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DYNA

Dynamic Analysis
SOFiSTiK 2016

DYNA
Dynamic Analysis
DYNA Manual, Version 2016-0
Software Version SOFiSTiK 2016
c 2015 by SOFiSTiK AG, Oberschleissheim, Germany.
Copyright

SOFiSTiK AG
HQ Oberschleissheim
Bruckmannring 38
85764 Oberschleissheim
Germany

Office Nuremberg
Burgschmietstr. 40
90419 Nuremberg
Germany

T +49 (0)89 315878-0


F +49 (0)89 315878-23

T +49 (0)911 39901-0


F +49(0)911 397904
info@sofistik.de
www.sofistik.de

This manual is protected by copyright laws. No part of it may be translated, copied or


reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from SOFiSTiK AG.
SOFiSTiK reserves the right to modify or to release new editions of this manual.
The manual and the program have been thoroughly checked for errors. However, SOFiSTiK
does not claim that either one is completely error free. Errors and omissions are corrected as
soon as they are detected.
The user of the program is solely responsible for the applications. We strongly encourage the
user to test the correctness of all calculations at least by random sampling.

Front Cover
Project: MILANEO, Stuttgart, Germany | Client: Bayerische Hausbau and ECE | Architect: RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky
| Structural Engineering for Bayerische Hausbau: Boll und Partner | Photo: Dirk Mnzner

Contents | DYNA

Contents

Contents

Task Description

1-1

Theoretical Principles
2.1
Integration of the Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Computation of the Eigenvalues and the Modal Damping
2.3
Modal Analysis for Time-dependent Loading . . . . . . . . .
2.4
Modal Excitation through Ground Acceleration . . . . . . .
2.5
Modal Analysis of a Steady-state Excitation . . . . . . . . .
2.6
Excitation through a Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7
Sign of corresponding forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8
Kinematic Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9
Elastic Stiffnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10 Geometric Stiffness and P-delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2-1
2-1
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-6
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-11

Literature

2-13

3-1
3-1
3-1
3-3
3-5
3-9
3-12
3-14
3-16
3-17
3-20
3-21
3-23
3-26
3-30
3-32
3-34
3-36

Input Description
3.1
Input Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Input Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
SYST System Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4
CTRL Calculation Parameters . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1
SOLV Equation solver . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2
CORE Parallel computation control . .
3.5
GRP Selection of Element Groups . . . . . . .
3.6
MAT General Material Properties . . . . . . . .
3.7
BMAT Elastic Support / Interface . . . . . . . .
3.8
SMAT SBFEM - Material Properties . . . . . .
3.9
MASS Lumped Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10 EIGE Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors . . . . . .
3.11 MODD Modal Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12 STEP Parameter of the Step-wise Integration
3.13 LC Load Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.14 CONT Contact and Moving Load Function . .
3.15 HIST Results within Time . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SOFiSTiK 2016

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DYNA | Contents

3.16
3.17
4

ii

EXTR Evaluation of Max. Internal Forces and Moments .


ECHO Extent of Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Output Description
4.1
Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2
Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3
General Parameters . . . . . . . . . .
4.4
Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5
Natural Frequencies . . . . . . . . . .
4.6
Load Cases, Functions and Loads
4.7
Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8
Internal Forces and Moments . . . .
4.9
Time Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3-39
3-45
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
4-3

SOFiSTiK 2016

Task Description | DYNA

Task Description

The program DYNA can be used for static and primarily for dynamic analysis
of three-dimensional structures. It can perform the following tasks (Special licenses may be needed):

Static analysis of load cases acting upon three-dimensional structures, as


well as planar and axisymmetric structures.

Static analysis of load cases after second-order theory

Computation of the natural frequencies of three-dimensional structures.

Computation of the buckling eigenvalues of three-dimensional structures.

Implicit direct integration of the equations of motion for structures with arbitrary damping

Explicit direct integration of the nonlinear equations of motion

Interaction with load trains and wind loading

Soil structure interaction with the SBFEM

Integration of the equations of motion by superposition of the mode shapes.

Steady-state oscillations and excitation through spectra.

The static system is stored in the database after its generation e.g. by the program SOFiMSHA, SOFiMSHC or SOFiPLUS.
The following elements can be processed by DYNA:

Point masses (with off diagonal components)

Three-dimensional prismatic bending beams with haunches, warping torsion


and bedding profiles (piles)

Truss- and cable elements

Spring elements, boundary and FLEX elements

Infinite half space elements (SBFEM)

Damping elements

Shell elements

3D-solid elements

For the explicit integration not all features are supported. Only the truss, cable,

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DYNA | Task Description

spring and the 3D volume (BRIC) element are available. All interactions (Wind,
Loadtrain, Soil) are not available. But geometric and material nonlinearity are
supported.
The results of the dynamic analysis including the mode shapes are stored in the
database as displacements and stresses with a load case number.
The mode shapes can also be transferred from the database after a calculation
with the program ASE.
For the purposes of a dynamic analysis, the program may output the maximal
and the minimal of all displacements, velocities or accelerations as well as internal forces and moments, and eventually the time variation of selected degrees
of freedom or internal forces and moments.
For speed reasons almost all algorithms follow what is called IN-CORE solutions. The size of the problem is therefore limited by the amount of available
main memory. Modal solutions transferring the eigenvalues from ASE are not
subjected to this limitations.

1-2

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Theoretical Principles | DYNA

Theoretical Principles

The general dynamic problem is given by the differential equation:


+c
+ k = p (t)
m

(2.1)

where
u

displacement

mass

viscous damping

stiffness

p(t)

external loading

The method of finite elements replaces the continuous vector fields by discrete
displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors. The material properties are
converted to mass, damping and stiffness matrices:
mj j + cj j + kj j = p (t)

(2.2)

In general, all matrices have the same structure. It is common, however, to


diagonalise the mass and the damping matrix. This is permitted in most cases
without large errors, but can not be applied to rotational masses and kinematic
constraints with rotational degrees of freedom.
The consistent mass matrices imposes a larger numerical effort and bigger
memory requirements, but produce in general more accurate results. However
there is another disadvantage. The violation of the discrete maximum principle
may lead in case of very small time steps to oscillations of the solutions. The
times steps in such case must not be smaller that the time needed by the wave
to propagate through a single element.
For these reasons the program provides an input entry for the type of matrix
assembly in the CTRL MCON record.

2.1

Integration of the Equations of Motion

For the most general approach the direct integration of the differential equations
a second discretisation in time has to be applied. The first step is to subdivide
the time in discrete time steps. Then the simplest form is to assume a constant

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DYNA | Theoretical Principles

acceleration during each time step. However a more enhanced precision is


obtained using a linear approximation for the acceleration .

