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According to Marx, a truly classless society should be the goal of Communistic

Socialism. In the final evolutionary stage, all means of production would be owned by the
workers, and all individuals would be workers. The inherent problem, recognized by
Marx late in his life, was that not all workers are or can be valued equally in a society.
Those who own or possess knowledge, not necessarily the means of production, have the
real power in advanced societies. Examples of knowledge brokers include doctors and
The theories of Marx still hold value, however, because he sought to explain the
evolution of the State. It is easy to dismiss Marx, but his basic theory is logical: When the
means of production become too concentrated, a revolution occurs during which the
middle classes advance while the bourgeoisie and proletariat engage in conflict. If a
violent enough conflict would occur, the result would be a complete lack of class
divisions for a period of time.
Marx theorized that under Capitalism, the means of production would result in the most
violent of revolutions, resulting in the ideal classless, Communist State. Marx defined the
Communist State as a nation with "common ownership of the means of production" -public ownership of farms, factories, raw materials, et cetera. Again, Marx forgot that
some select group would still retain the knowledge necessary for production and those
individuals, the State Planners, would become a new bourgeoisie.

Ten Measures of Reform

Marx and Friedrich Engels collaborated on the Manifesto of the Communist Party, a
simplified explanation of their theories. The manifesto features ten reforms meant to
move a society closer to the ideal Communist State.

Existentialism & Communism

Among the intellectuals influenced by Marx were many of the French Existentialists.
These philosophers believed that Communism held the promise of true individual
freedom. When individuals were free of management concerns and other worries, they
would be truly free to grow.
The political existentialists, such as Sartre, believed that the demands upon men to work
and follow orders contributed to their suffering. Camus, likewise, believed that workers
were exploited and suffering. Communism promised to reduce the exploitation of
workers. By implementing scientific production plans, more people would be free to
pursue other, higher pursuits, such as the arts.

Marx believed that human morality was determined by the social structure of the State.
Since the social structure was based upon the control of material goods, economics
determine morality. In other words, morality is determined by the means of production
and distribution.
Industry, according to Marx, was the highest form of human endeavor, producing the
goods that support real material needs. The Communist State is therefore superior
because it controls the production for all citizens. Because the State is in charge of
production, it is also in charge of morality.
Existentialists believe that man is constantly defining himself. Marx believed that the
State was constantly defining itself and its residents.