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Ch11HW

Ch11HW
Due:9:30amonMonday,April25,2016
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

IntroductiontoPotentialEnergy
LearningGoal:
Understandthatconservativeforcescanberemovedfromtheworkintegralbyincorporatingthemintoanewformof
energycalledpotentialenergythatmustbeaddedtothekineticenergytogetthetotalmechanicalenergy.
Thefirstpartofthisproblemcontainsshortanswerquestionsthatreviewtheworkenergytheorem.Inthesecondpart
weintroducetheconceptofpotentialenergy.Butfornow,pleaseanswerintermsoftheworkenergytheorem.
WorkEnergyTheorem
Theworkenergytheoremstates
,
whereW all istheworkdonebyallforcesthatactontheobject,andKi andKf aretheinitialandfinalkinetic
energies,respectively.
Kf

= Ki + W all

PartA
Theworkenergytheoremstatesthataforceactingonaparticleasitmovesovera______changesthe______
energyoftheparticleiftheforcehasacomponentparalleltothemotion.
Choosethebestanswertofillintheblanksabove:
ANSWER:
distance/potential
distance/kinetic
verticaldisplacement/potential
noneoftheabove

Correct
Itisimportantthattheforcehaveacomponentactinginthedirectionofmotion.Forexample,ifaballis
attachedtoastringandwhirledinuniformcircularmotion,thestringdoesapplyaforcetotheball,butsince
thestring'sforceisalwaysperpendiculartothemotionitdoesnoworkandcannotchangethekineticenergy
oftheball.

PartB
Tocalculatethechangeinenergy,youmustknowtheforceasafunctionof_______.Theworkdonebytheforce
causestheenergychange.
Choosethebestanswertofillintheblankabove:
ANSWER:

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acceleration
work
distance
potentialenergy

Correct

PartC
Toillustratetheworkenergyconcept,considerthecaseofastonefallingfromx i tox f undertheinfluenceof
gravity.
Usingtheworkenergyconcept,wesaythatworkisdonebythegravitational_____,resultinginanincreaseofthe
______energyofthestone.
Choosethebestanswertofillintheblanksabove:
ANSWER:
force/kinetic
potentialenergy/potential
force/potential
potentialenergy/kinetic

Correct
PotentialEnergyYoushouldreadaboutpotentialenergyinyourtextbeforeansweringthefollowingquestions.
Potentialenergyisaconceptthatbuildsontheworkenergytheorem,enlargingtheconceptofenergyinthemost
physicallyusefulway.Thekeyaspectthatallowsforpotentialenergyistheexistenceofconservativeforces,forcesfor
whichtheworkdoneonanobjectdoesnotdependonthepathoftheobject,onlytheinitialandfinalpositionsofthe
object.Thegravitationalforceisconservativethefrictionalforceisnot.
Thechangeinpotentialenergyisthenegativeoftheworkdonebyconservativeforces.Henceconsideringtheinitial
andfinalpotentialenergiesisequivalenttocalculatingtheworkdonebytheconservativeforces.Whenpotentialenergy
isused,itreplacestheworkdonebytheassociatedconservativeforce.Thenonlytheworkduetononconservative
forcesneedstobecalculated.
Insummary,whenusingtheconceptofpotentialenergy,onlynonconservativeforcescontributetothework,whichnow
changesthetotalenergy:
Kf + Uf = Ef = W nc + Ei = W nc + Ki + Ui ,
whereUf andUi arethefinalandinitialpotentialenergies,andW nc istheworkdueonlytononconservativeforces.

Now,wewillrevisitthefallingstoneexampleusingtheconceptofpotentialenergy.

PartD
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Ratherthanascribingtheincreasedkineticenergyofthestonetotheworkofgravity,wenow(whenusingpotential
energyratherthanworkenergy)saythattheincreasedkineticenergycomesfromthe______ofthe_______
energy.
Choosethebestanswertofillintheblanksabove:
ANSWER:
work/potential
force/kinetic
change/potential

Correct

PartE
Thisprocesshappensinsuchawaythattotalmechanicalenergy,equaltothe______ofthekineticandpotential
energies,is_______.
Choosethebestanswertofillintheblanksabove:
ANSWER:
sum/conserved
sum/zero
sum/notconserved
difference/conserved

Correct

AllWorkandNoPlay
LearningGoal:
Tobeabletocalculateworkdonebyaconstantforcedirectedatdifferentanglesrelativetodisplacement
Ifanobjectundergoesdisplacementwhilebeingacteduponbyaforce(orseveralforces),itissaidthatworkisbeing
doneontheobject.Iftheobjectismovinginastraightlineandthedisplacementandtheforceareknown,thework
donebytheforcecanbecalculatedas

cos
W = F s = F
s

whereW istheworkdonebyforceF ontheobjectthatundergoesdisplacement


s directedatangle relativeto F .

Notethatdependingonthevalueofcos ,theworkdonecanbepositive,negative,orzero.
Inthisproblem,youwillpracticecalculatingworkdoneonanobjectmovinginastraightline.Thefirstseriesof
questionsisrelatedtotheaccompanyingfigure.
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PartA
WhatcanbesaidaboutthesignoftheworkdonebytheforceF 1 ?
ANSWER:
Itispositive.
Itisnegative.
Itiszero.
Thereisnotenoughinformationtoanswerthequestion.

Correct
When

= 90

,thecosineof iszero,andthereforetheworkdoneiszero.

PartB
WhatcanbesaidabouttheworkdonebyforceF 2 ?
ANSWER:
Itispositive.
Itisnegative.
Itiszero.

Correct
When0

< < 90

,cos ispositive,andsotheworkdoneispositive.

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PartC
TheworkdonebyforceF 3 is
ANSWER:
positive
negative
zero

Correct
When90

< < 180

,cos isnegative,andsotheworkdoneisnegative.

PartD
TheworkdonebyforceF 4 is
ANSWER:
positive
negative
zero

Correct

PartE
TheworkdonebyforceF 5 is
ANSWER:
positive
negative
zero

Correct

PartF
TheworkdonebyforceF 6 is
ANSWER:
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positive
negative
zero

Correct

PartG
TheworkdonebyforceF 7 is
ANSWER:
positive
negative
zero

Correct

Inthenextseriesofquestions,youwillusetheformulaW

cos
= F s = F
s

tocalculatetheworkdonebyvariousforcesonanobjectthatmoves160meterstotheright.

PartH
FindtheworkW donebythe18newtonforce.
Usetwosignificantfiguresinyouranswer.Expressyouranswerinjoules.
ANSWER:

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W

= 2900 J

Correct

PartI
FindtheworkW donebythe30newtonforce.
Usetwosignificantfiguresinyouranswer.Expressyouranswerinjoules.
ANSWER:
W

= 4200 J

Correct

PartJ
FindtheworkW donebythe12newtonforce.
Usetwosignificantfiguresinyouranswer.Expressyouranswerinjoules.
ANSWER:
W

= 1900 J

Correct

PartK
FindtheworkW donebythe15newtonforce.
Usetwosignificantfiguresinyouranswer.Expressyouranswerinjoules.
ANSWER:
W

= 1800 J

Correct

TacticsBox11.1CalculatingtheWorkDonebyaConstantForce
LearningGoal:
TopracticeTacticsBox11.1CalculatingtheWorkDonebyaConstantForce.

