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VII.

Coupled
p
Analysis
y

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis

S
Seepage
Slope
Sl
C
Coupled
l dA
Analysis
l i

Slope Stability Analysis reflecting Rainfall Intensity

SoilWorks

00. Table of Contents

Ground

01. Learning Objective

02. Overview

1. Overview of Seepage-Stress Coupled Analysis


2. Tunnel Excavation & Ground Water Interaction
3. Coupled Analysis using SoilWorks
4. Composition of Modeling

03. Set Work Environment & Define Material Properties

10

1. Start SoilWorks / Import File


2. Define Ground Permeability Properties

04. Modeling

12

1. Create Surfaces & Assign Material Properties


2. Generate Mesh
3. Define Boundary Condition (Seepage Module)

05. Analysis

15

1. Define Analysis Case (Seepage Module)


2. Analysis (Seepage Module)
2

06. Analysis & Result Check

17

1. Analysis of Results

07 Coupled Analysis
07.

18

1.Convert Module
2. Other Analysis Result Loading
3.Define Ground Material Properties (Ground Module)
4. Define Boundary & Load Conditions
5. Define Construction Stages
6 Define Analysis Case
6.
7. Analysis (Ground Module)
8. Analysis of Results

08. Analysis Guide

2 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

26

Ground

From
o tthiss tuto
tutorial,
a , tthe
e use
user will u
understand
de sta d tthe
e workflow
o o assoc
associated
ated with
t c
checking
ec g tthe
e stab
stability
ty o
of a
tunnel in relation to seepage-stress coupled analysis. The user will also learn the use of various
basic functions of SoilWorks in the process, which involves numerical analysis for tunnel
construction. Result analysis and report generation will be also covered.
The workflow of seepage-stress coupled analysis in SoilWorks is as follows:

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SoilWorks

01. Learning Objective

STEP 01

Import the CAD model for the targeted


geometry for analysis

STEP 02

Create surfaces & assign material properties

STEP 03

Auto-generate mesh

STEP 04

Define boundary condition


(Seepage module)

STEP 05

Define construction stages

STEP 06

Execute analysis

STEP 07

Extract water pressure results for each stage

STEP 08

Define boundary & loading conditions


(Ground module)

STEP 09

Define construction stages

STEP 10

Execute analysis

STEP 11

Analyze results & generate reports


[Workflow in SoilWorks]
Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 3

SoilWorks

02. Overview

Ground

1 O
1.
Overview
i
off Seepage-Stress
S
St
Coupled
C
l d Analysis
A l i
Solving geotechnical problems through numerical analyses is undertaken generally with the
assumption of a fully drained or fully undrained condition. But the ground behavior is often
related to time in which case pore water pressure is influenced by ground permeability, the speed
of applying loads and hydraulic boundaries.
boundaries In order to simulate such real behavior of ground,
ground
hydraulic flow through voids in the soil and the ground deformation due to the load must be
reflected in analysis, which is referred to as coupled analysis. Change in ground stress due to
excavation below the underground water level results in the change in the effective stress field in
the ground. This reduces the load resistance capacity in the surrounding ground and increases
ground
d deformation
d f
ti
d
due
t the
to
th volumetric
l
t i change
h
off soil.
il Such
S h ground
d behavior
b h i necessitates
it t
stress-pore water pressure coupled analysis to simultaneously address the mechanical and
hydraulic phenomena.

Retaining
wall
Deep
Excavation

Dam

Consolidating
layer

Tunnel
[Examples of Ground
Ground-Underground
Underground Water Interaction]

A stress-seepage problem in principle needs to be solved in a fully coupled manner, but effective
stress and water pressure in general are separately analyzed and subsequently combined to
avoid the complexity. Uncoupled analysis can be used for a fully drained problem with zero pore
pressure and a fully undrained state with the pore pressure increment being equal to the stress

4 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

below, displacement and pore pressure coupled analysis is required. Consolidation analysis is
an example of coupled analysis.

