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ISSN 2347-6893

Developmental Adipokines and Maternal Obesity Interactions


R.G. Ahmed
Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, BeniSuef, Egypt
Email: ahmedragab08@gmail.com Tel. number: 002-010-9147-1828

Abstract
Adipokines are involved in the developmental programming during fetal development and early life, and might
contribute to pregnancy complications. Maternal obesity has an impact on intrauterine fetal life that extends to abnormal
changes in the adipose tissue and metabolic disorders in the newborns and even adulthood. This overview discusses the
potential importance of adipokines during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and in fetal metabolic programming.
Various adipokines secreted from fat tissue as the key players in reprogramming maternal physiology to achieve an
insulin-resistant state during pregnancy, especially when complicated by GDM. Indeed, this review hypothesized that the
disturbance in adipokines may be associated with GDM in pregnant obese women or animals. This may influence,
generally, on the health of the embryos, newborns and adulthood depending on proinflammatory markers. Finally, the
obesity of mothers and disturbance in adipokines prior to pregnancy are a significant risk factor for the disturbed
development of the pregnancy and the child, and develop metabolic syndrome. However, there are obvious species
differences between pregnant women and animal models. Thus, maintaining normoglycaemia and adipokines levels
during pregnancy may play an important role in a healthy life for the newborns.

Key words: Adipokines; obesity; mothers; development; offspring.

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I- Introduction
Obesity is powerfully linked with changes in the physiological function of adipose tissue, leading to
insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and altered secretion of adipokines (Bljaji et al., 2014; Prior et al.,
2014; Ramirez et al., 2014). Indeed, adipose tissue dysfunction might play a critical role in the different
obesity linked diseases including inflammation, insulin resistance and cancer. White adipose tissue (WAT) is a
complex and metabolically active organ, with a relevant vital role in regulating whole-body metabolism (Houde
et al., 2013). WAT is the largest energy storage organ, having an essential lipid storing capacity in periods
when energy input exceeds energy expenditure and with a lipolytic function during energy deprivation (Jenum
et al., 2013; Loy and Hamid Jan, 2014). In addition to its primary role as a fuel reservoir, WAT has been
confirmed as a principal endocrine organ, since the tissue synthesizes and secretes an array of sex steroids,
and bioactive peptides termed adipokines, involved in the physiological regulation of fat storage, energy
metabolism, food intake, insulin sensitivity, and immune function among others (Khalyfa et al., 2013). In this
section, I summarized the general biological function of adipose tissue in table (1) and figure (1), and I
compared between the secretion and action of potentially beneficial adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, apelin and
visfatin) linking to obesity in table (2).

II- Summary about the different states of adiponectinaemia (Table 3).


III- Summary about the adipokines & insulin resistance interactions (figure 2).
IV- Role of inflammation in pathogenesis of insulin resistance, obesity and
cardiovascular diseases (Table 4):
Increased adipose tissue mass that is linked with obesity and cardiovascular disease has been
associated with a low-grade, chronic inflammatory response that is characterized by altered production of
adipokines and increased markers of inflammation, such as TNF- and IL6 (Stupin and Arabin, 2014) or
MCP-1 (Harwood Jr, 2012). Over-stimulation of inflammatory pathways in insulin-sensitive tissues provides
rise to local and systemic insulin resistance (Cai et al., 2005). Markers of systemic inflammation in humans
are strongly connected with insulin resistance (de Rooij et al., 2009) and predict the development of diabetes
type two (T2DM) (Ahmed, 2011; Miehle et al., 2012). Infact, acute TNF- infusion induces skeletal muscle
insulin resistance in humans (Plomgaard et al., 2005), while both acute and chronic MCP-1 infusion stimulates
insulin resistance in rodents (Kalupahana et al., 2012). Notably, adipose tissue cells from the stromal vascular
fraction, and in particular resident macrophages, are responsible for the chronic inflammatory responses
recorded in obesity (Weisberg et al., 2003). These resident macrophages vary in their properties depending
on whether they are contained in lean or fat-laden adipose tissue (Harwood Jr, 2012). For example,
macrophages residing in lean adipose tissue are illustrated by increased expression of anti-inflammatory
cytokines, such as interleukin 10 (IL-10), explain an increased capacity for tissue repair and angiogenesis,
and are frequently referred to as M2, or alternatively-activated macrophages (Lumeng et al., 2007). However,
expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is linked with an increased infiltration by circulating macrophages of the
M1, or classically-activated, phenotype (Coenen et al., 2007). These macrophages are characteristically
recruited to sites of tissue damage and are in a pro-inflammatory state with increased expression of
proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF- and IL6, that can exert strong paracrine effects on a variety of
adipose tissue functions (Lumeng et al., 2007). The local effects of proinflammatory cytokines on adipose
tissue lipolysis may contribute to the development of insulin resistance by promoting the liberate of fatty acids
from adipose tissue into the circulation, which may then lead to lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in
other tissues such as skeletal muscle and liver (Goossens, 2008). Furthermore, reduced adiponectin
concentrations may have harmful effects on fat oxidation, since it has been demonstrated that adiponectin
increases fat oxidation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in rat skeletal muscle and myocytes
(C2C12) (Yamauchi et al., 2002). Interestingly, in humans, low adiponectin serum levels at baseline
independently predict future risk to develop T2DM (Spranger et al., 2003) and coronary artery disease
(Fasshauer et al., 2004) and high plasma adiponectin predicts a lower risk of future myocardial infarction
(Pischon et al., 2004). I summarized the different states for adiponectinaemia in table 3. It is obvious from
these studies that there are linking between insulin receptor signaling and inflammatory pathways (Hirosumi et
al., 2002). Generally, the detailed of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines during obesity are discussed
in table 4.

