Sie sind auf Seite 1von 43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Ch04HW
Due:9:30amonMonday,February22,2016
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

PrelectureVideo:NewtonsFirstLaw
ClickPlaytowatchthevideo.Answertheungradedquestionsinthevideoandthegradedfollowupquestionsatright.

PartA
Recalltheportionofthevideoinwhichthegirlpushesherbrotheronthesledatconstantvelocity.Thepushing
forcesheexertsonthesledis_____thefrictionalforcethegroundexertsonthesled.
ANSWER:
greaterthan
equalto
lessthan

Correct
Becausethesledsvelocityisconstant,thenetforcemustbezeroandthetwohorizontalforcesmust
balanceout.

PartB
AccordingtoNewtonsfirstlaw,whenthenetforceactingonanobjectiszero,theobjectmust_____.
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

1/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

havezerovelocity
haveconstantvelocity
beslowingdown
bespeedingup

Correct
Whenthenetforceiszero,theaccelerationiszero,sothevelocitymustbeconstant.Notethatzerovelocity
issimplyaspecialcaseofconstantvelocity.

PartC
Anelevatormovesstraightupwardataconstantspeed.Newtonsfirstlawpredictsthatthenetforceactingonthe
elevatorwill_____.
ANSWER:
bezero
pointupward
beincreasing

Correct
Anobjectmovinginastraightlineatconstantspeedhaszeroaccelerationbecausethenetforceactingonit
isalsozero.

PartD
Imagineholdingabasketballinbothhands,throwingitstraightupashighasyoucan,andthencatchingitwhenit
falls.Atwhichpointsintimedoesazeronetforceactontheball?Ignoreairresistance.
Checkallthatapply.
ANSWER:
attheinstantthefallingballhitsyourhands
whenyouholdtheballstillinyourhandsaftercatchingit
justaftertheballfirstleavesyourhands
attheinstanttheballreachesitshighestpoint
whenyouholdtheballstillinyourhandsbeforeitisthrown

Correct
Whenanobjectsvelocityischanging,thenetforceonitisnotzero,evenifitstopsforaninstant.
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

2/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

PrelectureVideo:NewtonsSecondLaw
ClickPlaytowatchthevideo.Answertheungradedquestionsinthevideoandthegradedfollowupquestionsatright.

PartA
Inthevideo,forcesactingonthecarthatareparalleltothedirectionofmotionareanalyzed.Howaretheseforces
related?
ANSWER:
Theforcesareequalinsize,actinthesamedirection,andproduceanetforceinthedirectionofmotion.
Theforcesareunequalinsize,actinthesamedirection,andproduceanetforceinthedirectionof
motion.
Theforcesareequalinsize,actinoppositedirections,andproduceanetforceinthedirectionofmotion.
Theforcesareunequalinsize,actinoppositedirections,andproduceanetforceinthedirectionof
motion.
Theforcesareequalinsize,actinoppositedirections,andproduceazeronetforce.

Correct
Thecarissubjecttotwoforcesactingalongthedirectionofmotion.Thepropellingforceactsinthedirection
ofmotion,whiletheforceofdragactsoppositethedirectionofmotion.Becausethetwoforcesareequalin
size,theycancel,producingazeronetforce.Asaresult,thecartravelsatconstantspeed.

PartB
Themassofarocketdecreasesasitburnsthroughitsfuel.Iftherocketengineproducesconstantforce(thrust),
howdoestheaccelerationoftherocketchangeovertime?
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

3/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Itdoesnotchange.
Itincreases.
Itdecreases.

Correct
Theconstantforcerocketsaccelerationisinverselyrelatedtoitsmass.Becauseitsmassdecreasesover
time,itsaccelerationincreases.

PartC
Newtonssecondlawrelatesanobjectsaccelerationtoitsmassandthenetforceactingonit.DoesNewtons
secondlawapplytoasituationinwhichthereisnonetforce?Selectthebestexplanation.
ANSWER:
No.Thelawappliesonlytosituationsinwhichanetforceacts.
Yes.Thelawappliesandittellsusthattheobjecthasanonzeroacceleration.
Yes.Thelawappliesandittellsusthattheobjecthasconstantvelocity.
No.Thelawdoesnotapplybecauseazeronetforcewouldproduceaninfiniteacceleration.

Correct
Newtonssecondlawappliestoallsituations,whetherthereisanetforceornot.Inthecaseofzeronetforce,
anyfinitemassobjectmusthavezeroacceleration,whichmeansthatitsvelocityisconstant.

PartD
Anexperimentmeasurestheaccelerationofanobjectofknownmasssubjecttoaknownnetforce.The
experimentisthenrepeatedwhilevaryingthemassandthenetforce.Thetablebelowsummarizestheconditions
usedineachtrial.
Trial

Mass

Netforce

doubled

doubled

halved

unchanged

doubled

unchanged

halved

doubled

Ranktheaccelerationsmeasuredineachtrialfromlargesttosmallest.
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

4/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Correct
Theaccelerationsfromlargesttosmallestareasfollows:Trial4(quadrupled),Trial2(doubled),Trial1
(unchanged)andTrial3,(halved).

AnObjectAcceleratingonaRamp
LearningGoal:
Understandthattheaccelerationvectorisinthedirectionofthechangeofthevelocityvector.
Inonedimensional(straightline)motion,accelerationisaccompaniedbyachangeinspeed,andtheaccelerationis
alwaysparallel(orantiparallel)tothevelocity.
Whenmotioncanoccurintwodimensions(e.g.isconfinedtoatabletopbutcanlieanywhereinthexyplane),the
definitionofaccelerationis
a(t) =

v (t+t)
v (t)
t

inthelimitt0.

Inpicturingthisvectorderivativeyoucanthinkofthederivativeofavectorasaninstantaneousquantitybythinkingof
thevelocityofthetipofthearrowasthevectorchangesintime.Alternatively,youcan(forsmallt)approximatethe
accelerationas
a(t)

v (t+t)
v (t)
t

+ t) and v (t)

Obviouslythedifferencebetweenv (t
isanothervectorthatcanlieinanydirection.Ifitislongerbutin

+ t) hasthesamemagnitudeas v (t)

thesamedirection,a(t) willbeparalleltov (t)


.Ontheotherhand,ifv (t
but
+ t) candifferfrom v (t)

isinaslightlydifferentdirection,thena(t) willbeperpendiculartov .Ingeneral,v (t


in

bothmagnitudeanddirection,hencea(t) canhaveanydirectionrelativetov (t)


.

