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TEXT-BOOK OF PHYSICS

HEAT

A TEXT-BOOK OF PHYSICS.

J. H. POYNTING,

8C.D., F.R.8.,

el*rofeB8orFellow ofofTi

mity Colli-ge,

University.Wiy-jicu Rmuwgham

Cambridge,

BY

AND

J. J. THOMSON,

M.A., F.K.S., Cambridge , Prof, of

m

the University

Fellow of Trinity College,

Experimentalv

Physics

of Cimbridge.

VOLUME I.

TENTH EDITION, \\ith 168 Illustrations. Compressibility

cceeraon o

Impact

Spiral Diffusion of Liquids

.Springs.

raviy ;

s

10s. 6<1.

PROPERTIES OF MATTER.

r

.

ariaon an

te Figure of

theTorsionEarth

Gravitation. Elasticity

of Hods

Gases.

Strain, Stresses, .Relation between Stresses and Strains

of Liquid*. Pre^uies

and VolumesBending

of

" Quite indispensable, not merely to teachers, but to physicists of every grade above -Capillarity the lowest _ "

Laplace'sINIIKX

Theory of Capillarity.

Diffusion of Gases. Viscosity of Liquids

Thermal Effects Accompanying Alterations in Strains.

Untoemity C< tcujxnnfent.

VOLUME II.

EIGHTH EDITION, with 85 Illustrations.

SOUND.

8s. 6<1.

andCONTENT^.

Heat. other

orandWires.Forced

Media

The Natuie of Sound and its Chief Characteristics. The

of Sound in Air

Reflection and Refraction of Sound. Frequency and Pitch of Notes. Resonance

Aiialy-as of Venations

The

Tiansverse Vibrations of Stretched Strings

Membranes. Vibrations maintained by

Velocity

Oscillations.

SensitivePipesFlamesand otheiand AirJetsCavitiesMusicalRodsSands Plates-The

Superposition of Waves. INDEX.

" An easy up-to-date Treati.se on acoustics."

Liti'iature.

VOLUMK III.

KKJiriii EDITION, with 193 Illustrations.

HEAT.

15s.

CONTENTS. Temperature Expansion of Solids. Liquids Gases. Circulation and Convection.

of Heat; Specitlc Heat.- Conductivity. -Foirns of Energy; Conseivation ; Mechanical

Equivalent Quantity of Heat. The Kinetic Theory. Change of State, Liquid, Vapour. Ci itieal Points

Solids and Liquids.- Atmospheric Conditions - Radiation

Theoiy of Exchanges. lladiation and

Temperature.- Thermodynamics."Ibotheimal and Adiabatic Changes. Thermodynamics of Changes

of State, and Solutions. Theimodynarnics of Radiation

INDEX

" Well up-to-date, and extiemely clear and exact

to make such a text-book." Matinc.

As clear as it would be possible

VOLUME IV. IN TIIRKK PARTS Two BOUND VOLUMES.

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM.

PARTS I. & II

THIRD EDITION.

Pp. i xiv 1-216, \\itli 216 Illustiutioiis.

10s. 6<1.

STATIC ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM.

CONTENTS. Common Phenomena. Quantity of Electrification

Electric- Stiain produced in a Field

Force on a Small Charged J'.ody " Inverse in the Squaie Field. " Systems. Is in the Press.

Stress in Dielectric

Potential.

Energy Capacity, Alteiation in Eleetntled in Dielectnc under Stiain.

Hypothesis

Induced

Magnetism

Systems --Measuimg Potential and Capacity. Dielectnc, Specific Inductive

Permeability -Measurements 1'yro- and Fiezo-electncity.- of Susceptibility -Magnetic and Permeability. Actions. -Molecular Terrestrial

Inverse Square Law. -Magnetic Fields.

Residual Etlects -Spec. Ind Capacity and Refractive Index

of Magn<'t8.--M,miiets other than Iron

Magnetism Magnetism and Light INDEX.

PART III.

" The student of Physics has only to know of its existence and its authors in order to possess it."

Electrical Timet.

VOLUME V.

LIGHT Is in Preparation.

A

TEXT-BOOK OF PHYSICS.

