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Ch10HW
Due:9:30amonMonday,April18,2016

PSS10.1ConservationofMechanicalEnergy
LearningGoal:
TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy10.1forconservationofmechanicalenergyproblems.
Tarzan,inonetree,sightsJaneinanothertree.Hegrabstheendofavinewithlength20mthatmakesanangleof45 withthevertical,stepsoffhistree
limb,andswingsdownandthenuptoJanesopenarms.Whenhearrives,hisvinemakesanangleof30 withthevertical.Determinewhetherhegiveshera
tenderembraceorknocksheroffherlimbbycalculatingTarzansspeedjustbeforehereachesJane.Youcanignoreairresistanceandthemassofthevine.
PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGY10.1Conservationofmechanicalenergy
MODEL: Chooseasystemwithoutfrictionorotherlossesofmechanicalenergy.
VISUALIZE: Drawabeforeandafterpictorialrepresentation.Definesymbolsthatwillbeusedintheproblem,listknownvalues,andidentifywhatyou'retryingto

find.
SOLVE: Themathematicalrepresentationisbasedonthelawofconservationofmechanicalenergy:
K f + Uf

= K i + Ui

Model
Theproblemdoesnotinvolvefriction,noraretherelossesofmechanicalenergy,soconservationofmechanicalenergyapplies.ModelTarzanandthevineas
apendulum.

Visualize
PartA
Whichofthefollowingsketchescanbeusedindrawingabeforeandafterpictorialrepresentation?

DiagramA
DiagramB
DiagramC
DiagramD

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Correct
NotethateventhoughthetensionforceinthevinecausesthedirectionofTarzan'svelocitytochange,thisforcedoesnothaveacomponentinthe
directionofmotionanddoesnotchangeTarzan'sspeed.Sotensiondoesnotcauseanychangeinkineticenergy.
Now,completeyourbeforeandafterpictorialrepresentationbydefiningsymbolsfortheimportantvariables,suchasmass,speed,andposition.List
knownvalues.RecallthatyouaretryingtofindTarzan'sfinalspeed.Yourdiagramshouldlooklikethis:

Notethatinthediagramabove,acoordinatesystemwasprovidedinwhichthezeroheightwaschosentobeatthevine'spivotingpoint.Thisisthe
coordinatesystemusedintherestofthisproblemhowever,keepinmindthatthisisanarbitrarychoice.Inprinciple,youcanchoosethey = 0
heighttobewhereveryouwish.

Solve
PartB
WhatisTarzansspeedv f justbeforehereachesJane?

Hint1.FindexpressionsforTarzansinitialandfinalkineticenergies
LetTarzansinitialandfinalspeedsbev i andv f ,respectively.Letmandg beTarzan'smassandtheaccelerationduetogravity,respectively.
Entertwoexpressionsforhisinitialandfinalkineticenergies,Ki andKf ,respectively.RecallthatTarzansimplystepsoffthetreewithoutany
initialpush.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesg ,m,v i ,andv f .
Ki

,Kf =

1
2

mv f

Hint2.FindexpressionsforTarzansinitialandfinalpotentialenergies
LetTarzansinitialandfinalspeedsbev i andv f ,respectively.Letmandg beTarzan'smassandtheaccelerationduetogravity,respectively.
UsingthecoordinatesystemshowninPartA,entertwoexpressionsforTarzansinitialandfinalpotentialenergies,Ui andUf ,respectively.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesg ,m,v i ,andv f .

Hint1.Righttriangles
Recallthatforarighttriangleasshowninthepicturebelow,thefollowingruleshold:
a = c cos and b = c sin .

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Hint2.FindTarzansinitialposition
UsingthecoordinatesystemshowninPartA,calculateTarzansinitialheightyi .
y

= 14.1 m

Hint3.FindTarzansfinalposition
UsingthecoordinatesystemshowninPartA,calculateTarzansfinalheightyf .
y

= 17.3 m

Ui

,Uf =

mg20cos(

) , mg20cos(

vf

= 7.9 m/s

Correct

Assess
PartC
Youcancheckifyourworkmakessensebycomparingyourresultswiththeresultsthatyouobtainusingthekinematicsequationsforfreefall.
Whatverticaldistanceydoesafreefallingparticletravelfromthemomentitstartstothemomentitreachesaspeedof7.9m/s ifitstartsfromrest?
Workoutyoursolutionusingoneoftheequationsforverticalmotionwithconstantacceleration,specifically,
2
2
v
= v + 2ay ,
f
i
wherev i andv f aretheparticlesinitialandfinalspeeds,respectively,anda istheparticlesacceleration.

y

= 3.2 m

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Correct
YoucaneasilyverifythattheverticaldistancetraveledbythefreefallingparticleisthesameasthedifferenceinheightusedinPartBtocompute
howTarzansgravitationalenergychanges.So,yourresultfromPartBdoesmakesense!

PhETTutorial:EnergySkatePark
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandconservationofmechanicalenergyinvolvinggravitationalpotentialenergyandkineticenergy.