0) +
(t)
= (t

t t0
t

0 + t) (t
0 )]
[ (t

(2.3)

According to the Newmark method the following expressions hold for the velocity and the displacement at the end of the time interval t :
(t + t) = (t)

(t + t)]

+ t [(1 ) (t)
+

(2.4)

(t + t)]
(t + t) = (t) + t (t)
+ t 2 [(1/ 2 ) (t)
+

(2.5)

Then we have the choice between five different possibilities to select how or for
which time t + t the equilibrium equation is fulfilled.

Figure 2.1: Integration in Time

Explicit Integration ( = 0.0)


As the variation of the acceleration along the time step is constant it is possible to calculate all values highly efficient explicitly by the mass matrix. The
method is well suited to be parallelized, but it is only stable if the time step is
below a certain critical value which is approximately equal to the wave speed
divided my the minimum mesh size.

Newmark-Method ( = 1.0, 0.50, 0.25(0.5 + )2 )


The default of the parameters has no numerical damping at all. Thus small
errors may enlarge especially for the accelerations. In those cases the value
of should be enlarged. In the literature parameter is often given as .

Wilson-Theta-Method ( 1.37)
This value is a modification of the Newmark method where the numerical
damping enlarges the period to a greater extent, but keeps the amplitudes
to a higher accuracy. In the literature the parameter is given as but this
has been changed to avoid conflicts with the next method.

-Method Hilber-Hughes-Taylor ( < 1.0, = (1 2)/ 2, = (1 )2 / 4)

This method has been developed to introduce a numerical damping without

2-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | DYNA

degrading the order of accuracy. It is especially suited for non linear problems. The value is taken from the input value as = ( 1.0). Thus
we have a formal equivalent to the Crank-Nicholson method (see program
HYDRA)

Modal Analysis
The system of equations to be solved can be significantly simplified if the
solution is calculated in the subspace of a few eigenvectors. This requires
knowledge of the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors, the calculation of which
is relatively extensive. But then it is possible to integrate the linear equations
exactly. Nonlinear effects may be treated in a simplified way if the modes
contain the nonlinear displacement possibilities.

The implicit methods lead to a system of equations for the displacements or


accelerations at t + t . Compared to the explicit methods, the time step may
be chosen considerably larger. Specific errors (oscillations) may be introduced
however by a time step chosen to small with a consistent mass matrix.

2.2

Computation of the Eigenvalues and the Modal Damping

The description of a problem by means of its eigenvalues is a transformation in


another vector space. This results in significant simplification of the equations
of motion (decoupling). The fact that the contributions of the higher eigenvalues
can usually be neglected leads to a reduction of the vector space dimension.
The computation of the real eigenvalues is done either by a simultaneous inverse vector iteration or by the Lanczos method. The algorithms find the lowest
eigenvalues of the structure along with the corresponding mode shapes V . The
following orthogonality conditions are always satisfied:
V T m V j = 0
V T

k Vj = 0

6= j

(2.6a)

6= j

(2.6b)

By use of these conditions both the mass and the stiffness matrix in the eigenvalue space become pure diagonal matrices. In order for the damping matrix
to become diagonal too, damping must be diagonal itself or proportional to the
mass and/or the stiffness matrix:
c=m+bk

(2.7)

A decoupled system can be solved in such case yielding the natural frequencies as well as the generalised masses (M), the modal damping (d) and the

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2-3

DYNA | Theoretical Principles

generalised loads (P):


Mn = V Tn m V n
Kn =
Cn =
Pn =

V Tn
V Tn
V Tn

(2.8a)

k V n = Mn
2

(2.8b)
(2.8c)
(2.8d)

c V n = 2 d Mn
p(t)

The mode shapes are scaled in such a way that Mn become equal to 1.0. When
(2.7) is used, the resulting modal damping d (Lehrs damping factor) is also a
diagonal matrix:
dn =

1
2

+ b n =

(2.9)

In a complex system the individual elements may have quite different damping
properties. The proportionality of the damping is then no longer given and the
damping matrix Cn does not become a diagonal matrix. In that case there are
three possibilities:

Modal Analysis with complex Eigenvalues (rather large effort)

Direct integration of the modal equations

Energetic equivalent modal damping or diagonalisation, this is used in


DYNA.

When calculating an eigenform, load vectors will be created which applied as


a static load case would yield the same response of the structure. This procedure, described in many design codes is not required within a software intended
for dynamic analysis, as all other dependant results for a eigenform are directly
evaluated and stored. Thus its use is for special non-linear cases or for verification purpose only.

2.3

Modal Analysis for Time-dependent Loading

As long as the conditions (2.6)-(2.7) are fulfilled, the equation of motion can be
solved decoupled and integrated exactly. The solution at each time moment
results from superposition of the computed mode shapes.

2.4

Modal Excitation through Ground Acceleration

A ground acceleration is analysed with a reference system accelerated along.


The displacements and velocities are computed in the reference system,
whereas the accelerations are given as absolute values in the original system.

2-4

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | DYNA

One obtains by this procedure the load vector:


(t)
p(t) = m r

(2.10)

The vector r defines the displacements of the individual nodes, when the base
point is subjected to a unit displacement. Excitations at particular base points
can be defined by this vector as well. The vector can be defined through the input
of its individual components or it can be read from the database (e.g. influence
line of the reaction force).
Applying equation (2.8d) to the load vector (2.10) one can obtain the modal
loads, which can also be represented as the product of the acceleration with the
so-called participation factors L.
(t)
P = V Tm p(t) = Lm

(2.11)

0.00

1.00

2.00

7.00

7.00

6.00

6.00

5.00

5.00

4.00

4.00

3.00

3.00
1.00

0.00

1.00

1.00

2.00

2.00
1.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

It is very important to keep in mind, that those modal loads describe the participation of the eigenforms and thus may have quite different values. If we consider
for example the first three modes of a column with an intermediate support:

1.00

0.00

1.00

Figure 2.2: eigenforms

we obtain for a horizontal acceleration the modal loads with different signs and
the largest contribution from the third Eigenform:
Mode
1
2
3

R*V-Factor
-2.278E+00
9.226E-01
2.747E+00

SOFiSTiK 2016

[o/o]
30.4
5.0
44.3

2-5

DYNA | Theoretical Principles

4
6.345E-08 0.0
5 -6.505E-01 2.5
------------------------Qu.Sum
1.401E+01 82.2

The sum of the squares of the participation factors represents the mass of the
system in the activated direction. The number of eigenvectors used in practical
analyses should be such that at least 90 percent of the total mass is taken into
account.
Many design codes use equivalent loads to calculate the forces and moments
for every mode. They are given by the relation:
HE, = M

L
M

S,

(2.12)

The given formula respective the load vector is a very nice picture if we have only
one principal mode. However if we have multiple modes and multiple directions,
we encounter a severe problem. Beside the inefficient evaluation of all those
data there is no such thing like an unfavourable load in a single node. Even the
maximum obtained acceleration is not a suitable measure for an unfavourable
action on any member.
As DYNA calculates the forces and moments of the Eigenforms in a much more
efficient and mathematical correct way, those bulk values are not available for
the user. However the resultant forces of those, the base shear is evaluated and
superposed like all other results according to the definitions of CTRL STYP.
If the user wants to see those load vectors in detail he may use SOFiLOAD
and the command ACCE NODE LINF i where i is the load case number of the
corresponding eigenform and an acceleration has to be defined from the value
2 times the modal response (Y ) taken from the DYNA results printout.