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RecallthattheworkW donebyaconstantforceF atanangle


tothedisplacement d is
W = F d cos .
ThevectormagnitudesF andd arealwayspositive,sothesignofW isdeterminedentirelybytheangle between
theforceandthedisplacement.

TACTICSBOX11.1Calculatingtheworkdonebyaconstantforce

Forceanddisplacement

WorkW

F (r)

Signof
W

Energytransfer

Energyistransferredintothe
system.Theparticlespeedsup.K
increases.
< 90

90

> 90

F (r) cos

F (r) cos

Noenergyistransferred.Speed
andK areconstant.

Energyistransferredoutofthe
system.Theparticleslowsdown.
K decreases.
180

F (r)

AboxhasweightofmagnitudeFG =2.00Nacceleratesdownaroughplanethatisinclinedatanangle =30.0


abovethehorizontal,asshownatleft.Thenormalforceactingontheboxhasamagnituden =1.732N,the

coefficientofkineticfrictionbetweentheboxandtheplaneis k =0.300,andthedisplacementd oftheboxis1.80


m
downtheinclinedplane.

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PartA
WhatistheworkW grav doneontheboxbygravity?
Expressyouranswersinjoulestotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Drawafreebodydiagram
Aboxofweightw acceleratesdownaroughplanethatisinclinedatanangle30.0 abovethehorizontal,
asshownbelow.Drawafreebodydiagramthatidentifiesalltheforcesactingonthebox.
Drawallyourvectorswiththeirtailsattheblackdot.Thelocationandorientationofyourvectorswill
begraded.Thelengthofyourvectorswillnotbegraded.
ANSWER:

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Hint2.Findtheanglebetweenthedisplacementandtheweight

Whatistheangle betweenthedisplacementd andthegravitationalforce


FG?

Expressyouranswerindegreestotwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

= 60

ANSWER:
W grav

= 1.8 J

Correct
Thecomponentoftheweightparalleltothedisplacementislessthan2.00N.Theweighttransfersa
moderateamountofenergytothesystem.

PartB
WhatistheworkW n doneontheboxbythenormalforce?
Expressyouranswersinjoulestotwosignificantfigures.

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Hint1.Findtheanglebetweenthedisplacementandthenormalforce

Whatistheangle betweenthedisplacementd andthenormalforce


n?

Expressyouranswerindegreestotwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

= 90

ANSWER:
Wn

= 0 J

Correct
Becausethereisnocomponentofthenormalforceinthedirectionofmotion,thenormalforcedoesnowork
onthebox.

PartC
WhatistheworkW f doneontheboxbytheforceofkineticfriction?
k

Expressyouranswersinjoulestotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Findtheanglebetweenthedisplacementandtheforceofkineticfriction

Whatistheangle betweenthedisplacementd andtheforceofkineticfriction,


f k?

Expressyouranswerindegreestotwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

= 180

Hint2.Findtheforceofkineticfriction
Whatisthemagnitudeoftheforceofkineticfriction,f k ?
Expressyouranswerinnewtonstotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Calculatingtheforceofkineticfriction
Themagnitudeoftheforceofkineticfriction,f k ,istheproductofthecoefficientofkineticfriction,
,andthemagnitudeofthenormalforce n :
k
f

ANSWER:
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= 0.52 N

fk

ANSWER:
Wf

= 0.94 J

Correct
Theforceofkineticfrictionactsinadirectionoppositetothemotion.Thefrictionalforcetransfersamaximum
amountofenergyoutofthesystem.
Thetotalworkdoneonthebox,0.86J ,isthesumoftheworkdoneontheboxbyeachindividualforce:
.
Noticethatthenetworkdoneontheboxispositive,whichindicatesthatenergyisaddedtothebox.This
energyisusedtoincreasethekineticenergyoftheboxasitacceleratesdowntheincline.
W net = W n + W grav + W f

= +0.86J

Problem11.6

PartA
Evaluatethedotproductofthevectorsin.

ANSWER:
= 4.10

A B

Correct

PartB
Evaluatethedotproductofthevectorsin.
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ANSWER:
= 20

C D

Correct

PartC
Evaluatethedotproductofthevectorsin.

ANSWER:
= 10.4

E F

Correct

Problem11.12
Thethreeropesshowninthebird'seyeviewofthefigureareusedtodragacrate4.0macrossthefloor.

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PartA
Howmuchworkisdonebyeachofthethreeforces?
Expressyouranswersusingtwosignificantfigures.Enteryouranswersnumericallyseparatedbycommas.
ANSWER:
W1

,W 2 ,W 3 = 2.3,1.4,2.6 kJ

Correct

WorkandKineticEnergy
Twoblocksofice,onefourtimesasheavyastheother,areatrestonafrozenlake.Apersonpusheseachblockthe

samedistanced .IgnorefrictionandassumethatanequalforceF isexertedoneachblock.

PartA
Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueaboutthekineticenergyoftheheavierblockafterthepush?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Theworkenergytheoremstatesthatthechangeinkineticenergyofanobjectequalsthenetworkdoneon
thatobject:
W total = K.
Theworkdoneonanobjectcanalsoberelatedtothedistanced thattheobjectmoveswhilebeingacted
onbyaforceF :
,

W = F d

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whereF|| isthecomponentofF paralleltothedirectionofdisplacement.

Hint2.Findtheworkdoneoneachblock
Whatcanbesaidaboutthenetworkdoneontheheavierblock?
ANSWER:
Itisgreaterthantheworkdoneonthelighterblock.
Itisequaltotheworkdoneonthelighterblock.
Itislessthantheworkdoneonthelighterblock.

ANSWER:
Itissmallerthanthekineticenergyofthelighterblock.
Itisequaltothekineticenergyofthelighterblock.
Itislargerthanthekineticenergyofthelighterblock.
Itcannotbedeterminedwithoutknowingtheforceandthemassofeachblock.

Correct
Theworkenergytheoremstatesthatthechangeinkineticenergyofanobjectequalsthenetworkdoneon
thatobject.Theonlyforcedoingworkontheblocksistheforcefromtheperson,whichisthesameinboth
cases.Sincetheinitialkineticenergyofeachblockiszero,bothblockshavethesamefinalkineticenergy.

PartB
Comparedtothespeedoftheheavierblock,whatisthespeedofthelightblockafterbothblocksmovethesame
distanced ?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
InPartA,youdeterminedthatthekineticenergyoftheheavierblockwasthesameasthatofthelighter
block.Relatethistothespeedoftheblocks.

Hint2.Proportionalreasoning
Proportionalreasoningbecomeseasierwithpractice.Firstrelatethekineticenergiesoftheblockstoeach
other.Toaccomplishthis,letthesubscripthrefertotheheavierblockandthesubscript tothelighter
block.Now
Kh = K

canbewrittenas
1
2

m h (v h )

1
2

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m (v )

.
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Theproblemstatesthattheheavierblockisfourtimeasmassiveasthelighterblock.Thiscanbe
representedbytheexpression
m h = 4m

Substitutingthisexpressionintotheexpressionforkineticenergyyields
1
2

(4m )(v h )

1
2

m (v )

Howmanytimeslargerthanv 2h isv 2 ?
ANSWER:
v

= 4 v 2h

ANSWER:
onequarterasfast
halfasfast
thesamespeed
twiceasfast
fourtimesasfast

Correct
Sincethekineticenergyofthelighterblockisequaltothekineticenergyoftheheavierblock,thelighterblock
mustbemovingfasterthantheheavierblock.