Watchtheskaterskateupanddownthetrack.Youcanclickanddragtheskatertoanylocationandreleasetheskaterfromrest.
ClickontheEnergyvs.Positionbuttontoseeaplotofthekinetic,potential,thermal,andtotalenergiesasafunctionoftheskater'sposition.TryBarGraph
toseethesameinformationasabargraph.
Forthistutorial,youshouldhavetheCoefficientofFriction(undertheTrackFrictionbuttonatlowerright)setto"None,"whichmeansnothermalenergyis
generated.YoushouldalsodeselecttheThermalenergychoiceatbottomrightfromtheEnergyvs.Positionplot.

PartA
ClickontheEnergyvs.Positionbutton,anddeselectallformsofenergyexceptkineticenergy.
Whereonthetrackistheskater'skineticenergythegreatest?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
ThekineticenergyofanobjectisgivenbyK = (1/2)mv 2 ,wheremisthemassoftheobjectandv isthespeedoftheobject.Thus,theskater
ismovingthefastestwheretheskater'skineticenergyisthegreatestandviceversa.
LookattheKineticEnergyvs.Positiongraph,andidentifythelocation(s)wheretheskater'skineticenergyreachesitsmaximumvalue.

atitsmaximumvalueatthelowestpointofthetrack.
Theskater'skineticenergyis

thesameeverywhere.
atitsmaximumvalueatthelocationswheretheskaterturnsandgoesbackintheoppositedirection.

Correct
ThekineticenergyofanobjectisgivenbyK = (1/2)mv 2 ,wherev isthespeedoftheobjectandmisthemassoftheobject.Thus,theskater's
kineticenergyisgreatestatthelowestpointofthetrack,wheretheskaterismovingthefastest.

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PartB
ChangetheEnergyvs.Positiongraphtodisplayonlypotentialenergy.
Astheskaterisskatingbackandforth,wheredoestheskaterhavethemostpotentialenergy?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
ThegravitationalpotentialenergyofanobjectisgivenbyU = mgy,whereyistheobject'sheightabovethepotentialenergyreference,whichis
currentlytheground.Thus,theskater'spotentialenergyisgreatestwheretheskateristhehighestabovethereferenceline.
LookatthePotentialEnergyvs.Positiongraph,andidentifythelocation(s)wheretheskater'spotentialenergyreachesitsmaximumvalue.

thesameeverywhere.
Theskater'spotentialenergyis

atitsmaximumvalueatthelowestpointofthetrack.
atitsmaximumvalueatthelocationswheretheskaterturnsandgoesbackintheoppositedirection.

Correct
ThegravitationalpotentialenergyofanobjectisgivenbyU = mgy,whereyistheobject'sheightabovethepotentialenergyreference,whichis
currentlytheground.Thus,theskater'spotentialenergyisgreatestatthelocationswheretheskaterturnstogobackintheoppositedirection,where
theskateristhehighestabovethereferenceline.
Noticethattheskater'spotentialenergyisgreatestwherethekineticenergyisthelowest,andviceversa.

PartC
Becauseweareignoringfriction,nothermalenergyisgeneratedandthetotalenergyisthemechanicalenergy,thekineticenergyplusthepotential
energy:E = K + U .
DisplaythetotalenergyintheEnergyvs.Positiongraph.Astheskaterisskatingbackandforth,whichstatementbestdescribesthetotalenergy?
Thetotalenergyis
smallestatthelocationswheretheskaterturnstogobackintheoppositedirectionandgreatestatthelowestpointofthetrack.
thesameatalllocationsofthetrack.
greatestatthelocationswheretheskaterturnsandgoesbackintheoppositedirectionandsmallestatthelowestpointofthetrack.

Correct
Themechanicalenergy(kineticpluspotential)isconserved.(Sincethereisnofriction,themechanicalenergyisequaltothetotalenergy.)Whenthe
kineticenergyisrelativelysmall,thepotentialenergyisrelativelylarge,andviceversa.

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PartD
Ignoringfriction,thetotalenergyoftheskaterisconserved.Thismeansthatthekineticpluspotentialenergyatonelocation,sayE1 = K1 + U1 ,must
beequaltothekineticpluspotentialenergyatadifferentlocation,sayE2 = K2 + U2 .Thisistheprincipleofconservationofenergyandcanbe
expressedasE1 = E2 .Sincetheenergyisconserved,thechangeinthekineticenergyisequaltothenegativeofthechangeinthepotentialenergy:
K2 K1 = (U2 U1 ), or K1 = U2 .
SelecttheShowGridoption.Then,pullthebottomofthetrackdownsuchthatitis1mabovetheground(clickanddragonthebluecircleonthebottom
ofthetrack).Confirmthatthemassoftheskaterissetto75.0kg (selectChooseSkatertoviewmass)andthattheaccelerationofgravityissetat
9.81N/kg .
Clearallplots,placetheskateronthetrack7mabovetheground,andlookattheresultingmotionandthegraphshowingtheenergetics.
Matchtheapproximatenumericalvaluesontheleftwiththeenergytypecategoriesontherighttocompletetheequations.
Dragtheappropriatenumericalvaluestotheirrespectivetargets.