V- Adipokines, maternal obesity and development (figure 3):


Gestation is a stage that results in increased adipocyte volume, and it is recognized that adipose fat
depots are the net balance of synthesis and hydrolysis of triacylglycerols via lipogenesis and lipolysis (Ramos
et al., 2003). Also, several adipokines such as leptin (LEP; OMIM 164160), adiponectin (ApN; OMIM 605441),

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resistin (RETN; OMIM 605565) and inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-; OMIM 191160),
and interleukin-6 (IL-6; OMIM 147620)], and chemokines [interleukin-8 (IL-8; OMIM 146930)] have been
suggested as much stronger predictors of pregnancy-linked insulin resistance than gestational hormones,
including human placental lactogen and steroids (Radaelli et al., 2003; Taylor et al., 2014). Recently,
adiponectin secretion and adiponectin mRNA levels in WAT decline with the gestation progress suggesting
that there are pregnancy-associated factors that reduce adiponectin levels (Catalano et al., 2006). In addition,
in humans, the developing placenta expresses both leptin and its receptor, and placental resistin (ZavalzaGmez et al., 2008). Their levels correlate with the condition of reduced insulin sensitivity often developed in
the latter stages of pregnancy, thus contributing to successful development of the fetus (Cortelazzi et al.,
2007). Furthermore, the human placenta has been found to express nearly all known cytokines. Increasing
adiposity is associated with the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue, suggesting that
these cytokines may play an essential role in fuel availability during pregnancy (Lyon et al., 2003). Moreover,
cytokine production is related to pathologic risk and to delivery mode itself (Malamitsi-Puchner et al., 2005).
There have been only a few papers demonstrating cytokine profiles, including many kinds of cytokines in cord
blood (Takahashi et al., 2010). IL-6 is a useful marker for a systemic fetal inflammatory response (Gomez et
al., 1998). Also, the levels of IL-8, MCP-1 and MIP-1b were increased in preterm birth (Matoba et al., 2009)
and serum levels of IL-8 and MCP-1 in cord blood significantly associated with gestational ages (Takahashi et
al., 2010). However, IL-4 and IL-13 did not cross the placenta in measurable amounts (Lim et al., 2009). In
previous investigations, circulating levels of leptin, adiponectin and TNF- in the early pregnancy strongly
predicted the development of GDM (Gao et al., 2008). Also, GDM elicits main variations in the expression
profile of placental genes with a prominent increase in markers and mediators of inflammation (Radaelli et al.,
2003).
Previous studies have reported a connection between childhood maltreatment and adulthood obesity
(Midei et al., 2010). Obesity is also associated with lowered serum adiponectin levels which reflect a disturbed
inflammatory state during childhood (Gustafson, 2010). Adiponectin inhibits the functions of TNF- which
associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (Gustafson, 2010) and inhibits the secretion of several other
pro-inflammatory cytokines from endothelial cells (Gustafson, 2010). This can increase the childhood
vulnerability to depression and permanent hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, as well as a
variety of conditions linked to disturbed inflammatory systems (Charmandari et al., 2003). Based on these
observations, placental-derived hormones are supposed to be a main factor in reprogramming maternal
physiology to achieve an insulin-resistant state. However, more studies are essential about this issue.