2.5

Modal Analysis of a Steady-state Excitation

The steady-state excitation is given by a harmonic excitation:


p (t) = p0 sn ( t )

(2.13)

The contribution of each mode shape is then given by


(t) =

2-6

T p0
2

sn ( t )
2
1 r 2 + 4 (d r)2

(2.14)

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | DYNA

where
r=

= + rctn

2dr

1 r2

(2.15)

These classical response functions have a region below the resonance frequency where the structure follows the loading with a dynamic enlarging factor
and a region above the resonance where it is no longer possible for the structure
to follow the loading, yielding in a steady decay of the counter phase response
until zero for high frequencies.

Figure 2.3: Response

These response functions yield the true response including the shift of the resonance peak due to damping effects. All frequencies used in DYNA are always
there for those of the undamped oscillation.
The oscillation contains an additional r-multiple component, introduced through
the starting conditions and gradually reduced due to damping. The superposition of these oscillations results in a floating effect, which can be accurately
registered by time integration. DYNA can selectively omit this component or add
it if its unfavourable.
An accurate calculation of the maximum stressing taking into consideration the
phase shift can be carried out only for the final transient oscillation state by
neglecting the transient components. In all other cases only a statistical super-

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DYNA | Theoretical Principles

position as in the case of spectrum excitation can be carried out.

2.6

Excitation through a Spectrum

In this case the factors f(t) with unknown phase shift are defined by their maximum value only, and they are usually prescribed in tables as functions of natural
frequency and damping. In order to compute the response frequency and damping are interpolated from the spectra.
For an earthquake analysis the response spectra define the acceleration dependant of the Perios and Damping or the behaviour factor.
For the wind the response is obtained by a background and a resonance response. While the dynamic response is obtained from a normalized power
spectrum, the background contribution is always assumed to be 1.0, as this
is on the safe side and is appropriate if the coherence effects are introduced by
the loading itself.
q=
S

v
u
t

1+

2
2
1 X + 2 X 2 + 3 X 3

(1 + b X c )d

L
z
X=
=
or
m
V
V
2

(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.18)

The maximum displacements and stresses must be superimposed according


to probability theory. The CQC (Complete Quadratic Combination) method by
Wilson, or the Sum of the Absolute Values or the Square Root of the Sum of
Squares (SRSS) can be used for this purpose. The SRSS method is known to
be rather faulty in case of multiple eigenvalues, but the CQC method is no guarantee for correct results either. It should be especially noted that the method
without modal dampings will yield different values to SRSS only for multiple
eigenvalues.
q=

rX X

q j qj

 3
8 d dj d + r dj r 2
j =

2

1 r 2 + 4d dj r 1 + r 2 + 4 d2 + dj2 r 2

(2.19)
(2.20)

For the case of shear within a quadratic section it can be easily shown, which
error is introduced by the SRSS Method. The acceleration in X-direction exits
the two diagonal Eigenforms with the same amount of 25 % of the total shear.

2-8

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | DYNA

Eigenfor m 2
a

=
Eigenfor m 1

+
Eigenfor m 1

Eigenfor m 2

Figure 2.4: Shear within a quadratic section

The SRSS-Method yields 35 % for all 4 walls, while the CQC Method will give
50 % for the x-walls and zero for the y-walls which is the correct value.
The
same method may be also used for the directional superposition for the most
unfavourable direction. Three load cases with accelerations in orthogonal directions may be analyzed together in a single DYNA run and combined with the
SRSS method. The correct sign of the corresponding forces will yield correct results, while the method used in other programs with independent extreme values
may yield results considerably to large.

2.7

Sign of corresponding forces

For every type of superposition yielding only positive values, the sign of the
corresponding forces and moments should not be neglected. Although it is quite
common to use positive values for all results, this is not true and uneconomical
in most cases.
For example if we look at a plane horizontally loaded framework, the internal
forces and moments vary depending on the sign of the horizontal force, yet in
every case it has to be observed that the sign of the moment and normal force
in one of the column are identical, while different in the other one.

Figure 2.5: Plane framework

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DYNA | Theoretical Principles

If we extremize for the maximum moment, then the associated normal forces
must have different signs. Exactly this is available from the mode shapes. If we
now assemble the maximum moment of different mode shapes, then we should
thus always add the mode shapes only completely with a global factor. When
we intend to add the absolute values, then it is sufficient that all mode shapes
are either added or subtracted according to the sign of the leading force. So we
are replacing the rule of combination
SUMj =

X
sj

(2.21)

by the general form for the vector of internal forces and for the maximum value
of force j:
SUM =

+1, s 0
j

(2.22)

1, s < 0
j

The same can be used for the method SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares)
the rule:
v
uX
sj 2
SUMj = t

(2.23)

is replaced through
SUM =

sj
= qP

2
sj

(2.24)

Last but not the same can be done for the CQC-method. In any case the leading
force value will be positive thence it must be introduced as an alternating load in
the final design superposition.

2.8

Kinematic Constraints

Frequent use of condensations is made in dynamic analysis. These require a


certain expertise, because the selection of the reference nodes is critical. The
same holds for kinematic constraints too.
While a force at a distance a generates a moment P , the inertia of an eccentric mass is given by m 2 . DYNA takes this effect into account automatically
for standard kinematic constraints. This, however, results in off diagonal mass
matrix components, which necessitate the use of a consistent, i.e. not diagonalised, mass matrix. These do not need not only more memory place, but

2-10

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles | DYNA

can lead also to oscillation of solution through violation of the discrete maximum
principle at small time steps that perform disturbingly. But as these matrices
are not always acceptable, the user therefore can switch to the use of a diagonalised mass matrix, which then requires special care in the description of the
constraints.
When modelling rigid floor disks one should place the reference node as close
as possible to the gravity or the shear centre in order to get the most realistic
results.
Kinematic constraints increase the band width considerably. The memory capacity can thus be quickly exceeded in cases of large systems or strongly recursive kinematic constraints.