Correct

PartE
Basedonthepreviousquestion,whichstatementistrue?
equaltotheinitialpotentialenergy.
Thekineticenergyatthebottomoftherampis

equaltotheamountofpotentialenergylossingoingfromtheinitiallocationtothebottom.
equaltothetotalenergy.

Correct
Becausethetotalenergyisconserved,thekineticenergyatthebottomofthehillplusthepotentialenergyatthebottomofthehillmustequalthe
initialpotentialenergy(sincetheinitialkineticenergyiszero):Kbottom + Ubottom = Uinitial .Solvingforthekineticenergy,weget
Kbottom = Uinitial Ubottom ,or Kbottom = 5145J 735J = 4410J.Moregenerally,thechangeinthekineticenergyisequaltothenegativeof
thechangeinthepotentialenergy.

PartF
theground)?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
UsetheEnergyvs.PositiongraphlikeyoudidinPartD.

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4410J
2940J
735J
2205J

Correct
Noticethattheskateronlydropsdown3m,ascomparedto6mforthecasewhentheskaterstarted7mabovetheground.Inthiscase,theskater
loseshalfasmuchpotentialenergyasinthepreviouscase,sothekineticenergyatthebottomisonlyhalfasmuchasthepreviouscase.

PartG
Onecommonapplicationofconservationofenergyinmechanicsistodeterminethespeedofanobject.Althoughthesimulationdoesntgivetheskater's
speed,youcancalculateitbecausetheskater'skineticenergyisknownatanylocationonthetrack.
Consideragainthecasewheretheskaterstarts7mabovethegroundandskatesdownthetrack.Whatistheskater'sspeedwhentheskaterisatthe
bottomofthetrack?

Hint1.Findthekineticenergyatthebottomofthetrack
Whatisthekineticenergyoftheskateratthebottomofthetrack?
735J
4410J
2205J
5145J

Hint2.Findthespeedatthebottomofthetrack
BecauseK

= (1/2)mv

## ,thespeedisgivenby 2K/m .Whatisthespeedatthebottomofthetrack?

11 m/s

11 m/s

Correct
Fora75kg objecthavingapproximately4410J ofenergy,thespeedmustberoughly11m/s .

PartH
Whentheskaterstarts7mabovetheground,howdoesthespeedoftheskateratthebottomofthetrackcomparetothespeedoftheskateratthe
bottomwhentheskaterstarts4mabovetheground?

Hint1.Findthekineticenergyatthebottomofthetrack
Howmuchmorekineticenergydoestheskaterhaveatthebottomofthetrack?

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thesameamount
twiceasmuch
fourtimesasmuch

Hint2.Findtheratioofthespeeds
Becausekineticenergyisproportionaltothesquareofthespeed,theratioofthekineticenergyisequaltotheratioofthespeedssquared:
2
K7m /K4m = (v 7m /v 4m ) .Whatistheratio v 7m /v 4m ofthespeeds?
v 7m /v 4m

= 1.4

thesame.
Thespeedis

higher,butlessthantwiceasfast.
fourtimesasfast.
twiceasfast.

Correct
Thepersonwillhavetwiceasmuchkineticenergy.Becausekineticenergyisproportionaltothespeedsquared,theratioofthespeedsisequaltothe
squarerootoftheratioofthekineticenergies.Inthiscase,sincetheratioofthekineticenergiesis2,theratioofthespeedsisequaltothesquare
rootof2,orroughly1.4.

PartI
Changethepotentialenergyreferencelinetobe7mabovetheground(selectthePotentialEnergyReferenceoption,andclickanddragonthedashed
bluehorizontallinetothe7mgridline).Placetheskateronthetrack7mabovetheground,andlettheskatergo.
equaltozero.
Thetotalenergyoftheskateris

lessthanzero.
greaterthanzero.

Correct
Initially,thekineticenergyiszerobecausetheskaterisatrestandthepotentialenergyiszerobecausetheskaterisstartingatthepotentialenergy
referenceline.Becauseenergyisconserved,theskater'stotalenergyremainszero.

PartJ
Atthebottomofthehill,howdoesthekineticenergycomparetothecasewhenthepotentialenergyreferencewasthegroundandtheskaterwasreleased
7mabovetheground?
lessthanthecasewhenthepotentialenergyreferencewastheground.
Thekineticenergyis

greaterthanthecasewhenthepotentialenergyreferencewastheground.
thesameasthecasewhenthepotentialenergyreferencewastheground.