PartC

NowassumethatbothblockshavethesamespeedafterbeingpushedwiththesameforceF .Whatcanbesaid
aboutthedistancesthetwoblocksarepushed?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Theworkenergytheoremstatesthatthechangeinkineticenergyofanobjectequalsthenetworkdoneon
thatobject:
W total = K.
Theworkdoneonanobjectcanalsoberelatedtothedistanced thattheobjectmoveswhilebeingacted
onbyaforceF :
,

W = F d

whereF|| isthecomponentofF paralleltothedirectionofdisplacement.

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Hint2.Relatethekineticenergiesoftheblocks
Letthesubscripthrefertotheheavierblockandthesubscript tothelighterblock.Whatistheratio
Kh
K

Hint1.Thekineticenergies
Torelatethekineticenergiesoftheblockstoeachother,recallthat
vh = v

and
m h = 4m

ANSWER:
Kh
K

= 4

Hint3.Comparetheamountofworkdoneoneachblock
Intheprevioushint,youfoundthatKh
theworkdoneonthelighterblock,
Wh
W

= 4K

.Whatistheratiooftheworkdoneontheheavyblockto

ANSWER:
Wh
W

ANSWER:
Theheavyblockmustbepushed16timesfartherthanthelightblock.
Theheavyblockmustbepushed4timesfartherthanthelightblock.
Theheavyblockmustbepushed2timesfartherthanthelightblock.
Theheavyblockmustbepushedthesamedistanceasthelightblock.
Theheavyblockmustbepushedhalfasfarasthelightblock.

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Correct
Becausetheheavierblockhasfourtimesthemassofthelighterblock,whenthetwoblockstravelwiththe
samespeed,theheavierblockwillhavefourtimesasmuchkineticenergy.Theworkenergytheoremimplies
thatfourtimesmoreworkmustbedoneontheheavierblockthanonthelighterblock.Sincethesameforceis
appliedtobothblocks,theheavierblockmustbepushedthroughfourtimesthedistanceasthelighterblock.

EnergyRequiredtoLiftaHeavyBox
Asyouaretryingtomoveaheavyboxofmassm,yourealizethatitistooheavyforyoutoliftbyyourself.Thereisno
onearoundtohelp,soyouattachanidealpulleytotheboxandamasslessropetotheceiling,whichyouwraparound
thepulley.Youpullupontheropetoliftthebox.
Useg forthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravityand
neglectfrictionforces.

PartA
Onceyouhavepulledhardenoughtostarttheboxmovingupward,whatisthemagnitudeF oftheupwardforce
youmustapplytotheropetostartraisingtheboxwithconstantvelocity?
Expressthemagnitudeoftheforceintermsofm,themassofthebox.

Hint1.Whatforcemustbeappliedtotheboxtokeepitmovingataconstantspeed?
Onceyouhavepulledhardenoughtostarttheboxmovingupward,whatisthemagnitudeoftheforcethat
thepulleymustexertontheboxsothatitmovesataconstantspeed?
Expressyouranswerintermsofthemassofthebox.
ANSWER:
Fp

mg

Hint2.Whatforcedoesthepulleyexertonthebox?
IfyoutakethetensionintheropetobeT ,whatisFp ,themagnitudeofthenetupwardforcethatthepulley
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exertsonthebox?
ExpressyouranswerintermsofT .
ANSWER:
Fp

2T

Hint3.Findthetensionintherope
FindthetensionintheropeintermsofF ,theforcewithwhichyouarepullingupward.
ANSWER:
T

Hint4.Puttingitalltogether
Onyourownorusingtheprevioushints,youshouldhavefoundequationsforhefollowing:
1.theforceneededtolifttheboxatconstantvelocity,intermsofitsmass,
2.therelationshipbetweentheforceontheboxduetothepulleyandthetensionintherope,and
3.therelationshipbetweentheforceappliedtotheropeandthetensionintherope.
Usetwooftheseequationstoeliminatetheforceappliedbythepulleyandthetensionintherope.You
shouldthenbeabletoexpresstheforceappliedontheropeintermsofthemassofthebox.
ANSWER:
F

mg
2

Correct

PartB
Considerliftingaboxofmassmtoaheighth usingtwodifferentmethods:liftingtheboxdirectlyorliftingthebox
usingapulley(asinthepreviouspart).
WhatisW d /W p ,theratiooftheworkdoneliftingtheboxdirectlytotheworkdoneliftingtheboxwithapulley?
Expresstherationumerically.

Hint1.Definitionofwork
Ineachcase,theamountofworkW youdoisequaltotheforceF youapplytimesthedistanced over
whichyouapplytheforce:
.

W = Fd

Hint2.Ratiooftheforces
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Whatistheratiooftheforceneededtolifttheboxdirectlytotheforceneededtolifttheboxusingthe
pulley?
Expressyouranswernumerically.
ANSWER:
Fd
Fp

= 2

Hint3.Ratioofthedistances
Whatistheratioofthedistanceoverwhichforceisappliedwhenliftingtheboxdirectlytothedistanceover
whichforceisappliedwhenliftingtheboxwiththepulley?
Expresstheratioofdistancesnumerically.

Hint1.Findthedistancewhenusingthepulley
FindDp ,thedistanceoverwhichyoumustapplyforcewhenliftingtheboxusingthepulley.
Expressyouranswerintermsofh ,thetotalheightthattheboxislifted.

Hint1.Pullingtheropeashortdistance
Usingthepully,imaginethatyoupulltheendoftheropeashortdistancedx upward.Thebox
willactuallyriseadistancedx/2.(Drawapictureifyouhavetroublevisualizingthis.)

ANSWER:
Dp

2h

Hint2.Findthedistancewhenliftingdirectly
Whenliftingtheboxdirectly,thedistanceoverwhichforceisapplied,Dd ,isequaltothevertical
distanceh thattheboxisraised.
ANSWER:
Dd
Dp

= 0.500

ANSWER:
Wd
Wp

= 1

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Correct
Nomatterwhichmethodyouusetoliftthebox,itsgravitationalpotentialenergywillincreasebymgh .So,
neglectingfriction,youwillalwaysneedtodoanamountofworkequaltomgh toliftit.

PucksonIce
Twohockeyplayers,AaronandBrunnhilde,arepushingtwopucksonafrictionlessicerink.Thepucksareinitiallyat
restonthestartingline.BrunnhildeispushingpuckB,which
hasamassthreetimesasgreatasthatofpuckA,which
Aaronispushing.Theplayersexertequalconstantforcesof
magnitudeF ontheirpucks,directedhorizontally,towards
thefinishline.Theystartpushingatthesametime,andeach
playerpusheshisorherpuckuntilitcrossesthefinishline,a
distanced away.