VI- Future directions


- Discover the ranges of several adipokines serum levels at which obesity-related disorders are
observed with high frequency. These measurements could therefore be used as a biologic marker and/or
pharmacologic agent in the management of obesity, inflammatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders.
- Determine the complex nature of several adipokines signaling and their specific roles during pregnancy.

VII- Conflict of Interest: There is no conflict of interest.


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IX- Legends
- Table legends:
Table 1: Summary about the biological function of adipose tissue.
Table 2. General action of leptin, adiponectin, apelin and visfatin linking to obesity.
Table 3. Summary about the different states of adiponectinae.
Table 4. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines during obesity.

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- Figure legends:
Figure 1. General adipokines network.
Figure 2. Adipokines and insulin resistance interactions.
Figure 3. Adipokines, maternal obesity and development.

X- Abbreviations
ApN, adiponectin;
ApoE, apoliproprotein E;
ASP, acylation-stimulating protein;
AT, adipose tissue;
BAT, brown adipose tissue;
BBB, bloodbrain barrier;
BMI, body mass index;
CETP, cholesterol ester transfer protein;
CRP, C-reactive protein;
CVD, cardiovascular disease;
ER, endoplasmic reticulum;
FABPs, fatty-acid-binding proteins;
FFA, free fatty acid;
GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus;
HMW, high molecular weight;
IGF-1, insulin like growth factor-1;
IL-6,8,10, interleukin-6,8,10;
LEP, leptin;
LPL, lipoprotein lipase;
MCP-1, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1;
MIF, macrophage migration inhibitory factor;
NF-B, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells;
NGF, nerve growth factor;
PAI-1, platelet (plasminogen) activator inhibitor-1;
RBP4, retinol binding protein-4;
RETN, resistin;
SAA, serum amyloid A;
Sc, Subcutaneous;
SVC, stromal-vascular cells;
T2DM, diabetes type two;
TGF-, transforming growth factor-;
TNF- , tumor necrosis factor- ;
TNF-, tumor necrosis factor-;
VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor;
WAT, White adipose tissue;

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Table 1. Summary about the biological function of adipose tissue.
Compare face
Leptin

Functions
- Appetite and energy balance

Increase food intake


(obesity)

Increase food
expenditure

Increase

Decrease

Decrease

Increase

Increase

Decrease

- Adipogenesis
- Metabolic functions
- Immune modulator
- Inflammatory responses
- Secretory functions
ApN

- Appetite and energy balance


- Glucose homeostasis
- Fatty acid catabolism
- Adipogenesis
- Secretory functions
- Strong anti-inflammatory function
- Promotes the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells
- A potent antiatherogenic factor
- Specific marker for insulin sensitivity and
metabolic processes

Resistin

- Insulin resistance
- Metabolic functions

Visfatin

-Insulin secretion
- Specific marker for insulin sensitivity and
metabolic processes

Apelin

- Blood pressure
- Modulation of food intake.
- Specific marker for insulin sensitivity and
metabolic processes

Vaspin

- Specific marker for insulin sensitivity and


metabolic processes

RBP4

- Insulin resistance
- Increases insulin resistance

FFA
Glycerol

- Insulin sensitivity and control of carbohydrate


storage and oxidation.

Cholesterol
TNF-

- They are cytokines

IL-6, -8

- Inflammation
- Adipogenesis
- Metabolic functions
- Secretory functions

IL-10

Anti-inflammatory
role
countering
proinflammatory agents such as lipopolysaccharide
(LPS) and TNF-

TNF-

- It is cytokine

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- Adipogenesis
Adipsin

-Stimulates triglyceride storage in adipocytes;


activates alternate complement pathway

Omentin

- Believed to enhance the actions of insulin

Decrease

Increase

VEGF

- Stimulates angiogenesis (vascular proliferation)


in white adipose tissue

Increase

Decrease

NGF

- It is neurotrophins

PAI-1

- Inhibits
fibrinolysis

plasminogen

activation;

blocks

- Haemostatic and haemodynamic factor


FABPs

- Family of carrier proteins for fatty acids and


other lipophilic substances such as eicosanoids
and retinoids.
- These proteins are thought to facilitate the
transfer of fatty acids between extra- and intracellular membranes.