13y

J. II. POYNTING, So.])., F.R.S. ;

FOREIGN MKMHKU <>K THE ACVADEMIV DKI LINCEI, R<nnfi ; Hov T> So , Yin'oniA i T Ni\KRMtT,

LATE FALLOW OF TKFNITY COLLI-GF, C\Mimu>ui, , MASON VKOKESSOH

<>F PHYSICS IN Tilt: UNIVKKSITY OK BIUMINUUAM

AND

SIR J. J. THOMSON, M.A., F.R.S.;

VIHK <'K THK IN^TITI TK <^K FUANCK, FORT-IOV MT;MBFH OF TIIL

(>K TlllNlTTi CohLEfiK, CAMUHJDGK tK 1 1) , DLUSMN, , (' IVJ-ADTsiI IIuN PRO! fs^)H OK E\1'HUMF,NTAL

I) sc , VKTOKU , Ifos

U I) , (ii^^io^ , HON

Pu J> , CRACOW;

M^ , liON

D J; , PKIM^TUW.N , lldN,

PlIYblCS IN TIIK IJNIVFR^irV V* I' VMKIUH,] , PllOl-KssoK UF

li\

IN TIIJ

Jt'^ \L i

HEAT.

WITH KIOHTH 193 ILLUSTRATIONS, EDITION

LONDON:

CHARLES GRIFFIN AND COMPANY, LIMITED,

42 DBURY LANE, W.0. 2.

1925.

Rights Reserved*}

Pimted in Great Britain bv

NF.ILL & Co , LID , EDINBURGH.

PREFACE

TO FOURTH EDITION.

WE desire to express our hearty thanks to readers of

the earlier editions of this volume who havo kindly sent

us lists of errata,

These have been corrected, and a

number of alterations and additions have been made.

Reprintedfor Eighth Edition, Xept. 1925.

PREFACE.

THIS volume on Heat is tho third of a series forming a Text-Book

on Physics. Tho iirst two volumes dealt with the Properties of

Matter and Sound, and the succeeding volumes will deal with

Magnetism and Electricity, and Light.

The Text-Book is intended chiefly for the use of students who

lay most stress on the study of the experimental part of Physics,

and who have not yet reached the stage at which the reading

of advanced treatises on special subjects is desirable.

To bring and who knows how to use them, will, no doubt, be able to work

who possesses a knowledge of advanced mathematical methods, tage in the study of elementary methods, compensating for their

the reader who is mathematically trained, there is some advan-

cumbrous form. They bring before us more evidently the points

at which various assumptions are made, and they render more

subject which will be useful to students of this class. Even for

not But so at present equipped, a large and the number authors of aim earnest at giving students an account of Physics of the are

out and remember most easily a theory which uses such methods.

mathematical methods adopted are very elementary. The student

which appear to throw light on other branches of Physics, and the

given only of phenomena which are of special importance, or

the subject within the compass thus prescribed, an account is

prominent the conditions under which the theory holds good.

J. H. P,

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

TEMPERATURE.

PAQK8

Introductory Remarks Temperature Thermal Equilibrium Construction of

Mercury - Glass Thermometers

Fixed Points: Centigrade, Fahrenheit,

and Reaumur Scales Marking Fixed Points Calibration and Giaduation

Precautions in use Limits of accuracy Range Scales of Temperature

given by expansion arbitrary The Work Scale Air and Hydrogen Scales

Platinum Resistance Thermometers Table of Temperatures Maximum Applications of Linear Expansion Volume Expansion of Solids .

CHAPTER III.

and Minimum Thermometer Thermostats

CHAPTER II.

EXPANSION OF SOLIDS WITH RISE OF TEMPERATURE.

Linear Expansion of Solids Ramsden's Method Modern Use of the Method

Method of Lavoisier and Laplace- Results - Fizeau's Optical Method

.

1-18

1728

EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS.

Volume sion Expansion of Water of Liquids U-Tube Method applied to Mercury Dulong

and 1'etit llegnault Hope's Expansion Apparatus of other Liquids by Specific Gravity

Bottle By Dilatometer--Matthiessen's Hydrostatic Method The Expan-

Apparatus of Joule and Playfair Expansion of Gases depends on Pressure Changes

Results

CHAPTER IV.

EXPANSION OF GASES.

