The open side of the paper cushion (i.e. the side not closed by staples) shall be placed

DIN 5510-2:2009-05
against the backrest. The paper cushion may be rotated by 90 about its vertical axis if the
seat upholstery is less than 420 mm wide.
In addition, one test shall be carried out using a paper cushion beneath the seat mounted in
the corner, and one test using a paper cushion placed centrally below and between two
seats.
Folding seats with backrests shall be tested with the seat folded down in same way as
described above for normal seats. Three seats shall be tested. Folding seats shall be tested
as follows: one test from below the centre of the seat installed in the corner, one test between
two seats with the seats folded down, and one test between two seats with the seats folded
up. For the test from below, the top surface of the seat upholstery shall be located (430 10)
mm above the floor.
Folding seats without backrests (auxiliary seats) are exempted from this test, and only need
to meet the requirements of no. 76 or 77 in Table 5.
4.2.5.4 Requirements
In order to prove suitability by the tests specified in 4.2.5.3, the following requirements shall
be met:
The maximum height of flames above the highest point of the seat surface shall not exceed
100 cm.
The flame front shall not reach the side edges of any the seats being tested.
3)
The flames shall have extinguished at the latest by the 15th minute of the test.
In order to prove suitability according to the tests with flame exposure from below, the
following requirements shall be met:
The destroyed area shall not extend beyond a 50 mm wide border area of the sitting surface
and the backrest surface.
W here the test is conducted between two seats, only a 50 mm wide border area measured
from the exposed side of the upholstery of the seat and backrest may be destroyed.
The flames shall have extinguished at the latest by the 10th minute of the test.
In order to prove the suitability of folding seats when folded up with flame exposure from
below, the following requirements shall be met:
The maximum height of flames above the lower edge of the seat when folded up shall not
exceed 100 cm.
In the test with exposure of the centre of one seat from below, the flame front shall not reach
the side edges of any of the seats being tested.
In the test with a cushion placed centrally between two seats, an area of at least 50 mm shall
remain undamaged at the external side edges not exposed to the flame.
The flames shall have extinguished at the latest by the 10th minute of the test.
In order to prove suitability, the following additional requirement shall be met in all tests using
a paper cushion:
For fire protection levels 2 to 4, no single total smoke production value TSP (see Appendix B
for the calculation method) measured throughout the test may exceed 60 m.
All requirements apply correspondingly to bench seats.
4.2.5.5 Slitting of seats, classification and testing of slit seats
3)

Small flames still burning after the 15th minute but not after the 30th minute of the test can be neglected
if achievement of the protection aim is proved within the fire protection evaluation, e.g. by measuring
heat release or flame height.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Where the suitability of slit seats is to be proven, an additional three seats shall be prepared
and tested as follows:
Crossed cuts are to be made in the seat surface as shown in Figure A.2 using a commercially
available carpet cutter with a sharp blade. The blade shall protrude from the handle by 20 mm
so that the pressure exerted while making the cuts results in approximately 25 mm deep cuts.
The seat cushion is to be cut open by drawing the knife through it in one single motion. If it is
not possible to cut the seat to a depth of approximately 25 mm, it shall be slit open down to
the protection layer (vandalism prevention) which cannot be cut.
The individual layers (e.g. cover material, upholstery fleece, fire protection cover, vandalism
protection layer) are to be lifted away from the point where the cuts cross and then folded
back. The folded-back corners are then tacked down with pins. The last individual layer to be
folded back is the layer intended to act as fire protection.
If the seat comprises several layers permanently joined to one another, this sandwich layer is
folded back as far as possible and then fixed into place. If it is not possible to fold back and
affix the sandwich layer, it shall remain in its original position during the test. Any upholstery
core material that has come loose and has been lifted up together with the sandwich layer
shall remain attached to the sandwich layer.
If there are seams or fasteners in the area of the seat to be exposed, these shall be
separated as well.
Seats made of only one material shall not be slit open.
Tests and classification are carried out in the same way as for seats that have not been slit
open.
4.2.5.6 Seats for enclosed staff compartments
For all fire protection levels, proof of fire protective qualities shall be provided as defined in
DIN EN 1021-1 and DIN EN 1021-2. This proof is considered to have been obtained if the
ignition criteria are not met. These tests can be carried out on an original seat or on a model.
The tests are carried out on seats which have not been slit open.

4.3 Smoke generation classes and testing


When carrying out fire protection tests for flammability classes S2 to S5, smoke generation
shall also be measured in accordance with DIN 54837, if the requirements call for such.
Materials are to be classified according to smoke generated as shown in Table 3.

Table 3 - Smoke generation classes


Smoke generation class
SR1 not achieved

Integral of smoke obscuration


>100 (% min)

SR1

100 (%min)

SR2

50 (% min)

DIN 5510-2:2009-05

4.4 Drop forming classes and test methods


When testing materials in accordance with DIN 54837, it shall be determined whether the
drops formed by the material melting and dripping burn or not as they are falling.
The materials are to be classified as shown in Table 4.

Table 4 Drop forming classes


Drop forming class

Observation

ST1
ST2

burns while falling or dripping


does not fall or drip or burn while falling or
dripping

Products may still be assigned to drop forming class ST2 if some particles or drops are still
burning when they fall to the floor of the test chamber but the mean value of the afterflame
times measured in individual tests does not exceed 20 seconds.
If in the course of testing burning particles dropping off the specimen are observed, the
afterflame time is deemed to be the longest individual burning time observed in all particles. If
no individual particles or drops burn as they are dropping, the afterflame time is deemed to be
the longest time that particles or drops
continue burning at any position on the floor.

4.5 Toxicity testing of fire effluents


Toxicity testing of fire effluents and calculation of characteristic values are to be carried out as
in Appendixes C and D.

5 Requirements on the fire behaviour and fire side effects of materials


and parts used in vehicle construction
5.1 General
As regards the requirements on materials and components used in vehicle construction, a
distinction is made between materials and components for which certification to DIN 5510-1
(suitability certificate and inspection certificate) is mandatory (vehicle parts requiring
certification), and those which do not require certification (vehicle parts not requiring
certification).
The classification of materials and components is explained below.

5.2 Requirements on vehicle parts requiring certification


5.2.1 General
The components listed in Tables 5 to 8 are deemed to be vehicle parts requiring certification.
Requirements are stated as flammability classes, smoke generation classes and drop forming
classes, as well as toxicity indices expressed as allowable exposure times (determined by the
methods described in Appendix C) depending on where the parts are built into the vehicle and,
in the case of passenger vehicles, in relation to the fire protection levels (see DIN 5510-1).
In addition, the inner materials (core materials) of composite materials or material
combinations with exposed edges shall at least meet the requirements of class K 2 as defined
in DIN 53438-2 when the edge is exposed to a flame. This proof may also be achieved by
subjecting the material to a combination test (rotated sample, flame exposure from the side,
analogous to the procedure described in DIN 4102-1).

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Pipes and hoses made of the same materials and with the same wall thickness, but having
different diameters, may be tested using the largest and the smallest diameters. If results of
these two tests meet the requirements, the classification achieved also applies to all
diameters between these two extremes. If this is not the case, then the worst result shall be
assigned to the intermediate diameters.
Sheets and films made of the same materials but used in various thicknesses may be tested
using the smallest and the largest thicknesses. If results of these two tests meet the
requirements, the classification achieved shall also apply to all thicknesses between these
two extremes. If this is not the case, then the worst result shall be assigned to the
intermediate thicknesses.
When vehicle components subject to mandatory certification are supplied, the certificates
presented shall not be more than three years old.
5.2.2 Electrical equipment
5.2.2.1 General
All permanently installed electrical installations and operating equipment, including the
associated insulation, coverings and casing parts, are deemed electrical equipment.
5.2.2.2 Electrical equipment in enclosed shells or casings
No separate requirements are placed on electrical equipment in an enclosure meeting IP54
requirements as specified in DIN EN 60529 (VDE 0470-1). The material of the enclosure
(without openings required for the final application) shall meet the integrity requirements
specified in DIN EN 13501-2:2003-12, 5.2.2 and, when exposed to a standard
temperature/time curve in a test furnace as specified in DIN 4102-8, shall achieve the test
durations listed below.
The requirements shall be met for a test duration of:
5 minutes for materials of enclosures containing a volume of1 m3 or
10 minutes for materials of enclosures containing a volume of2 m3 or
30 minutes for materials of enclosures, irrespective of the volume.
NOTE: In tests carried out in accordance with DIN 4102-8, the quality of the enclosure material should
be demonstrated. Certification that the enclosure meets IP 45 integrity requirements as defined in DIN
EN 60529 (VDE 0470-1) is adequate proof of its integrity.

5.2.2.3 Vehicle wiring requirements


Vehicle cables and wires that are not covered by 5.2.2.2 shall meet the requirements listed in
Table 6.
5.2.2.4 Requirements on all other electrical equipment
Printed circuit boards shall be tested, but not the electronic components mounted on them.
Small electrical parts are subject to the following requirements:
for small parts with a combustible material mass of X g, (e.g. buttons, switches, indicator
lights, labels etc.) arranged with a spacing of 20 cm behind, next to or above one another
proof shall be provided that they are of class V1 as specified in DIN EN 60695-11-10 (VDE
0471-11-10) or have an oxygen index OI 28 % in accordance with DIN EN ISO 4589-2.
no separate requirements are specified for small parts with a combustible material mass ofX
g and arranged with a spacing of > 20 cm behind, next to or above one another.
The value X in small electrical parts is defined as follows: X 50 for parts accessible by
passengers, X 300 for all other parts.