Angiotensinogen
TGF-

MIF

- Haemostatic and haemodynamic factor


- Regulates preadipocyte proliferation
differentiation and also adipocyte apoptosis

and

- It is chemokine.
- Immunoregulator with paracrine actions in white
adipose tissue

MCP-1

- It is chemokine.
- Recruits monocytes to sites of injury and
inflammation

LPL

- Hydrolyzes triglycerides in triglyceride-rich


lipoproteins allowing cellular uptake

IGF-1

- Stimulates proliferation and differentiation of


adipocytes

CETP

ASP
ApoE

Transfers
lipoproteins

cholesterol

esters

between

- Stimulates triglyceride synthesis in white adipose


tissue; antilipolytic
a

Protein
lipoproteins

component

of

Tissue factor

- Initiates the coagulation cascade

SAA

- They are acute phase proteins

triglyceride-rich

CRP
Metallotheinin
Haptoglobin
Steroid
hormones

- Anti-inflammatory

Change

Adapted from Otero et al. (2003), Kadowaki & Yamauchi (2005), Tilg and Wolf (2005), Ahima (2006), Ronti et al. (2006),
Fonseca-Alaniz et al. (2007), Takemura et al. (2007), Hajer et al. (2008), Vzquez-Vela et al (2008), Zou & Shao (2008),
Lagol et al. (2009), German et al. (2010), Karastergiou & Mohamed-Ali (2010), Cekmez et al. (2011) and Harwood Jr
(2012). ApN, adiponectin; ApoE, apoliproprotein E; ASP, acylation-stimulating protein; CETP, cholesterol ester transfer
protein; CRP, C-reactive protein; FABPs, fatty-acid-binding proteins; FFA, free fatty acid; IGF-1, insulin like growth factor1; IL-6,8,10, interleukin-6,8,10; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; MCP-1, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1; MIF, macrophage
migration inhibitory factor; NGF, nerve growth factor; PAI-1, platelet (plasminogen) activator inhibitor-1; RBP4, retinol

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binding protein-4; SAA, serum amyloid A; TGF-, transforming growth factor-; TNF-, tumor necrosis factor-; TNF- ,
tumor necrosis factor- ; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
a

Secreted proteins without hormonal actions.

Table 2. General action of leptin, adiponectin, apelin and visfatin linking to obesity.
Compare
face

Leptin

Adiponectin (ApN)

Apelin

Visfatin

Nature

- It is a 16-kDa hormone produced


by adipocytes and virtually
undetectable in the stromalvascular cells fraction of adipose
tissue. Its expression is restricted
to mature fat cells in man (Halleux
et al., 2001).

- It is a 30-kDa protein
abundantly
secreted
by
adipose tissue (Maeda et al.,
1996; Scherer et al., 1995). It
found in the blood stream in
three forms: trimer, hexamer
and high molecular weight
(HMW) 12- to 18-mer ApN
(Kadowaki et al., 2006).

It
is
the
endogenous
ligand for the
orphan G-protein
coupled receptor,
AJP, which is the
closest homolog
to angiotensin II
receptor (Japp et
al., 2008). It is
present in several
tissues, in the
bloodstream and
adipose
tissue
(AT) (Cekmez et
al., 2011).

- It is as a
protein involved
in immune B-cell
maturation (preB
colony
enhancing
factor,
PBEF)
(Samal et al.,
1994) and with
insulin-like
functions
(Fukuhara et al.,
2005). It found in
visceral AT, from
which the name
visfatin
was
derived
(Fukuhara et al.,
2005).

Metabolic
effects

Energy
metabolism

Energy
metabolism

Not reported

Lipid
metabolism

Increase
fatty
acid
oxidation in
muscle
(Emilsson et
al., 1997).

- Increase energy
consumption
in
brown
adipose
tissue
(BAT)
(Pang
and
Narendran,
2008).