Thisproblemcontainsseveralexamplesofthis.Consideranobjectslidingonafrictionlessrampasdepictedhere.The
objectisalreadymovingalongtheramptowardposition2whenitisatposition1.Thefollowingquestionsconcernthe
directionoftheobject'saccelerationvector,a.Inthisproblem,youshouldfindthedirectionoftheaccelerationvector
bydrawingthevelocityvectorattwopointsneartothepositionyouareaskedabout.Notethatsincetheobjectmoves
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

5/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

alongthetrack,itsvelocityvectoratapointwillbetangentto
thetrackatthatpoint.Theaccelerationvectorwillpointinthe
samedirectionasthevectordifferenceofthetwovelocities.
(Thisisaresultoftheequation
+ t) v (t))/t

givenabove.)
a(t) (v (t

PartA
Whichdirectionbestapproximatesthedirectionofawhentheobjectisatposition1?

Hint1.Considerthechangeinvelocity
Atthispoint,theobject'svelocityvectorisnotchangingdirectionrather,itisincreasinginmagnitude.
Therefore,theobject'saccelerationisnearlyparalleltoitsvelocity.
ANSWER:
straightup
downwardtotheleft
downwardtotheright
straightdown

Correct

PartB
Whichdirectionbestapproximatesthedirectionofawhentheobjectisatposition2?

Hint1.Considerthechangeinvelocity
Atthispoint,thespeedhasalocalmaximumthusthemagnitudeofv isnotchanging.Therefore,no
componentoftheaccelerationvectorisparalleltothevelocityvector.However,sincethedirectionofv is
changingthereisanacceleration.
ANSWER:
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

6/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

straightup
upwardtotheright
straightdown
downwardtotheleft

Correct
Eventhoughtheaccelerationisdirectedstraightup,thisdoesnotmeanthattheobjectismovingstraightup.

PartC
Whichdirectionbestapproximatesthedirectionofawhentheobjectisatposition3?

Hint1.Considerthechangeinvelocity
Atthispoint,thespeedhasalocalminimumthusthemagnitudeofv isnotchanging.Therefore,no
componentoftheaccelerationvectorisparalleltothevelocityvector.However,sincethedirectionofv is
changingthereisanacceleration.
ANSWER:
upwardtotheright
totheright
straightdown
downwardtotheright

Correct

PhETTutorial:ProjectileMotion
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandhowthetrajectoryofanobjectdependsonitsinitialvelocity,andtounderstandhowairresistance
affectsthetrajectory.
Forthisproblem,usethePhETsimulationProjectileMotion.Thissimulationallowsyoutofireanobjectfromacannon,
seeitstrajectory,andmeasureitsrangeandhangtime(theamountoftimeintheair).

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

7/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Startthesimulation.PressFiretolaunchanobject.Youcanchoosetheobjectbyclickingononeoftheobjectsinthe
scrolldownmenuattopright(acannonballisnotamongthechoices).Toadjustthecannonbarrelsangle,clickand
dragonitortypeinanumericalvalue(indegrees).Youcanalsoadjustthespeed,mass,anddiameteroftheobjectby
typinginvalues.ClickingAirResistancedisplayssettingsfor(1)thedragcoefficientand(2)thealtitude(which
controlstheairdensity).Forthistutorial,wewilluseanaltitudeofzero(sealevel)andletthedragcoefficientbe
automaticallysetwhentheobjectischosen.
Playaroundwiththesimulation.Whenyouaredone,clickEraseandselectabaseballpriortobeginningPartA.Leave
AirResistanceunchecked.

PartA
First,youwillinvestigatepurelyverticalmotion.Thekinematicsequationforverticalmotion(ignoringair
resistance)isgivenby
2
y(t) = y + v 0 t (1/2)gt ,
0
wherey0 = 0istheinitialposition(whichis1.2mabovethegroundduetothewheelsofthecannon),v 0 isthe
initialspeed,andg istheaccelerationduetogravity.
Shootthebaseballstraightupward(atanangleof90 )withaninitialspeedof20m/s .
Howlongdoesittakeforthebaseballtohittheground?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
4.1s

Correct
Noticethatthisvaluecouldbedeterminedfromthekinematicsequation:Approximatingthefinalheighttobe
y(t f ) = 0(keepinmindthatthelocationwhere y = 0isinsidethecannon,nottheground),thekinematics
equationbecomes(v 0 0.5gt) = 0 ,ort = 2v 0 /g = 4.1s.Thiscalculationisinterestingbecauseitshows
that,forverticalmotion,thetimetheballisintheairisproportionaltoitsinitialspeed.

PartB
Whenthebaseballisshotstraightupwardwithaninitialspeedof20m/s ,whatisthemaximumheightaboveits8/43
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Whenthebaseballisshotstraightupwardwithaninitialspeedof20m/s ,whatisthemaximumheightaboveits
initiallocation?(Notethattheballsinitialheightisdenotedbythehorizontalwhiteline.Itisinitially1.2mabove
theground.Theyellowboxthatisbelowthetargetonthegrassismeasuringtapethatshouldbeusedforthis
part.)
Expressyouranswerwithappropriateunits.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Usethemeasuringtapetodeterminetheheight.Aligntheplussignatthebeginningofthespoolwiththe
horizontalwhiteline,anddragtheendofthetapetothemaximumheightoftheballstrajectory.Youcan
zoominoroutusingthemagnificationbuttonsabovetheFireandErasebuttons.
ANSWER:
20m

Correct
Noticethatthisvaluecouldbedeterminedfromthekinematicsequation:Sinceyoufoundittakes4.1s forthe
balltoreachtheground,itmusttakeroughly2.1s toreachthemaximumheight(usingtheunrounded
2
answer),whichisgivenbyy(t = 2.1 s) = (20 m/s)(2.1 s) (1/2)(9.8 m/s 2 )(2.1 s) = 20.4 mor
20 musingtwosignificantfigures.(Since20 misconsiderablylongerthantheinitialheightabovethe
ground,itisagoodapproximationtopretendthattheinitialpositionofthebaseballwastheground.)

PartC
Iftheinitialspeedoftheballisdoubled,howdoesthemaximumheightchange?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Youcanusethesimulationtohelpwiththisquestion.Settheinitialspeedto40m/s ,andagainmeasure
themaximumheightwiththemeasuringtape.Youwilllikelyhavetozoomouttoseethetopoftheballs
trajectory.
ANSWER:
Themaximumheightincreasesbyafactoroffour.
Themaximumheightincreasesbyafactorof1.4(squarerootof2).
Themaximumheightincreasesbyafactoroftwo.