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Correct
Thekineticenergyatthebottomofthetrackisequaltotheamountofpotentialenergylostingoingfromtheinitialpositiontothebottom.Even
thoughthetotalenergyandinitialpotentialenergyaredifferentfromwhenthereferencewastheground,theskaterstilllosesthesameamountof
potentialenergyingoingfrom7mdowntothebottomofthetrack.Thus,whenapplyingconservationofenergy,anypotentialenergyreferencecan
beused!

PartK
ClickTracksintheupperleftcornerofthewindow,andselectDoubleWell(RollerCoaster).Then,clickanddragonthebluecirclestostretchand/or
bendthetracktomakeitlooklikethatshownbelow.

Iftheskaterstartsfromrestatposition1,rank,inincreasingorderfromleasttogreatest,thekineticenergyoftheskateratthefivepositionsshown.
Rankfromsmallesttolargest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Correct

PhETInteractiveSimulations

AGirlonaTrampoline
Agirlofmassm1 = 60.0kilogramsspringsfromatrampolinewithaninitialupwardvelocityofv i
abovethetrampoline,thegirlgrabsaboxofmassm2 = 15.0kilograms.
g = 9.80
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meterspersecond.Atheighth

= 8.00

meters

= 2.00

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Forthisproblem,useg
duetogravity.

meterspersecondpersecondforthemagnitudeoftheacceleration

= 9.80

PartA
Whatisthespeedv bef ore ofthegirlimmediatelybeforeshegrabsthebox?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Useconservationofenergy.FindtheinitialkineticenergyKi ofthegirlassheleavesthetrampoline.Thenfindhergravitationalpotentialenergy
Ubef ore justbeforeshegrabsthebox(defineherinitialpotentialenergytobezero).Accordingtotheprincipleofconservationofenergy,
Ki = Ubef ore + Kbef ore .Onceyouhave Kbef ore ,usethedefinitionoftranslationalkineticenergytofindthegirl'sspeed v bef ore .

Hint2.Initialkineticenergy
Whatisthegirl'sinitialkineticenergyKi assheleavesthetrampoline?
Ki

= 1920 J

Hint3.Potentialenergyatheighth
Whatisthegirl'sgravitationalpotentialenergyUbef ore immediatelybeforeshegrabsthebox?
Ubef ore

= 1180 J

v bef ore

= 4.98 m/s

Correct

PartB
Whatisthespeedv af ter ofthegirlimmediatelyaftershegrabsthebox?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Thinkoftheprocessofgrabbingtheboxasacollision.Thoughthegirlandtheboxdon'tcollideassuch,anyinteractionbetweentwoobjectsthat
takesplaceextremelyfastcanbethoughtofasacollision.Tofindthevelocityatalatertime,whichofthefollowingprinciplescouldyouuse?

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conservationofmomentumalone
conservationofenergyalone
bothconservationofmomentumandconservationofenergy
Newton'ssecondlaw

Hint2.Totalinitialmomentum
Whatisthetotalmomentumbeforethecollision?
p

bef ore

= 299 kg m/s

v af ter

= 3.98 m/s

Correct

PartC
Isthis"collision"elasticorinelastic?

Hint1.Definitionofaninelasticcollision
Iftwoobjectsmovetogetherwiththesamevelocityafteracollision,thecollisionissaidtobeinelastic.
elastic
inelastic

Correct
Ininelasticcollisions,someofthesystem'skineticenergyislost.Inthiscasethekineticenergylostisconvertedtoheatenergyinthegirl'smuscles
asshegrabsthebox,andsoundenergy.

PartD
Whatisthemaximumheighth max thatthegirl(withbox)reaches?Measureh max withrespecttothetopofthetrampoline.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Useconservationofenergy.FromPartByouknowthevelocityofthegirl/boxsystemjustafterthegirlgrabsthebox.Therefore,youcancompute
thekineticenergyKaf ter ofthegirl/boxsystemjustafterthecollision.YoucanalsocomputethegravitationalpotentialenergyUaf ter ofthegirl/box
systematthispoint.Thesumofthesetwoquantitiesmustequalthegravitationalpotentialenergyofthegirl/boxsystemattheheighth max (where
theirvelocity,andthereforekineticenergy,willbezero).

Hint2.FindingUaf ter
Whatisthegirl/boxsystem'sgravitationalpotentialenergyUaf ter immediatelyaftershegrabsthebox?

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Uaf ter

= 1470 J

Hint3.FindingK af ter
Whatisthegirl/boxsystem'skineticenergyKaf ter immediatelyaftershegrabsthebox?
Kaf ter

= 594 J

h max

= 2.81 m

Correct

LooptheLoop
Arollercoastercarmaybeapproximatedbyablockofmassm.Thecar,whichstartsfromrest,is
releasedataheighth abovethegroundandslidesalongafrictionlesstrack.Thecarencountersa
losescontactwiththetrack.

PartA
Findanexpressionforthekineticenergyofthecaratthetopoftheloop.
Expressthekineticenergyintermsofm,g ,h ,andR.