DIN 5510-2:2009-05

Materials of the following small electrical parts:


insulating materials used to keep live parts in place and
main covers and main casings (housings),
Those which are not classified as being small electrical parts and are not covered by 5.2.2.2
shall meet at least the requirements for class V-0 as specified in DIN EN 60695-11-10 (VDE
0471-11-10).
As an alternative, materials used in electrical equipment that is not accessible to passengers
may be permitted if their oxygen index OI is 30 %, as defined in DIN EN ISO 4589-2.
NOTE The tests specified in DIN EN 60695-11-10 (VDE 0471-11-10) are comparable to those specified
in UL 94.

5.2.3 Tables giving requirements on vehicle parts requiring certification


The requirements on vehicle parts requiring certification are listed in Tables 5 to 8, C.2 and
C.3:
Table 5: Vehicle construction section for passenger vehicles used in public transportation
Table 6: Requirements on electric cables and wires
Table 7: Vehicle parts for locomotives and power heads
Table 8: Vehicle parts for rail service vehicles and auxiliary vehicles
Table C.2: Fire effluent toxicity requirements for vehicle components requiring certification
Table C.3: Fire effluent toxicity requirements for electric cables and wiring

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Table 5 Vehicle construction section for passenger vehicles used in public transportation
1

No.

Vehicle parts requiring


certification

1
2

Vehicle superstructure,
including bottom floor,
external vehicle cladding
(roof, sides, face) excluding
driver's cab

Fire
protection
level as
specified in
DIN 5510-1

Requirements

1
2 to 4

Flammability
class
S3
S4

Smoke
Drop forming
generation
class
class

SR2

Remarks

Explanatory notes

Component may be tested in uncoated


condition. Flame exposure on the
outside.
If the internal surface of the
superstructure is freely accessible to
passengers, then this surface shall be
tested in the same way as internal
furnishing parts.
If the superstructure is of plastic material,
the test shall be carried out on the
composite material, where applicable.

3
4
5

External doors, face end


doors, skirts, cladding and
body of driver's cab, fittings
Roof-mounted parts and roof
edge fairing parts

Underframe streamlining

7
8

External windows, frames


without seals

S3

2 to 4

S3

SR2

2 to 4

S3

SR2

No certification required for vehicles with


fire protection level 1. Flammability class
S4 for overhead-track railway vehicles.
1

S3

2 to 4

S4

SR2

1 to 3

S3

S4

SR2

ST2

S3

11

2 to 4

S4

SR2

ST2

12

S3

Gangway between coaches

Flammability class S5 has


not been required since
flammability class S4 in
combination with the
required proof of running
capability in case of fire (see
DIN 5510-4) is sufficient to
achieve personal protection.

10

External windows, pane and


pane composites

Flame exposure on the outside.

Component may be tested in uncoated


condition.
Flame exposure on the outside.

DIN 5510-2:2009-05
Table 5 (continued)
1

No.

Vehicle parts requiring


certification

13

4
Requirements

Fire
protection
Smoke
level as Flammabilit
generation
specified in y class
class
DIN 5510-1
2 to 4

Drop
forming
class

S3

SR2

ST2

14 Cladding of gangway systems


15 (rubber cylinders, bellows-type)
16 Ducts for heating, ventilation and

S3

2 to 4

S3

SR1

S3

17 cooling built into roof section

2 to 4

S4

SR2

ST2

S3

2 to 4

S3

SR2

ST2

S3

2 to 4

S3

SR1

S3

2 to 4

S4

SR2

ST2

S3

2 to 4

S3

SR2

ST2

S3

2 to 4

S3

SR1

18 Ducts for heating, ventilation and


19 cooling built into areas other than
the roof section

20 Hoses for heating, ventilation and


21 cooling
22 Conduits for electrical installations
23 and electrical installation tubes
built into roof section

24 Conduits for electrical installations


25 and electrical installation tubes
built into areas other than the roof
section

26 Pipes and hoses for fuel,


27 hydraulics, pneumatics, water and
drainage

Remarks

Explanatory notes

Test together with insulating materials


where applicable.

Test together with insulating materials


where applicable.

Test together with insulating materials


where applicable.

Conduits and tubing for electrical


installations in engine spaces,
switchgear cabinets and control boxes
are exempted. The requirements
specified in 5.2.2 shall apply.
Conduits and tubing for electrical
installations in engine spaces,
switchgear cabinets and control boxes
are exempted. The requirements
specified in 5.2.2 shall apply.
Test together with insulating materials
where applicable; the flame is to be
applied to the insulation.

19

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Table 5 (continued)
1

No.

Vehicle parts requiring


certification

28 Insulating materials (sound29 proofing and/or thermal insulation)


for roofs, side panels and face
ends, external doors and floors,
applied to the internal surfaces of
the vehicle

3
4
Fire
Requirements
protection
level as
Drop
Smoke
specified Flammabilit generation forming
y class
in DIN
class
class
5510-1
1
3

S3
S3

SR2

30 Insulating materials (sound-

31

areas above bottom edge of


windows

32 Underbody coating
33 Insulating materials for roofs, side
panels and face ends, external
doors and floors (products in sheet
or web form)

20

The flame is applied to the cladding on


the intended substrate. If combined with
other insulating materials or other
materials at a distance of 20 mm, the
test shall be carried out in the combined
state as well.
The flame is applied to the cladding on
the intended substrate.

proofing and/or thermal insulation)


for roofs, side panels and face
ends, external doors and floors,
applied to the internal surfaces of
the vehicle

areas below bottom edge of


windows

5
Remarks

If combined with other insulating


materials or other materials at a distance
of 20 mm, the test shall be carried out
in the combined state as well.
2 and 4
2 and 4

S3
S4

SR2
SR2

ST2

1 to 4
1

S3
S3

If combined with other insulating


materials or other materials at a distance
of 20 mm, the test shall be carried out
in the combined state as well.

6
Explanatory notes

DIN 5510-2:2009-05

Table 5 (continued)
1

No.

Vehicle parts requiring


certification

34 Insulating materials for side and face


end panels and floors in the

areas below the bottom edge


of
the windows
as well as for external doors
(products in sheet or web form)
35 Insulating materials for roofs, side
36 panels and face ends (products in
sheet or web form)

4
Requirements

Fire
protection
level as Flammabili Smoke
specified in ty class generation
class
DIN 5510-1

Drop
forming
class

ceiling recesses as well as hatches,


38 boxes and hoods in the ceiling and
ceiling recess area.

39

40 Cover strips, cover profiles in the


41

43 Interior furnishings such as claddings


44 of side and face panels, partition
walls, partitions and covers, boxes,
cabinets and hoods in this area;
interior doors and interior cladding of
the external doors.

Remarks

Explanatory notes

S3

SR2

If combined with other insulating


materials or other materials at a distance
of 20 mm, the test shall be carried out
in the combined state as well.

2 and 4
3

S5
S4

SR2
SR2

ST2
ST2

If combined with other insulating


materials or other materials at a distance
of 20 mm, the test shall be carried out
in the combined state as well.
S4, SR2 and ST2 are adequate for
locomotives and power heads.

S3

2 and 3

S4

SR2

ST2

S5

SR2

ST2

If combined with insulating materials or


other materials at a distance of 20 mm,
the test shall be carried out in the
combined state.

S3

2 and 3

S4

SR2

ST2

S5

SR2

ST2

1
2 and 3

S3
S3

SR2

ST2

ceiling and ceiling recess area.

42

2 to 4

areas above the bottom edge


of the windows

37 Interior furnishings such as ceilings,

a
b

Cover strips and profiles may also be


tested in the installed state (testing of
joints as specified in 4.2.3)
If combined with insulating materials or
other materials at a distance of 20 mm,
the test shall be carried out in the
combined state.

21

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Table 5 (continued)
1

No.

Vehicle parts requiring


certification

3
Fire
protection
level as
specified in
DIN 5510-1

4
Requirements

Smoke
Drop
Flammabili
generation
formation
ty class
class
class

Remarks

Explanatory notes

45

S4

SR2

ST2

46 Cover strips, profiles and

S3

frames; mountings and covers


47 for information and advertising
48 panels; newspaper boxes;
lockers and advertising boxes
in the vehicle's interior.

49 Floors including steps


50 (substrate sheet and floor

covering permanently joined)

2 and 3

S3

SR2

ST2

S4

SR2

ST2

SF1

2 to 4

SF3

51 Runners, carpets

SF1

52

SF2

53

3 and 4

SF3

S3

2 and 3

S3

SR2

ST2

56

S5

SR2

ST2

57 Luggage racks

S3

58

S3

SR2

ST2

59

S4

SR2

ST2

60

S5

SR2

ST2

54 Covers for luminaires,


55

22

including grilles

Cover strips and profiles may also be


tested in the installed state (testing of
joints as specified in 4.2.3)

Where the material is also installed


vertically (material extends upwards by
more than 35 cm at the sides), the
requirements for the side panels and
partition walls of the same fire protection
level shall apply.
To be tested while lying on the intended
substrate sheeting.

DIN 5510-2:2009-05
Table 5 (continued)
1

No.

Vehicle parts requiring


certification

3
4
Fire
Requirements
protection
Smoke
Drop
level as
Flammability
generation
formation
specified in
class
class
class
DIN 5510-1
1

S3

2 and 3

S3

SR2

ST2

S4

SR2

ST2

2 to 4

S3
S3

SR1

S3

67

2 and 3

S3

SR2

ST2

68

S4

SR2

ST2

S3

2 and 3

S3

SR2

ST2

4
2 to 4

S4
S3

SR2
SR1

ST2

61 Window locking frame, if not

Remarks

Explanatory notes

included in no. 43

62 Window locking frame, if not


included in no. 44

63 Window locking frame, if not


included in no. 45

64 Window framing
65
66 Curtains and roller blinds

69 Tables, windowsill tables,


folding tables
70
71
72 Dynamically stressed seals for
external and interior doors;
seals for doors in the vehicle
face ends

Proof may be obtained by testing either


uninstalled sections of original profiles or
testing specimen plates of 2 mm and 6
mm thickness

Class F2 testing as in DIN 53438-3 shall


also be carried out.