uncoupled

coupled

uncoupled

strength
s

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increment. Where stress and pore pressure change with time such as in the transition zone

pore pressure
known

Ue = 0
Fully drained
problem

pore pressure
unknown
(t) = (t) + u(t)

u =
Fully undrained
problem

[Schematic Diagram of Coupled/Uncoupled Analyses]

strain
rate

Ground

2 T
2.
Tunnell Excavation
E
ti & Ground
G
d Water
W t Interaction
I t
ti
Ground water control is a very important factor for tunnel construction planning at the time of
design and construction. In case of an urban tunnel constructed below the ground water
level, the water level may be artificially lowered down below the tunnel invert to secure
stability during construction.
construction But more often,
often drawing down the water level may not be
feasible in reflection of environmental factors or ground settlements. In case of a rural tunnel,
comprehensive check for controlling water level may be required in the vicinity of rivers or
reservoirs.
1)

Urban Tunnel
Quite often, an urban tunnel is constructed below the ground water level, which leads to
effluence of ground water. Inflow of ground water into the tunnel results in the draw down of
ground water, which in turn causes an increase in effective stress in the surrounding ground
and an increase in settlements. Settlements in the surrounding ground due to tunnel
construction can be caused by the direct effect of tunnel excavation and the draw down of
ground water.
g
A number of ways of preventing ground settlements due to lowered ground water level exist.
Grouting can be used to cutoff the water flow, or injection of ground water during
construction to maintain the water level can be also used. Ground freezing is another means
of controlling the ground water. When grouting is used to cutoff water flow around the tunnel,
a very small coefficient of permeability in the grouted zone is used in seepage analysis.

2)

Mountain Tunnel
In a mountain tunnel, ground water usually does not become an issue. Compared to an
urban tunnel, soil/rock condition tends to be more favorable, and even if settlements take

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SoilWorks

02. Overview

place, no (significant) structures generally exist. But in case the tunnel passes near a body
of water such as a reservoir, then such condition must be modeled to prevent potential
catastrophe by checking the stresses and displacements and the pattern of water flow for
various boundary conditions.

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 5

SoilWorks

02. Overview

Ground

2 T
2.
Tunnell Excavation
E
ti & Ground
G
d Water
W t Interaction
I t
ti
When a tunnel is constructed below the ground water table, infiltration of water into the
tunnel takes place, and the ground water will start flowing due to the difference in water
heads. As a result, pore water will escape from the saturated ground resulting in the change
of pore water pressure and the draw down of ground water level.

Ground Settlement
Lowered Ground Water Level
Initial Pore Water Pressure

Reduction in Pore Water Pressure


[Ground Settlement Mechanism at Tunnel Construction]

Such change in pore water pressure establishes a relationship among stress (), effective
stress () and pore water pressure (p) in the ground based on the principle by Terzaghi
(1925) as follows:

If the ground water is present without any change in overburden load, =0. If the pore
water pressure reduces due to a lowered water level, the effective stress increases. In
addition, ground deformation takes place due to the change in porosity. From the Terzaghis
consolidation theory, the following equations are derived:

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Sc

6 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

e
H
1 e0

e f ( )

where, H is the height of the initial ground water level from the top of the tunnel, e0 is the
initial void ratio, and e represents the change in void due to a lowered ground water level.
e can be expressed in terms of change in effective stress caused by a lowered water
level Ground settlements caused by a lowered water level are largely due to the volumetric
level.
change from the change in void.

Void (Water+Air)

Soil particles

[Settlements due to lowered ground water level]

Ground

3 Coupled
3.
C
l d Analysis
A l i using
i
S ilW k
SoilWorks
1) Seepage Analysis
Seepage analysis in SoilWorks is classified into steady state analysis (boundary conditions
within and outside of the ground remain constant with time) and transient analysis (boundary
conditions within and outside of the ground change with time).
time) Similar to other general
purpose finite element programs, SoilWorks handles seepage analysis as boundary variant
problems. That is, the user specifies the parameters at the outer boundary lines of the
model, which are used to calculate variables within the model. The following three ways of
specifying the parameters are used in SoilWorks for seepage analysis:

Nodal water head: water heads at nodes are specified (total water head, pressure water
head)
Nodal flux/Surface flux: water flow quantities at nodes or surfaces are specified
Re-check boundary based on seepage condition: when the line of saturation is unknown

(1) Nodal water head


After selecting specific nodes, the boundary condition is assigned in the form of total water
head or pressure water head. The total water head value is entered relative to the origin
irrespective of the model location. For specifying the pressure water head, 0 is specified at
the nodes corresponding to the ground water surface.