2.9

Elastic Stiffnesses

DYNA employs very compact formulations of the element stiffnesses. The spring
and boundary elements are in the classical form given and do not distinguish
from those ones in programs ASE or STAR2.
The beam element is a real finite element with a displacement accretion with
Hermitical function of second redundancy (therefore cubical polynomials). That
is considered at:

variable stiffnesses and location of centre of gravity

variable locations of shear centre

shear deformations over correction terms

optional warping force torsion

elastic bedding for pile elements

all beam loads from database

The element always produces however only internal forces and moments for
internal sections if requested bei CTRL BEAM 1. Deformations along the beam
element will never be calculated.
The QUAD shell element corresponds to the simple accretion without nonconforming parts. (Hughes and/or Bathe-Dvorkin)

2.10

Geometric Stiffness and P-delta

For beam and truss elements a load case can be read, which can be used
for the determination of the geometric stiffnesses. The second order theory
effects are exact in those cases where the axial force does not change due to

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-11

DYNA | Theoretical Principles

geometric nonlinear effects. Thus this approach includes not only but exceeds
the so called P-delta effects. The eigenfrequency of member with tension will
thereby increase, while those of members under compression will decrease until
they reach the value of zero for the buckling load.
For cable elements the complete separation of geometric stiffness is not always
a good approach, as this might generate negative eigenvalues in a buckling
analysis. On the other side a buckling factor is defined as the factor of the
loading. So it is generally foreseen for cables to split the prestress in two parts.
One part is included in the general stiffness (this is the value defined with the
element itself) and the difference from the actual primary estate to that general
value is then used to form the geometric stiffness for the buckling analysis. If that
general value is not defined and option CTRL PLC does not select otherwise,
the primary estate will be taken as general prestress.

2-12

SOFiSTiK 2016

Literature | DYNA

Literature
[1] Timothy A. Davis. Ldl: a consise sparse cholesky factorization package.
http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/ldl, 2003-2012.
[2] F.P. Mller. Baudynamik. Betonkalender, Teil II, 1978.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-13

DYNA | Literature

2-14

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

Input Description

3.1

Input Language

The input is made in the CADINP language (see general manual SOFiSTiK:
Basics).
Three categories of units are distinguished:
mm

Fixed unit. Input is always required in the specified unit.

[mm]

Explicit unit. Input defaults to the specified unit. Alternatively, an


explicit assignment of a related unit is possible (eg. 2.5[m] ).

[mm] 1011

Implicit unit. Implicit units are categorised semantically and denoted


by a corresponding identity number (shown in green). Valid categories referring to the unit length are, for example, geodetic
elevation, section length and thickness. The default unit for each
category is defined by the currently active (design code specific)
unit set. This input default can be overridden as described above.
The specified unit in square brackets corresponds to the default for
unit set 5 (Eurocodes, NORM UNIT 5).

3.2

Input Records

The following record names are defined:


Record

Items

SYST

TYPE

NCS

PROB

CTRL

OPT

VAL

VAL2

GRP

NO

VAL

MODD
MAT
BMAT
SMAT

PHYS

CS

PLC

STAT

CS

FACS

HING

RADA

RADB

FACP

FACM

WIND

LMAX

NCSP

NO

MUE

GAM

GAMA

ALFA

EY

MXY

OAL

OAF

SPM

TITL

NO

CT

CRAC

YIEL

MUE

COH

DIL

GAMB

REF

MREF

NO

LC

EX

EY

EZ

RHOX

RHOY

Table continued on next page.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-1

DYNA | Input Description

Record
MASS
EIGE

Items
RHOZ

ALF

BET

NO

MX

MY

MZ

MXY

MXZ

MYZ

MB

NEIG

TYPE

NITE

MITE

MXX

MYY

MZZ

LMIN

STOR

LC

DEL

LCUP
MODD

NO

STEP

DT

INT

BET

THE

EIGB

EIGT

EIGS

DTF

STHE

LC

NO

FACT

DLX

DLY

DLZ

MODB

TITL

CONT

TYP

REF

NR

TMIN

LCUV

LCUT

TYPE

FROM

TO

STEP

RESU

LCST

XREF

YREF

ZREF

DUMP

EXTR

TYPE

MAX

MIN

STYP

ACT

ECHO

OPT

VAL

LCUR
HIST

The records HEAD, END and PAGE are described in the general manual
SOFiSTiK: Basics.
A description of each record follows:

3-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

3.3

SYST System Parameters

See also: CTRL, STEP, GRP

SYST

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

Type of System
REST use existing main system
SECT use subsystem of section SNO
Section number

LT

REST

LT

LT

LINE

CS

Geometric type of the analysis


LINE linear analysis
TH2
2nd order theory
TH3
3rd order theory
Physical type of the analysis
LINE linear analysis
NONL non linear analysis (all)
NSPR non linear analysis (Spring)
NMAT non linear analysis (Material)
Construction stage

PLC

Primary load case

STAT

State of analysis
SERV serviceability
ULTI
ultimate limit
CALC general nonlinear

LT

SNO
PROB

PHYS

The system for the analysis has to exist in the database. DYNA can use also
the FE-meshes of a specific section. This may be selected with SYST SECT
nnn, where nnn is the number of that section. The FE-system of the sections is
saved in separate data base in a sub-directory.
The geometric type of the analysis may be linear or according 2nd order theory
(small deformations, but stress induced geometric stiffness and 3rd order theory
(large deformations but small strains). The stresses for the geometric stiffness
are taken from the primary load case. Thus without a primary load case the
analysis is always linear, with a primary load case the default is TH2. Option
TH3 is currently only available for explicit integration.
The physical type of the analysis may be linear or including the nonlinear properties of the spring elements and/or the full material non linearity (explicit inte-

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-3

DYNA | Input Description

gration only). The definition of the state presets the selection of stress strain
laws and safety factors according to the INI-file of the selected design code.
The analysis uses the properties for construction stage CS and the stresses and
deformations according CTRL PLC from load case PLC.