Proof may be obtained by testing either


uninstalled sections of original profiles or
testing specimen plates of 2 mm and 6
mm thickness. No certification required
for vehicles of fire protection level 1.

23

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Table 5 (continued)
1

No.

Vehicle parts requiring


certification

3
4
Fire
Requirements
protection
Smoke
Drop
level as Flammabili
generation
formation
specified in ty class
class
class
DIN 5510-1

73

Statically stressed seals for


external and interior doors

2 to 4

74
75

Seats

1
2 to 4

S3

SR1

Requirements as specified in 4.2.5.4


Requirements as specified in 4.2.5.4

Remarks

Explanatory notes

Proof may be obtained by testing


either uninstalled sections of
original profiles or testing
specimen plates of 2 mm and 6
mm thickness. No certification
required for vehicles of fire
protection level 1.
Test on undamaged seat, see
4.2.5
Test on undamaged seat and
seat that has been slit open, see
4.2.5

Where the back rest and head


rest are one integral part having
the same internal material
structure, the head rest need not
be tested separately. A backrest
permanently joined to a seat shell
and with a head rest firmly joined
to it is considered to be a single
integral component.
See no. 94 for requirements on
seats in enclosed staff
compartments.

76
77
78

24

Folding seats without back rest


(auxiliary seats), arm rests, head
rests, side supports on headrests,
pillows
Covers and cladding parts of seats,
seat shells, backrest shells, folding
tables attached to passenger seats

1
2 to 4

S3
S3

S3

SR2

Not required for seats as defined


in 4.2.5.6

Not required for seats as defined


in 4.2.5.6

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


Table 5 (continued)
1

No.

2
Vehicle parts requiring
certification

4
Requirements

Fire
protection
Smoke
level as
Flammabilit
generation
specified in
y class
class
DIN 5510-1

Drop
forming
class

Remarks

Explanatory notes

79

2 and 3

S3

SR2

ST2

80

S4

SR2

ST2

1 to 4

S3
S5

1 to 4

SR2

ST2

2 to 4

S4

SR2

ST2

1 to 4

S5

SR2

ST2

1 to 4
1 to 4

S3

81 Hand-holds and hand rails


82 Ashtrays, waste bins and bins for

collecting recyclable materials

83 Water containers to be installed


in the vehicle interior, excluding
enclosed drivers cabs and engine
compartments

84 Galley components in the vicinity

No certification required for water


containers in vehicles of fire
protection level 1.

If the containers are


insulated, the flame is to be
applied to the insulating
layer.
b

of the stove

85 Other galley components


86 Couchettes and beds
(mattresses and/or upholstery
combinations) without bed linen

87 Interior furnishings such as walls,


ceilings, doors, lids, washbasins,
luminaire covers and mirrors in
88 toilets and washrooms

89 Washbasins, toilet basins, soap

1 to 3

S4

SR2

ST2

4
1 to 4

S5
S5

SR2
SR2

ST2
ST2

Couchettes and beds which are also


used as seats shall be tested as
specified in 4.2.5

Testing in accordance with


DIN EN 597-1 / -2.

If combined with insulating materials


or other materials at a distance of
20 mm, the test shall be carried out
in the combined state.

dispensers,
paper
towel
containers,
containers
for
cleaning cloths and hygiene
bags, cigarette rests in toilets and
washrooms

25

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Table 5 (continued)
1

No.

Vehicle parts requiring


certification

90 Toilet covers, toilet seats


91 Floors in toilets and washrooms
92 Interior furnishings of enclosed

4
Requirements

Fire protection
level as
Flammabilit
Smoke
specified in
y
generatio
DIN 5510-1
class
n class
1 to 4

S4

1 to 4

SR2
SF3

Drop
forming
class

Remarks

Explanatory notes

ST2

1 to 4

S3

1 to 4

SF1

staff compartments, e.g. walls,


ceilings, lids, boxes, cabinets,
doors and drivers desks

93 Floors

in
enclosed
compartments

94 Seats for enclosed staff


compartments
a

staff

1 to 4

Requirements
as specified in
4.2.5.6

According to the VorMufige Richtlinie far den vorbeugenden Brandschutz bei Personenfahrzeugen nach der Verordnung Ober den Bau and Betrieb der Straenbahnen
(BOStrab) of 15 March 1985, interior cladding in ceiling areas should be made of non-combustible materials; whereby a combustible(!) cladding of not more than 1 mm
thickness may be applied to the passenger compartment surface (note on subclause 4.3 of Vorlufige Richtlinie far den vorbeugenden Brandschutz bei
Personenfahrzeugen).
Findings obtained in large-scale fire tests clearly lead to the conclusion that such a strict requirement for a non-combustible interior ceiling cannot be met, especially
since this would prevent many future design developments from being implemented (e.g. glass fibre reinforced plastic (GRP) moulded parts). The "non-combustibility"
requirement will therefore be replaced by a solution which is acceptable from the safety-engineering aspect and which has been tried and tested in practical
applications.

In the case of material combinations and composite materials, each individual material - except for surface coatings with a nominal thickness of less than 0.3 mm and
adhesive layers - shall meet the requirements of class S4 when tested in accordance with E DIN 54837. In addition, an exposed cut edge of a sample of the entire
material combination or composite material, rotated by 90 , shall meet the requirements of class S4 when tested in accordance with DIN 54837. In this case,
edge-ignition flame exposure as may be required according to 5.2.1 can be omitted.

26

Table 6 Requirements on electric cables and wires

No.

Vehicle parts
requiring
certification

Fire
protection
level as in
DIN 5510-1

Test
standards

Requirements

Remarks

Wiring and cables


including data cables
(fibre-optic cables,
data cables, coaxial
cables)

1 to 4

DIN EN
Single wires and cables are deemed to have passed the test if Thin fibre-optic cables or single wires and cables
60332-1-2 (VDE the distance between the lower end of the upper clamp and the with diameters of less than 0.5 mm2 shall be tested
0482-332-1-2)
start of the charred section is greater than 50 mm. If the flame as described in DIN EN 60332-2-2 (VDE
extends for more than 540 mm downwards from the lower end of 0482-332-2-2) if the conductor breaks or melts
the upper clamp, this shall be deemed to be nonconformity. If one before the end of the test when tested as defined in
failed test is recorded, two further tests shall be carried out. If DIN EN 60332-1-2 (VDE 0482-332-1-2).
these two tests are subsequently passed, the wire or cable is
deemed to have passed the test.

Wires and cables


(except for data
cables)

2 to 4

DIN EN
Can also be tested on reference cross-sections as
Test category C for cable diameters 12 mm.
50266-2-4 (VDE At the end of the test, the greatest distance of the charred described in
0482-266-2-4)
section, measured on the sample and from the lower edge of the DIN EN 50306-1 (VDE 0260-306-1)
burner, shall not have reached a height of 2.5 m on either side of or DIN EN 50264-1 (VDE 0260-264-1).
the conductors.

Wiring and cables


including data cables
(fibre-optic cables,
data cables, coaxial
cables)

2 to 4

Test category D for cable diameters > 6 mm and < 12 mm. At the Can also be tested on reference crosssections as
DIN EN
50266-2-5 (VDE end of the test, the greatest distance of the charred section, described in
measured on the sample and from the lower edge of the burner, DIN EN 50306-1 (VDE 0260-306-1)
0482-266-2-5)
shall not have reached a height of 2.5 m on either side of the or DIN EN 50264-1 (VDE 0260-264-1).
conductors.
Test category D for cable diameters 6 mm.
Can also be tested on reference crosssections as
DIN EN
50266-2-5 (VDE Set-up according to DIN EN 50306-1
described in
0482-266-2-5)
DIN EN 50306-1 (VDE 0260-306-1)
(VDE 0260-306-1):2003-05, 8.2.3 or DIN EN 50264-1
(VDE 0260-264-1):2003-06, 8.2.3, whichever is appropriate. At or DIN EN 50264-1 (VDE 0260-264-1).
the end of the test, the greatest distance of the charred section,
measured on the sample and from the lower edge of the burner,
shall not have reached a height of 1.5 m on either side of the
conductors.
DIN EN 61034-1 Within the first 20 minutes, the light transmittance shall not drop This does not apply to interconnecting cables
(VDE
to below 60 %.
located on the exterior between vehicles.
0482-1034-1)
Can also be tested on reference cross-sections as
described in DIN EN 50306-1 (VDE 0260-306-1) or
DIN EN 50264-1 (VDE 0260-264-1).

27

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Table 7 Vehicle parts for locomotives and power heads

Intended area of application


Locomotives and power heads
intended to be used together with
vehicles of fire protection levels 2 to 4

All other locomotives and power heads

Vehicle components

Certification
required
yes/no

Requirements

Components listed in 5.2.2. and


Tables 5 and 6, if such
components are used in
locomotives and power heads

yes

As for vehicles of fire


protection levels 2 to 4.

Components not listed

no

See 5.3

Components listed in Tables 5


and 6, if such components are
used in locomotives and power
heads

no

As for vehicles of fire


protection level 1.