Correct
Sincetheamountoftimeittakestoreachthemaximumheightdoubles,andsinceitsaveragevelocityin
goingupwardalsodoubles(theaveragevelocityisequaltohalftheinitialvelocity),theheightitreaches
beforestoppingincreasesbyafactoroffour(distanceisequaltotheaveragevelocitymultipliedbythetime
duration).
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

9/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

PartD
Eraseallthetrajectories,andfiretheballverticallyagainwithaninitialspeedof20m/s .Asyoufoundearlier,the
maximumheightisroughly20m.Iftheballisntfiredvertically,butatananglelessthan90 ,itcanreachthe
samemaximumheightifitsinitialspeedisfaster.Settheinitialspeedto25m/s ,andfindtheanglesuchthat
themaximumheightisroughly20m.Experimentbyfiringtheballwithmanydifferentangles.Youcanusethe
measuringtapetodeterminethemaximumheightofthetrajectoryandcompareitto20m.
Whatisthisangle?
ANSWER:

30

75

53

63

45

Correct
Noticethattheinitialspeedintheverticaldirectionisgivenby(25m/s)sin(53 ) = 20m/s.Theball
launchedatthisanglereachesthesameheightastheverticallylaunchedballbecausetheyhavethesame
initialspeedsintheverticaldirection.

PartE
Inthepreviouspart,youfoundthataballfiredwithaninitialspeedof25m/s andanangleof53 reachesthe
sameheightasaballfiredverticallywithaninitialspeedof20m/s .Whichballtakeslongertoland?
ANSWER:
Theballfiredverticallystaysintheairlonger.
Bothballsareintheairthesameamountoftime.
Theballfiredatanangleof53 staysintheairlonger.

Correct
Theverticalcomponentofthevelocitydetermineshowlongtheballwillbeintheair(anditsmaximum
height).Thehorizontalcomponentoftheball'svelocitydoesnotaffectthishangtime.

PartF
Thefigureshowstwotrajectories,madebytwoballslaunchedwithdifferentanglesandpossiblydifferentinitial
speeds.

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

10/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Basedonthefigure,forwhichtrajectorywastheballintheairforthegreatestamountoftime?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
ThinkabouttheresultofPartE(thinkabouttherelationshipbetweenthemaximumheightofsomething
thrownupwardandtheamountoftimeitisintheair).Doesthetimeintheairdependontherangeofthe
trajectory?
ANSWER:
Itsimpossibletotellsolelybasedonthefigure.
TrajectoryA
Theballsareintheairforthesameamountoftime.
TrajectoryB

Correct
Allthatmattersistheverticalheightofthetrajectory,whichisbasedonthecomponentoftheinitialvelocity
intheverticaldirection(v 0 sin ).Thehigherthetrajectory,themoretimetheballwillbeintheair,regardless
oftheballsrangeorhorizontalvelocity.

PartG
Therangeisthedistancefromthecannonwhentheballhitstheground.Thisdistanceisgivenbythehorizontal
velocity(whichisconstant)timestheamountoftimetheballisintheair(whichisdeterminedbythevertical
componentoftheinitialvelocity,asyoujustdiscovered).
Settheinitialspeedto20m/s ,andfiretheballseveraltimeswhilevaryingtheanglebetweenthecannonandthe
horizontal.Noticethatthedigitaldisplaynearthetopgivestherangeoftheball.
Forwhichangleistherangeamaximum(withtheinitialspeedheldconstant)?
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

11/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

60

30

90

45

Correct
Whentheballislaunchednearalevelground,45 istheoptimumangle.Iflaunchedwithagreaterangle,it
staysintheairlonger,butitshorizontalspeedisslower,anditwontgoasfar.Iflaunchedwithasmaller
angle,itshorizontalspeedisfaster,butitwontstayintheairaslonganditwontgoasfar.Theproduct
betweenthehorizontalspeedandtheamountoftimeintheairislargestwhentheangleis45 .

PartH
Howdoestherangeoftheobjectchangeifitsinitialvelocityisdoubled(keepingtheanglefixedandlessthan

90 )?
ANSWER:
Theballsrangeiseighttimesasfar.
Theballsrangeistwiceasfar.
Theballsrangeisfourtimesasfar.

Correct
Sincetheverticalcomponentofthevelocityistwiceaslarge,ittakestwiceaslongtohittheground.The
horizontalcomponentofthevelocityisalsotwiceaslarge,andsincetherangeisequaltothehorizontal
velocitytimestheamountoftimetheballisintheair,therangeincreasesbyafactoroffour.Theresultsof
thisquestionandthepreviousquestioncanbesummarizedbytherangeequation,whichis
2
R = 2v 0 sin()cos()/g.

PartI
Now,letsseewhathappenswhenthecannonishighabovetheground.Clickonthewheelofthecannon,and
dragitupwardasfarasitgoes(about21mabovetheground).Settheinitialvelocityto20m/s ,andfireseveral
ballswhilevaryingtheangle.
Forwhatangleistherangethegreatest?
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

12/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

30

45

35

40

50

Correct
Sincethecannonisveryhighofftheground,theballwillbeintheairforanappreciableamountoftimeeven
iftheballislaunchednearlyhorizontally.Thus,theamountoftimetheballisintheairisntproportionaltothe
verticalcomponentoftheinitialvelocity(asitwaswhenthecannonwasontheground).Thismeansthatthe
initialhorizontalvelocityismoreimportant,resultinginanoptimalanglelessthan45 .Youshouldrealizethat
therangeequationgiveninPartH,
sin()cos()/g,
isnotvalidwhentheinitialheightisnotzero.Youcanalsoverifythat,ifyouchangetheinitialvelocity,the
optimalanglealsochanges!
R = 2v 0

PartJ
Sofarinthistutorial,youhavebeenlaunchingabaseball.Letsseewhathappenstothetrajectoryifyoulaunch
somethingbiggerandheavier,likeaBuickcar.
ComparethetrajectoryandrangeofthebaseballtothatoftheBuickcar,usingthesameinitialspeedandangle
(e.g.,45 ).(Besurethatairresistanceisstillturnedoff.)Whichstatementistrue?
ANSWER:
ThetrajectoriesandthustherangeoftheBuickandthebaseballareidentical.
ThetrajectoriesdiffertherangeoftheBuickisshorterthanthatofthebaseball.
ThetrajectoriesdiffertherangeoftheBuickislongerthanthatofthebaseball.

Correct
Sinceweareignoringairresistance,thetrajectoryoftheobjectdoesnotdependonitsmassorsize.Inthe
nextpart,youwillturnonairresistanceanddiscoverwhatchanges.