3-4

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

3.4

CTRL Calculation Parameters

See also: ECHO, GRP, MASS, EIGE, MODD, STEP, LC,


CONT, HIST, EXTR

CTRL

Item

Description

Unit

Default

OPT

Calculation parameter

LT

VAL

Value of the parameter

V2

Secondary value of the parameter

V3

Secondary value of the parameter

V4

Secondary value of the parameter

V5

Secondary value of the parameter

V6

Secondary value of the parameter

CTRL defines parameters of calculation. These are:


PLC

Primary load case


When entering a primary load case you will have initial stress stiffness included in the analysis, thus we have second order or pi-deltaeffects, but no iteration will take place for changes of the initial stress.
For an eigenfrequency analysis, a compressive stress field will reduce the eigenvalues until zero at the buckling limit, while a tensile
stress field will increase the eigenvalue. Non-linear stiffness created
by AQB will be taken into account.
Thus, for a buckling eigenvalue the specification of this value is
mandatory!
As the dynamic analysis is then based on the tangential stiffness,
loadings should always be defined as incremental loads.
V2

Usage of primary load case


0=
1=
2=
3=

V3

Usage of primary load case stiffness for beams (default n=7),


where:
+1 =
+2 =

SOFiSTiK 2016

only for geometric stiffness.


added to results (beam elements only, default).
creates inverse loading (beam elements only)
Option 1 and 2 together.

axial force
bending moments

3-5

DYNA | Input Description

+4 =
V4

Options for geometric stiffness of cables (default 0)


1=

2=
RLC

torsion
do not set the general prestress value for cables
from the primary load case for buckling eigenvalues.
suppress the coordinate update

Result load case for Histories


With input of a result case RLC you will save results to the database
after every time step interval of an direct integration with individual
load cases starting at RLC+1. These results may be used for an
animated sequence. Via V2 you may control by adding the options:
+1 =

Displacements (default)

+2 =

Results of elements

+4 =

Velocities and accelerations

+8 =

Loadpatterns for travelling load trains

value = user defined load case number (> 9999)


BEAM

CONT

WARP

BETA

Formulation of beam element (Bitpattern), alias: BTYP


+1 =

with all sections (static analysis only)

+4 =

classical Timoshenko beam

+8 =

non-conforming Timoshenko beam (Default)

+12 =

classical beam with shear correction factors

Deactivation / activation of the extrapolation of contact point displacement


0=

deactivation

1=

activation

Warping torsion and lateral torsional buckling


0=

no, the 2nd order Saint Venant theory for torsion is applied

1=

yes, unless the section is warp free. (CM 0.) The initial
stress stiffness for lateral torsional buckling is applied.

2=

yes, even if CM 0.0. As the characteristic length


becomes zero in that case, we do not obtain torsional
stresses directly at a warping support condition. Please
use this option only for very special cases.

Treatment of buckling length after buckling Eigenvalues


0=

3-6

save

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

1=

superposition

The estimate of the buckling length will be saved only for those beam
elements where the estimate is less than the limit value LMAX specified in record GRP. It has to be marked however, that there are many
cases not applicable for a buckling length approach and that the second order analysis will be more suitable in most cases.
QUAD

BRIC

SPRI

MCON

Formulation of QUAD elements


0=

conforming elements with bbar correction

1=

nonconforming elements

2=

four assumed strains + drilling degrees

3=

five assumed strains + drilling degrees

BRIC Formulation of QUAD elements


0=

conforming elements with bbar correction

1=

nonconforming elements

Formulation of Spring elements (Bitpattern)


+1 =

apply eccentricity effects (default)

+2 =

account for nonlinear effects

+32 =

do not extrapolate displacements in time

+64 =

do not extrapolate damping forces in time

Formulation of the mass matrix


1=

Diagonal mass matrix (default)

2=

Consistent mass matrix for system


Consistent translatoric element matrices
(default if such relevant kinematic constraints exist)

3=

Consistent element- and system matrices including


rotational masses (default if CTRL WARP 1)

Hint
Rotational masses for torsion are always referred on the shear
centre. A constraint rotation must be considered therefore with
the definition of the cross section.
CCON

Formulation of the damping matrix


(same as MCON, definition however only in very special cases)

HLC

Number of interim results for transient analysis of wind histories (only


for internal purpose)

SRES

Steady-state response

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-7

DYNA | Input Description

STYP

0=

Simplified analysis of phases by sign only

1=

As above, but account for transient components of


initial conditions (to be used only in very special cases)

2=

Exact account of phases (default)

Superposition of results of spectra and stationary response


MAX

The functions are evaluated separately followed by a


max/min selection. (0)

ADD

All functions are added algebraically. (1)

SUM

All functions are added by absolute values. (2)

SRSS The square root of the sum of squares is computed. (3)


The default is dependant on the type of analysis.
V2

Default for EXTR and the evaluation of the resultant shear


base values:
ADD
All functions are added algebraically. (0)
SUM All functions are added by absolute values. (1)
SRSS The square root of the sum of squares is computed. (2)
CQC Complete Quadratic Combination (3)
SRSi SRSS with sign aligned to mode i.
CQCi CQC with sign aligned to mode i.

BLEV

3-8

Height ordinate of a layer for which the resultant base shear should
be calculated during the response spectra evaluation (may be defined multiple times). The resulting Moment is always taken to the
reference of the origin of the global coordinate system to allow the
superposition of different levels.

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

3.4.1

SOLV Equation solver

SOLV

Description

VAL

Selection of equation solver


1
Direct Skyline Solver
(Gauss/ Cholesky)
2
Iterative Sparse Solver
3
Direct Sparse LDL Solver
4
Direct Parallel Sparse Solver
(PARDISO)

Unit

Default

For solving the equation systems of the Finite-Element problem, SOFiSTiK provides a number of solvers. Which solver is used best depends highly on the type
of the system and requires knowledge of relevant system parameters. Following
types are available:

Direct Skyline Solver (Gauss/Cholesky)


This is the classical solver of the FE-Method. The current implementation
works best on a skyline oriented matrix. The storage needed depends on
the internal optimization of the node numbers and may become quite large
for 3D structures.

Iterative Solver (Conjugate Gradients)


One advantage of the iterative solver lies in its reduced requirements for
storage, but it may also provide reduced computing time compared to the
previous two types especially in case of large volume structures.

Direct Sparse Solver


These types of solvers correspond to state of technology. A quite efficient
version based on the work of DAVIS [1] is available as well as a direct parallel
solver PARDISO.

The advantage of the direct solvers is especially given in case of multiple right
hand sides, as the effort for solving them is very small compared to the triangulization of the equation system. Thus they are the first choice for any dynamic
analysis or in case of many load cases.
In order to minimize computational effort, the solvers need an optimized sequence of equation numbers. This optimization step is usually performed during
system generation. The programs SOFIMSHA/C by default always create a sequence which is suitable for the direct sparse solver (3). The solvers (1) or (2)
however require a skyline oriented numbering which may be obtained using the
option (CTRL OPTI 1) or (CTRL OPTI 2) during system generation. The correct

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-9

DYNA | Input Description

setting will be checked and a warning will be issued in case a correct numbering
is not available.
The iterative (CTRL SOLV 2) and the parallel sparse solver (CTRL SOLV 4) can
be run in parallel providing an additional reduction in computing time. A parallelization basically requires a license of type HISOLV. More information about
parallelization can be found in subsection 3.4.2 describing the input parameter
(CTRL CORE).
The equation solvers are selected using the parameter (CTRL SOLV). The first
value defines the type of the solver, followed by optional additional parameters.
Direct Skyline Solver (Gauss/ Cholesky)
SOLV
VAL

Description

Direct Skyline Solver (Gauss/


Cholesky)

Unit

Default

No additional parameters are required. However it is mandatory to optimize the


equation numbers in SOFIMSHA/C using (CTRL OPTI 1) or (CTRL OPTI 2) in
order to minimize computation time as well as storage requirements.
Iterative equation solver
SOLV
VAL

Description

Iterative equation solver

Unit

Default

V2

Maximum number of iterations

V3

Tolerance in numeric digits (5 to 15)

V4

Type of preconditioning:
0
Diagonal Scaling (not recommended)
1
Incomplete Cholesky
2
Incomplete Inverse

V5

Threshold value of preconditioning

V6

Maximum bandwidth in preconditioning

The iterative solver uses a conjugate gradient method in combination with preconditioning. For the preconditioning, following variants are supported:

3-10

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

Diagonal scaling (V4=0)


Although this is the fastest method with the least memory requirements, it
will need a considerable high amount of iterations and is therefore not recommended in most cases.