SoilWorks can simulate confined flow in which a phreatic surface does not take place due to
seepage into the model and unconfined flow in which a line of saturation is developed due to
seepage. In each case, the method of applying the nodal water head is different. In the
case of unconfined flow in which the line of saturation needs to be determined, the drainage

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SoilWorks

02. Overview

and the condition for re-checking the boundary must be accurately considered.

Phreatic surface

[Examples of specifying water head]

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 7

SoilWorks

02. Overview

Ground

3. Coupled Analysis using SoilWorks


(2) Nodal flux/Surface flux
Nodal flux/Surface flux are boundary conditions, which are used to specify inflow or outflow
of water at specific nodes or element surfaces. In case of nodal flux, flow quantity per unit
time is specified. In case of surface flux, the input is based on the flow quantity per unit time
divided by the element area. The positive sign represents an inflow (due to rain), and the
negative sign represents an outflow (due to excavation or pumping).

(3) Re-check boundary based on seepage condition


y conditions change
g through
g a flow p
process in some types
yp of seepage
p g analyses.
y
Boundary
For example, if seepage is assumed to take place at the down-stream surface of a dam
consisted of a homogeneous material, then the location of the line of saturation intersecting
the down-stream surface of the dam is unknown. In order to specify a modified boundary
condition, an iterative calculation process is required as is done for solving nonlinear finite
element equations.
equations

All the nodes along the boundaries specified as unknown modified boundaries are assigned
to be re-checked, which must be initially defined as the boundary condition of a flux type.
The Re-check boundary function can be simply specified by checking on the option in the
input window for Nodal flux/Surface flux.
flux

Nodes to be re-checked

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[Specifying nodes to be re-checked (example)]

8 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

2) Stress-seepage coupled analysis


In SoilWorks, seepage analysis and stress analysis are independently performed, and then
pore water pressure can be reflected through the Other Analysis Result Loading function
as follows:
Seepage
module

Steady
flow analysis

Unsteady
flow
analysis

Other
Analysis
Result
Loading

Loading

Ground
module

Pore
water pressure

Stress
analysis

[Workflow of Coupled Analysis]

Ground

4 C
4.
Composition
iti
off M
Modeling
d li
The effects of ground water flow, pore water pressure due to inflow/outflow of water and seepage
force are the representative factors for geotechnical problems related to coupled analysis. If such
effects are ignored, the shear strength of the ground may be over-estimated.
A simple model is presented to address the process of seepage-stress
seepage stress coupled analysis.
analysis The
model and the ground properties are as follows:
1)

Composition of Modeling
Weathered soil
Weathered rock

Soft rock

Hard rock

[Composition of Modeling]

2) Material Properties
Ground Properties (Seepage Module)

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SoilWorks

02. Overview

No

Ground Type

Horizontal Permeability
Coefficient (Kh)
(m/sec)

Vertical Permeability
Coefficient (Kv)
(m/sec)

Water Content
(V.W.C)

Weathered soil

6.33 10-6

6.33 10-6

0.5

Weathered rock

-7

9.27 10

-7

9.27 10

0.5

Soft rock

7.71 10-7

7.71 10-7

0.5

Hard rock

1.40 10-7

1.40 10-7

0.5

Ground Properties (Ground Module)


Modulus of
Poissons Unit Weight
Model Type
yp Elasticity
y
Ratio
(kN/m3)
2
(kN/m )

Saturated
Cohesion
Unit
Weight
(kN/m2)
3
(kN/m )

Internal
Friction
Angle
(degree)