PartA
Whichpuckreachesthefinishlinefirst?

Hint1.Computetherelativeaccelerationofthepucks
Ifa A anda B arethemagnitudesoftheaccelerationsofpucksAandB,respectively,whatisthevalueof
theratioa A /a B ?
ANSWER:
a A /a B

= 3

ANSWER:
Bothpucksreachthefinishlineatthesametime.
PuckAreachesthefinishlinefirst.
PuckBreachesthefinishlinefirst.
Moreinformationisneededtoanswerthisquestion.

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Correct

PartB
LetKA bethemagnitudeofthekineticenergyofpuckAattheinstantitreachesthefinishline.Similarly,KB is
themagnitudeofthekineticenergyofpuckBatthe(possiblydifferent)instantitreachesthefinishline.Whichof
thefollowingstatementsistrue?

Hint1.Determinethesimplestwaytoanswerthisquestion
Thereareseveralpossibleapproachestothisproblem.Whichisthesimplest?
Choosethebestoption.
ANSWER:
UseF

(forceequalsmasstimesacceleration)tofindtheaccelerationofeachpuck.

= ma

Used =
line.

1
2

at

(relatingdistancetraveledtoaccelerationandtime)tofindthetimetothefinish

Usetheworkenergytheorem.
Applyconservationofmomentumandenergy.

Hint2.WorkdoneonpuckA
FindW A ,theworkdoneonpuckAoverthedistanced .
ANSWER:
WA

Fd

Hint3.WorkdoneonpuckB
FindW B ,theworkdoneonpuckBoverthedistanced .
ANSWER:
WB

Fd

ANSWER:
KA = KB

KA < KB

KA > KB

Youneedmoreinformationtodecide.

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Correct

PartC
Letp A bethemagnitudeofthemomentumofpuckAattheinstantitreachesthefinishline.Similarly,p B isthe
magnitudeofthemomentumofpuckBatthe(possiblydifferent)instantitreachesthefinishline.Whichofthe
followingstatementsistrue?
Choosethebestoption.

Hint1.Method1:Computetheratioofthepucks'velocities
Themomentumofanobjectistheproductofitsmassandvelocity.Fromtheproblemintroduction,you
mA

knowthat m

1
3

.Findv A /v B ,theratioofthevelocityofpuckAattheinstantitreachesthefinishline

tothevelocityofpuckBatthe(possiblydifferent)instantitreachesthefinishline.

Hint1.Howtofindthefinalvelocities
Youcaneasilycomputetheratiousingthe(alreadydetermined)factthatthefinalkineticenergyof
bothpucksisthesame.Writethekineticenergyofeachpuckintermsofitsvelocity(forexample,
KA =

1
2

mA v A

).Settheseexpressionsequal,andusetheknownratioofthemasses.

ANSWER:
v A /v B

= 1.73

Hint2.Method2:Usetheimpulsemomentumtheorem
Theimpulsemomentumtheoremstatesthat
.

p = F t

Youaregiventhatbothforcesarethesame,andyouhavecomparedthetimesinanearlierpart.
ANSWER:
p
p
p

= p
< p
> p

Youneedmoreinformationtodecide.

Correct

Problem11.15
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A520g particlemovingalongthexaxisexperiencestheforceshowninthefigure.Theparticle'svelocityis2.0m/s at
x = 0 m.

PartA
Whatisitsvelocityatx

= 1 m

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
v

= 7.2

m
s

Correct

PartB
Whatisitsvelocityatx

= 2 m

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
v

= 9.0

m
s

Correct

PartC
Whatisitsvelocityatx

= 3 m

Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
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= 9.5

m
s

Correct

Problem11.18
Aparticlehasthepotentialenergyshowninthefigure.What
isthexcomponentoftheforceontheparticleatx =5,15,
25,and35cm?

PartA
Atx

= 5 cm

ANSWER:
Fx

= 100N

Correct

PartB
Atx

= 15 cm

ANSWER:
Fx

= 0N

Correct

PartC
Atx

= 25 cm

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ANSWER:
Fx

= 50.0N

Correct

PartD
Atx

= 35 cm

ANSWER:
Fx

= 50.0N

Correct

Problem11.22
Themassofacarbonatomis2.0 10

26

kg

PartA
Whatisthekineticenergyofacarbonatommovingwithaspeedof550m/s ?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
K

= 3.01021J

Correct

PartB
Twocarbonatomsarejoinedbyaspringlikecarboncarbonbond.Thepotentialenergystoredinthebondhasthe
valueyoucalculatedinpartAifthebondisstretched0.050nm.Whatisthebond'sspringconstant?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfiguresandincludetheappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
k

= 2.4 N
m

Correct
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PhETTutorial:TheRamp
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandhowtheforcesexertedonanobjectonaninclinedplaneaffecttheobjectsmotion.
Forthistutorial,usethePhETsimulationTheRamp.Thissimulationallowsyoutoplaceavarietyofobjectsonan
inclinedrampandlookattheresultingforcesandmotion.

Startthesimulation.Whenyouclickthesimulationlink,youmaybeaskedwhethertorun,open,orsavethefile.
Choosetorunoropenit.
SelectanobjecttoplaceontherampbyclickingonanyobjectundertheChooseObjectsectionoftherightpanel.To
changetherampangle,youcanadjusttheRampAnglesliderbarintherightpaneloryoucanclickontherampand
dragitupordown.Toturnofffriction,youcanclickontheFrictionlessoptionthatisabovethePositionsetting.You
canhavethepersonpushingontheobjectbysettinganAppliedForcethatisnonzero(youcantypeinavalueinthe
AppliedForceboxontheleft,dragthebigverticalsliderbartotheleftoftheparallelforcegraph,oryoucanclickand
dragontheobject).Whilethesimulationisrunning,agraphshowstheparallelforces(i.e.,thecomponentsofthe
forcesalongtheramp)asafunctionoftime.
Feelfreetoplayaroundwiththesimulation.Whenyouaredone,clickResetbeforebeginningPartA.

PartA
Thefirstthingyouwillinvestigateisstaticfriction.Theforceofstaticfrictionistheparallelforceexertedona
stationaryobjectbytheramp.Thisforceisalwaysdirectedoppositethedirectiontheobjectwouldslideifthere
werenofriction.
Selectthecrateastheobjectfortheramp.Then,slowlyincreasetherampangle.Theindividualforcesactingon
thecrateareshown.Theylllooksomethinglikethis:

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Watchwhathappenstotheforceoffriction(theredvectorinthepictureortheredplotinthegraph)beforethe
cratestartstoslidedowntheramp.
Astherampangleincreases,theforceofstaticfriction
ANSWER:
decreases.
remainsthesame.
increases.

Correct
Inorderforthecratetoremainatrest,theforceofstaticfrictionmustbeequalinmagnitudetothecomponent
oftheforceofgravityparalleltotheramp.Astherampangleincreases,thiscomponentoftheforceofgravity
increases.

PartB
Withthecratestationaryonahorizontalramp,theforceofstaticfrictionis
ANSWER:
directedtotheleft.
directedtotheright.
zero.