Hint1.Findthepotentialenergyatthetopoftheloop
Whatisthepotentialenergyofthecarwhenitisatthetopoftheloop?Definethegravitationalpotentialenergytobezeroath

= 0

Utop

mg(2R)

K

mgh mg2R

Correct

PartB
h
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Findtheminimuminitialheighth atwhichthecarcanbereleasedthatstillallowsthecartostayincontactwiththetrackatthetopoftheloop.
ExpresstheminimumheightintermsofR.

Hint1.Howtoapproachthispart
Meaningof"stayincontact"
Forthecartojuststayincontactthroughtheloop,withoutfalling,thenormalforcethatactsonthecarwhenit'satthetopoftheloopmustbezero
(i.e.,N = 0).
Findthevelocityatthetopsuchthattheremainingforceonthecari.e.itsweightprovidesthenecessarycentripetalacceleration.Ifthevelocity
less,thecarwouldfalloffthetrack.
Usetheabovedescribedconditiontofindthevelocityandthentheresultfromtheaboveparttofindtherequiredheight.

Hint2.Accelerationatthetopoftheloop
Assumingthatthespeedofthecaratthetopoftheloopisv top ,andthatthecarstaysonthetrack,findtheaccelerationofthecar.Takethe
positiveydirectiontobeupward.

a top

v top

Hint3.Normalforceatthetopoftheloop
Supposethecarstaysonthetrackandhasspeedv top atthetopoftheloop.UseNewton's2ndlawtofindanexpressionforN ,themagnitudeof
thenormalforcethattheloopexertsonthecarwhenthecarisatthetopoftheloop.

Hint1.Findthesumofforcesatthetopoftheloop
Findthesumoftheforcesactingonthecaratthetopoftheloop.Rememberthatthepositiveydirectionisupward.
F top

N mg

m(

v top
R

g)

Hint4.Solvingforh
Therequirementtostayincontactresultsinanexpressionforv 2top intermsofRandg .Substitutethisintoyourexpressionforkineticenergy,
foundinPartA,todeterminearelationbetweenh andR.
h min

2.5R

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Correct
Forh

> 2.5 R

Forh

< R

ForR

thecarwillstillcompletetheloop,thoughitwillrequiresomenormalreactionevenattheverytop.

thecarwilljustoscillate.Doyouseethis?
,thecartwilllosecontactwiththetrackatsomeearlierpoint.Thatiswhyrollercoastersmusthavealotofsafetyfeatures.If

## < h < 2.5 R

youlike,youcancheckthattheangleatwhichthecartlosescontactwiththetrackisgivenby = arcsin(

2
3

h
R

## 1)) .Where istheangle

measuredcounterclockwisefromthehorizontalpositivexaxis,wheretheoriginofthexaxisisatthecenteroftheloop.

Problem10.11
A20kg childisonaswingthathangsfrom4.0mlongchains.

PartA
Whatishermaximumspeedifsheswingsouttoa43 angle?
v

= 4.6

m
s

Correct

Problem10.15
A61kg studentisstandingatopaspringinanelevatorthatisacceleratingupwardat3.2m/s 2 .Thespringconstantis2100N/m .

PartA
Byhowmuchisthespringcompressed?
y

= 0.38m

Correct

Problem10.17
A5.3kg masshangingfromaspringscaleisslowlyloweredontoaverticalspring,asshowninthefigure.

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PartA
F

= 52N

Correct

PartB
k

= 1700 N
m

Correct

PartC
y

= 3.0cm

Correct

VideoTutor:ChinBasher?

PartA
SupposeourexperimenterrepeatshisexperimentonaplanetmoremassivethanEarth,wheretheaccelerationduetogravityisg = 30m/s 2 .Whenhe
releasestheballfromchinheightwithoutgivingitapush,howwilltheball'sbehaviordifferfromitsbehavioronEarth?Ignorefrictionandairresistance.
(Selectallthatapply.)

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
mass(choiceE).

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toreturntoapositionhigherthanitsstartingpoint,thesystemofthependulumandplanetwouldhavetogainmechanicalenergy.Wherewouldthat
energycomefrom?(ThesameargumentappliestochoiceB.)
period?
Mass:Thependulumwillweighmoreonthemassiveplanet.Willithavemoremass?

Itsmasswillbegreater.
Itwillstopwellshortofhisface.
Itwilltakemoretimetoreturntothepointfromwhichitwasreleased.
Itwilltakelesstimetoreturntothepointfromwhichitwasreleased.
Itwillsmashhisface.

Correct
Thependulumwillswingbackandforthmorequickly(withashorterperiod)becauseitisoscillatinginastrongergravitationalfieldthanthatonEarth.

Problem10.20
Astudentplacesher300g physicsbookonafrictionlesstable.Shepushesthebookagainstaspring,compressingthespringby9.70cm,thenreleasesthe
book.