No

Ground Type
yp

Weathered soil

Mohr
Coulomb

36,500

0.33

18.5

19.5

17.5

31

Weathered rock

Mohr
Coulomb

300,000

0.30

21

22

80

33

Soft rock

Mohr
Coulomb
C
l b

1,850,000

0.28

24

25

180

35.5

Hard rock

Mohr
Coulomb

17,500,000

0.23

26

27

1,750

40.5

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 9

SoilWorks

03. Set Work Environment & Define Material Properties

Ground

1. Start SoilWorks / Import File


Import a CAD file, which has been prepared for the analysis geometry.
provides

SoilWorks

modules, Ground, Slope,


Rock,

Soft

Foundation,
tutorial

will

Project Manager> select Seepage

2.

Set the units for defining the initial variables to kN, m, sec and click

This

3.

Main Icon > Import > select the CAD file.

perform

4.

Click the Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis.dwg file and click

5.

Key in the command window Z (zoom) > e (Extents) and check the model data.

seepage analysis first,


followed

by

from the desktop.

1
1.

Ground,
Seepage

and Dynamic.

Select the SoilWorks execution icon

stress

analysis using the pore


water pressure results
obtained from the first
analysis.

Copy (Ctrl+C) the model


data on CAD and paste
(Ctrl+V) it in SoilWorks.

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10 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

[Starting SoilWorks & Importing geometry]

10

SoilWorks

03. Set Work Environment & Define Material Properties

Seepage

Ground

2 D
2.
Define
fi G
Ground
dP
Permeability
bilit Properties
P
ti
The command entered
in

the

Command

Window may be used to


directly invoke the menu.

From the Main Menu, select Model > Property > Ground Material Property
(command: gm)
1.

Enter 1. Weathered soil.

2
2.

Enter 6
6.33E-06
33E-06 m/sec each for Horizontal and Vertical Permeability Coefficients
Coefficients.

3.

Water Content: enter 0.5

4.

Add

5. Repeat the steps from 1 to 4, add the permeability coefficients for Weathered
rock, Soft rock & Hard rock. (refer to <02. Overview > Material Properties)

1
5

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[Define Ground Properties]

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 11

SoilWorks

04. Modeling

Ground

1 Create
1.
C
t Surfaces
S f
& Assign
A i Material
M t i l Properties
P
ti
Before generating mesh, create surfaces to which material properties will be assigned.
From the Main Menu, select Geometry > Create > Smart Surface

(command: ss)

SoilWorks automatically
generates
enclosed

surfaces
by

curves
curves.

Ground properties can


be then assigned to the
created surfaces before

Assign ground properties to the created surfaces.


1.

From the work window, select the domain for Weathered soil.

2.

Drag & Drop WorksTree > Material Property > Ground Property > Weathered soil layer
into the work window.

meshing by Drag & Drop.

3.

From the work window, select the domain for Weathered rock.

4.

Drag & Drop WorksTree > Material Property > Ground Property > Weathered rock
layer into the work window.

5.

Repeat the steps 3 & 4 to assign material properties for Soft rock & Hard rock.

Weathered soil
Weathered rock

Soft rock

Material

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Hard rock

[Assign Ground and Structural Properties]

properties

assigned to surfaces are


automatically
to

the

assigned

corresponding

elements after meshing.

12 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

Material properties assigned to


surfaces or curves can be
checked in the WorksTree.

SoilWorks

04. Modeling

Ground

2 G
2.
Generate
t Mesh
M h
Using the surfaces assigned with material properties, mesh is generated.
From the Main Menu, select Model > Mesh > Smart Mesh

SoilWorks provides mesh

(command: sm)

density control in 3 levels.

1.

Density > select Fine Mesh.

The denser the mesh,


mesh the

2
2.

Check on the option Register each Mesh Set by Domains


Domains.

3.

Click

4.

Check the created mesh.

5.

Re-define the mesh set name corresponding to the tunnel in WorksTree.

more accurate results will


be obtained.

1
5

2
3

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[Generated Mesh]

When changing the material properties, use the Selection Filter (

) and select the elements or element

mesh sets and drag & drop the material properties or structural properties to be changed from the
WorksTree into the work window.