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Correct
Sincetheforceofgravityisvertical,ithasnocomponentparalleltothehorizontalramp.Thismeansthat
thereisnoforcealongtherampthatfrictionhastooppose.

PartC
Whatisthemaximumrampanglethatstillallowsthecratetoremainatrest?(Makesurethecoefficientoffriction
is0.7.)
Expressyouranswertothenearestdegree.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Slowlyincreasetherampangle,andlookatthevalueoftheangleoncethecratebeginstoslide.Yourgraph
willlooksomethinglikethis,andtheslippingoccurswhentheredcurveflattensout:

ANSWER:

= 35

Correct
Thecrateaccelerateswhenthecomponentoftheforceofgravityalongtherampisgreaterthanthemaximum
forceofstaticfriction.Thecomponentoftheforceofgravityalongtherampismgsin() ,wheremgisthe
weightoftheobjectand istherampangle.Themaximumforceofstaticfrictionisn = mgcos(),
wheren isthenormalforceand isthecoefficientofstaticfriction.Themaximumanglecanbedetermined
byequatingthesetwoforces,whichgivessin() = cos(),or = atan() = 35 .

PartD
Inthepreviouspart,youdeterminedthemaximumanglethatstillallowsthecratetoremainatrest.Ifthe
coefficientoffrictionislessthan0.7,whathappenstothisangle?(Notethatyoucanadjustthecoefficientof
frictionbyclickingontheMoreFeaturestabnearthetopofthewindowandthenusingthesliderbarintheright
panel.)
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Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Themaximumforceofstaticfrictionisgivenbyf s,max

,wheren isthenormalforceactingonthe

= n

crateand isthecoefficientofstaticfriction.Thinkaboutwhathappenstothismaximumforcewhenthe
coefficientoffrictiondecreases.
ANSWER:
Themaximumangledecreases.
Themaximumangleincreases.
Themaximumangleremainsthesame.

Correct
Sincethemaximumforceofstaticfrictiondecreasesduetothesmallercoefficientoffriction,asmaller
componentoftheforceofgravityalongtherampisrequiredtomakethecrateaccelerate.

PartE
ThemassofthecratecanalsobeadjustedbyclickingontheMoreFeaturestabandthenusingthesliderbarin
therightpanel.
Howdoesthemaximumangleforwhichthecratecanremainatrestontherampdependonthemassofthecrate?

Hint1.Howtoapproachthispart
Thinkabouthowthemaximumforceofstaticfrictiondependsonthemassoftheobject,andcomparethat
tohowtheforceofgravitydependsonthemass.Keepinmindthatthefilecabinetwillbeginslippingwhen
themaximumforceofstaticfrictionisequaltothecomponentoftheforceofgravityalongtheramp.
ANSWER:
Themaximumangledecreasesasthemassincreases.
Themaximumangleincreasesasthemassincreases.
Themaximumangledoesnotdependonthemass.

Correct
Althoughthenormalforceandthusthemaximumforceofstaticfrictionincreaseswithincreasingmass,the
componentoftheforceofgravityparalleltotherampincreasesatthesamerate.Themaximumangleis
thereforeindependentofthemass.

Thenextthreepartsdealwiththeforcesonthecratewhilethepersonispushingonit.
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PartF
ClickReset,andthenadjusttherampangleto15 .Comparetheforceofstaticfrictionwhenthereisnoapplied
forcetowhenthereisanappliedforceof100N(pushinguptheramp).
Howdothetwoforcesofstaticfrictioncompare?
ANSWER:
Theforceofstaticfrictionwhenthereisnoappliedforceislessthanthecasewhenthereisanapplied
force.
Theforceofstaticfrictionwhenthereisnoappliedforceisgreaterthanthecasewhenthereisanapplied
force.
Theforceofstaticfrictionwhenthereisnoappliedforceisequaltothecasewhenthereisanapplied
force.

Correct
Inorderforthecratetobestationary,thesumoftheappliedforceandtheforceofstaticfrictionmusthave
thesamemagnitudeasthecomponentofgravityparalleltotheramp(sothatthenetforceiszero).Thus,the
forceoffrictiondecreasesby100Nwhentheappliedforcegoesfromzeroto100N.

PartG
Forastationarycrate(withacoefficientoffrictionof0.7)onthe15 ramp,cantheforceofstaticfrictioneverbe
zero?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblemusingthesimulation
Adjusttheappliedforcewhilewatchingtheforceofstaticfrictionintheparallelforcegraph.Determineifyou
canmaketheforceofstaticfrictiongotozero.

Hint2.Howtoapproachtheproblemusingphysicsreasoning
Thinkaboutwhatwouldberequiredforthecabinettobeatrestonafrictionlesssurface.Inwhichdirection
istheforceofgravity?Inwhichdirectionwouldtheappliedforcehavetobeexertedtobalancetheforceof
gravityalongtheramp?
ANSWER:
No
Yes,butonlyforaspecificappliedforcedirecteduptheramp.
Yes,butonlyforaspecificappliedforcedirecteddowntheramp.

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Whentheappliedforcehasthesamestrengthasthecomponentoftheforceofgravityparalleltotheramp,
thenthenetforceonthecratewouldbezeroifthesurfacewerefrictionless.Thismeansfrictiondoesnthave
tohelp,andsotheforceoffrictioniszero(thisissimilartoPartB,wherethecrateissittingonahorizontal
surfacewithnoappliedforces).Noticethatiftheappliedforceisgreaterthanthisvalue,theforceofstatic
frictionisdirecteddowntheramp.

PartH
Slowlyadjusttheappliedforce(pushingbothupanddowntheramp)untilthecratebeginstomove.Determinethe
minimumstrengthofthepushingforceneededtoacceleratethecrateuptherampandtheminimumstrengthofthe
pushingforceneededtoacceleratethecratedowntheramp.
Howdothesetwominimumstrengthscomparetoeachother?
ANSWER:
Theminimumpushneededtogetthecratetoslideuptherampisgreaterthanthattogetthecrateto
slidedowntheramp.
Theminimumpushneededtogetthecratetoslideuptherampisthesameasthattogetthecrateto
slidedowntheramp.
Theminimumpushneededtogetthecratetoslideuptherampislessthanthattogetthecratetoslide
downtheramp.

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Correct
Whenpushinguptheramp,theappliedforceisopposingnotonlythestaticfrictionforce(whichisdirected
downtheramp)butalsothecomponentoftheforceofgravityalongtheramp.Whenpushingdowntheramp,
theappliedforceisbeinghelpedbythecomponentoftheforceofgravitydowntherampinopposingthe
frictionforce(directeduptheramp),andsodoesntneedtobeasstrong.

Thisshouldbeconsistentwithyourownexperiencestryingtomovethingsupanddownslopes.