PartK
Inthepreviouspart,youdiscoveredthatthetrajectoryofanobjectdoesnotdependontheobjectssizeormass.
Butifyouhaveeverseenaparachutistorafeatherfalling,youknowthisisntreallytrue.Thatisbecausewehave
beenneglectingairresistance,andwewillnowstudyitseffectshere.
SelectAirResistanceforthesimulation.Fireabaseballwithaninitialspeedofroughly20m/s andanangleof

45 .Comparethetrajectorytothecasewithoutairresistance.Howdothetrajectoriesdiffer?
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

13/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Thetrajectorywithairresistancehasashorterrange.
Thetrajectorywithairresistancehasalongerrange.
Thetrajectoriesareidentical.

Correct
Airresistanceisaforceduetotheobjectrammingthroughtheairmolecules,andisalwaysintheopposite
directiontotheobjectsvelocity.Thismeanstheairresistanceforcewillslowtheobjectdown,resultingina
shorterrange(thesimulationassumestheairisstillthereisnostrongtailwind).

PartL
Noticethatyoucanadjustthediameter(andmass)ofanyobject(e.g.,youcanmakeareallybigbaseball).What
happenstothetrajectory(withairresistanceon)whenyouincreasethediameterwhilekeepingthemass
constant?
ANSWER:
Increasingthesizemakestherangeofthetrajectorydecrease.
Thesizeoftheobjectdoesntaffectthetrajectory.
Increasingthesizemakestherangeofthetrajectoryincrease.

Correct
Sincethesurfaceareaincreasesifthediameterincreases,theobjectissweepingthroughmoreair,causing
morecollisions,andagreaterforceofairdrag(infact,ifthediameterisdoubled,foragivenspeed,theforce
ofairdragisincreasedbyafactoroffour).Thisgreaterforceofairdragcausestheobjecttoslowdownmore
quickly,resultinginasloweraveragespeedandashorterrange.

PartM
Youmightthinkthatitisneveragoodapproximationtoignoreairresistance.However,oftenitis.Firethebaseball
withoutairresistance,andthenfireitwithairresistance(sameangleandinitialspeed).Then,adjustthemassof
thebaseball(increaseitanddecreaseit)andseewhathappenstothetrajectory.Dontchangethediameter.
Whendoestherangewithairresistanceapproachtherangewithoutairresistance?
ANSWER:
Therangewithairresistanceapproachestherangewithoutairresistanceasthemassofthebaseballis
decreased.
Itneverdoes.Regardlessofthemass,therangewithairresistanceisalwaysshorterthantherange
without.
Therangewithairresistanceapproachestherangewithoutairresistanceasthemassofthebaseballis
increased.

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

14/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Correct
Asthemassisincreased,theforceofgravityonthebaseballbecomeslarger.Theforceduetoairdragjust
dependsonthespeedandthesizeoftheobject,soitdoesntchangeifthemasschanges.Asthemassgets
largeenough,theforceofgravitybecomesmuchlargerthantheairdragforce,andsotheairdragforce
becomesnegligible.Thisresultsinatrajectorynearlythesameaswhenairresistanceisturnedoff.Thus,for
small,denseobjects(likerocksandbowlingballs),airresistanceistypicallyunimportant,butforobjectswith
alowdensity(likefeathers)oraverylargesurfacearea(likeparachutists),airresistanceisveryimportant.

PhETInteractiveSimulations
UniversityofColorado
http://phet.colorado.edu

VideoTutor:BallFiredUpwardfromMovingCart
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionsatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

PartA
Thecrewofacargoplanewishestodropacrateofsuppliesonatargetbelow.Tohitthetarget,whenshouldthe
crewdropthecrate?Ignoreairresistance.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Whilethecrateisontheplane,itsharestheplane'svelocity.Whatisthecrate'svelocityimmediatelyafter
itisreleased?

Hint2.Whataffectsthemotionofthecrate?
Gravitywillacceleratethecratedownward.What,ifanything,affectsthecrate'shorizontalmotion?(Keepin
mindthatwearetoldtoignoreairresistance,eventhoughthat'snotveryrealisticinthissituation.)
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

15/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Aftertheplanehasflownoverthetarget
Whentheplaneisdirectlyoverthetarget
Beforetheplaneisdirectlyoverthetarget

Correct
Atthemomentitisreleased,thecratesharestheplane'shorizontalvelocity.Intheabsenceofairresistance,
thecratewouldremaindirectlybelowtheplaneasitfell.

VideoTutor:DroppedandThrownBalls
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionsatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

PartA
Whichball(ifeither)hasthegreatestspeedatthemomentofimpact?

Hint1.Howtoapproachthisproblem
Theballsstrikethegroundatthesametimebecausethehorizontalandverticalcomponentsoftheir
velocitiesareindependent,meaningthatthetwoballsfalldownwardatthesamerateeventhoughoneball
isalsomovinghorizontally.
However,thespeedofaballatanypointisthemagnitudeoftheball'sresultant(total)velocity.Howdoes
theball'sresultantvelocityrelatetotheverticalandhorizontalvelocitycomponents?
Ifyouneedto,drawdiagramsshowingthevelocitiesofthetwoballsatthemomentofimpact.Foreach
ball,showtheverticalandhorizontalcomponentsofvelocity(thelatterbeingzeroforthedroppedball),and
showtheresultantvelocity.Whichballismovingfaster?
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

16/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Theballthrownhorizontally
Bothballshavethesamespeed.
Thedroppedball

Correct
Thetwoballshavethesameverticalvelocitywhentheyland,butthethrownballhasanadditionalhorizontal
velocitycomponent.Sincespeedisdefinedasthemagnitudeoftheresultantvelocityvector,thethrownball
ismovingfasterwhenitlands.

ArrowHitsApple

Anarrowisshotatanangleof = 45 abovethehorizontal.ThearrowhitsatreeahorizontaldistanceD = 220 m


away,atthesameheightabovethegroundasitwasshot.Useg = 9.8 m/s 2 forthemagnitudeoftheacceleration
duetogravity.

PartA
Findt a ,thetimethatthearrowspendsintheair.
Answernumericallyinseconds,totwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.FindtheinitialupwardcomponentofvelocityintermsofD.
Introducethe(unknown)variablesv y0 andv x0 fortheinitialcomponentsofvelocity.Thenusekinematics
torelatethemandsolvefort a .Whatistheverticalcomponentv y0 oftheinitialvelocity?
Expressyouranswersymbolicallyintermsoft a andD.