29-40

Volume Expansion at

Constant Pressure

Gay-Lussac's Method

Regnault's Experiments

Increase Normal of Air Pressure Thermometer with Constant Volume Gas Thermometry Kegiiault's

Hydrogen Thermometer

Bottomley's Air

Thermometer Calleridar's Compensated Air Thermometer .

vii

.

.

41-62

viii

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.

PAGES

CIRCULATION AND CONVECTION IN LIQUIDS AND GASES.

Circulation and Convection of Heat

Hot-Water Heating Systems

Ocean

Currents Convection in Gases Convection Currents in the Atmosphere

Winds Land and Sea Breezes Trade-Winds Water-Vapour aids Convec-

tion Currents Weather Forecasting in the Case of Cyclones Convection 53-63

in Chimneys and Hot-Air Heating Systems

CHAPTER VI.

QUANTITY OF HEAT. SPECIFIC HEAT.

Quantity of Heat Unit Quantity: the Calory Specific Heat Water Equiva-

lentandCapacityforHeat Method of Mixtures Regnault's Determinations

bythe Method of Mixtures Experiments on Solids On Liquids On Gases

Liquid Specific Heat by Mixture with known Solid General Method Results of Cooling- Law of

Method Steam of Joly's Melting Steam Ice Calorimeter Bunsen's Ice Differential Calorimeter Steam Method Calorimeter of Condensing

Method

of Electric Heating

Specific Heat of Water

Dnlong and Petit

64-87

The Passage of

CHAPTER VII.

CONDUCTIVITY.

Heat from one Body to Another

Conductivity

Differs

enormously in different Substances General Remarks on Conductivity in

the Three States Definition of Conductivity Conductivity of Gases

Forbes, Neumann, and Angstrom

Diffusivity

Emissivity

Measurements of Conductivity P<5clet's Method BarMethods of Despretz,

Berget's Experiment

Gray's Method

on Senarmont's Mercury Experiments Experiments of on Wiedemann Crystals Experiments and Lees's Franz Experiments of Kundt's Stefan, Experiments Kundt, Lundquist and

Weber

Warburg

,

88-107

CHAPTER VIII.

THE FORMS OF ENERGY. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. MECHANICAL

EQUIVALENT OF HEAT. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS.

Introductory The Conservation Remarks The or Constancy Various Forms of Energy of Energy Statement The Identity of the Principle of Energy

Mayer's Calculation of the Mechanical Equivalent Joule's Researches

Later Repetition Experiments of Rowland of Miculescu of Reynolds

and Morby

of Griffiths

of Schuster and Gannon

The First Law of

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IX.

THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER.

U

PAOB3

Atomic Hypotheses Solids Liquids Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Mean

Value Square Thermal of Effusion the Transpiration Square or of Transpiration the Velocity The Mean through of Free Translation a Path small ^a The Orifice Mixture M.F.P. into of calculated a Vacuum Gases-

Relation between V and Temperature Energy of Translation and Internal

Energy Joule's Approximate Method of Calculating the Velocity of Mean

from the Coefficient of Viscosity

Conduction of Heat in Gases

The

Diameter of the Molecules and the number of Molecules per Cubic Centi-

metre Forces acting on unequally heated Surfaces in High Vacua The

Gas Equation of Van der Waals

CHAPTER X.

121)-156

CHANGE OF STATE-LIQUID-VAPOUR.

General Account of Evaporation Vapour-Pressure Boiling Delayed Boiling

Condensation on Nuclei Measurements of Vapour-Pressure Determina-

tion of Vapour Density Density of Saturated Vapour Measurements of

Latent Heat of Vapours Specific Heat of Saturated Vapour Spheroidal

State

157 -184

CHAPTER XI.

CHANGE OF STATE-LIQUID-VAPOUR (c&ntinucd).

Indicator Diagram Critical Point

Waals Liquefaction of Gases

Critical Constants Equation of Van der

185-199

CHAPTER XII.

CHANGE OF STATE-SOLID-LIQUID.

Melting of Ice and Melting of Wax Melting Supercooling of Ice at a Definite Point and on

the Surface only - Latent Heat Melting-Points of Solids

Pressure on Melting-Point

Regelation

Effect of

Explanation of

Melting on the Kinetic Theory Regnault's Researches on the Density of Water-Vapour

Evaporation from Solids

CHAPTER XIII.