Not reported

Decrease
energy storage in
white
adipose
tissue
(WAT)
(Scarpace
and
Matheny, 1998).
Lipid
metabolism

Increase
Lipolysis,
fatty
acid
oxidation
(Scarpace
and
Matheny, 1998)
and apoptosis of
adipocytes (Lago
et al., 2009).

- Decrease
tryglycerides
in liver and
lypogenesis
in
liver
(Emilsson et
al.,
1997;
Carbone et
al., 2012).

- Decrease fatty
acid
synthesis
(Takekoshi et al.,
1999).

Carbohydrate
metabolism

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- Increase levels
of GLUT-4 in
BAT,
glycogen
synthesis in liver,
glucose uptake in
BAT (Qian et al.,
1998) and insulin
sensitivity (Bai et

Carbohydrate
metabolism

Increase
insulin
sensitivity in
liver
(Emilsson et
al.,
1997)
and levels of
GLUT-4
in

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al., 1996).
- Decrease levels
of GLUT-4 in
WAT (Qian et al.,
1998),
insulin
secretion
by
pancreatic islets
(Harris,
1998)
and
glycogen
synthesis
in
muscle
(Kamohara et al.,
1997; Carbone et
al., 2012).
General
action

- Central action:
It represents a signal to the brain
(e.g., hypothalamus, cortex and
limbic areas) to inhibit food intake
and reduce weight (Zhang et al.,
1994) because of humans and
rodents lacking a functional leptin
protein
manifested
insatiable
feeding and obesity (Hajer et al.,
2008). The vital action of leptin in
the hypothalamus has been best
described with regards to energy
homeostasis and reproductive
functions (Badman and Flier,
2007). Additionally to its action on
the hypothalamus, leptin may also
act on the cortex and limbic areas,
which are regulated the cognitive
and emotional feeding behavior
(Farooqi et al., 2007; Rosenbaum
et al., 2008). As predictable, leptin
treatment successfully reversed
the obesity and leptin resistance
abnormalities
(Ahima, 2008).
Currently, leptin represents as a
hormone responsible for signaling
energy deficiency rather than a
signal to lose weight (Badman
and Flier, 2007; Kershaw and
Flier, 2004).

muscle (Berg
et al., 2001).
- Decrease
glucose
haematic
levels
and
glucose
production in
liver
(Yamauchi et
al., 2001 &
2003).

Conversely
to
most
adipokines, circulating ApN is
negatively associated with the
body mass index (BMI) (Arita
et al., 1999; Brichard et al.,
2003) and decreased in obese
subjects, in type 2 diabetes or
cardiovascular disease (CVD)
(Ouchi and Walsh, 2007). This
sub-regulation may involve the
abnormal hormonal milieu
(Delporte et al., 2002; Halleux
et al., 2001), together with the
enhanced oxidative stress
(Furukawa et al., 2004) and
the pro-inflammatory state
(Bruun et al., 2003) that exist
in obesity and the metabolic
syndrome.

- AT apelin and
plasma
levels
increased
in
obesity
(Heinonen et al.,
2005).
Conversely, both
circulating apelin
and
its
expression in AT
were
reduced
after weight loss
consecutive to a
hypocaloric diet
in obese women
(Castan-Laurell et
al., 2008). Its
mRNA
expression was
similar
in
adipocytes
and
stromal-vascular
cells
(SVC)
isolated
from
human
subcutaneous
(sc) tissue and
there was no
difference
in
adipocyte apelin
expression
in
intra-abdominal
and sc fat pads in
mice (Boucher et
al., 2005).

Possible
relations
between
circulating
visfatin
and
anthropometric
or
metabolic
parameters
in
obesity and type
2 diabetes have
been found in
some but not all
studies (Garten
et al., 2009;
Rasouli
and
Kern, 2008); the
contradictory
findings may be
due in part to
considerable
differences
in
visfatin
immunoassays
(Garten et al.,
2009;
Imai,
2009).

AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 serve


as main receptors for ApN in
vivo and belong to a new
family of receptors (seven
transmembrane domains) but
to
be
structurally
and

- It promising
target
in
the
management of
insulin resistance
(Cekmez et al.,

- It has vital roles


in
insulin
sensitivity
(Cekmez et al.,
2011).