Hint1.Findv x0
Findthehorizontalcomponentv x0 oftheinitialvelocity.
Expressyouranswersymbolicallyintermsoft a andgivensymbolicquantities.
ANSWER:
v x0

D
ta

Hint2.Findv y0
Whatistheverticalcomponentv y0 oftheinitialvelocity?
Expressyouranswersymbolicallyintermsofv x0 .
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

17/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW
v y0

v x0

ANSWER:
v y0

D
ta

Correct
Hint2.Findthetimeofflightintermsoftheinitialverticalcomponentofvelocity.
Fromthechangeintheverticalcomponentofvelocity,youshouldbeabletofindt a intermsofv y0 andg .
Giveyouranswerintermsofv y0 andg .

Hint1.Findv y (t a )
Whenappliedtotheycomponentofvelocity,inthisproblemtheformulaforv(t) withconstant
accelerationg is
v y (t) = v y0 g t

Whatisv y (t a ) ,theverticalcomponentofvelocitywhenthearrowhitsthetree?
Answersymbolicallyintermsofv y0 only.
ANSWER:
v y (t a )

v y0

ANSWER:

ta

2v y0
g

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed
Hint3.Putthealgebratogethertofindt a symbolically.
IfyouhaveanexpressionfortheinitialverticalvelocitycomponentintermsintermsofDandt a ,and
anotherintermsofg andt a ,youshouldbeabletoeliminatethisinitialcomponenttofindanexpressionfor
t

2
a

Expressyouranswersymbolicallyintermsofgivenvariables.
ANSWER:
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

18/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW
2

ta

2D
g

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed

ANSWER:
ta

= 6.7 s

Correct

Supposesomeonedropsanapplefromaverticaldistanceof6.0meters,directlyabovethepointwherethearrowhits
thetree.

PartB
Howlongafterthearrowwasshotshouldtheapplebedropped,inorderforthearrowtopiercetheappleasthe
arrowhitsthetree?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinseconds,totwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Whenshouldtheapplebedropped
Theappleshouldbedroppedatthetimeequaltothetotaltimeittakesthearrowtoreachthetreeminus
thetimeittakestheappletofall6.0meters.

Hint2.Findthetimeittakesfortheappletofall6.0meters
Howlongdoesittakeanappletofall6.0meters?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinseconds,totwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
tf

= 1.1 s

ANSWER:
td

= 5.6 s

Correct

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

19/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

BattleshipShells
Abattleshipsimultaneouslyfirestwoshellstowardtwoidenticalenemyships.OneshellhitsshipA,whichiscloseby,
andtheotherhitsshipB,whichisfartheraway.Thetwoshellsarefiredatthesamespeed.Assumethatairresistance
isnegligibleandthatthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravityisg .
NotethatafterPartBthequestionsetupchangesslightly.

PartA
Whatshapeisthetrajectory(graphofyvs.x)oftheshells?
ANSWER:
straightline
parabola
hyperbola
Theshapecannotbedetermined.

Correct

PartB
Fortwoshellsfiredatthesamespeedwhichstatementaboutthehorizontaldistancetravelediscorrect?

Hint1.Twothingstoconsider
Thedistancetraveledistheproductofthexcomponentofthevelocityandthetimeintheair.Howdoes
theycomponentofthevelocityaffectthe"airtime"?Whatanglewouldgivethelongestrange?
ANSWER:
Theshellfiredatalargeranglewithrespecttothehorizontallandsfartheraway.
Theshellfiredatanangleclosestto45degreeslandsfartheraway.
Theshellfiredatasmalleranglewithrespecttothehorizontallandsfartheraway.
Thelightershelllandsfartheraway.

Correct

Now,considerfortheremainingpartsofthequestionbelowthatbothshellsarefiredatananglegreaterthan45
degreeswithrespecttothehorizontal.RememberthatenemyshipAiscloserthanenemyshipB.

PartC
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

20/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Whichshellisfiredatthelargerangle?

Hint1.Considerthelimitingcase
Considerthecaseinwhichashellisfiredat90degreesabovethehorizontal(i.e.,straightup).What
distancex willtheshelltravel?Nowlowertheangleatwhichtheshellisfired.Whathappenstothe
distancex ?
ANSWER:
A
B
Bothshellsarefiredatthesameangle.

Correct

PartD
Whichshellislaunchedwithagreaterverticalvelocity,v y ?
ANSWER:
A
B
Bothshellsarelaunchedwiththesameverticalvelocity.

Correct

PartE
Whichshellislaunchedwithagreaterhorizontalvelocity,v x ?
ANSWER:
A
B
Bothshellsarelaunchedwiththesamehorizontalvelocity.

Correct

PartF
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

21/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Whichshellreachesthegreatermaximumheight?

Hint1.Whatdeterminesmaximumheight?
Whatdeterminesthemaximumheightreachedbytheshell?
ANSWER:
horizontalvelocity
verticalvelocity
massoftheshell

ANSWER:
A
B
Bothshellsreachthesamemaximumheight.

Correct

PartG
Whichshellhasthelongesttraveltime(timeelapsedbetweenbeingfiredandhittingtheenemyship)?

Hint1.Considerthelimitingcase
Ifashellisfiredexactlyhorizontally(0degrees)theshellhitsthegroundrightaway.Astheangleabovethe
horizontalincreases,whathappenstothetimeoftravel?Doesthischangeastheanglebecomesgreater
than45degrees?
ANSWER:
A
B
Bothshellshavethesametraveltime.

Correct

PSS4.1ProjectileMotionProblems
LearningGoal:
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

22/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy4.1forprojectilemotionproblems.
Arockthrownwithspeed11.0m/s andlaunchangle30.0 (abovethehorizontal)travelsahorizontaldistanceofd =
17.0mbeforehittingtheground.Fromwhatheightwastherockthrown?Usethevalueg =9.810m/s 2 forthefreefall
acceleration.
PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGY4.1Projectilemotionproblems
MODEL: Makesimplifyingassumptions,suchastreatingtheobjectasaparticle.Isitreasonabletoignoreair

resistance?
VISUALIZE: Useapictorialrepresentation.Establishacoordinatesystemwiththexaxishorizontalandtheyaxis

vertical.Showimportantpointsinthemotiononasketch.Definesymbols,andidentifywhatyouaretryingtofind.
SOLVE: Theaccelerationisknown: a x

anda y

= 0

= g

.Thus,theproblembecomesoneoftwodimensional

kinematics.Thekinematicequationsare
x f = x i + v ix t,

y f = y i + v iy t

1
2

g(t)

.
t isthesameforthehorizontalandverticalcomponentsofthemotion.Find t fromonecomponent,andthenuse
thatvaluefortheothercomponent.
v f x = v ix = constant, and

v f y = v iy gt

ASSESS: Checkthatyourresulthasthecorrectunits,isreasonable,andanswersthequestion.