PartA
Whatisthebook'sspeedasitslidesaway?Thespringconstantis1750N/m .
7.41

m
s

Correct

Problem10.28

PartA
Whatisthemaximumspeedofa2.80g particlethatoscillatesbetweenx =

2.0 mm

andx =

8.0 mm

inthefigure?

v max

= 53.5

m
s

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Correct

Problem10.31

PartA
Whatarethefinalvelocitiesofeachballifthecollisionisperfectlyelastic?
(v f x )

= 4.50

m
s

Correct

PartB
(v f x )

= 7.50

m
s

Correct

PartC
Whatarethefinalvelocitiesofeachballifthecollisionisperfectlyinelastic?
(v f x )

= 3.75 m
s

Correct

PartD
(v f x )

= 3.75

m
s

Correct

BallisticPendulum
Inaballisticpendulumanobjectofmassmisfiredwithaninitialspeedv 0 atapendulumbob.ThebobhasamassM ,whichissuspendedbyarodoflength
L andnegligiblemass.Afterthecollision,thependulumandobjectsticktogetherandswingtoamaximumangulardisplacement asshown.

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PartA
Findanexpressionforv 0 ,theinitialspeedofthefiredobject.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Therearetwodistinctphysicalprocessesatworkintheballisticpendulum.Youmusttreatthecollisionandthefollowingswingastwoseparate
events.Identifywhichphysicallaworprincipleappliestoeachevent,writeanexpressiontodescribethecollision,writeanexpressiontodescribe
theswing,andthenrelatethetwoexpressionstofindv 0 .

Hint2.Determinewhichphysicallawsandprinciplesapply
Whichofthefollowingphysicallawsorprinciplescanbestbeusedtoanalyzethecollisionbetweentheobjectandthependulumbob?Whichcan
bestbeusedtoanalyzetheresultingswing?
A.Newton'sfirstlaw
B.Newton'ssecondlaw
C.Newton'sthirdlaw
D.Conservationofmechanicalenergy
E.Conservationofmomentum
acomma.
E,D

Hint3.Describethecollision
Composeanexpressionthatdescribesthecollisionbetweentheobjectandthependulumbob.Putthisexpressionintheformv 0

## Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,M ,v 0 ,v ,L,and andtheaccelerationduetogravity,g .

Hint1.Identifythetypeofcollision
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Isthecollisionbetweentheobjectandthependulumbobanelasticorinelasticcollision?
elastic
inelastic

Hint2.Findthemomentumbeforethecollision
Composeanexpressionforp bef ore ,themomentumoftheobjectandpendulumbobbeforethecollisionwhentheobjectmoveswithspeed
v0 .
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,M ,v 0 ,v ,L,and andtheaccelerationduetogravity,g .

Hint1.Momentum
Themomentumofanobjectofmassmmovingwithspeedv isgivenbymv .
p

bef ore

mv 0

Hint3.Findthemomentumafterthecollision
Composeanexpressionforp af ter ,themomentumoftheobjectandpendulumbobafterthecollisionwhentheymovewithspeedv .
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,M ,v 0 ,v ,L,and andtheaccelerationduetogravity,g .
p

af ter

(m + M )v

v0

m+M
m

Hint4.Describetheswing
Composeanexpressionthatdescribesthemotionoftheobjectandthependulumbobafterthecollision.Putthisexpressionintheformv

## Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,M ,v 0 ,v ,L,and andtheaccelerationduetogravityg .

Hint1.Identifytheenergyatthebottomoftheswing
WhatisthemechanicalenergyEbottom oftheobjectandpendulumbobjustafterthecollisionbutwhiletheyarestilllocatedatthebottom
oftheswing?Assumethattheheightofthependulumbobandobjectiszeroatthislocation.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,M ,v 0 ,v ,L,and andtheaccelerationduetogravity,g .

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Hint1.Mechanicalenergy
Themechanicalenergyofasystemisthetotalkineticandgravitationalpotentialenergyofthesystem.ThekineticenergyK ofan
objectofmassmmovingwithspeedv is
K=

1
2

mv

ThegravitationalpotentialenergyU ofanobjectofmassmaheightyabovesomereferencepointis
.

U = mgy

Hint2.Findthegravitationalpotentialenergyatthebottomoftheswing
WhatisthegravitationalpotentialenergyUbottom oftheobjectandpendulumbobatthebottomoftheswing?Keepinmindthatthe
heightofthependulumbobandobjectiszeroatthislocation.
Ubottom = mgL
Ubottom = 0
Ubottom = mgL

Hint3.Findthekineticenergyatthebottomoftheswing
WhatisthekineticenergyKbottom oftheobjectandpendulumbobatthebottomoftheswing?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,M ,v 0 ,v ,L,and andtheaccelerationduetogravity,g .
Kbottom

1
2

(m + M )v

Ebottom

1
2

(m + M )v

Hint2.Identifytheenergyatthetopoftheswing
WhatisthemechanicalenergyEtop oftheobjectandpendulumbobatthetopoftheswingwhenithasreacheditsmaximumangular
displacement?

## Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,M ,v 0 ,v ,L,and andtheaccelerationduetogravity,g .