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 13

SoilWorks

04. Modeling

Ground

3 D
3.
Define
fi B
Boundary
d
C
Condition
diti
(Seepage
(S
Module)
M d l )
Define the water head boundary condition to be used for tunnel seepage analysis. Assume 140m
for the initial ground water level, and define the water level condition at the excavated surface
after tunnel excavation.
From the Main Menu, select Boundary Condition | Analysis > Boundaries > Nodal Head

Option to prevent flow


off

reverse

ground
pore

water

by

i
in

1.

Boundary Set: enter Ground water level

2.

Select Object: select Select Node(s)

3.

Select the nodes corresponding to the top boundary surface(potential head = 150m).

4.

Nodal Water Head: enter 140 m

5.

Check off if Total Head < Potential Head, then Q=0

6
6.

Cli k
Click

negative

pressure

when

water level rapidly drop


in

dam

or

levee.

Check off this option in

this model.
4

5
6

[Define Nodal Water Head]

From the Main Menu, select Boundary Condition | Analysis > Boundaries > Review

Use the check boxes to


selected

1.

Check off WorksTree > Mesh Set > Tunnel

mesh sets in the work

2.

Boundary Set: enter Tunnel Water Level.

3
3.

Select Object: select Select


Select Curve(s)
Curve(s).

4.

Select the curves corresponding to the excavated surfaces of the tunnel (3 Curves).

display

the

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window.

5.

Click

14 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

2
4
3
4
5

[Define Nodal Flux]

Ground

1 D
1.
Define
fi A
Analysis
l i C
Case (S
(Seepage M
Module)
d l )
From the Main Menu, select Boundary Condition | Analysis > Analysis Control >
(command: ac)

Analysis Case
1.

In the Define Analysis Case window, click

2.

Name: enter Seepage Analysis.

3.

Analysis Method: select Seepage (Steady State) Analysis.

4.

From the Mesh Sets, drag & drop all mesh sets except for Tunnel mesh set into Data
used in Analysis and click

5.

Click

2
3
4

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SoilWorks

05. Analysis

[Define Analysis Case]

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 15

SoilWorks

05. Analysis

Ground

2 A
2.
Analysis
l i (S
(Seepage Module)
M d l )
Using the prepared analysis case, perform analysis.
From the Main Menu, select Boundary Condition | Analysis > Run > Analysis
(command: ra)
generated
t d

1
1.

Check Seepage Analysis

during the process of

2.

Click

A
Any

d t
data

analysis is displayed at
the bottom of Analysis
Execution

Manager.

Especially, use caution


when Warnings appear
as the
h analysis
l i results
l
may

be

erroneous.

Analysis data is saved in


a text file format in .OUT
file in the same folder as
Save file.

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[Seepage (Steady Flow) Analysis]

16 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

Ground

1 A
1.
Analysis
l i off R
Results
lt
Check the pattern of pore water pressure near the tunnel excavation.
From the Results Tree, select Seepage (Steady) Analysis > Nodal Seepage Results >
Pore Pressure
1.

pattern of p
pore water p
pressure near the tunnel Excavation.
Check the p

[Check Pore Pressure]

When the tunnel is excavated,


excavated calculate the influx into the tunnel.
tunnel
From the Main Menu, select Results > Seepage Results > Flux Results

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SoilWorks

06. Analysis of Results

1.

Analysis Case: select Seepage Analysis.

2.

Stage/Step: select Seepage (Steady) Analysis.

3.

Select all the nodes corresponding to the tunnel excavation surface.

4.

Click

5.

Check the Flux into the tunnel, 7.32E-5 m3/sec/m

3
1
2

[Flux into the tunnel at excavation]

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 17

SoilWorks

07. Coupled Analysis

Ground

1. Convert Module
Convert the analysis module to Ground Module to perform stress analysis.
From the top of the Main frame, select Ground Module
Use

caution

when

converting the module


as the model data such
as the properties, loads

1.

Save the tunnel file as a different file name.

2.

Check for the changed items when converting the module.

3.

Click

& boundaries may be


changed

or

deleted.