Model
Startbymakingsimplifyingassumptions:Modeltherockasaparticleinfreefall.Youcanignoreairresistance
becausetherockisarelativelyheavyobjectmovingrelativelyslowly.

Visualize
PartA
Whichdiagramrepresentsanaccuratesketchoftherock'strajectory?

Hint1.Thelaunchangle
Inaprojectile'smotion,theangleoftheinitialvelocityv iabovethehorizontaliscalledthelaunchangle.
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

23/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Correct

PartB
Asstatedinthestrategy,chooseacoordinatesystemwherethexaxisishorizontalandtheyaxisisvertical.
Notethatinthestrategy,theycomponentoftheprojectile'sacceleration,a y ,istakentobenegative.Thisimplies
thatthepositiveyaxisisupward.Usethesameconventionforyouryaxis,andtakethepositivexaxistobeto
theright.
Whereyouchooseyourorigindoesn'tchangetheanswertothequestion,butchoosinganorigincanmakea
problemeasiertosolve(evenifonlyabit).Usuallyitisniceifthemajorityofthequantitiesyouaregivenandthe
quantityyouaretryingtosolvefortakepositivevaluesrelativetoyourchosenorigin.Giventhisgoal,what
locationfortheoriginofthecoordinatesystemwouldmakethisproblemeasiest?
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

24/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

ANSWER:
Atthepointwheretherockisreleased
Atgroundlevelbelowthepointwheretherockislaunched
Atthepointwheretherockstrikestheground
Atgroundlevelbelowthepeakofthetrajectory
Atthepeakofthetrajectory

Correct
It'sbesttoplacetheoriginofthecoordinatesystematgroundlevelbelowthelaunchingpointbecauseinthis
wayallthepointsofinterest(thelaunchingpointandthelandingpoint)willhavepositivecoordinates.(Based
onyourexperience,youknowthatit'sgenerallyeasiertoworkwithpositivecoordinates.)Keepinmind,
however,thatthisisanarbitrarychoice.Thecorrectsolutionoftheproblemwillnotdependonthelocationof
theoriginofyourcoordinatesystem.
Now,definesymbolsrepresentinginitialandfinalposition,velocity,andtime.Yourtargetvariableisyi ,the
initialycoordinateoftherock.Yourpictorialrepresentationshouldbecompletenow,andsimilartothepicture
below:

Solve
PartC
Findtheheightyi fromwhichtherockwaslaunched.
Expressyouranswerinmeterstothreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Thetimetneededtomovehorizontallytothefinalpositionx f =d =17.0misthesametimeneeded
fortherocktorisefromtheinitialpositionyi tothepeakofitstrajectoryandthenfalltotheground.Usethe
informationyouhaveaboutmotioninthehorizontaldirectiontosolvefort.Knowingthistimewillallow
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

25/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

youtousetheequationsofmotionfortheverticaldirectiontosolveforyi .

Hint2.Findthetimespentintheair
Howlong(t)istherockintheair?
Expressyouranswerinsecondstothreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Determinewhichequationtouse
Whichoftheequationsgiveninthestrategyandshownbelowisthemostappropriatetocalculate
thetimettherockspentintheair?
ANSWER:
xf

= x i + v ix t

= y + v iy t

1
2

g(t)

v f y = v iy gt

Hint2.Findthexcomponentoftheinitialvelocity
Whatisthexcomponentoftherock'sinitialvelocity?
Expressyouranswerinmeterspersecondtothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
v ix

= 9.53 m/s

ANSWER:
t

= 1.78 s

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed
Ifyouusetheanswertothishintinasubsequentpartorhint,pleaseuseyourunroundedanswerand
onlyroundasafinalstepbeforesubmittingyouranswer.
Now,usetheequationfortheothercomponentofmotion(verticalcomponent)andfindtheinitialheight
y .Todothat,firstyouwillneedtocalculatetheycomponentoftherock'sinitialvelocity.
i

Hint3.Findtheycomponentoftheinitialvelocity
Whatistheycomponentoftherock'sinitialvelocity?
Expressyouranswerinmeterspersecondtothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

26/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW
v iy

= 5.50 m/s

Correct
Ifyouusetheanswertothishintinasubsequentpartorhint,pleaseuseyourunroundedanswerand
onlyroundasafinalstepbeforesubmittingyouranswer.

ANSWER:
yi

= 5.81 m

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed

Assess
PartD
Asecondrockisthrownstraightupwardwithaspeed5.500m/s .Ifthisrocktakes1.785s tofalltotheground,
fromwhatheightH wasitreleased?
Expressyouranswerinmeterstothreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Identifytheknownvariables
Whatarethevaluesofyf ,v iy ,t,anda forthesecondrock?Takethepositiveyaxistobeupwardand
theorigintobelocatedonthegroundwheretherocklands.
Expressyouranswerstofoursignificantfiguresintheunitsshowntotheright,separatedby
commas.
ANSWER:
y

,v iy ,t,a = 0,5.500,1.785,9.810 m,m/s ,s ,m/s 2

AnswerRequested
Hint2.Determinewhichequationtousetofindtheheight
WhichequationshouldyouusetofindH ?Keepinmindthatifthepositiveyaxisisupwardandtheorigin
islocatedontheground,yi = H .
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

27/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

y f = y i + v iy t

1
2

g(t)

v f y = v iy gt
v

2
fy

= v

2
iy

2g(y f

yi )

Correct

ANSWER:
H

= 5.81 m

AnswerRequested
Projectilemotionismadeupoftwoindependentmotions:uniformmotionatconstantvelocityinthehorizontal
directionandfreefallmotionintheverticaldirection.Becausebothrockswerethrownwiththesameinitial
verticalvelocity,v iy =5.500m/s ,andfellthesameverticaldistanceof5.81m,theywereintheairforthe
sameamountoftime.ThisresultwasexpectedandhelpstoconfirmthatyoudidthecalculationinPartC
correctly.

DeliveringaPackagebyAir
Areliefairplaneisdeliveringafoodpackagetoagroupof
peoplestrandedonaverysmallisland.Theislandistoo
smallfortheplanetolandon,andtheonlywaytodeliverthe
packageisbydroppingit.Theairplaneflieshorizontallywith
constantspeedof452km/hour atanaltitudeof775m.
Thepositivexandydirectionsaredefinedinthefigure.For
allparts,assumethatthe"island"referstothepointata
distanceDfromthepointatwhichthepackageisreleased,
asshowninthefigure.Ignoretheheightofthispointabove
sealevel.Assumethattheaccelerationduetogravityisg =
9.80m/s 2 .