PhETInteractiveSimulations
UniversityofColorado
http://phet.colorado.edu

PSS11.1SolvingEnergyProblems
LearningGoal:
TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy11.1forenergyproblems.
Asledisbeingheldatrestonaslopethatmakesanangle withthehorizontal.Afterthesledisreleased,itslidesa
distanced 1 downtheslopeandthencoversthedistanced 2 alongthehorizontalterrainbeforestopping.Findthe
coefficientofkineticfriction k betweenthesledandtheground,assumingthatitisconstantthroughoutthetrip.
PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGY11.1Solvingenergyproblems
MODEL: Identifywhichobjectsarepartofthesystemandwhichareintheenvironment.Ifpossible,chooseasystem

withoutfrictionorotherdissipativeforces.Someproblemsmayneedtobesubdividedintotwoormoreparts.
VISUALIZE: Drawabeforeandafterpictorialrepresentationandanenergybarchart.Afreebodydiagrammaybehelpful

ifyou'regoingtocalculatework,althoughoftentheforcesaresimpleenoughtobeshownonthepictorial
representation.
SOLVE: Ifthesystemisbothisolatedandnondissipative,thenthemechanicalenergyisconserved:
K +U
= K +U
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K f + Uf = K i + Ui .
Ifthereareexternalordissipativeforces,calculateW ext andEth .Then,usethemoregeneralenergyequation:
K f + Uf

+ Eth = Ki + Ui + W ext

Kinematicsand/orotherconservationlawsmaybeneededforsomeproblems.
ASSESS: Checkthatyourresulthasthecorrectunits,isreasonable,andanswersthequestion.

Model
Theprobleminvolvesfriction.Therefore,alltheobjectsinvolvedinthedissipativeinteractioncausedbyfrictionshould
beincludedinthesystem.Thismeansthatforthisproblem,thesystemiscomposedofboththesledandthesurface
oftheground.

Visualize
PartA
Inadditiontoabeforeandafterpictorialrepresentation,inenergyproblemsitisoftenusefultodrawenergybar
charts,astheonesshownbelow.Takingtheinitialstateofthesystemtobethemomentwhenthesledisreleased
fromrestandthefinalstatetobethemomentwhenthesledcomestoastop,letKi ,Ui ,Kf ,andUf bethe
sled'sinitialandfinalkineticandgravitationalenergies,respectivelyletW ext betheworkdoneonthesystemby
externalforces,andEth betheincreaseinthermalenergyofthesystem.Takethegravitationalenergyofthe
sledatthebottomoftheslopetobezero.Whichofthefollowingenergybarchartscorrectlydescribestheenergy
transformationoccurringinthisproblem?

Hint1.Externalforcesandisolatedsystems
Becausenoworkisdonebyexternalforces,thesystemisisolatedandW ext

atanytime.

= 0

ANSWER:

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Correct
Becausenoworkisdonebyexternalforces,thesystemisisolatedandW ext = 0atanytime.Sincethesled
startsfromrestandeventuallycomestoastop,theentireinitialenergyofthesystem,whichisintheformof
thesled'sinitialgravitationalenergy,Ui ,mustbetransformedintothermalenergy.Moreprecisely,asthesled
movesdowntheslope,itsgravitationalenergyistransformedpartiallyintothermalenergyandpartiallyinto
kineticenergy.Asthesledreachestheendoftheslopeandstartstoslowdown,thesystemhasnomore
gravitationalenergy.Atthispoint,itskineticenergyistransformedentirelyintothermalenergy.Thisenergy
transformationissummarizedinthefollowingenergybarcharts:

Acompletepictorialrepresentationofthisproblemshouldincludeabeforeandafterpictorialrepresentation
likethisone:

Solve
PartB
Findthecoefficientofkineticfriction k .
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesd 1 ,d 2 ,and .
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Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Becausenoworkisdonebyexternalforces,thesystemisisolatedandW ext = 0atanytime.Therefore,
youcanwritetheconservationofenergyequationfortheentiremotionofthesled.Taketheinitialstateto
bethemomentwhenthesledisreleasedfromrestatthetopoftheslope,andthefinalstatethemoment
whenthesledcomestoastopaftertravelingthegivendistanceonthehorizontalterrain.Besureto
calculatetheincreaseinthermalenergyofthesystem,Eth ,correctly:Youshouldcalculatetheincrease
inthermalenergyasthesledslidesdowntheslope,andthentheincreaseinthermalenergyasthesled
travelshorizontally.Notethat,althoughthecoefficientoffrictionisconstantthroughoutthemotion,the
actualfrictionforcechangesasthesledmovesfromtheslopeontothehorizontalterrain.

Hint2.Howtotreattheunknownmassofthesled
Towritetheequationsforenergyconservation,youwillneedtointroduceavariablemrepresentingthe
massofthesled.However,becausethemasswasnotgivenintheproblemstatement,youshould
anticipatethatmwillnotbeapartofthefinalanswer.

Hint3.Calculatetheincreaseinthethermalenergyfortheentiretrip
FindEth ,theincreaseinthethermalenergyofthesystemduringtheentiremotion.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesd 1 ,d 2 , k ,and .Ifneeded,usemfor
themassofthesledandg fortheaccelerationduetogravity.

Hint1.Theforceoffrictionandtheincreaseinthermalenergy
Recallthattheincreaseinthermalenergyofthesystemduetothedissipativeforceoffrictionis
Eth = f r,where f isthemagnitudeoftheforceoffrictionand r isthedistancetraveled
k
k
bytheobjectinvolvedinthedissipativeinteraction.

Hint2.Findtheforceoffrictionforthemotiondowntheslope
Findthemagnitudeoftheforceoffriction(f k ) slope betweenthesledandthesurfaceoftheslopeas
thesledmovesdowntheslope.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesd 1 ,d 2 , k ,and .Ifneeded,use
m forthemassofthesledand g fortheaccelerationduetogravity.
ANSWER:
(f

slope

mgcos()

Hint3.Findtheforceoffrictionforthehorizontalmotion
Findthemagnitudeoftheforceoffriction(f k ) hor betweenthesledandthesurfaceoftheslopeas
thesledmoveshorizontally.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesd 1 ,d 2 , k ,and .Ifneeded,use
m forthemassofthesledand g fortheaccelerationduetogravity.
ANSWER:
(f

hor

mg

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ANSWER:
Eth

mg(d 1 cos() + d 2 )

Hint4.Findtheinitialandfinalgravitationalenergies
FindthepotentialenergyUi ofthesledattheveryfirstmomentofmotion,andthenthepotentialenergyUf
ofthesledtheverylastmomentofmotion.Takethegravitationalpotentialenergyofthesledtobezeroat
thebottomoftheslope.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesd 1 ,d 2 , k ,and .Ifneeded,usemfor
themassofthesledandg fortheaccelerationduetogravity.
ANSWER:
Ui

,Uf =

mgd 1 sin() 0

Hint5.Findtheinitialandfinalkineticenergies
FindthekineticenergyKi ofthesledattheveryfirstmomentofmotion,andthenthekineticenergyKf of
thesledtheverylastmomentofmotion.
Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesd 1 ,d 2 , k ,and .Ifneeded,usemfor
themassofthesledandg fortheaccelerationduetogravity.
ANSWER:
Ki

,Kf = 0,0

ANSWER:

d 1 sin
d 1 cos+d 2

Correct
Asexpected,theanswerdoesnotdependonthemassofthesled.