Hint1.Mechanicalenergy
Themechanicalenergyofasystemisthetotalkineticandgravitationalpotentialenergyofthesystem.ThekineticenergyK ofan
objectofmassmmovingwithspeedv is
K=

1
2

mv

ThegravitationalpotentialenergyU ofanobjectofmassmaheightyabovesomereferencepointis

U = mgy
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.

U = mgy

Hint2.Findtheheightatthetopoftheswing
Whatistheheighth oftheobjectandpendulumbobatthetopoftheswing,whentheyhavereachedtheirmaximumdisplacement?
KeepinmindthatthependulumhasalengthLandswingsthroughanangle .

h

L(1 cos())

Hint3.Findthegravitationalpotentialenergyatthetopoftheswing
WhatisthegravitationalpotentialenergyUtop oftheobjectandpendulumbobatthetopoftheswing?
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm,M ,v 0 ,v ,L,and andtheaccelerationduetogravity,g .
Utop

(m + M )gL(1 cos())

Hint4.Findthekineticenergyatthetopoftheswing
WhatisthekineticenergyKtop oftheobjectandpendulumbobatthetopoftheswing?

K top =
K top =
K top =

1
2
1
2
1
2

mv
mv

2
0
2

(m + M )v

Ktop = 0

Etop

(m + M )gL(1 cos())

v

2gL(1 cos())

Hint5.Relatingthetwophysicalprocesses
Byapplyingconservationofmomentumtothecollision,youfoundanexpressionforv 0 :

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(
)

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v0 = (

m+M
m

)v

Byapplyingconservationofmechanicalenergytotheswing,youfoundanexpressionforv :

v = 2gL[1 cos()]

Combinethesetwoexpressionintojustoneexpressionforv 0 .

v0

m+M
m

( 2gL(1 cos) )

Correct
TheballisticpendulumwasinventedduringtheNapoleonicWarstoaidetheBritishNavyinmakingbettercannons.Ithassincebeenusedby
ballisticianstomeasurethevelocityofabulletasitleavesthebarrelofagun.InPartByouwilluseyourexpressionforv 0 tocomparetheinitial
speedsofbulletsfiredfrom9.0mm and.44caliberhandguns.

PartB
Anexperimentisdonetocomparetheinitialspeedofbulletsfiredfromdifferenthandguns:a9.0mm anda.44caliber.Thegunsarefiredintoa10kg
pendulumboboflengthL.Assumethatthe9.0mm bullethasamassof6.0g andthe.44caliberbullethasamassof12g .Ifthe9.0mm bullet
initialspeedofthe9.0mm bullettothespeedofthe.44caliberbullet,(v 0 ) 9.0 /(v 0 ) 44 .

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
UseyourexpressionfromPartAtosetuptheratio(v 0 ) 9.0 /(v 0 ) 44 .Trytocancelasmanytermsaspossiblebeforeplugginginyournumbersto
(v 0 )

9.0

/(v 0 )

44

= 0.85

Correct
PoliceofficersintheUnitedStatescommonlycarry9.0mm handgunsbecausetheyareeasiertohandle,havingashorterbarrelthantypical.44
caliberguns.Notonlydoesthe.44caliberbullethavemoremassthanthe9.0mm one,itspassagethroughalongergunbarrelmeansthatitalso
movesfasterasitleavesthebarrel,whichmakesthe.44caliberMagnumaparticularlypowerfulhandgun.A.44caliberbulletcantravelatspeeds
over1000miles per hour (1600kilometers per hour ).

Problem10.43
Unfortunately,thetruckdriverwentonabreakwithouthavingremovedthepreviouspackage,ofmass2m ,fromthebottomofthechute.

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PartA
Supposethepackagessticktogether.Whatistheircommonspeedafterthecollision?
v

= 2.3

m
s

Correct

PartB
Supposethecollisionbetweenthepackagesisperfectlyelastic.Towhatheightdoesthepackageofmassmrebound?
h

= 27cm

Correct

Problem10.74
Theairtrackcartsinthefigureareslidingtotherightat1.0m/s .Thespringbetweenthemhasa
springconstantof100N/m andiscompressed4.5cm.Thecartsslidepastaflamethatburns
throughthestringholdingthemtogether.

PartA
Whatisthespeedof100g cart?
v1

m
= 0.23 s

Correct

PartB
Whatisthedirectionofthemotionof100g cart?

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Totheright
Totheleft

Correct

PartC
Whatisthespeedof300g cart?
v2

m
= 1.4 s

Correct

PartD
Whatisthedirectionofthemotionof300g cart?
Totheleft
Totheright

Correct

ARelationBetweenMomentumandKineticEnergy

PartA
Acardinal(Richmondenacardinalis)ofmass3.50102kg andabaseballofmass0.143kg havethesamekineticenergy.Whatistheratioofthe
cardinal'smagnitudep c ofmomentumtothemagnitudep b ofthebaseball'smomentum?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Recallthatthekineticenergyofanobject(ofmassmandspeedv )isgivenbyK =

1
2

mv

,andthemagnitudeofthemomentumbyp

= mv

Combiningtheseequationsintoasingleexpressioncanthenbeusedtoeliminatev ,givinganexpressionofthekineticenergyintermsofthe
themasses.