Changed or deleted data


can be checked in the
popup window.

[Convert Module]

2. Other Analysis Result Loading


Extract the pore water pressure obtained from the seepage analysis to perform coupled analysis.
The load created from
Other Analysis Result

From the Main Menu, select Loads | Boundaries > Loads > Result from Other Case

Loading is automatically

1.

Click

WorksTree > Loads

2.

Revise the file type to Seepage Model File (*.spb).

(lower tree).

3.

Select the seepage analysis file and click

4.

Select the seepage analysis file and click

5.

Check to see the imported load in WorksTree.

registered in

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18 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

3
4

2
3

[Other Analysis Result Loading]

Seepage

Ground

3. Define Ground Material Properties (Ground Module)


From the Main Menu, select Model > Property > Ground Material Property
(command: gm)
1.

Select Weathered soil from the Data selection.

2.

Modulus of Elasticity: enter 36,500

3.

Poissons Ratio: enter 0.33

4.

Wet Unit Weight: enter 18.5

5.

Saturated Unit Weight: enter 19.5

6.

Cohesion: enter 17.5

7.

Angle of Internal Friction: enter 31

8
8.

Cli k
Click

9.

Repeat the steps from 1 to 8 to assign the ground properties for Weathered rock,
Soft rock & Hard rock. (refer to <02. Overview > Material Properties)

10. Click

1
9
2

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SoilWorks

07. Coupled Analysis

10

[Define Ground Properties]

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 19

SoilWorks

07. Coupled Analysis

Ground

4 D
4.
Define
fi B
Boundary
d
&L
Load
dC
Conditions
diti
Define boundary conditions to the generated mesh.
Because the mesh was

From the Main Menu, select Loads | Boundaries > Boundaries > Smart Support

already generated at the


stage
analysis,

of

seepage

there

is

(command: as)

no

1.

y Set: enter Support


pp
Boundary

again for stress analysis.

2.

Check on Consider All Mesh Sets

However, lateral restraint

3.

Click

need to generate mesh

boundary

was

not

defined for the seepage

analysis, which is now


required

for

stress

analysis.
l i

[Generated Boundary Condition]

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Define the loading condition for the generated mesh.

Self Weight
specified

was

for

not

the

From the Main Menu, select Load | Boundaries > Loads > Self Weight
(command: sew)
1.

Load Set: enter Self Weight

stress

2.

For Self Weight Factor, enter -1 for Z.

analysis for which Self

3.

Click

seepage analysis, but is


required

for

Weight is automatically
assigned.

20 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

Ground

5 D
5.
Define
fi C
Construction
t
ti
St
Stages Define
D fi N
Names
From the Main Menu, select Analysis | Design > Construction Stages >
(command: cs)

Construction Stages
1.

Select Add Construction Stage

2.

Number: enter 2 for the number of stages.

3.

Click

4.

Select Construction Stage 1, and enter Original Ground in Name.

5.

Check on Water Level, and enter the initial water level 140 m.

6.

Check on Initialize Displacement.

7.

Click

8.

Select Construction Stage 2, and enter Excavation in Name.

9.

Click

10. Click

1
2

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SoilWorks

07. Coupled Analysis

10

[Define Construction Stages]

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 21

SoilWorks

07. Coupled Analysis

Ground

5 D
5.
Define
fi C
Construction
t
ti
St
Stages Define
D fi El
Elements
t & Boundary
B
d
C
Conditions
diti
From the Main Menu, select Analysis | Design > Construction Stages > Stage Models
(command: csm)
provides

SoilWorks
Tree
Tree

Style
Style

&

Table
Table

1.

Input Style: select Tree Style

2.

Drag & drop Weathered soil, Weathered rock, Tunnel, Soft rock & Hard rock
Mesh Sets, Support Boundary Set and Self Weight Load Set, which exist in

Style for data input for

Stage > Original Ground into Activated Data at the Current Stage.

construction stages.

3.

Click

4.

Select the Stage, Excavation, and drag & drop the Tunnel mesh set into
Deactivated Data at the Current Stage.