PartA
Afterapackageisdroppedfromtheplane,howlongwillittakeforittoreachsealevelfromthetimeitisdropped?
Assumethatthepackage,liketheplane,hasaninitialvelocityof452km/hour inthehorizontaldirection.
Expressyouranswernumericallyinseconds.Neglectairresistance.

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

28/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Hint1.Knownsandunknowns:whataretheinitialconditions?
Taketheoriginofthecoordinatesystemtobeatthepointonthesurfaceofthewaterdirectlybelowthe
pointatwhichthepackageisreleased.Thedirectionsoftheaxesareshowninthefigureintheproblem
introduction.Inthiscoordinatesystem,whatarethevaluesofx 0 ,y0 ,v 0x ,v 0y ofthepackage?
Expressyouranswersnumericallyandenterthem,separatedbycommas,intheorderx 0 ,y0 ,v 0x ,
v 0y .Useunitsofmetersandkm/hourfordistancesandspeeds,respectively.

Hint1.Initialvelocityintheydirection
Becausethepackageisdroppedhorizontally,theverticalcomponentofitsinitialvelocityiszero.
ANSWER:
x0

,y0 ,v 0x ,v 0y = 0,775,452,0 m, m, km/hour, km/hour

Hint2.Whataretheknownsandunknownswhenthepackagehitstheground?
Taketheoriginofthecoordinatesystemtobeatthepointonthesurfaceofthewaterdirectlybelowthe
pointatwhichthepackageisreleased.Thedirectionsoftheaxesareshowninthefigureintheproblem
introduction.Lett g bethetimewhenthepackagehitstheground.Inthiscoordinatesystem,v x (t g ) =452
km/hour sincethereisnoaccelerationinthexdirection.Whichofthefollowingvaluesis/areknown?
Checkallthatapply.
ANSWER:
x(t g )
y(t g )
v y (t g )

Hint3.Findthebestequationtouse
Whichoftheequationsbelowcouldyouusetofindthetimet g whenthepackethitstheground?

Hint1.Howtodeterminewhichequationtouse
Onlyoneofthequantitiesx(t g ) ,y(t g ) ,v y (t g )isknown.Whichone?Youhavetousethe
equationthatcontainsthisvariable.
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

29/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

x = x 0 + v 0x t
v y = v 0y gt

y = y 0 + v 0y t

1
2

gt

ANSWER:
t

= 12.6 s

Correct

PartB
Ifthepackageistolandrightontheisland,atwhathorizontaldistanceDfromtheplanetotheislandshouldthe
packagebereleased?
Expressthedistancenumericallyinmeters.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
YouareaskedtofindD,whichisalsothechangeinthexcoordinateofthepackageoverthetimespentin
theair.YoushouldhavecalculatedthistimeintervalinPartA.UseittofindD.

Hint2.Theequationforx(t)
Sincethereisnoaccelerationinthehorizontaldirection,theequationforx(t)is
x(t) = x 0 + v 0x t

ANSWER:
D

= 1580 m

Correct

PartC
Whatisthespeedv f ofthepackagewhenithitstheground?
Expressyouranswernumericallyinmeterspersecond.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem

Thespeedisthemagnitudeofthevelocity,i.e., v 2x

+ vy

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

.Youalreadyknowthatv x

452km/hour ,

30/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

soyouneedtofindv y .Remembertobeconsistentinyourusageofunitswhencalculatingyouranswer.

Hint2.Theequationforthevelocityintheydirection
Theequationforthevelocityintheydirectionv y (t)is
.
Ifyouhavecompletedtheearlierparts,youshouldknowallthequantitiesontherightside.
v y (t) = v 0y + a y t

ANSWER:
vf

= 176 m/s

AnswerRequested

PartD
Thespeedatwhichthepackagehitsthegroundisreallyfast!Ifapackagehitsthegroundatsuchaspeed,itcan
becrushedandalsocausesomeseriousdamageontheground.Whichofthefollowingwouldhelpdecreasethe
speedwithwhichthepackagehitstheground?
ANSWER:
Increasetheplane'sspeedandheight
Decreasetheplane'sspeedandheight

Correct
Thisiswhyitwouldbeniceforrescueteamstohavehybridairplanehelicopters.Ofcourse,thentheycan
justairliftthestrandedgroup.

VideoTutor:RangeofaGunatTwoFiringAngles
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionsatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

31/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

PartA
Whichprojectilespendsmoretimeintheair,theonefiredfrom30 ortheonefiredfrom60 ?

Hint1.Howtoapproachthisproblem
Whichcomponentoftheinitialvelocityvectoraffectsthetimetheprojectilespendsintheair?
ANSWER:
Theonefiredfrom60
Theybothspendthesameamountoftimeintheair.
Theonefiredfrom30

Correct
Theprojectilefiredfrom60 hasagreaterverticalvelocitythantheonefiredfrom30 ,soitspendsmore
timeintheair.

CrossingaRiver
Aswimmerwantstocrossariver,frompointAtopointB,asshowninthefigure.Thedistanced 1 (fromAtoC)is200
m,thedistance d 2 (fromCtoB)is150 m,andthespeed v r ofthecurrentintheriveris5 km/hour .Supposethat
theswimmer'svelocityrelativetothewatermakesanangleof = 45 degreeswiththelinefromAtoC,asindicated
inthefigure.

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

32/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

PartA
ToswimdirectlyfromAtoB,whatspeedu s ,relativetothewater,shouldtheswimmerhave?
Expresstheswimmer'sspeednumerically,tothreesignificantfigures,inkilometersperhour.

Hint1.Usethemotionintheydirection
Supposeittakestheswimmertimet tocrosstheriverandarriveatB.Findanexpressionfort by
consideringonlyv y (theycomponentoftheswimmer'smotionwithrespecttotheshore).
Answerintermsofd 1 ,u s ,and .

Hint1.Theycomponentofthevelocityrelativetotheshore
Theycomponent(seethefigureintheproblemintroduction)oftheswimmer'svelocityrelativetothe
shoreis
.

v y = u s cos()

ANSWER:
d1
us

d1

u s cos()
d1
u s sin()

d1
vr

Correct
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

33/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Hint2.Usethemotioninthexdirection
Nowfindanexpressionfort byconsideringonlythexcomponentoftheswimmer'smotion.
Expressyouranswerintermsofd 2 ,u s ,v r ,and .