Hint2.Findarelationshipbetweenkineticenergyandmomentum
SelectthegeneralexpressionforthekineticenergyK ofanobjectwithmassmandmomentump .
1
2

pm
2

pm
p

m
1
2

p
m

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pc
pb

= 0.495

Correct

PartB
Amanweighing690Nandawomanweighing500Nhavethesamemomentum.Whatistheratiooftheman'skineticenergyKm tothatofthewoman
Kw ?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Asinthepreviouspart,anexpressionforthemomentummustbefoundintermsofthekineticenergy.Thentheratioofthekineticenergies

Hint2.Findarelationshipbetweenmomentumandkineticenergy
Selectthegeneralexpressionforthemomentump ofanobjectwithmassmandkineticenergyK .
K

Km

2Km

Km

2Km

Km
Kw

= 0.725

Correct

Sixpendulumsofvariousmassesmarereleasedfromvariousheightsh aboveatabletop,asshowninthefiguresbelow.Allthependulumshavethesame
lengthandaremountedsuchthatattheverticalpositiontheirlowestpointsaretheheightofthetabletopandjustdonotstrikethetabletopwhenreleased.
Assumethatthesizeofeachbobisnegligible.

PartA
Rankeachpendulumonthebasisofitsinitialgravitationalpotentialenergy(beforebeingreleased)relativetothetabletop.
RankfromlargesttosmallestTorankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Gravitationalpotentialenergy
GravitationalpotentialenergyU isdefinedastheproductofthemassoftheobject,theaccelerationduetogravity,andtheheightoftheobject
aboveareferencelevel,summarizedas
.

U = mgh

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Correct

PartB
Rankeachpendulumonthebasisofthemaximumkineticenergyitattainsafterrelease.
RankfromlargesttosmallestTorankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Kineticenergy
Eachpendulumbeginsatrest(i.e.,kineticenergyofzero).Themaximumkineticenergyforapendulumwilloccurwhenitisatthelowestpointin
itsmotion.Atthispoint,allofthependulumswillbethesameheightabovethetabletop.Thekineticenergythenwillequalthechangeinpotential
energyfromtheinitialpointtothepointjustabovethetabletop.

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PartC
Rankeachpendulumonthebasisofitsmaximumspeed.
RankfromlargesttosmallestTorankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Theroleofmass
Bothkineticenergyandgravitationalpotentialenergyareproportionaltomass.Thus,apendulumwithlargermasshasalargerpotentialenergy
uponrelease,andalargerkineticenergyatitslowestpoint.Sincethekineticenergyisequaltothechangeinpotentialenergy,youmaywritedown
theequationmgh =1 / 2 mv 2.Noticethatmassmaybecanceledfrombothsides.Thus,thefinalspeeddependsuponthechangeinheightbut
isindependentofmass.
Thesituationissimilartothatofanobjectinfreefall.Infreefall,althoughlargermassesareacteduponbyalargergravitationalforce,alarger
massalsohasmoreinertia.Thesetwoeffectscancelout.Allobjectsfallwiththesameacceleration,andthereforereachthesamevelocityafter
fallingequaldistances.

Correct

PartA
Sixbaseballthrowsareshownbelow.IneachcasethebaseballisthrownatthesameinitialspeedandfromthesameheightH abovetheground.
Assumethattheeffectsofairresistancearenegligible.Rankthesethrowsaccordingtothespeedofthebaseballtheinstantbeforeithitstheground.
Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Althoughthissituationcanbeinvestigatedusingtheconceptsofprojectilemotion,theconservationofmechanicalenergyisabetterapproach.
Considertheinitialtotalenergy(kineticplusgravitationalpotential).Byconservationofenergy,thefinaltotalenergymustbeequaltotheinitialtotal
energy.Youcanusethefinalenergytodeterminethefinalspeedwhenitreachestheground.Notethatthelaunchangledoesnotaffecttheinitial
kineticorinitialgravitationalpotentialenergyoftheball.

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Correct
Theinitialandfinalpotentialenergiesoftheballarethesameregardlessofthetrajectory.Therefore,thefinalkineticenergy,andthereforethefinal
speed,oftheballmustbethesamenomatterinwhatdirectionitisthrown.

EnhancedEOC:Problem10.12
neutralsothatitwillroll.
Youmaywanttoreview(

pages251255).

Forhelpwithmathskills,youmaywanttoreview:
MathematicalExpressionsInvolvingSquares
Forgeneralproblemsolvingtipsandstrategiesforthistopic,youmaywanttoviewaVideoTutor
SolutionofCarrollingdownahill.

PartA
v

= 4.8

m
s

Correct
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