5
5.

Drag & drop the load set created from Other


Other Analysis Result Loading
Loading into Activated
Activated
Data at the Current Stage.

6.

Click

7.

Click

1
3

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22 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

6
4
5

[Define Construction Stages]

Ground

6 Define
6.
D fi A
Analysis
l i C
Case
From the Main Menu, select Analysis | Design > Analysis Control > Analysis Case
(command: ac)
1.

Click

in Define Analysis Case.

2.

Enter Stress Analysis in Name.

3.

Analysis Method: select Construction Stage Analysis

4.

Select Analysis Control Data

5.

Check on Initial Stage for Stress Analysis & select Original Ground

6.

Check on K0 Condition

7.

Click

8
8.

Click

9.

Click

1
5
6

2
3

Tuttoria
als

SoilWorks

07. Coupled Analysis

[Define Analysis Case]

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 23

SoilWorks

07. Coupled Analysis

Ground

7 A
7.
Analysis
l i (G
(Ground
d Module)
M d l )
Using the analysis case, perform analysis.

From the Main Menu, select Analysis | Design > Run > Analysis
A
Any

d t
data

generated
t d

during the process of

1.

Check on Stress
Stress Analysis
Analysis

2.

Click

analysis is displayed at
the bottom of Analysis
Execution

Manager.

Especially, use caution


when Warnings appear

as the
h analysis
l i results
l
may

be

erroneous.

Analysis data is saved in


a text file format in .OUT
file in the same folder as
Save file.

Tuttoria
als

[Construction Stage Analysis]

24 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

(command: ra)

Ground

8. Analysis of Results
Check the deformed shape of the ground due to excavation.
From the Result Tree, select Stress Analysis > Excavation> Displacement >
Vertical Displacement (DZ(V))
1.

Check the pattern of displacements around the Tunnel.

2.

g
Check the settlements from Main Menu > Results > Detail Results > Results Tag

3.

Check the pattern of displacements from Main Menu > Results > Graphic Results

[Vertical Displacements at Excavation Stage|

From the Result Tree select Stress Analysis > Excavation > Ground Element Stress >
Effective Stress (SZZ)
1.

Check effective stresses at the excavation stage.

2.

Change Effective Stress (SZZ) to Pore Pressure in Main Menu > Results >
Graphic Results

3.

Tuttoria
als

SoilWorks

07. Coupled Analysis

Check on Immediately Apply to check pore pressure results.

[Vertical Effective Stresses at Excavation Stage|

[Pore Pressures at Excavation Stage |


Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis | 25

SoilWorks

08. Analysis Guide

Ground

Thi tutorial
This
t t i l has
h performed
f
d a simple
i l example
l off seepage-stress
t
coupled
l d analysis.
l i
Changes in ground stresses due to tunnel excavation in the presence of ground water is
accompanied with changes in pore water pressures. This in turn brings about a change in
effective stress field in the ground resulting in the reduction of load resistance capacity around
the tunnel excavation. The volumetric change of soils will also increase ground deformations. So
the ground behavior must be examined through stress-pore
stress pore water pressure coupled analysis
reflecting both mechanical and hydraulic phenomena.
Numerical analysis of a tunnel at the design stage is used to predict the deformations and
settlements surrounding the tunnel excavation, set the limits for maintaining the tunnel to
consider the effects on other structures and design rockbolts, shotcrete and lining. During the
construction, reverse analysis is performed on the basis of actual measurements to obtain the
true parameters for refining the prediction of ground behaviors of similar construction in the
subsequent segments.
A fair number of analyses may be required to investigate the range of effects on neighboring
structures based on the resulting stresses, deformations and displacements due to different
q
to arrive at a satisfactory
y design.
g
excavation sequences
Through the tutorials related to the Ground module including construction stage analysis, the

Tuttoria
als

following is composed to understand the workflow of tunnel numerical analysis:

26 | Coupled Analysis Tutorial

1)

Effects on Adjacent Structures due to Tunnel Excavation

2)

Main Tunnel Lining Design

3)

Seepage Stress Coupled Analysis