Hint1.Thexcomponentofthevelocityrelativetotheshore
Thexcomponent(seethefigureintheproblemintroduction)oftheswimmer'svelocityrelativetothe
shoreis
.

v x = v r u s sin()

ANSWER:
d2
v r u s sin()
d2
v r +u s sin()
d2
v r u s

d2
v r +u s

Correct
Notethatthisisthesametimethatyoufoundwhenyouconsideredonlythemotionintheydirection,
eventhoughtheexpressionsaredifferent.Ifyousetbothexpressionsequaltoeachother,youcan
solveforu s .

Hint3.Solveforus
Findasymbolicexpressionforu s .Ifyouusedtheprevioushints,solveforu s byeliminatingt fromthe
twoequationsyouderived.
Expressyouranswerintermsofv r ,d 1 ,d 2 ,and .
ANSWER:

us

d 1 vr
d 1 sin()+d 2 cos()

AnswerRequested

ANSWER:
us

= 4.04 km/hour

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

34/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Correct
Anotherwaytodothisproblemistoaddtheswimmer'sandtheriver'svelocitiesvectorially,andsettheangle
thattheresultantvectormakeswithACortheriverbankequaltothatwhichABmakeswiththesame.

Problem4.27
Theradiusoftheearth'sverynearlycircularorbitaroundthesunis1.5 10 11 m .

PartA
Findthemagnitudeoftheearth'svelocity.Assumeayearof365days.
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
v

= 3.0104

m
s

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed

PartB
Findthemagnitudeoftheearth'sangularvelocity.
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:

= 2.0107

rad
s

AnswerRequested

PartC
Findthemagnitudeoftheearth'scentripetalaccelerationasittravelsaroundthesun.
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
ar

m
= 6.0103
s2

AnswerRequested
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

35/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Problem4.9
Arocketpoweredhockeypuckmovesonahorizontalfrictionlesstable.Thefigurebelowshowsthegraphsofv x and
v y ,thexandycomponentsofthepucksvelocity.Thepuckstartsattheorigin.

PartA
Inwhichdirectionisthepuckmovingatt =3s ?Giveyouranswerasananglefromthexaxis.
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

= 51 abovethexaxis

AnswerRequested

PartB
Howfarfromtheoriginisthepuckat5s ?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
s

= 180cm

AnswerRequested

Problem4.11
AphysicsstudentonPlanetExidorthrowsaball,anditfollowstheparabolictrajectoryshowninthefigure.Theball's
positionisshownat1 s intervalsuntilt =

3 s

.Att =

1 s

,theball'svelocityisv = (2.0^i

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

^
+ 2.0 j ) m/s

.
36/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

PartA
Determinetheball'svelocityatt =

0 s

ANSWER:
^
2.0 i m/s
^
^
(2.0 i + 4.0 j ) m/s
^
^
(2.0 i + 2.0 j ) m/s
^
^
(2.0 i 2.0 j ) m/s

Correct

PartB
Determinetheball'svelocityatt =

2 s

ANSWER:
^
2.0 i m/s
^
^
(2.0 i + 4.0 j ) m/s
^
^
(2.0 i + 2.0 j ) m/s
^
^
(2.0 i 2.0 j ) m/s

Correct

PartC
t = 3 s
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

37/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Determinetheball'svelocityatt =

3 s

ANSWER:
^
2.00 i m/s
^
^
(2.00 i + 4.00 j ) m/s
^
^
(2.00 i + 2.00 j ) m/s
^
^
(2.00 i 2.00 j ) m/s

Correct

PartD
Whatisthevalueofg onPlanetExidor?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
2.00

m
s2

Correct

PartE
Whatwastheball'slaunchangle?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
63.4

Correct

Problem4.13
Arifleisaimedhorizontallyatatarget50.0maway.Thebullethitsthetarget2.90cmbelowtheaimpoint.

PartA
Whatwasthebullet'sflighttime?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

38/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

ANSWER:
7.69102s

Correct

PartB
Whatwasthebullet'sspeedasitleftthebarrel?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
650

m
s

Correct

Problem4.15
Aboattakes2.90hours totravel30.0km downariver,then6.30hours toreturn.

PartA
Howfastistheriverflowing?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
2.79

km
h

Correct

Problem4.20
Thefigureshowstheangularvelocityversustimegraphforaparticlemovinginacircle.

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

39/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

PartA
Howmanyrevolutionsdoestheobjectmakeduringthefirst3.4s ?
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
n

= 8.6

Correct

Problem4.22
Anoldfashionedsingleplayvinylrecordrotatesonaturntableat45.0rpm.Whatare(a)theangularvelocityinrad/s
and(b)theperiodofthemotion?

PartA
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
4.71

rad
s

Correct

PartB
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

40/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

ANSWER:
1.33s

Correct

Problem4.32
A4.8mdiametermerrygoroundisinitiallyturningwitha3.8s period.Itslowsdownandstopsin23s .

PartA
Beforeslowing,whatisthespeedofachildontherim?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
v

m
= 4.0 s

Correct

PartB
Howmanyrevolutionsdoesthemerrygoroundmakeasitstops?
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

= 3.0 rev

AnswerRequested

Problem4.48
You're6.0mfromonewallofahouse.Youwanttotossaballtoyourfriendwhois6.0mfromtheoppositewall.The
throwandcatcheachoccur1.0mabovetheground.Assumetheoverhangoftheroofisnegligible,sothatyoumay
assumetheedgeoftheroofis6.0mfromyouand6.0mfromyourfriend.

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

41/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

PartA
Whatminimumspeedwillallowtheballtocleartheroof?
ANSWER:
13 m/s

AnswerRequested

PartB
Atwhatangleshouldyoutosstheball?
ANSWER:
48 tothehorizontal.

Allattemptsusedcorrectanswerdisplayed

Problem4.59
Astronautsuseacentrifugetosimulatetheaccelerationofarocketlaunch.Thecentrifugetakes40.0s tospeedup
fromresttoitstopspeedof1rotationevery1.50s .Theastronautisstrappedintoaseat4.20mfromtheaxis.

PartA
Whatistheastronaut'stangentialaccelerationduringthefirst40.0s ?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
0.440

m
s2

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

42/43

5/6/2016

Ch04HW

Correct

PartB
Howmanyg'sofaccelerationdoestheastronautexperiencewhenthedeviceisrotatingattopspeed?Each9.80
2
m/s ofaccelerationis1g.
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
7.52g

Correct
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis69.1%.
Youreceived67.46outofapossibletotalof108points,plus7.17pointsofextracredit.

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=4057470

43/43