WATER IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

Relative Humidity

Resemblance of Solution to Fusion

200-208

Hygrometry

Dew - Point and its Determination

Cloud

Con-

vective Equilibrium Halos and Parhelia Coronas Rate of Fall of Cloud

x

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XIV.

GENERAL ACCOUNT OF RADIATION.

PAQKS

Radiant has a Energy much greater Radiometers range of Radiant Wave-Length Energy than and Light Light resemble Radiometeis each othei only

Light is Radiant Energy to which the eye is sensitive Radiant Energy

measure Energy Streams and do not indicate Quality

Comparison of

Emissive Powers Radiation of different Wave-Lengths Comparison of

Absorptive Powers Comparison of Reflecting Powers Diffusion General

Results -Radiating and Absorbing Powers vary together Illustrations-

Transparency and Opacity

Vapours

Radiation and Absorption by Gases and

220-236

CHAPTER XV.

THEORY OF EXCHANGES.

Theory of Exchanges Unifoim Temperature Enclosures Full Radiation

Piopositions legarding Uniform Ternpeiature Enclosures

Bodies ex-

changing Radiation at different Temperatures

Bodies

in

the

same

of Physical Change State of Temperature continue to absorb Radiation the same of every kind kind of Rays emitted independently by a . Body 237-243

increases as the Temperature rises Application to Special Cases .

CHAPTER XVI.

RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE.

Variation of Rate of Radiation with Temperature Newton's Law of Cooling

Dulong and Petit's Law

Rosetti's Law Stefan's Law Constants of

Radiation

Radiation from Surfaces which absorb selectively

Rate of

Solar Radiation Solar Constant Pouillet's Pyrheliorneter Violle's Actino-

mctcr- Langley's Researches Crova's Researches Effective Temperature

of the Sun Source of Solar Energy

CHAPTER XVII.

THERMODYNAMICS.

244-257

The Second Law of Thermodynamics The Indicator Diagram Isothermals

Adiabatics or Isentropics Heat Engines Carnot's Reversible Heat Engine Reversible Cycles in general

Carnot's Cycle Conditions for Reversible Working Examples of Rever-

sible Processes

Of Irreversible Processes

Efficiency Efficiency expressed of an Engine on the

Wheel Absolute Absolute Analogue or Scale Work Comparison Scale of of Temperature the Absolute with the Air Scale Water-

Entropy

Entropy-

Temperature Diagram Quantities Analogous to Entropy Entropy tends

to increase Dissipation of Energy Intrinsic Energy Available Energy-

CONTENTS.

xi

CHAPTER XVIII.

PAQIS

THERMODYNAMICS OF ISOTHERMAL AND ADIABATIC CHANGES.

Heat taken in when a Body expands Isothermally Heat to a neighbouring

Adiabatic the same by all paths Change in Temperature when a Body

undergoes a small Adiabatic Change Adiabatics steeper than Isothermals

Specific Heats at Constant Pressure and Constant Volume Their Ratio y

equal to the Ratio of the Isentropic and Isothermal Elasticities

Experi-

mental Determinations of 7 for Gases Adiabatic Gas Equation Decrease

of Temperature Upwards with Convective Equilibrium Internal Energy

taken up by a Gas in Expanding Comparison of Air Scale with Absolute

Scale Generalisation of Indicator Diagram for any Stress and correspond-

ing Strain

284-305

CHAPTER XIX

THERMODYNAMICS OF CHANGE OF STATE AND OF SOLUTIONS.

First Latent Heat Equation Volume of Saturated Steam Triple Point and

Latent Difference Heat of Equation Vapour-Pressures Alteration of of Ice Vapour-Pressure and Water below with Curvature of

C.

Second

Liquid Surface Connection with Change in Melting-Point by Pressure

Solutions

Pressure

Vapour-Pressure less than that of the Solvent

Osmotic

Raising of Boiling-Point

Lowering of Melting-Point. -Semi-

Permeable Membranes Van t' Huff's Application of Thermodynamics

Molecular Theory of Osmotic Pressure Radiating Surface The Relation between E and

CHAPTER XX.