Incomplete Cholesky (V4=1)


This type of preconditioning performs a partial triangulization of the input
matrix. Compared to a full triangulization with the Cholesky method, the
Incomplete Cholesky saves time by ignoring the so called Fill-In during decomposition.

Incomplete Inverse (V4=2)


This type of preconditioning is generally inferior to the Cholesky method.
This applies to the convergence-rate as well as the time required for computing the inverses. It shows however better performance in case of more
densely populated matrices (Recommended threshold V5: 0.01).

For any kind of preconditioning the number of matrix entries taken into account
during preconditioning can be reduced either by giving a relative threshold value
at V5 or via a maximum bandwidth size at V6. The optimum choice depends on
the type of the structure and may only be found by some tests.
Hint
The correctness of the solution of the iterative solver depends primarily on
the tolerance threshold. Therefore, changing the default setting V3 is not
recommended. In any case the analyst should carry out a proper assessment of the computation results.

Direct Sparse LDL Solver (Default)


SOLV
VAL

Description

Direct Sparse LDL Solver

Unit

Default

Additional parameters are not required. The mesh generators SOFiMSHA/C


generate by default an equation numbering required for this type of solver which
minimizes the so-called Fill In of the matrix.
PARDISO - direct parallel sparse solver

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-11

DYNA | Input Description

SOLV
WERT

Description

Direct parallel sparse solver

Unit

Default

This solver PARDISO uses processor optimized high performance libraries from
the Intel Math Kernel Library MKL. It usually provides the least computing times.
It does not require an a priori optimization of the equation numbers during system generation. Hence, the equation optimization in SOFiMSHA/C could also
be deactivated using (CTRL OPTI 0) in order to save memory during system
generation. On the other hand however, this solver does not allow reusing the
factorized stiffness matrix in other programs. Thus, a usage in combination with
the program ELLA is not possible.
3.4.2

CORE Parallel computation control

CORE

Description

VAL

Number of used threads

Unit

Default

SOFiSTiK supports parallel computing for selected equation solvers. Additionally, some programs offer parallel element processing capabilities independent
of the chosen equation solver (CTRL SOLV).
Activation of parallel computing
By default parallel computing is triggered automatically where it is feasible.
Parallel computing requires corresponding harware and operation system support. In addition, availability of an adequate SOFiSTiK license is obligatory.
Hint
Parallel computing requires availability of a HISOLV license (ISOL granule).

Number of available threads for parallel computing


If parallel computing is active, the number of adopted threads is determined as
follows (listed with increasing priority):
a) The software retrieves the information about the number of available physical
processor cores on the system. This number defines the default number of

3-12

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

threads that are used when a parallel computation is activated.


b) This default can be modified via the environment variable
SOF_NUM_THREADS, which is also available as sofistik.def parameter.
c) Finally, an explicit statement CTRL CORE NN (or as relative input CTRL
CORE NN[%]) temporarily assigns the number of available threads for the
respective run.
Hint
Neither option b) nor option c) state an explicit parallel computation request. The decision if a parallel computation is triggered, depends on the
actual analysis option (parallel processing must be supported for the specific task) and the availability of an adequate license. Parallel computing
can be suppressed by explitly setting the number of available threads to 1
(or 0).

Parallel options for equation solvers


License
Solver

CTRL SOLV

Serial

Parallel

Skyline Gauss/ Cholesky

n.a.

Iterativ

Sparse LDL (default)

Sparse Parallel (Pardiso)

SOFiSTiK 2016

HISOLV HISOLV

n.a.

HISOLV HISOLV

3-13

DYNA | Input Description

3.5

GRP Selection of Element Groups

See also: ECHO, CTRL, MASS, EIGE, MODD, STEP, LC,


CONT, HIST, EXTR
Item

Description

NO

Group number

VAL

Selection
OFF
YES
FULL
SOIL

GRP
Unit

Default

LT

FULL

CS

do not use
use, but do not print
use and print the results
elements define boundary to halfspace for SBFEM
Number of the construction stage

FACS

Factor of the group stiffness

1.0

HING

blocked degrees of beam hinges

Lt16

RADA

Mass proportional damping

1/ sec

0.0

RADB

Stiffness proportional damping

sec

0.0

MODD

Modal damping

0.0

FACP

Factor of the primary stresses

1.0

FACM

Factor of the masses of the group

1.0

WIND

Options for Wind-Loading

LMAX

Limiting Slenderness for buckling length

NSCP

Node number for the scaling point of the


SBFEM Method

All elements are used if nothing is input. When there is input, only the specified
groups get activated. This effect has to be especially taken care of, if only some
groups get a damping assigned to.
The elements of a group can be provided with two damping types. the value
RADA represents an external damping proportional to the mass and thus the
excursion (e.g. air or water). The value RADB represents an internal damping
proportional to the stiffness (material damping).
The geometric initial stress stiffness will not be multiplied with the factor RADB in
general. Only for the cable the prestress defined with the element is contributing

3-14

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

to the damping.
C

RADA m

RADB K

kNsec/ m

1/ sec Nsec2 / m

sec kN/ m

For a modal analysis it is possible to specify a modal damping for every group.
This value is then converted using the element masses to an approximate equivalent modal damping of the total eigenform.
More explanations for the damping you will find at MODD
The description of the half space with the Scaled Boundary Element Method
(SBFEM) allows to define the respective static and dynamic properties of the
infinite space accounting for the radiation damping properties. GRP selects the
boundary elements of a 2D Analysis or the QUAD elements of a 3D analysis
defining the boundary of the half space. The local z axis must show into the
direction of the half space. Without definition of NSCP the scaling point will be
located on the upper center of all soil interface nodes.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-15

DYNA | Input Description

3.6

MAT General Material Properties

MAT
Item

Description

Unit

Default

NO

Material number

Elastic modulus

kN/ m2

MUE

Poissons ratio (between 0.0 and 0.49)