Components not listed

no

See 5.3

Table 8 - Vehicle parts for rail service vehicles and auxiliary vehicles
Vehicle components

Certification required

Requirements

no

As for vehicles of fire protection


level 1.

no

Flammability class S3

no

See 5.3

Components listed in Tables 5 and 6, if such


components are used in rail service vehicles
and auxiliary vehicles
Tarpaulin covers, sliding-roof tarpaulin
covers
Components not listed

5.3 Requirements on vehicle parts not requiring certification


The following requirements shall apply to materials and components which are not listed in
5.2 or which are described there as not requiring certification:
a) The fire behaviour of components from which samples can be taken as described in DIN
54837 shall be at least equivalent to that of flammability class S2.
b) The following requirements shall apply to parts from which samples as described in DIN
54837 cannot be taken and which are accessible to passengers:
Small parts with a mass of > 50 g, such as coat hooks, knobs and pushbuttons, handles,
hand-hold straps, seat reservation signs, advertisements, door stoppers, Venetian blinds etc.
shall conform to the requirements of at least flammability class S1.
Small parts with a mass of 50 g and arranged with a spacing of20 cm behind, next to or
above one another shall conform to the requirements of at least flammability class S1.
No separate requirements are specified for small parts with a mass of 50 g and arranged
with a spacing of > 20 cm behind, next to or above one another.
c) No separate requirements are specified for parts with a technical function (e.g. sliding,
rolling, travel stops, guides, suspension, sealing, bolting, adjustment, joining, switching,
identifying and signalling) and which, in their intended use, are not accessible to passengers.

28

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

5.4 Materials and components which are deemed to meet the requirements
(classified materials and components)
The materials and components listed in Table 9 are deemed to have met the requirements of
the flammability classes and smoke generation and/or drop forming classes shown.
Table 9 Materials and components which are deemed to conform to the requirements
Requirements
S5, SR2, ST2

Materials and components

Metals and alloysa with inorganic coatings

Metals and alloysa with organic coatings of a nominal thickness < 0.3 mm

S4, SR2, ST2

Metals and alloysa with inorganic coatings and an organic coating with a thickness of not
more than 0.3 mm
Glassb, stoneware, ceramic products and natural stone

Construction materials that meet the requirements of classes Al or A2 as specified in


DIN 4102-1 or, as an alternative, to the requirements of classes Al or A2 sl , d0 as
specified in DIN EN 13501-1.

Construction materials that meet the requirements of the Brandschacht (fire flue) test for
class B1 building materials as defined in DIN 4102-1. The integral of smoke obscuration
stated in the test certificate shall be 150 (% min) and there shall be no remarks
regarding any formation of burning drops. As an alternative, construction materials
conforming to the requirements C sl, d0 or B sl, d0 as specified in DIN EN 13501-1.

The requirements are also deemed to be met if a film with a thickness of not more that
0.3 mm has been applied to single-layer or multi-layer safety glass or to S5 materials.

S4
(without requirements
concerning smoke and
burning drop formation)

Construction materials that meet the requirements of the Brandschacht (fire flue) test for class
B1 building materials as defined in DIN 4102-1. As an alternative, construction materials
conforming to the requirements C s3, d2 as specified in DIN EN 13501-1 or to stricter
requirements.

S3, SR2, ST2

Decorative high-pressure laminates (HPL) of types S, P and F as defined in DIN EN 438-1 and
with thicknesses of 0.5 mm to 2 mm and whose entire surfaces are bonded by
3
non-thermoplastic glue to standardized wood materials with a dry density of 400 kg/m and a
thickness of 10 mm.

S1

Products classified as belonging to class K1 or Fl as defined in DIN 53438. The flame


exposure arrangement shall conform to the requirements described in 4.2.2.

a
b

Metals and alloys which are not in fine granular form, except for alkali and alkaline earth metals and their alloys.
Multi-layered safety glass is deemed to conform to the requirements if the intermediate layers are not exposed to
the flames in the installed condition.

5.5 Permanence of the fire protection properties


The fire protection properties of materials and properties shall be implemented in such a way
that one can expect them to remain permanent throughout an agreed period of use.

29

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

6 Inspection certificate
Inspection certificates as defined in DIN 5510-1 shall only be awarded with respect to fire
protection behavior after testing using the methods described in clause 4.
Passenger seats are deemed to have passed the inspection certificate tests if one original
seat has been subjected to each test in the position and orientation which was found to be the
most critical in the suitability tests.
All specifications exceeding these are subject to agreement with the responsible authority.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Appendix A
(normative)
Testing seats as in 4.2.5
A.1 Arrangement in the test room
Figure A.1 shows how the seats are to be arranged in the corner under the exhaust hood
during the tests.
Dimensions in mm

Key
1 To exhaust gas scrubber
2 Rectifier
3 Exhaust conduit

4 Baffles
5 Light attenuation measurement position
6 Exhaust hood, 3 m3 m
Figure A.1 Test apparatus

A.2 Slitting of seat upholstery


Figure A.2 shows how the seats are to be cut, as described in 4.2.5.5. The triangular fabric
sections are to be folded outwards and tacked down using pins. (Note: To prepare for the test,
the paper cushion is placed on the slit-open seat and nested against the backrest.)

31

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


Dimensions in mm

Key
1 Backrest
2 Seat
a 400 mm

Figure A.2 Slitting of seat upholstery

A.3 Paper cushion


In addition to meeting the requirements specified in DIN 54341 for paper cushions used for
testing seats as described in 4.2.5, the paper cushions used for these tests shall be made of
4)4
paper which has the properties set out in Table A.1 ).
Table A.1 Composition of paper pulp
Constituents

Fibre materials:

groundwood, bleached, 70
parts

pine sulphate chemical


pulp, 30 parts
Ash (kaolin)

Percentage by mass,
in %

Tolerance

89

11

In deviation from the specifications given in DIN 54341, the paper used here shall have a
grammage of (50 2.5) g/m.

4)

4) Information on this paper can be obtained from the Normenausschuss Fahrweg und Schienenfahrzeuge
(FSF) in DIN (Railway Standardization Committee), Panoramaweg 1, 34131 Kassel, Germany.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Also in deviation from the specifications given in DIN 54341, the burning time of the paper
cushion used here shall be (2.5 0.5) minutes on a mineral substrate.
The paper cushions shall be made of white, unprinted web printing paper (newsprint) with the
following properties:
grammage = (50 .5) g/m

ash content of paper = (11 1) % (percentage by mass)


fibre material (pulp) content = (89 1) % (percentage by mass)
70 parts wood pulp, bleached; 30 parts pine sulphate chemical pulp
Cut seven 42 cm60 cm sheets from the paper web, fold one of these along the centre at
right angles to the longitudinal axis and staple the two narrow edges together with three
staples each to make the envelope. Crumple the remaining six sheets to make paper balls of
roughly 8 cm diameter and put these into the envelope. Increase the weight of the paper
cushion to 100 g by adding another (possibly smaller) paper ball. Then close the open
longitudinal edge using five staples placed not more than 1 cm from the edge of the paper.

Key
1 Last paper ball inserted, possibly smaller than the others
2 Staples
Figure A.3 Paper cushion
After being conditioned in a DIN 50014-23/50-2 standard atmosphere for 24 h, a paper
cushion made using this method should burn for (2.5 0.5) minutes after being ignited on a
mineral surface.

A.4 Calibrating the exhaust hood


The apparatus is to be calibrated when the measuring system or any other essential parts of
the exhaust system have been installed, serviced, repaired or replaced, and at least once a
year before any tests are carried out.
Calibration shall be effected by means of a calibration fire test using a defined alcohol mixture
as a smoke source. The object of the calibration fire test is to verify that the determined
values are within the permitted limits.
The procedure is as follows:
3
a) The volume flow rate of the exhaust hood is set to V298 = (0.60.1) m /s. This volume flow
3
3
rate shall remain within the range of 0.7 m /s and 0.5 m /s for the entire duration of the
calibration procedure.
b) The ambient temperature shall be maintained at (20 10) C. The temperatures in the
exhaust duct and the temperature in the fuel basin shall not differ from the ambient
temperature by more than 4 C.

33

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

c) Place a circular steel fuel basin (open at the top) with an internal diameter of (350 5)
mm and an inner wall height of 152 mm and wall thickness of 3 mm on a platform made
of a 400 mm400 mm slab of calcium silicate. The top edge of the basin shall be 600 mm
above the floor. Position the fuel basin in such a way that the clear distances of the side
of the fuel basin both to the rear and to the side wall are 300 mm.
d) Pour (2 000 10) g of water into the fuel basin.
e) Wait for at least 2 minutes, then carefully pour (2 84010) g of n-heptane (99 % purity)
onto the surface of the water in the fuel basin.
f) Start recording the data. After a 60-second start-up period, ignite the heptane. Record the
measurements (volume flow rate and light transmittance) at 3-second intervals.
g) The smoke density values shall be determined for 60 seconds before ignition, during the
entire time the heptane is burning, and 60 seconds after it has extinguished.
h) The measured value of total smoke produced, TSP, in relation to the heptane mass
mHeptan shall be
2
TSP/mHeptan = (12525) m /kg. If this value is not obtained, then the system (e.g. the smoke
density measuring device including the absorption filters as well as the volume flow
measuring system) shall be checked.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Appendix B
(normative)
Smoke production calculation
The total smoke produced during the test, TSP, is calculated as follows:

where
V(t) is the volume flow rate of the exhaust system (m/s);
V298(t) is the equivalent volume flow rate of the exhaust system at a temperature of 298 K,
(m/s);
T(t) is the temperature in the section of the apparatus where the measurements are taken (K).