Assess
PartC
Toassesswhetheryourcalculationsarereasonable,we'llanalyzeasimilarsituationtotheonedescribedinthe
problemintroduction.
Supposethesamesledisreleasedfromthesameheightonthesameslope.Thistime,however,assumethatthe
coefficientofkineticfrictionbetweenthegroundandthesledisaknownquantity, ,and,asbefore,constant
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throughoutthetrip.Afterthesledisreleased,itslidesthesamedistanced 1 downtheslopeandthenmovesa
certain(unknown)distancealongthehorizontalterrainbeforestopping.Findthedistanced traveledbythesled
fromtheendoftheslopeuntilitcomestoastop.
Expressyouranswerintermsofthevariablesd 1 , ,and .

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Inprinciple,youcouldrepeatthesamecalculationsyoudidinthepreviouspart,usingd insteadofd 2 and
insteadof k .Youwouldthensolveford insteadof .Inpractice,however,youdonotneedtowritedown
theconservationofenergyequationagaininstead,youcandirectlyuseyourexpressionfor k fromPart
B.Simplyrewriteit,usingd insteadofd 2 and insteadof k ,andthensolveford .
ANSWER:

(sin cos)

d1

Correct
Ifyouhavenotyetdoneso,simplifyyourexpressionford untilyougetthefollowingequation:
d=

d 1 sin

d1 cos .

Thisresulttellsyouthatifthecoefficientofkineticfriction increases,theratio

d 1 sin

decreases,andso

doesthedistanced .Thisiswhatyoushouldexpect.Iffrictionincreases,moremechanicalenergywillbe
transformedintothermalenergyofthesystemandthesledwilleventuallyrunoutofenergysooner.Inother
words,thesledwillcometoastopsooneraftertravelingashorterdistance.Yourcalculationsdomakesense!

ACarwithConstantPower
Theengineinanimaginarysportscarcanprovideconstantpowertothewheelsoverarangeofspeedsfrom0to70
milesperhour(mph).Atfullpower,thecarcanacceleratefromzeroto31.0mph intime1.10s .

PartA
Atfullpower,howlongwouldittakeforthecartoacceleratefrom0to62.0mph ?Neglectfrictionandair
resistance.
Expressyouranswerinseconds.

Hint1.Energyandpower
Intheabsenceoffriction,theconstantpoweroftheengineimpliesthatthekineticenergyofthecar
increaseslinearlywithtime.

Hint2.Findtheratioofkineticenergies
Findthe(numerical)ratioofthecar'skineticenergyK1 atspeed62.0mph toK2 ,thekineticenergyat
speed31.0mph .
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ANSWER:
K1
K2

= 4

ANSWER:
4.40 s

Correct
Ofcourse,neglectingfriction,especiallyairfriction,iscompletelyunrealisticatsuchspeeds.

PartB
Amorerealisticcarwouldcausethewheelstospininamannerthatwouldresultinthegroundpushingitforward
withaconstantforce(incontrasttotheconstantpowerinPartA).Ifsuchasportscarwentfromzeroto31.0mph
intime1.10s ,howlongwouldittaketogofromzeroto62.0mph ?
Expressyouranswernumerically,inseconds.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Constantforcemeansconstantacceleration.Usethisfacttofindhowthespeedincreaseswithtime.
ANSWER:
2.20 s

Correct
Thisisprobablythefirstandlasttimeyouwillcomeacrossanimaginarycarthatgoesslowerthanthereal
one!

Problem11.29

PartA
Howmuchworkdoesanelevatormotordotolifta1500kg elevatoraheightof160m?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:

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W ext

= 2.35106J

Correct

PartB
Howmuchpowermustthemotorsupplytodothisin60s atconstantspeed?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
P

= 3.92104W

Correct

PotentialEnergyGraphsandMotion
LearningGoal:
Tobeabletointerpretpotentialenergydiagramsandpredictthecorrespondingmotionofaparticle.
Potentialenergydiagramsforaparticleareusefulinpredictingthemotionofthatparticle.Thesediagramsallowoneto
determinethedirectionoftheforceactingontheparticleatanypoint,thepointsofstableandunstableequilibrium,the
particle'skineticenergy,etc.
Considerthepotentialenergydiagramshown.Thecurve
representsthevalueofpotentialenergyU asafunctionof
theparticle'scoordinatex .Thehorizontallineabovethe
curverepresentstheconstantvalueofthetotalenergyofthe
particleE .ThetotalenergyE isthesumofkinetic(K )and
potential(U )energiesoftheparticle.
Thekeyideaininterpretingthegraphcanbeexpressedinthe
equation
Fx (x) =

dU (x)
dx

whereFx (x) isthexcomponentofthenetforceasfunction


oftheparticle'scoordinatex .Notethenegativesign:It
meansthatthexcomponentofthenetforceisnegativewhen
thederivativeispositiveandviceversa.Forinstance,ifthe
particleismovingtotheright,anditspotentialenergyis
increasing,thenetforcewouldbepullingtheparticletothe
left.
Ifyouarestillhavingtroublevisualizingthis,considerthefollowing:Ifamassiveparticleisincreasingitsgravitational
potentialenergy(thatis,movingupward),theforceofgravityispullingintheoppositedirection(thatis,downward).
Ifthexcomponentofthenetforceiszero,theparticleissaidtobeinequilibrium.Therearetwokindsofequilibrium:
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Stableequilibriummeansthatsmalldeviationsfromtheequilibriumpointcreateanetforcethat
acceleratestheparticlebacktowardtheequilibriumpoint(thinkofaballrollingbetweentwohills).
Unstableequilibriummeansthatsmalldeviationsfromtheequilibriumpointcreateanetforcethat
acceleratestheparticlefurtherawayfromtheequilibriumpoint(thinkofaballontopofahill).

Inansweringthefollowingquestions,wewillassumethatthereisasinglevaryingforceF actingontheparticlealong
thexaxis.Therefore,wewillusethetermforceinsteadofthecumbersomexcomponentofthenetforce.

PartA
TheforceactingontheparticleatpointAis__________.

Hint1.Signofthederivative
Ifafunctionincreases(asx increases)inacertainregion,thenthederivativeofthefunctioninthatregion
ispositive.

Hint2.Signofthecomponent
Ifx increasestotheright,asinthegraphshown,thena(onedimensional)vectorwithapositivex
componentpointstotheright,andviceversa.
ANSWER:
directedtotheright
directedtotheleft
equaltozero

Correct
ConsiderthegraphintheregionofpointA.Iftheparticleismovingtotheright,itwouldbe"climbingthehill,"
andtheforcewould"pullitdown,"thatis,pulltheparticlebacktotheleft.Another,moreabstractwayof

thinkingaboutthisistosaythattheslopeofthegraphatpointAispositivetherefore,thedirectionofF is
negative.

PartB
TheforceactingontheparticleatpointCis__________.

Hint1.Signofthederivative
Ifafunctionincreases(asx increases)inacertainregion,thenthederivativeofthefunctioninthatregion
ispositive,andviceversa.

Hint2.Signofthecomponent
Ifx increasestotheright,asinthegraphshown,thena(onedimensional)vectorwithapositivex
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componentpointstotheright,andviceversa.
ANSWER:
directedtotheright
directedtotheleft
equaltozero

Correct

PartC
TheforceactingontheparticleatpointBis__________.