0.2

Shear modulus

kN/ m2

Bulk modulus

kN/ m2

GAM

Specific weight

kN/ m3

25

GAMA

Specific weight under buoyancy

kN/ m3

ALFA

Thermal expansion coefficient

1/ rK

E-5

EY

Anisotropic elastic modulus Ey

kN/ m2

MXY

Anisotropic poissons ratio m-xy

MUE

OAL

Meridian angle of anisotropy about the local


x axis
Descent angle of anisotropy about the local
x axis

deg

deg

1.0

Lt32

OAF

SPM

Material safety factor

TITL

Material name

Materials which can be used for SVAL or QUAD and BRIC elements may be
defined with the record MAT and MATE. The number of the material must not be
used for other materials.
The differences between the two records are mainly the used dimensions. MATE
is analogue to CONC,STEE etc. (MPa) and has additional strength values, while
MAT uses (kN/m2 ) analogue to NMAT. MAT has older item names for the orthotropic parameters.

3-16

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

3.7

BMAT Elastic Support / Interface

BMAT
Item

Description

Unit

Default

NO

Material number

Elastic constant normal to surface Cs

kN/ m3

0.

CT

Elastic constant tangential to surface Ct

kN/ m3

0.

CRAC

Maximum tensile stress of interface

kN/ m2

0.

YIEL

Maximum stress of interface

kN/ m2

MUE

Friction coefficient of interface

COH

Cohesion of interface

kN/ m2

DIL

Dilatancy coefficient

0.

GAMB

Equivalent mass distribution

t/ m2

TYPE

Reference

LT

PESS

Plane stress condition

PAIN

Plane strain condition

HALF

Circular disk at half space

CIRC

Circular hole in infinite disk

SPHE

Spherical hole in infinite space

NONE no reference
MREF

Number of a reference material

NO

Reference dimension
(thickness H or radius R)

BMAT defines for an existing material (e.g. MATE/CONC/BRIC) properties for


elastic support. For a QUAD element it is thus possible to select for a foundation the properties of the plate and the soil within a single element number. For
pure supporting materials, BMAT is the second step transforming the elasticity
constants from a material to support constants by including a geometric dimension and a specify geometry rule. This step is also necessary if one wants to
define just the constants. However for this case a direct definition of a value at
the element is much more straight forward. The bedding approach works according to the subgrade modulus theory (Winkler, Zimmermann/Pasternak). It
facilitates the definition of elastic supports by an engineering trick which, among

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-17

DYNA | Input Description

others, ignores the shear deformations of the supporting medium. The bedding
effect may be attached to beam or plate elements, but in general it will be used
as an own element. (see SPRI, BOUN, BEAM or QUAD and the more general
description of BORE profiles)
The determination of a reasonable value for the foundation modulus often
presents considerable difficulty, since this value depends not only on the material parameters but also on the geometry and the loading. One must always
keep this dependance in mind, when assessing the accuracy of the results of an
analysis using this theory.
The subgrade parameters C and CT will be used for bedding of QUAD elements
or for the description of support or interface conditions. A QUAD element of a
slab foundation will thus have a concrete material and via BMAT the soil properties attached to the same material number. The value C is than acting in the
main direction perpendicular to the QUAD surface in the local z-direction, while
CT is acting in any shear direction in the QUAD plane.
If subgrade parameters are assigned to the material of a geometric edge (GLN),
spring elements will be generated along that edge based on the width and the
distance of the support nodes.
Instead of a direct value you may select a reference material and a reference dimension for some cases with constant pressure based on the elasticity modulus
and the Poisson ratio [1] :

Planar layer with horizontal constraints e.g. for modeling elastic support by
columns and supporting walls (plane stress condition):
Cs =

1
(1 + )(1 )

Ct =

E
H

1
2(1 + )

(3.1)

E
H

(1 )
(1 + )(1 2)

Ct =

E
H

1
(1 + )

(3.2)

Equivalent circular disk with radius R on an infinite halfspace:


Cs =

Planar layer with horizontal constraints for settlements of soil strata (plane
strain condition):
Cs =

E
R

2
(1 + )(1 )

(3.3)

Circular hole with radius R in infinite disk with plane strain conditions (bedded
pipes or piles):

3-18

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

Cs =

(1 + )(1 2)

Ct = Cs

(3.4)

Spherical hole with radius R in infinite 3D elastic continua:


Cs =

E
R

Ct = Cs

(1 + )

(3.5)

Including a dilatancy factor describing the volume change induced by shear deformations, we have for the bedding stresses the following equations depending
on the normal and transverse displacements:
= Cs (s + DL t )

= Ct t

(3.6)

Non-linear effects are controlled by CRAC, YIEL, MUE and COH:


Cracking:

Upon reaching the failure stress, the interface fails in


both the axial and the lateral direction. The failure load
is always a tensile stress. If the bedding reaction is applied to a QUAD element, a deformation in the direction
of the local z-axis will create compressive (negative)
stresses.

Yield load:

Upon reaching the yield stress, the principal deformation component of the interface increases without an
increase of the stress.

Friction/cohesion:

Defining a friction and/or a cohesion coefficient, the lateral shear stress can not become larger than:
Friction coefficient * normal stress + Cohesion
Please note, that before reaching this limit the stiff-ness
CT will produce the shear stress only if a deformation
is present.

If the principal interface has failed (CRAC), then the lateral bedding acts only if
0.0 has been entered for both friction- coefficient and cohesion.
The non-linear effects can only be taken into account by a non-linear analysis.
The friction is an effect of the lateral bedding, while all other effects act upon the
principal direction.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-19

DYNA | Input Description

3.8

SMAT SBFEM - Material Properties

SMAT
Item

Description

Unit

Default

NO

Material number

LC

Characteristic Length

EX

Coefficient of elasticity in X-direction

EY

Coefficient of elasticity in Y-direction

EZ

Coefficient of elasticity in Z-direction

RHOX

Coefficient of density in X-direction

RHOY

Coefficient of density in Y-direction

RHOZ

Coefficient of density in Z-direction

ALF

Inhomogenity of elasticity

BET

Inhomogenity of density

Record SMAT defines dependency of material values for the SBFEM:

E = Ere E

= re

3-20

||

Lc

||
Lc

+ Ey

+ y

|y|

Lc

|y|
Lc

+ Ez

+ z

|z|

(3.7)

Lc

|z|
Lc

(3.8)

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

3.9

MASS Lumped Masses

See also: ECHO, CTRL, GRP, EIGE, MODD, STEP, LC,


CONT, HIST, EXTR
Item

Description

NO

MASS
Unit

Default

Node number

MX

Translational mass

0.