Where
SPR(t) is the smoke production rate (m/s);
V(t) is the volume flow rate (not converted to the corresponding value at standard conditions)
of the exhaust system (m/s);
L is the light travel path through the duct (m), which is assumed to be equal to the duct
diameter;
I is the zero-reading signal value from the light sensor (mean value of at least 5
measurements), (e.g. in mV);
I(t) is the reading signal from the light sensor, (e.g. in mV).

Where
SPR(t) is the smoke production rate (m/s);
TSPtmax is the total smoke produced (m) during the entire test tmax;
3 a factor of 3 is used because measurements are taken at 3-second intervals.

35

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Appendix C
(normative)
Determining the toxicity of fire effluents
C.1 General
Experimental studies enabling the toxicologically relevant components of fire effluents to be
continuously determined over certain periods are essential for a realistic and risk-related
assessment of the toxicity of the fire effluents produced when products used in railway
vehicles burn or are exposed to fire. As no complete test and evaluation method is yet
available, the toxicity requirements outlined below are partly based on conservative
assumptions.

C.2 Fire effluent generation models


C.2.1 General
Normally, fire effluent toxicity is tested in a test chamber as described in DIN EN ISO 5659-2.
As an alternative for seats, the fire effluent toxicity can be determined during testing of the
seats for suitability in terms of fire protection as described in 4.2.5.
The toxicity of components used to mount cables and wiring is determined in accordance with
DIN EN 50305 (VDE 0260-305):2003-03, 9.2. Cables that have been certified to meet the
requirements specified in DIN EN 50264-1 (VDE 0260-264-1) or DIN EN 50306-1 (VDE
0260-306-1) and have been correspondingly tested according to DIN EN 50305 (VDE
0260-305) do not have to be tested according to C.2.3.3. However, these tests can be used
as an alternative, i.e. the toxicity of fire effluents generated by cables can also be determined
by conducting tests according to DIN EN 50266-2-4 (VDE 0482-266-2-4) or DIN EN
50266-2-5 (VDE 0482-266-2-5).
The alternative models for generating smoke are described in C.2.3.

C.2.2 Test chamber as defined in DIN EN ISO 5659-2


C.2.2.1 General
Fire effluents are generated from the test specimens in a test chamber as defined in DIN EN
ISO 5659-2. Definitions and other technical specifications that are not explained in the present
document shall be taken directly from DIN EN ISO 5659-2.
The test apparatus shall be set up and calibrated as described in DIN EN ISO 5659-2.
Equipment exclusively intended for measuring the optical density can be ignored here.
Testing shall be carried out on specimens exposed to a heat flux of 25 kW/m while in a
horizontal position. Testing shall be carried out using a pilot flame.
After a test period of 4 minutes a fire effluent sample shall be taken for chemical analysis, and
after 8 minutes a second sample shall be taken.

36

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

C.2.2.2 Specimen preparation


Test specimens shall be prepared as described in DIN EN ISO 5659-2. The structure of the
test specimens shall correspond to that of the actual product when installed in real situations.
The thickness of specimens shall correspond to that of the products being tested, but shall not
exceed 25 mm; products that are thicker than this shall be reduced to a thickness of 25 mm
by cutting away the unexposed side.
The reverse side of materials made up of multiple layers of different materials (e.g. by painting,
coating, cladding etc.) shall also be tested if these might be exposed to fires when the product
is installed.
With regard to upholstered products, the specimens shall preferably be taken from the
finished product. Test specimens may also be made of foam materials and textiles, whereby
adhesive is not necessary (even if the cushioning and the textile cover are glued together in
the final application, for example). Upholstery specimens shall be weighed before testing. The
specimen mass shall be recorded.
Three specimens of each of the products to be tested shall be prepared.
C.2.2.3 Test procedure
C.2.2.3.1 General
The test apparatus shall be prepared and calibrated, and the tests conducted in accordance
with DIN EN ISO 5659-2.
The following special conditions shall be observed when evaluating the concentration of fire
gases.
C.2.2.3.2 Test environment
The test apparatus shall be set up in a draught-free room at a temperature between 15 C
and 35 C and a relative humidity between 20 % und 80 %. The test chamber shall be placed
under an exhaust hood which is capable of drawing the smoke out of the chamber at the end
of every test. The vent of the test chamber shall be connected to an exhaust system.
C.2.2.3.3 Conditioning
Test specimens shall be conditioned at a temperature of (232) C and (50 5) % relative
humidity until their mass is found to remain constant (m < 0.1 % in 24 h).
C.2.2.3.4 Preparation before starting the tests
The interior surfaces of the chamber and the mountings for the burner and the specimen shall
be cleaned, if needed for visual checking. Before the tests are started, the sampling probe(s)
in the test chamber shall be cleaned by flushing them with compressed air. If necessary,
clean filters shall be installed.
The tubing leading to the analysis equipment shall also be inspected and cleaned, if
necessary.
NOTE It is particularly important to clean the system when different materials are being tested to ensure
that the results are not falsified by chemical or physical reaction between the current specimen and
remnants of specimens from previous tests.

37

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


C.2.2.3.5 Test procedure and evaluation of results
After the fire gas sampling and measuring systems have been prepared, the test shall be
carried out as follows:
check the temperature of the wall of the test chamber (for 25 kW/m this shall be (40 5) C);
take the specimen out of the standard atmosphere container, weigh it on its own and once
again after wrapping it in aluminium foil;
place the specimen on the specimen holder;
position the radiation shield between the radiator cone and the specimen holder;
start recording the temperatures at the sampling location at 5-second intervals;
remove the dummy specimen and place the product specimen under the radiator cone;
close the test chamber, remove the radiation shield and start the stopwatch.
The radiation shield should be removed no later than 5 seconds after placing the specimen in
the chamber.
Record the times at which temporary ignition (burning time less than 10 s) and ignition occur
and the time at which the specimen stops burning.
Take fire effluent samples for analysis after 4 minutes and after 8 minutes of testing.
Samples are to be taken from inside the test chamber, whereby, depending on the analysis
method, one or more stainless steel tubes (5 mm lumen diameter) protruding vertically from
above through the centre of the roof into the smoke chamber are used. The sampling orifice(s)
shall be located 300 mm below the ceiling of the chamber. The temperature sensor shall not
be more than 5 mm away from the corresponding sampling orifice. In order to calculate the
mass concentrations of the smoke gas samples, the temperature shall be measured when the
samples are taken.
To provide a means of controlling the sampling procedure, a three-way valve shall be installed
on the connection to the stainless-steel probe outside the chamber.
The test duration shall be at least 8 minutes and 30 seconds. As opposed to the time
specifications in DIN EN ISO 5659-2, testing can be terminated here after the second gas
sample has been taken.

C.2.3 Testing seats and cables (alternative test methods)


C.2.3.1 General
In these tests, toxicity is determined by taking fire effluent samples while the products are
exposed to conditions similar to real applications:
while evaluating the fire effluent density and the fire behaviour of seats (Table C.2, no. 75),
couchettes and beds (Table C.2, no. 86) as described in 4.2.5.
when testing cables and wiring in accordance with DIN EN 50266-2-4 (VDE 0482-266-2-4) or
DIN EN 50266-2-5 (VDE 0482-266-2-5).
In these tests, the fire effluents are analysed at intervals of not more than 1 minute.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

C.2.3.2 Testing seats


As an alternative, the fire effluent toxicity of burning seats can be determined while the
seats are tested as described in 4.2.5. The samples shall be taken from a connection to the
gas analysis equipment, as defined in DIN EN 14390 or ISO 9705. If alternative exhaust hood
designs are used, the gas sampling location shall be identified and the reproducibility of the
results shall be demonstrated. The sampling tubing between the place at which analysis is
carried out and the place where fire effluent samples are taken shall be heated to (165 15)
C. The tubing length shall not exceed 4 m.
C.2.3.3 Testing cables
Fire effluent samples for toxicity analyses are to be taken while carrying out the procedure
listed in Table 6, no. 2. The samples shall be taken from a connection to the gas analysis
equipment, as defined in E DIN 50399. The sampling tubing between the place where
analysis is carried out and the place where fire effluent samples are taken shall be heated to
(165 15) C. The tubing length shall not exceed 4 m.

C.3 Fire effluent toxicity requirements


C.3.1 General
The toxicity of the fire effluents is expressed as the CIT (Conventional Index of Toxicity) value.
The CIT value is calculated from two factors:
CIT [scaling factor f ] [sum component]

CIT values are dimensionless. The sum component is calculated from the ratio of the
emission value to the reference value of the individual gas components. The effluent shall be
analysed for the following eight gases:
CO2, CO, HF, HCl, HBr, HCN, SO2 and NO25)

5)

NO2 also includes the NO component, which is evaluated as being equivalent to NO2. Both the NO and
the NO2 concentrations shall be measured. The concentration of NO in mg/m shall be multiplied by
46/30 (the ratio of the molar masses of NO2 and NO, respectively) in order to obtain the equivalent NO2
-3
-3
mg/m value. The total NO2 value is then the sum of the mg/m concentration of NO multiplied by
-3
46/30 and the measured mg/m NO2 concentration.
39

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Table C.1 Reference concentrations of components of fire effluents


Fire effluent components
Reference concentration
3
mg/m
72 000
000
1 380

carbon dioxide

CO 2

carbon monoxide

CO

hydrogen fluoride

HF

25

hydrogen chloride

HCI

75

hydrogen bromide

HBr

99

hydrogen cyanide

HCN

55

nitrogen dioxide

NO2

38

sulphur dioxide

SO2

262

The NO2 value includes both NO2 and NO (the reference value corresponds to the
IDLH value of NO2).

NOTE The reference concentrations are based on the IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life
and Health) values published by the American NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health), exposure duration 30 minutes.