Hint1.Derivativeofafunctionatalocalmaximum
Atalocalmaximum,thederivativeofafunctionisequaltozero.
ANSWER:
directedtotheright
directedtotheleft
equaltozero

Correct
Theslopeofthegraphiszerotherefore,thederivativedU /dx

,and|F |

= 0

= 0

PartD
TheaccelerationoftheparticleatpointBis__________.

Hint1.Relationbetweenaccelerationandforce
TherelationbetweenaccelerationandforceisgivenbyNewton's2ndlaw,
F = ma.
ANSWER:

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directedtotheright
directedtotheleft
equaltozero

Correct
Ifthenetforceiszero,soistheacceleration.Theparticleissaidtobeinastateofequilibrium.

PartE
IftheparticleislocatedslightlytotheleftofpointB,itsaccelerationis__________.

Hint1.Theforceonsuchaparticle
TotheleftofB,U (x)isanincreasingfunctionandsoitsderivativeispositive.Thisimpliesthatthex
componentoftheforceonaparticleatthislocationisnegative,orthattheforceisdirectedtotheleft,just
likeatA.Whatcanyousaynowabouttheacceleration?
ANSWER:
directedtotheright
directedtotheleft
equaltozero

Correct

PartF
IftheparticleislocatedslightlytotherightofpointB,itsaccelerationis__________.

Hint1.Theforceonsuchaparticle
TotherightofB,U (x)isadecreasingfunctionandsoitsderivativeisnegative.Thisimpliesthatthex
componentoftheforceonaparticleatthislocationispositive,orthattheforceisdirectedtotheright,just
likeatC.Whatcanyounowsayabouttheacceleration?
ANSWER:
directedtotheright
directedtotheleft
equaltozero

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Asyoucansee,smalldeviationsfromequilibriumatpointBcauseaforcethatacceleratestheparticlefurther
awayhencetheparticleisinunstableequilibrium.

PartG
Namealllabeledpointsonthegraphcorrespondingtounstableequilibrium.
Listyourchoicesalphabetically,withnocommasorspacesforinstance,ifyouchoosepointsB,D,andE,
typeyouranswerasBDE.

Hint1.Definitionofunstableequilibrium
Unstableequilibriummeansthatsmalldeviationsfromtheequilibriumpointcreateanetforcethat
acceleratestheparticlefurtherawayfromtheequilibriumpoint(thinkofaballontopofahill).
ANSWER:
BF

Correct

PartH
Namealllabeledpointsonthegraphcorrespondingtostableequilibrium.
Listyourchoicesalphabetically,withnocommasorspacesforinstance,ifyouchoosepointsB,D,andE,
typeyouranswerasBDE.

Hint1.Definitionofstableequilibrium
Stableequilibriummeansthatsmalldeviationsfromtheequilibriumpointcreateanetforcethataccelerates
theparticlebacktowardtheequilibriumpoint.(Thinkofaballrollingbetweentwohills.)
ANSWER:
DH

Correct

PartI
Namealllabeledpointsonthegraphwheretheaccelerationoftheparticleiszero.
Listyourchoicesalphabetically,withnocommasorspacesforinstance,ifyouchoosepointsB,D,andE,
typeyouranswerasBDE.
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Hint1.Relationbetweenaccelerationandforce
TherelationbetweenaccelerationandforceisgivenbyNewton's2ndlaw,
F = ma.
ANSWER:
BDFH

Correct
Youranswer,ofcourse,includesthelocationsofbothstableandunstableequilibrium.

PartJ
Namealllabeledpointssuchthatwhenaparticleisreleasedfromrestthere,itwouldacceleratetotheleft.
Listyourchoicesalphabetically,withnocommasorspacesforinstance,ifyouchoosepointsB,D,andE,
typeyouranswerasBDE.

Hint1.Determinethesignofthexcomponentofforce
Iftheaccelerationistotheleft,soistheforce.Thismeansthatthexcomponentoftheforceis
__________.
ANSWER:
positive
negative

Hint2.WhatisthebehaviorofU (x) ?
Ifthexcomponentoftheforceatapointisnegative,thenthederivativeofU (x)atthatpointispositive.
ThismeansthatintheregionaroundthepointU (x)is__________.
ANSWER:
increasing
decreasing

ANSWER:
AE

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PartK
ConsiderpointsA,E,andG.Ofthesethreepoints,whichonecorrespondstothegreatestmagnitudeof
accelerationoftheparticle?

Hint1.Accelerationandforce
Thegreatestaccelerationcorrespondstothegreatestmagnitudeofthenetforce,representedonthegraph
bythemagnitudeoftheslope.
ANSWER:
A
E
G

Correct

Kineticenergy
IfthetotalenergyE oftheparticleisknown,onecanalsousethegraphofU (x)todrawconclusionsaboutthekinetic
energyoftheparticlesince
K = E U

Asareminder,onthisgraph,thetotalenergyE isshownbythehorizontalline.

PartL
Whatpointonthegraphcorrespondstothemaximumkineticenergyofthemovingparticle?

Hint1.K ,U ,andE
Sincethetotalenergydoesnotchange,themaximumkineticenergycorrespondstotheminimumpotential
energy.
ANSWER:
D

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Itmakessensethatthekineticenergyoftheparticleismaximumatoneofthe(force)equilibriumpoints.For
example,thinkofapendulum(whichhasonlyoneforceequilibriumpointattheverybottom).

PartM
Atwhatpointonthegraphdoestheparticlehavethelowestspeed?
ANSWER:
B

Correct
Asyoucansee,manydifferentconclusionscanbemadeabouttheparticle'smotionmerelybylookingatthe
graph.Itishelpfultounderstandthecharacterofmotionqualitativelybeforeyouattemptquantitative
problems.Thisproblemshouldproveusefulinimprovingsuchanunderstanding.

Problem11.65
Inahydroelectricdam,waterfalls24.0mandthenspinsaturbinetogenerateelectricity.

PartA
WhatisU of1.0kgofwater?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
235J

Correct

PartB
Supposethedamis80%efficientatconvertingthewater'spotentialenergytoelectricalenergy.Howmany
kilogramsofwatermustpassthroughtheturbineseachsecondtogenerate50.0MW ofelectricity?Thisisa
typicalvalueforasmallhydroelectricdam.
Expressyouranswerusingthreedecimalplaces.
ANSWER:
2.66105 kg/s

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Problem11.67
APorsche944Turbohasaratedenginepowerof217hp .30%ofthepowerislostinthedrivetrain,and70%reaches
thewheels.Thetotalmassofthecaranddriveris1490kg ,andtwothirdsoftheweightisoverthedrivewheels.

PartA
WhatisthemaximumaccelerationofthePorscheonaconcretesurfacewhere s

= 1.00

Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.

Hint1.Hint
Whatforcepushesthecarforward?
ANSWER:
a max

= 6.53 s

Correct

PartB
IfthePorscheacceleratesata max ,whatisitsspeedwhenitreachesmaximumpoweroutput?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
v

= 11.6

m
s

Correct

PartC
HowlongdoesittakethePorschetoreachthemaximumpoweroutput?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
t

= 1.78s

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ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis101%.
Youreceived75.46outofapossibletotalof75points.

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