- Peripheral action:
It has actions in a number of
peripheral tissues (e.g., cells of
the pancreas, liver and immune
system)
(Karastergiou
and
Mohamed-Ali, 2010). Moreover,
disruption of peripheral leptin
signaling in mice caused no
significant variation in energy
balance or glucose homeostasis
(Guo et al., 2007).
Receptors
& effects

Leptin from the periphery is


transported
into
the
brain,
combines with its receptor b in the
hypothalamus, and stimulates
JAK-STAT3, leading to repression
of orexigenic peptides (e.g.,

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neuropeptide Y and agouti-related
protein),
and
increase
in
anorexigenic peptides (e.g.,
proopiomelanocortin
and
corticotrophin-releasing hormone)
(Ahima, 2008), in that way
curtailing food intake. In the
ordinary
form
of
obesity,
resistance to leptin has been
ascribed to reduced transport of
leptin across the bloodbrain
barrier (BBB) and to increased
hypothalamic levels of SOCS3
and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
stress,
which
inhibit
leptin
signaling (Flier, 1998; Morton et
al., 2005; Ozcan et al., 2009).
Notably, low leptin levels stimulate
overfeeding and repress energy
expenditure,
thyroid
and
reproductive
hormones,
and
immunity (Maury and Brichard,
2010).

functionally distinct from Gprotein coupled receptors


(Maury and Brichard, 2010).
AdipoR1 is expressed in
muscle, while AdipoR2 is
expressed in liver (Yamauchi
et al., 2003). AdipoR1 is more
tightly associated to the
activation of AMPK pathways
that adjust the inhibition of
gluconeogenesis together with
increased fatty acid oxidation,
while AdipoR2 is more
concerned with the activation
of the PPAR- pathways,
which
stimulate
energy
dissipation by increasing fatty
acid oxidation and reduce
oxidative
stress
and
inflammation (Capeau, 2007;
Yamauchi et al., 2007).
Interaction of an adaptor
protein, APPL1 with AdipoR1
appears to play significant
roles in ApN signaling (Mao et
al., 2006). After binding, ApN
showed insulin-sensitizing and
fat-burning effects suggestive
of those of leptin, but
possesses anti-atherogenic,
anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as well,
thereby
thwarting
simultaneously several facets
of the metabolic syndrome
(Kadowaki and Yamauchi,
2005; Takemura et al., 2007).

2011).

Table 3. Summary about the different states of adiponectinae


Compare face

hypoadiponectinaemia

hyperadiponectinaemia

Causes

Raised levels of these endogenous cytokines,


particularly several pro-inflammatory cytokines
such as IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-a (Engeli et al.,
2003) may be directly responsible for the
inhibition of adiponectin secretion (Bruun et al.,
2001; German et al., 2010).

Loss of insulin receptor (dysfunction) could


be construed as a compensatory response
of the adipose tissue that exerts insulinsensitising effects on remote tissues
(Semple et al., 2006 & 2007).

Rodent
studies

In experimental models, adiponectin has been


reported to have anti-inflammatory effects
against liver injury (Lago et al., 2007).
Adiponectin administration recovers liver
function in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic
fatty liver disease as the result of TNF
suppression, and in mice it reduces liver
enzyme levels, hepatomegaly and steatosis
(Xu et al., 2003), attenuates liver fibrosis
(Kamada et al., 2003), and protects against
LPS-induced liver injury (Masaki et al., 2004).

In mice, expressing the insulin receptor only


in adipose tissue, brain and pancreatic beta
cells, increased adiponectin coexists with
adiponectin resistance, as obvious by
blunted ability of adiponectin to lower blood
glucose and stimulate hepatic AMPdependent kinase phosphorylation (Lin et
al., 2007).

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Human
studies

In humans, hypoadiponectinaemia have been


linked
to
inflammatory
atherosclerosis
(Funahashi et al., 1999), and they are
associated with increased vascular smooth cell
proliferation in response to injury, increased
free fatty acid levels, and insulin resistance
(Pischon et al., 2004). The conjunction of prodiabetic and proatherogenic effects of reduced
adiponectin levels, as observed in metabolic
syndrome, make adiponectin a bridge between
obesity and inflammation (Lago et al., 2007).
Also, plasma adiponectin levels are reduced in
subjects with obesity and insulin resistance or
type 2 diabetes mellitus, and are inversely
correlated with visfatin and fasting insulin
levels (Weyer et al., 2001; Punthakee et al.,
2006; Cekmez et al., 2011).