300-332

THERMODYNAMICS OF RADIATION.

General Principle The Pressure of Radiation The Normal Sticam of Radia-

tion, the Total Stream, and the Energy Density The Pressure on a fully

in full Radiation, the

Fourth Power Law Full Radiation remains full Radiation in anyAdiabatic

Relation between Volume and Temperature in an Adiabatic

Change in given a given Range Wave-Length of Wave-Length Change of Energy of each Wave-Length in an

Change Entropy Application of Dopplor's Principle Change of Energy

Adiabatic Expansion of full Radiation Maximum Value of Energy for

Form of the Function expressing the

Distribution of Energy in the Spectrum

INDEX

333 343 342

LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS.

fio.

PAOK

3 3

5

6

8

13

.14

17 15

.18

.19

20

.21

22

23

25

26

2t>

27

27

30

1. Apparatusused to show Expansion 7. Constant Temperature Apparatus

8. Thermostat

of a Heated Rod

2.

3.

4.

Gauge into which Bar fits only

Boiling-Point Apparatus

Calibration Six's Thermometer of a Thermometer

meters

when Cold

.

.

.

5. Joule's Observations on the Alteration of the Frcezing-Point in Thermo-

6.

9.

.

.

.

.

.

,

.

.

.

.

Early Apparatus for Measuring the Linear Expansion of a Rod

10. Ramsden's Diagram Methods of of Expansion Providing Fizeau's Expansion for Apparatus Expansion Apparatus in Rods working Railway Points Expansion of Mercury

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

Measurements made in Ramsden's Apparatus

Diagram of Expansion Apparatus of at Lavoisier the Bureau and International .

Diagram of Expansion

Mirror Method of Reading Deflections

Apparatus

Laplace

.

16.

17.

18.

19.

Compensation Measuring Bar

Principle of Gridiron Pendulum of Iron and Brass Bars

Gridiron Pendulum of Two Metals

20.

Compensating Balance for Chronometers

21. U-Tube Hydrometer

,

.

.

22. Diagram of Regnault's First Apparatus for the

23.

24.

Regnault's Second Apparatus for the Expansion of

27. Graphic Hope's Apparatus Method of Determining Results

26. Dilatometer

Mercury

25. Callendar's Apparatus for the Expansion of Mercury .

28. Indications of Thermometers in

29.

30.

Joule and Playfair's Apparatus for Maximum

Density-Temperature Curve of Water

Hope's

Apparatus

Density of Water

.

.

.

.

31

32

33 37 38

37

38

.34

39

39

41

.42 .44

43

43

34. Regnault's Curve of Expansion Apparatus of for Water Determining the Expansion Expansion of Gasesat Constant

31.

3'2. Flask Thermoscope to show Expansion of Gases

33. Gay-Lussac's Apparatus for Determining the

Constant Pressure

of Gases at

Pressure Pressure

35. Regnault's Regnault's Apparatus Apparatus for for DeterminingtheExpansion Determiningthe Expansionof of Gases Gases at at Constant Constant

36.

Pressure

37a. 37. Simple Bottomley's Air Thermometer Air Thermometer

38. Callendar's Compensated Air Thermometer

40. 41. Circulation of Water when Circulation in Heated Flask and Convection are Prevented

39.

Boiling Water by

to Illustrate Convection Production of

Boiling Water

42.

Principle of HotWater Heating Systems

43. Diagram

Ocean Currents by Heat .

44. Isobars and Winds in a Cyclone

45. Cyclone Prognostics

46. Progress of a

Cyclone

.

.

xiii

 

50

63 49 50

.

.

53 54

 

54

.

.55

68

69

60

xiv

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIO.

47. Diagram of Circulation established by an Open Fireplace .

48.

49.

50.

Candle in a Flask

Candle in a Wide Cylinder

Tobin Ventilation

.

.

51. Arrangement for Warming Incoming Air

52. Calorimeter

PAGE

.61

61 67

62

62

62

53. Begnault's Regnault's Apparatus Apparatus for for the the Determination Determination of of Specific Specific Heat Heat of of Liquids Solids .

54.

.

55.

Regnault's Apparatus for the Determination of Specific Heat of Gases

.

50.