C.3.2 Calculation of results of tests as described in DIN EN ISO 5659-2


For testing in accordance with DIN EN ISO 5659-2, the CIT value is calculated as follows:

Where
ci
Ci
0.080 5

is the concentration of the ith gas in the chamber (mg/m3);


is the reference concentration of the ith gas (mg/m3);
is the scaling factor
The scaling factor (0.080 5) is the ratio of the exposed product surface area
to the volume in which the fire effluents can spread, both for the reference
2
scenario (0.1 m product area/150 m3 volume) and the test chamber (0.004
2
225 m product area/0.51 m3 chamber volume).

NOTE 150 m can be understood to be equivalent to the volume of a larger vehicle, but it is not equal
to the actual volume of a carriage or train section. The scaling factor does not take into account the
development of smoke layers spreading outside of the carriage, ventilation and condensation on cold
surfaces etc.

C.3.3 Calculations of results of tests made on products under real conditions


When products are tested under real conditions, the toxicological effect of the ignition source
(paper cushion or burner flame) is evaluated together with that of the specimen, and the
combustion dynamics are determined in a near-realistic scenario. For this reason, the

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


toxicological evaluation is carried out at the same time as the fire behaviour test and smoke
density determination.
For tests carried out under real conditions, the fire effluent components shall be measured at
intervals of not more than 1 minute. The toxicity is then evaluated on the basis of the FED
concept (FED fractional effective dose). The FED is determined for the time t tzul (where
tzul is the maximum allowable exposure time in the vehicle as listed in Table C.2 or Table C.3).
The requirements are deemed to have been met if FED(tzul) 1.

where
Cti is the dose of exposure to ith gas (mg/m3 min);
3

Ci is the reference concentration of the ith gas number i as listed in Table C.1 (mg/m );
tzul is the maximum allowable exposure time in the vehicle as listed in Table C.2 or Table C.3
(minutes).

where
mi is the mass of ith gas number i released by the fire (mg);
t is the time, measured from the start of the test (min)
V Referenz is the volume of the reference scenario (V Referenz 150 m3).

where
ci,m is the mass concentration of the ith gas (mg/m3);
V 0,Abluft is the exhaust volume flow rate, converted to the equivalent at p0 and T0 (m/s).

where
ci,v is the (measured) volume proportion of ith gas (106);
Mi is the molar mass of ith gas (mg/mol);
p0 is the gas pressure (Pa), e.g. p0 101 300 Pa;
T0 is the gas temperature (K), e.g. T0 298 K;
R is the gas constant (R 8.314 5 J .mol1 K).

41

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

The doses of exposure to the individual gases Cti(tzul) and the masses mi(t) of the individual
gases released by the fire shall be determined by numerical integration (using the trapezoid
rule). The time interval (t 1 min) selected for measuring the gas concentration shall be
used as a basis of the integration.

C.3.4 Requirements on vehicle parts requiring a certificate


Vehicle parts requiring a certificate conform to the requirements of the respective fire
protection levels if FED(tzul) 1 (FED fractional effective dose).
The FED value for the tests as described in C.2.2 shall be calculated as follows:

where
CIT4, CIT8 are the CIT values calculated for 4 minutes and 8 minutes test duration
respectively, as described in C.3.2 (the mean value of three tests in each case)
tzul is the maximum allowable exposure time in the vehicle as listed in Table C.2 or Table C.3.
This procedure checks whether, in case of a fire, a passenger is able to escape from the
vehicle being tested without assistance and without exceeding the maximum allowable
exposure time. The equation is based on the reference scenario (see scaling factor), and in
addition to this, an approximation of the fire effluent emissions over time is taken into
consideration.
NOTE The ignition model on which the calculations represents a radiation source producing a heat flux
of 25 kW/m on a surface area of 0.1 m. The resulting fire effluents are assumed to be distributed in a
volume of 150 m (see explanation of scaling factor in C.3.2)

If the maximum allowable exposure time permitted exposure durations given in Tables C.2
and C.3 do not adequately apply to real operating conditions of the respective vehicle, the
smoke gas/fire effluent toxicity may be evaluated specifically for that vehicle by methods
normally used in fire prevention and protection engineering.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


Table C.2 Fire effluent toxicity requirements for vehicle components requiring
6)
certification
1

No. Vehicle parts requiring certification

1 Vehicle superstructure, including bottom


floor, external vehicle cladding (roof, sides,
2 face) but excluding driver's cab
3 External doors, face end doors, skirts, cladding
and superstructure of driver's cab, fittings
4

Maximum
Fire
protection allowable
level as exposure
time
specified in
DIN 5510-1
min
1
2 to 4

30

2 to 4

30

2 to 4

30

2 to 4

8 External windows, frames without seals

1 to 3

1
30

10 External windows, pane and pane


composites
11
12 Gangway between coaches

30

2 to 4

30

18 Ducts for heating, ventilation and cooling


19 built into areas other than the roof section
20 Hoses for heating, ventilation and cooling
21
Conduits for electrical installations and electrical
22 installation tubes
built into roof section
23

1
2 to 4
1
2 to 4
1
2 to 4
1

30
15

30

2 to 4

30

2 to 4

15

1
2 to 4

30

24
25

Conduits for electrical installations and electrical


installation tubes

1
2 to 4

30

built into areas other than the roof section

26 Pipes and hoses for fuel, hydraulics,


pneumatics, water and drainage
27

Remarks

5 Roof-mounted parts and roof edge fairing


parts
6 Underframe streamlining

13
14 Cladding of gangway systems (rubber cylinders,
bellows-type)
15
16 Ducts for heating, ventilation and cooling
built into roof section
17

Conduits and tubing


for electrical
installations in engine
spaces, switchgear
cabinets and control
boxes are exempted.
Conduits and tubing
for electrical
installations in engine
spaces, switchgear
cabinets and control
boxes are exempted.

1
2 to 4

15

6)

Columns 1 to 3 are identical to those of Table 5. This means that the vehicle parts requiring
certification can be classified on the basis of the numbers in column 1. The contents of columns 5 and 6
(Remarks and Explanatory notes) in Table 5 apply similarly for Table C.2.
43

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Table C.2 (continued)


1

No.

Vehicle parts requiring certification

28
Insulating materials (sound-proofing and /or
29 thermal insulation) for roofs, side panels
and face ends, external doors and floors,
applied to the internal surfaces of the vehicle
30

Insulating materials (sound-proofing and/or


thermal insulation) for roofs, side panels
and face ends, external doors and floors,
applied to the internal surfaces of the vehicle
areas below bottom edge of windows

31 areas above bottom edge of windows

1
3

2 and 4

30

2 and 4

30

32 Underbody coating
33
Insulating materials for roofs, side panels
and face ends, external doors and floors
(products in sheet or web form)

1 to 4
1

34

2 to 4

30

2 and 4
3

30

2 and 3

30

Insulating materials for side and face end


panels and floors in the

Fire
Requirement:
protection
permitted exposure Remarks
level as
time
specified in
min
DIN 5510-1
see nos. 30 and 31

areas below the bottom edge of the


windows
as well as insulating material for
external doors
(products in sheet or web form)
35 Insulating materials for roofs, side
36 panels and face ends (products in sheet
or web form)
areas above the bottom edge of the
windows
37

Internal furnishings such as ceilings,


38 ceiling recesses as well as hatches,
boxes and hoods in the ceiling and ceiling
39 recess area
40 Cover strips, cover profiles in the
ceiling and ceiling recess area
41
42
43 Interior furnishings such as claddings of
side and face panels, partition walls,
44
partitions and covers, boxes, cabinets and
45 hoods in this area; interior doors and
interior cladding of the external doors.
46 Cover strips, profiles and frames; mountings
and covers for information and advertising
47
panels, newspaper boxes; lockers and
48 advertising boxes in the vehicle's interior

4
1

2 and 3
4

30

2 and 3
4

30
30

2 and 3
4

30
30

S5 required

S5 required

S5 required

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Table C.2 (continued)


1

Fire
protection
level as
specified in
DIN 5510-1

Requirement:
permitted
exposure time
min

49 Floors including steps (substrate and floor


50 covering permanently joined)

51 Runners, carpets

52

15

53

3 and 4

30

No. Vehicle parts requiring certification

54 Covers for luminaires, including grilles

2 and 3

56

57 Luggage racks

58

30

59

60
61 Window locking frame, if not included in no.
43
62 Window locking frame, if not included in no.
44
63 Window locking frame, if not included in no.
45
64 Window framing

4
1

30

66 Curtains and roller blinds

30

2 and 3

30

30

2 to 4

15
30

68

69 Tables, windowsill tables, folding tables

30

70

2 and 3

30

71
72

4
2 to 4

30
15

2 to 4

15

1
2 to 4

30

2 to 4

30

Statically stressed seals for external and


interior doors

74 Seat
75
76 F olding s ea ts witho ut bac k res t
(auxiliary seats), arm rests, head rests, side
supports on headrests, pillows
77

S5 required

1
2 and 3

73

S5 required

67

Dynamically stressed seals for external and


interior doors; seals for doors in the
vehicle face ends

Remarks

55

65

Can also be
evaluated in tests
under
real
If the material
structure
is identical to that of a
tested seat (nos. 74
and 75) certification
corresponding to this
component is valid.

45

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


Table C.2 (continued)

No.