In
most
cases,
blood
adiponectin
concentrations correlate
with insulin
sensitivity, and yet in patients with severe
insulin resistance due to loss of insulin
receptor function (Groeneveld et al., 2012).
This mechanism remains to be fully
established.

Table 4. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines during obesity


Compare
face

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha


(TNF- )

Monocyte chemoattractant
protein-1

Interleukin-6
(IL-6)

(MCP-1)
Nature

- It is an immunomodulatory and
pro-inflammatory cytokine that is
synthesized as a 26 kDa
transmembrane
protein
that
undergoes
cleavage
by
metalloproteinases and is released
into the circulation as a soluble
molecule (Kriegler et al., 1988;
Zhuang et al., 2009).

- It is a chemokine (C-C motif),


member of the small inducible
cytokine family and ligand 2 (CCL2) (Kim et al., 2006; Goossens,
2008).

- It is a cytokine produced by
several cells (fibroblasts,
endothelial cells, monocytes,
adipocytes, etc) (Bastard et
al., 2007).

Secretion

- It is produced in the stroma of fat


tissue, mainly in macrophage
(Bogan
and
Lodish,
1999;
Weisberg et al., 2003; Winkler et
al., 2003; Park et al., 2005; Cao et
al., 2008). Also, it is also more
expressed in visceral than in
subcutaneous fat (Fain et al.,
2004; Einstein et al., 2005; Cao et
al., 2008; Maury et al., 2009).

- It is produced by macrophages,
endothelial cells and adipocytes
(Gerhardt et al., 2001; Christiansen
et al., 2005). It is more expressed in
stromal-vascular cells than in
adipocytes and in visceral adipose
tissue than in subcutaneous
adipose tissue (Bruun et al., 2005).

- Omental adipose tissue


produces more IL-6 than
abdominal
subcutaneous
adipose tissue, and IL-6
released
from
isolated
omental
adipocytes
in
humans was significantly
greater than that released
from
subcutaneous
adipocytes (Zhuang et al.,
2009).

Functions &
effects

- The effects of TNF- on


adipocytes include inhibition of
lipogenesis, elevated lipolysis,
increased
leptin
secretion,
decreased adiponectin secretion,
reduced glucose transporter-4
expression, and impaired insulin
signaling (Moller, 2000; Trujillo et
al., 2006).

- It is a potent chemoattractant
playing a role in the recruitment of
monocytes/macrophages
(macrophage infiltration) into the
adipose tissue and lymphocyte
recruitment to sites of injury and
infection (Baggiolini, 1998; Maury
and Brichard, 2010).

- It not only acts in


paracrine/autocrine pathway
but
also acts
through
endocrine
and
CNS
pathways to reduce the
extension of fat tissue.

- In general, TNF- also plays


important role in the development
of atherosclerosis through its
involvement
in
monocyte
migration,
in
monocytetomacrophage conversion, at the
endothelial cell wall via nuclear

- MCP-1 may predominantly


produce local (autocrine/paracrine)
effects in adipose tissue rather than
having a direct systemic pathogenic
role.

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factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer
of activated B-cells (NF-B)
activation, and in inflammatory
changes in the vascular wall
(Fonseca-Alaniz et al., 2007).
Activity &
expression
in obesity &
T2DM

- It is overexpressed in adipose
tissue of obese individuals (Maury
et al., 2009) and fall after weight
loss (Dandona et al., 1998). Its
elevation can reduce visceral fat
volume (Maury and Brichard,
2010).

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- Circulating and adipose tissue


levels of MCP-1 are elevated in
obese (Bruun et al., 2005) rodents
(Sartipy and Loskutoff, 2003;
Takahashi et al., 2003) and
individuals (Nomura et al., 2000;
Piemonti et al., 2003), and their
levels have been found to decrease
after weight-loss (Schernthaner et
al., 2006).

- Plasma IL6 levels are


elevated in obesity and in
T2DM and are positively
associated with plasma FFA
levels and with body mass
(Lazar, 2005; Urs et al.,
2004; Bastard et al., 2007)
where this can reduce
visceral fat volume (Maury
and Brichard, 2010).

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