Callendar-Barnes Bunsen's Ice Calorimeter Electric Heating Method of Determining the Specific

Joly's Differential Steam Calorimeter

Heat of Water

Diagram of Results of Different Experiments Bad on Conductors .

Specific

Experiment Ingenhousz's Illustrating Apparatus for that Illustrating Liquids are Diffusivity

Low Conducting Power of a Fibrous Solid

Principle of the Safety Lamp

Illustrating Definition of Conductivity

Heat of Water .

.

.

57. Joly's Steam Calorimeter

58.

59.

60.

61.

62.

63.

64.

65.

Despretz's Lees's Disc Bar Experiments Experiments on Conductivity on Conductivity . of Metals
70.

69. Diagram of Conductivity in Crystals

66.

67.

68.

Diagram of Temperature Curve

Forbes's Bar Experiment

,

.

71. Joule's Lees's Disc Expansion Experiments of Air on Apparatus Liquids

72. Diagram Illustrating Strain Energy

73.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

74. Modified Form of Joule's Apparatus

75. Joule's Water Churning Apparatus for Determining the Mechanical

Diagram Equivalent Illustrating of Heat the Kinetic Theory of Gas Conductivity .

.

76. Diagram

77.

78.

80. Diagram Diagram Illustrating Illustrating Illustrating the the the Kinetic Kinetic Explanation Theory Theory of the of of Gas Liquid Radiometer Viscosity Viscosity
81.

82.

79. Crookes's Radiometer

Diagram Illustrating the Explanation of the Radiometer

The Dust-Free Space above a Hot Wire

.

.

.

.

.

83. Kf>. The Barometer Barometers Diminution with with Water of Water Path above above in Molecular the the Meicury Moicury Collision surrounded by Heating Bath .

84.

.

.

.

.

.

80.

Evaporation into an Air Space

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

86a. Apparatus for Distillation

87. Diagram Illustrating Kinetic Theory of Increase of Vapour Pressure with

Temperature

88. Apparatus used in Demonstrating that Vapour Pressure equals Atmos-

89.

Apparatus pheric Pressure Illustrating at Reduction Boiling-Point ofBoiling-PointbyReduction . ofPressure

.

.

.

.

.

.

90. Boiling Water by Cooling it

91. The Formation of a Drop

92. Diagiam illustrating Relation between Volume and Pressure of Gas con-

93.

tained a Bubble in a Bubble in a Liquid

Diagram illustrating Relation between Volume and External Pressure on

94. Apparatus for obtaining a Dust-Free Space

Apparatus 100. Vapour-Density Bulb. Dumas' Method

96.

97.

Water above 50

95.

Apparatus for for Researches Researches on on Vapour Vapour Pressure Pressure of of Water Ice .

.

.

Diagram of Water Vapour Pressure and Ice Vapour Pressure .

.

.

.

98. Dynamical, or Boiling-Point Method of Determining Vapour Pressure of

.

.

.

.

99. Apparatus for Determination of Boiling-Points .

68

69

71

73

74

75

79

93 SO

94

96

.91

92 92

104 120 97

98

101

.102

.112

120

122 132

145

149

150 150

151

158 160 152

153

.158

161

162 161

.163

164 165

167 168

167

172

.173

174

174

.175

176

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

xv

FIQ.

101. Gay-Lussac and Hoffmann's Method for Vapour-Density Determination .

102.

Victor Meyer's Method for Vapour-DensityDetermination .

.

103.

Principle of Determination of Density of Saturated Vapour

.

104.

Apparatus for Rough Determination of Latent Heat

.

.

105. Berthelot's Apparatus for Latent Heat

106. Illustrating the Spheroidal State

107. Spheroidal vState of Drops of Alcohol

108. Indicator Diagram for Water Steam

109. Indicator Diagram showing Prolongations for Water andSteam

113. 114. Continuous Diagram showing Form of Continuous Isothermal Paths from Gas to Liquid

110.

111. Andrews' Tube for Experiments on Carbon Dioxide .

112. Diagram of Andrews' Compression Apparatus

Diagram showing Isothermals for Carbon Dioxide

.

.

.

.

115. Diagram showing Isothermals as given by Van der Waals' Equation .

116. Dewar's Vacuum Ves