Vehicle parts requiring


certification

78 Covers and cladding parts of seats, seat


shells, backrest shells, folding tables
79
attached to passenger seats
80
81 Hand-holds and hand rails
82 Ashtrays, waste bins and bins for collecting
recyclable materials

Fire
Requirement
protection
permitted
level as
exposure time
specified in
min
DIN 5510-1
1

2 and 3

30

30

1 to 4
1 to 4

Remarks

no SR requirements
S5 required

83 Water containers to be installed in the


vehicle interior excluding enclosed driver's
cabs and engine compartments

2 to 4

30

84 Galley components in the vicinity of the


stove

1 to 4

S5 required

85 Other galley components


86 Couchettes and beds (mattresses and/or
upholstery combinations) without bed linen

1 to 4
1 to 4

no SR requirements

87 Interior furnishings such as walls, ceilings,


88 doors, lids, washbasins, luminaire covers
and mirrors in toilets and washrooms

1 to 3
4

30

S5 required

89 Washbasins, toilet basins, soap


dispensers, paper towel containers,
containers for cleaning cloths and hygiene
bags, cigarette rests in toilets and
washrooms

1 to 4

S5 required

90 Toilet covers, toilet seats

1 to 4

30

91 Floors in toilets and washrooms


92
Interior furnishings of closed staff rooms,
e.g. walls, ceilings, doors, lids, boxes,
cabinets and driver's desks

1 to 4
1 to 4

30

93 Floors in closed staff rooms

1 to 4

94 Seats for enclosed staff compartments

1 to 4

30
Can also be evaluated in tests
under real conditions

no SR requirements

no smoke generation
requirements
no smoke generation
requirements

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


Table C.3 Fire effluent toxicity requirements for electric wires and cables when
testing under real conditions as described in DIN EN 50266-2-4 (VDE 0482-266-2-4) or
DIN EN 50266-2-5 (VDE 0482-266-2-5)

Fire protection
level as
Vehicle parts requiring
No.
specified
in DIN
certification
5510-1
2

Wires and cables


(except for data cables)

Test standard

2 to 4
DIN EN 50266-2-4
(VDE 0482-266-2-4)
DIN EN 50266-2-5
(VDE 0482-266-2-5)

Maximum allowable
exposure time
min
30
if used inside vehicles
15
if used outside vehicles

DIN EN 50305
(VDE 0260-305):2003-03, 9.1.2

C.3.5 Requirements on vehicle parts not requiring certification


No fire effluent toxicity requirements apply to any materials and components that are not listed
in 5.2 or which are described there as not requiring certification.

C.3.6 Materials and components that are deemed to meet the requirements
Materials and components of building material classes A1 and A2 (as defined in DIN 4102 or
DIN EN 13501) and S5 materials as defined in this standard are deemed to conform to the fire
effluent toxicity requirements.

C.4 Test report


All deviations from the described conditions shall be documented. The technical test report
shall include the following information.
the name of the test laboratory;
the test report number;
the name and address of the client/manufacturer;
the test date;
the designation of the analysis method used;
the material code or identification number as well as the trade name, where applicable;
material composition or properties, stating the thickness (mm), mass (g) and, where
necessary, the density (kg/m); if composite materials or layered materials are tested, the
nominal thickness and the density of each component shall be stated wherever possible;
if available, the design and the description of the geometry of the test specimen shall be
included in the report;
a description of how the specimen, the surface to be exposed to the flame and, where
applicable, the metal grid or any other special methods used were set up, prepared and
combined;

47

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


a list of the gases that were analysed;
the concentration of each analysed gas at the time the sample was taken;
the temperature at the time when and at the location the sample was taken;
the CIT values in relation to the sampling time;
all difficulties that may have been encountered in the course of the test.
For every test specimen, the technical test report shall state the following mean values
obtained in three repeat tests:
the CIT values in relation to the sampling times;

the FED(t) and a remark as to whether the requirements have been met.
If the tests were carried out in a test chamber as defined in DIN EN ISO 5659-2, the following
test results shall also be recorded:
the weight before testing;
the time up to the point when the specimen caught fire (if at all) and at which it stopped
burning;
the temperature at the sampling location, measured after 4 minutes and 8 minutes.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

Appendix D
(informative)
Analysis methods for testing the toxicity of fire effluents

D.1 General
Any of the analysis methods described below may be used to analyse the individual fire effluent
components both qualitatively and quantitatively.

D.2 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy


D.2.1 General
Use and calibration of the FTIR apparatus are described in ISO 19702.
The sampling and analysis system shall be set up and calibrated according to the manufacturers
instructions and the specifications of ISO 19702.

D.2.2 FTIR discontinuous gas analysis


FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy is used to identify and quantify (gas) molecules
with a dipole moment that can be either modified or induced (IR-active molecules).This is
achieved by passing the gases being analysed through a measuring cell with windows made of a
material transparent to IR radiation. The polychromatic beam of light emitted by an infrared
source is split into two beams by an interferometer and these beams travel different distances
before being recombined, upon which they form interferences. The interfered radiation is passed
through the gas sample, which absorbs specific spectral ranges depending on the composition of
the gas mixture. The intensity of the radiation leaving the measuring cell is measured by a
detector.
The detector signal is transformed into an intensity spectrum (expressing the radiant intensity as
a function of the wave number) by means of a Fourier transformation. From this, an absorption
spectrum (absorbance as a function of the wave number) favourable for analysis is calculated
with the aid of a (separately determined) background spectrum.
The spectra are qualitatively and quantitatively analysed on the basis of a comparison using
calibration spectra obtained from reference gas mixtures of known concentrations. The gases
being analysed are identified on the basis of the substance-specific position and shape of the
absorption bands, and their concentrations are determined by comparing the absorption band
amplitude or area.

DIN 5510-2:2009-05

The general instructions concerning the test procedure, calibration and evaluation of FTIR
analyses as defined in ISO 19702 are to be observed. The terms used in the following
explanations are defined in ISO 19702.

D.2.3 Sampling
Samples of the fire effluent are taken from the test chamber. The sample is filtered and then
passed via a sampling tube through the FTIR spectrometers sampling cell in discontinuous
batches after 4 minutes and again after 8 minutes. The sample is taken from inside the test
chamber using a stainless-steel probe (see C.2.1.2.4).
A three-way valve is connected to the end of the stainless-steel probe outside of the test chamber.
This three-way valve permits alternating samples to be taken from the ambient atmosphere or
from the test chamber. A suitable PTFE particle filter shall be installed downstream of the
three-way valve. A flat or cylindrical filter with a porosity of less than or equal to 3 m shall be
used to protect the mirroring inside the measuring cell. A filter that permits easy replacement of
the filter elements and is suitable for temperatures of up to (165 15) C shall be used.
The filter shall be kept heated to a temperature of (165 15) C to prevent condensation of water
vapour or other decomposition products, otherwise hydrophilic gases such as hydrogen chloride
would dissolve in the condensate and would therefore not be passed on for analysis. Other filter
materials e.g. ceramics or stainless steel may be used, provided that these achieve a 3 m
filtration and that none of the substances to be analysed adhere to the filter.
Sampling shall be carried out with a flow rate of (4 0.5) l/min to avoid creating a sub-atmospheric
pressure in the chamber (it takes roughly 30 seconds to take each of the two fire effluent
samples).
The flow rate shall be adapted to suit the volume and the optical wavelength of the gas analysis
cell so that it is able to record a spectrum within 15 seconds or less. The response time (the time
taken to replace the complete volume of gas in the cell) shall not exceed the time it takes to
record the spectra. The delay time (time taken to convey the gas from the probe to the analysis
cell) shall be determined and corrected if necessary so that samples can be conveyed from the
chamber to the cell after 4 minutes and again after 8 minutes (normally the delay time is very
short, so that no correction is required).
The tubing used to convey the gas shall be made of chemically inert material and shall be able to
withstand temperatures of up to 180 C for longer periods. It shall be heated to (165 15) C. The
tube length shall not exceed 2 m. Heat-resistant PTFE tubing with a lumen diameter of 4 mm has
been found to be suitable.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


Dimensions in mm

Key
1 Counter, optional

6 Heated filter

2 Pump

7 Three-way valve

3 Flow meter

8 Test chamber

4 FTIR gas cell at (165 15) C

9 Sampling probe with thermocouple

5 Heated sampling tube


Figure A.1 Test chamber as defined in DIN EN ISO 5659-2 + FTIR data capture system

D.2.4 FTIR spectroscopy gas cell


In order to ensure short response times, the volume of the gas cell should not be too large (< 2 l;
volumes between 0.4 l and 1 l have been found to be highly suitable with regard to the response
time of the total measurement system). However, the sensitivity of the analysis method when
used for low gas concentrations increases with the optical wavelength. These criteria have to be
taken into consideration when selecting an analysis cell.
As fire effluents normally contain corrosive substances, a casing of stainless steel or nickel-plated
aluminium should be used and the mirrors should preferably be made of solid nickel. Internal
mirrors with gold plating can also be used, but have to be regularly inspected to check that their
function is not impaired by corrosion.

D.2.5 FTIR spectrometer


The following criteria shall be taken into consideration when choosing an FTIR spectrometer:
An infrared light source which is stable at high intensities and temperatures is needed.

DIN 5510-2:2009-05

-1

The interferometer shall permit continuous sampling and have a resolution of 4 cm or better,
-1

and should be capable of recording spectra in the wave number range from 500 cm to 4 200
-1

cm .
A high-speed DTGS type detector (ambient temperatures) or an MCT (nitrogen-cooled) detector
is recommended as the internal detector.
The sampling period shall be 3 s.
The interval between spectra measurements shall be 15 s. It is recommended that at least 4
or 5 samples are taken for each spectrum in order to improve accuracy.
The lower sensitivity level of gas component detection (minimum detection limit MDL) should
be15 . m6 (the detection limits differ depending on the gas components). The detection limit
for carbon monoxide can be < 300 m6.

D.2.6 Test procedure


D.2.6.1 Preparation
Heat the filter, tubing system and FTIR gas analysis cell to (165 15) C to ensure the
composition of the fire effluent samples does not change as they are conveyed from the probe to
the analysis cell.
Check whether the temperatures of the filter, probe, tubing and cell are constant and at the
specified temperature.
Start the FTIR sampling pump and set it to a flow rate of 4 l/min. Check that the spectrometer is
ready for operation.
D.2.6.2 Procedure
Determine a background spectrum before starting the fire effluent analysis test:
Switch off the exhaust extraction system and close the suction valve and the front window.
While the background spectrum is being measured, the dummy test specimen is to be placed on
the specimen holder.
Switch the three-way valve to the position in which the atmosphere inside the chamber is
sampled.
Record the background spectrum under the original (initial) atmospheric conditions.
Switch the three-way valve to the position in which the atmosphere outside the chamber is

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


sampled.
Now start the test.
To start qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fire effluents after the 4-minute period has
elapsed, change the three-way valve setting 3 minutes and 45 seconds after starting the test so
that a sample is taken from the test chamber and then wait for 15 s to allow the analysis cell to fill
with gases from the chamber.
After the test has been run for 4 minutes, the unknown gas spectrum to be used for qualitative
and quantitative analysis shall be recorded for a 15-second period.
Once fire effluent sampling has been concluded after a period of 4 minutes and 15 seconds,
switch the three-way valve back to the position in which gas is taken from outside of the test
chamber (e.g. as flushing air).
To start qualitative and quantitative analysis of the smoke gas after the 8-minute period, change
the three-way valve setting 7 minutes and 45 seconds after starting the test so that a sample is
taken from the test chamber and then wait for 15 s in order to allow the analysis cell to fill with
gases from the chamber.
After the test has been run for 8 minutes, the unknown gas spectrum to be used for qualitative
and quantitative analysis shall be recorded for a 15 second period.
Once fire effluent sampling has been concluded after a period of 8 minutes and 15 seconds,
switch the three-way valve back to the position in which gas is taken from outside of the test
chamber (e.g. as flushing air).
The times specified for changing the three-way valve setting are to be adhered to within a
tolerance limit of 3 s.

D.2.7 Data evaluation


The measurement data shall be evaluated after conclusion of the tests. The first step is to use the
following equation to calculate the mass concentrations of the individual smoke gas components
of samples taken after 4 minutes and after 8 minutes:

where
ci,m is the concentration of the gas number i in the chamber after a test duration of 4 minutes or 8

DIN 5510-2:2009-05
3

minutes (mg/m );
ci,v is the volume proportion of the ith gas (measured by FTIR spectroscopy) in the chamber after
a test duration of 4 minutes and 8 minutes;
Mi is the molar mass of the ith gas (mg/mol);
pKammer is the gas pressure in the chamber after a test duration of 4 minutes and 8 minutes (Pa);
R is the molar gas constant (R = 8.314 5 J/(molK);
TKammer is the gas temperature in the chamber after a test duration of 4 minutes and 8 minutes (K).
3

The concentrations ci,m in mg/m of the individual fire effluent components are used to
calculate the CIT value (Conventional Index of Toxicity) as described in C.3.2.

D.3 Wet chemical analysis method


D.3.1 General
Wet chemical methods can be used for the following gases:
HCN, HCl, HBr, HF and SO2.
Non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy is recommended for determining CO and CO2
concentrations if wet chemical methods are used for the other gases. Direct detection of NOx by
chemoluminiscence is recommended.
NOTE See ISO 19701 for a detailed description of these analysis methods.

Wet chemical (or liquid) analysis methods are methods in which the fire gases are passed
through an absorbent solution. Following the test, suitable media are used to analyse the
absorbent solution for the relevant compounds. The mean concentrations of the gas components
during the sampling period can be calculated from the quantity of gas passed through the
absorption solution and the quantity of the corresponding components found in the solution.
The basic equation for these calculations is:

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05


where
PG is the gas concentration, in g/l;
S is the substance concentration in the solution, in g/l or mol/l;
V is the volume of the solution;
H is the gas constant for the gas volume for 1 g or 1 mol of the gas to be determined. The
standard value of 22.4 l/mol at 0 C and 101.325 kPa has to be converted to the equivalent
temperature and atmospheric pressure at the time of analysis.
mG/mS is the ratio of the atomic or molecular mass of the gaseous substance G to that of the
corresponding substance in the solution, if these differ (e.g. HCl/Cl);
q is the gas flow rate through the absorption flask;
t is the duration of the gas absorption.

D.3.2 Sampling
The concentration of the substances shall be determined 4 minutes and 8 minutes after the start
of the test. To enable absorption of a sufficient quantity of fire gases, the absorption shall be
started 30 seconds before the nominal measuring time and continued for 30 seconds after that
time (i. e. from 3 minutes, 30 seconds to 4 minutes, 30 seconds, and from 7 minutes, 30 seconds
to 8 minutes, 30 seconds, respectively).
To obtain the samples, the fire gas is drawn through one or more scrubbing flasks connected in
series. A speed-controllable pump and a calibrated gas meter are connected downstream of the
scrubbing flask(s). In order to be able to convert the volume flow reading to the equivalent at
normal temperature and pressure, the temperature of the gas shall be measured at the gas meter
(see explanation of H after equation in D.3.1). The gas meter is used to determine the volume of
gas drawn through the apparatus during sampling. If more than one absorption line is used, each
line shall be connected to one of the chamber outlets. The flow rate in each absorption line shall
be set to 2 l/min. If the samples for several analyses are drawn from one outlet, a manifold shall
be installed downstream of the filter and measures shall be taken to ensure that no line can draw
gas back from any of the other lines.
After the first analysis has been made, the scrubbing flasks are either replaced or a multi-way
valve on each sampling line is used to switch the flow to another scrubbing flask (or set of flasks).
The gases leaving the test chamber shall be drawn through a filter heated to at least (165 15)
C (PTFE filters with a pore width of 2 m have been found to be suitable). PTFE tubing shall be
used for the gas sampling lines. After the testing of a product has been concluded, these lines

DIN 5510-2:2009-05
shall be flushed and checked to ensure that there is no residual contamination. They shall be
replaced if it is no longer possible to clean them adequately.

D.3.3 Analyses
Analyses are carried out in a manner similar to that described in ISO 19701. The procedures for
the various gases are outlined below:

Table D.1 Analysis of gas components


Gas

Absorption solution and

component

scrubbing flasks

Recommended analysis Procedure and evaluation


method

20 ml 0.1 mo1/l NaOH

high-performance ion

H2O (distilled)

high-performance ion

HBR
1.

scrubbing

flask:

75

ml

H2O, no frits

chromatography

ISO 19701:2005,
4.1.2

for HCI and HBr

4.7

for SO2

(HPIC)

SO 2
2.

ISO 19701:2005, 3.4.3

chromatography (HPIC)

1 scrubbing flask with glass frits


HCL and

as described in

s c r u b b i n g f l a s k : 150 ml
H2O, with frits
spectrophotometry

HF

ISO 19701:2005, 4.2.2

Each with 75 ml of 1 mo1/l NaOH


3.

scrubbing flasks without frits

Calibration and evaluation shall be carried out as described in the appropriate clauses of ISO
19701. Where alternative methods are used, proof shall be provided that these produce the same
results.

D.4 Colorimetric measurements


The toxicity data of the following gases can be determined using colorimetric detector tubes (e.g.
as supplied by Drger):
CO2, CO, HF, HCl, HCN, NO2 (NOx), SO2 (7 components)
As there is no corresponding tube for HBr, the CIT value is calculated by adding these seven
components (HBr and HCL are treated as being one component).
CIT =0.080 5 SUM (i=1 to i=7) ci/Ci
3

In this case, the reference concentration of HBr (99 mg/m ) shall be used.

DIN 5510-2: 2009-05

NOTE The ppm values read off the colorimetric detector tubes need to be converted to mg/m HBr
equivalent, as the HBr reference concentration is the most critical value owing to its molecular mass.

The toxicity data (CIT values) shall be determined at times t = 4 mins and t = 8 mins after starting
the test.
The test set-up and the procedure are described in the following clauses of E DIN EN 2824*).
Gas-sampling probes
Plastic bags for gas sampling
Vacuum chamber
Vacuum pump
Alternative gas-sampling methods
Colorimetric tubes
Dosing pump
Figure 9: Gas sampling test set-up
Gas sampling and the analysis procedure are described in clause 9 and the following clauses of
E DIN EN 2826:1995-06.
Select the colorimetric detector tubes for the relevant concentration ranges. If suitable tubes are
available, the HF component can also be determined by colorimetry. When indicator tubes as
described in D.4 are used, a comparison measurement by FTIR spectroscopy as described in D.2
shall be carried out if the result exceeds 80 % of the FED(t) limit value.
The manufacturer's notes and instructions on the use of the colorimetric detector tubes shall be
observed.

DIN 5510-2:2009-05

References

DIN 53436-5, Producing thermal decomposition products from materials in an air stream and their
toxicological testing - Part 5: Method to calculate the toxicity
E DIN EN 2826: 1995-06, Aerospace series Burning behaviour of non metallic materials under
the influence of radiating heat and flames Determination of gas components in the smoke;
German version EN 2826:1995
ISO 13344, Estimation of the lethal toxic potency of fire effluents
ISO/TR 13387, Fire safety engineering
I
SO/TS 13571, Life-threatening components of fire Guidelines for the estimation of time
available for escape using fire data
ISO/TS 16312-1, Guidance for assessing the validity of physical fire models for obtaining fire
effluent toxicity data for fire hazard and risk assessment Part 1: Criteria