MY

Translational mass

MX

MZ

Translational mass

MX

MXX

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MYY

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MZZ

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MXY

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MXZ

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MYZ

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MB

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

The masses are additional to the primary masses defined in program


SOFIMSHA in the database. They are maintained over several input sets until
they are redefined. They are not effective as dead load in static load cases as do
the primary masses, but the have also a group number of the last GRP-record
assigned and may be switched on or off with the GRP record. MASS 0 can be
used to delete all temporary masses, thus the primary masses from SOFIMSHA
are kept.
A mass acts usually the same in all three coordinate directions and thus, it need
to be defined independently only for special cases. Rotational masses with inclined axis will have off diagonal masses MXY till MYZ.
The dead weight of the entire structure is always applied in the form of translational masses. If necessary, rotational masses must be defined separately with
MASS or CTRL MCON 3. If the dead weight of a structure is not to be applied, the
dead weight of the material or the cross section should be input as zero.
MASS can be used also to import nodal loads from the database as masses
to DYNA. The negative load case number must be input for NO here. The val-

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-21

DYNA | Input Description

ues MX till MZ, with default value of 1.0, are then the factors for the individual
directions of the mass components which are generated from the loads in the
dead weight direction. If other load directions are to be converted to masses as
well, these directions have to be specified additionally at NO encoded with the
addend 10000 for the X direction, 20000 for the Y direction and 30000 for the Z
direction. The input
MASS -12

creates translational masses from all loads of load case 12 in the direction of the
dead weight. By contrast the input
MASS -30012 0.1 0.05 0.1
MASS -20013 0.0 0.1 0.0

creates masses (t) in the x and z direction from all PZ loads (kN) of load case
12. Only half of the mass is activated in the y direction, however. The second
input processes PY loads of the load case 13.
Masses can get also a factor with MASS. For this purpose the literal FACT has
to be input for NO. This can be reasonable particularly for larger systems, where
it is favourable to suppress many low frequencies which are not essential for the
analysis. With the input
MASS FACT MZ 0.01

The mass in global Z direction is reduced to one percent only.

3-22

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

3.10

EIGE Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

See also: ECHO, CTRL, GRP, MASS, MODD, STEP, LC,


CONT, HIST, EXTR
Item

Description

NEIG

Number of sought eigenvalues

TYPE

MITE

Method for the eigenvalue computation


REST Eigenvalues already available
SIMU Simultaneous vector iteration
LANC Method of Lanczos
RAYL Minimum Rayleigh-Quotient
BEUL Buckling
BESI Buckling (Vector iteration)
BELL Buckling (Lanczos)
BERA Buckling (Rayleigh)
Number of iterations
Lanczos vectors
Maximum number of iterations and options

LMIN

Eigenvalue shift

STOR

EIGE
Unit

Default

LT

SIMU

1/ sec2

Number of eigenform to be stored

NEIG

LC

Load case number of lowest eigenform

LCUP

Load case number of highest eigenform

NITE

The input of EIGE requests calculation of the eigenvalues and the mode shapes.
If the eigenvectors have been already computed, one must enter TYPE REST.
Special attention must be paid to this when importing eigenvalues from program
ASE.
Eigenvalues and forms may represent dynamic vibration modes or buckling
eigenforms. While the first uses a well defined positive definite mass matrix,
the second problem may encounter indefinite geometric stiffness matrices (negative Eigenvalues) and establish problems. Only SIMU and RAYL have some
provisions for that type of problem. In any case you should start with a few
Eigenvalues in those cases.
All the eigenvectors have to be simultaneously in storage, therefore in cases of
large problems sufficient memory should be provided. The mode shapes can be
stored in the database similarly to static load cases and can be then represented
graphically as deformed structure.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-23

DYNA | Input Description

A modal evaluation of forces is possible only when all required mode shapes
have been stored also as stresses or forces of the elements.
On the other side also computed influence areas for the processing of selective
foot point excitation or other special cases may be introduced into the analysis.
In this case the numbers of these load cases have to follow the eigenform load
cases immediately and may be requested through the explicit input of LCUP.
The eigenvalue problem can be shifted by one value. This finds application in
structures that are not supported (zero eigenvalue is the smallest value) as well
as in checking the number of eigenvalues by means of a Sturm sequence. The
number of skipped eigenvalues is manifested during the shift by the number of
sign changes of the determinant.
The choice of method for the eigenvalue analysis depends on the number of
the eigenvalues. The simultaneous vector iteration is used in most cases. The
number of iterations can be reduced when a somewhat expanded subspace is
used for the eigenvalue iteration. For that reason the default value for NITE is
the minimum between NEIG+2 and the number of unknowns. The iteration is
terminated when the maximum number of iterations (default max (15, 2 NTE))
is reached or when the highest eigenvalue has only changed by a factor less
than 0.00001 compared to the previous iteration.
The method of Lanczos is significantly quicker than the vector iteration, when
a large number of eigenvalues is sought. A good accuracy is achieved when
the number of vectors NITE is at least double the number of sought eigenvalues (default). In case of NITE=NEIG, by contrast to vector iteration, the higher
eigenvalues are usually worthless.
The method of Rayleigh is especially useful if only few eigenvalues are required
and if there are also negative Eigenvalues. As it uses the iterative solver it
requires a special license ISOL and a skyline optimization (CTRL OPTI 1) but
can handle very large systems with least memory requirements.
If a primary load case is selected with CTRL PLC, the geometric initial stiffness is
included in the eigenvalue analysis. So you will get the frequency zero if you are
approaching a buckling case.
In that case you may however evaluate the buckling eigenform directly via TYPE
BUCK (or more specific BULL, BUSI or BURA). For lateral torsional buckling
BURA is the best method in general to suppress the negative eigen values.

3-24

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

Number of
Eigenvalues
Range of
Eigenvalues
multiple
Eigenvalues
missing
Eigenvalues
negative
Eigenvalues
Memory
requirement
Speed

Vektoriteration

Lanczos

Rayleigh

moderate

high

few

Ritz-Step
problematic
yes

no problems
yes

sometimes
problems
yes

very rare

rare

very rare

yes

does not work

only positive

moderate

high

small

moderate

fast

variable

Overview of the algorithms

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-25

DYNA | Input Description

3.11

MODD Modal Damping

See also: ECHO, CTRL, GRP, EIGE

Item

Description

NO

MODD
Unit

Default

Number of the eigenvalue

all

direct Lehrs damping

Mass proportional damping

1/ sec

Stiffness proportional damping

sec

The damping may be specified within the GRP record with different values for
each group. When using direct integration, these values will become effective
in just this way. For a modal analysis however the modal damping will be calculated, following the computation of the eigenvalues, from the defined damping
values by a diagonalisation process. Each Eigenform will then have one distinct
modal damping value.
However the modal damping (Lehrs damping factor), can also be defined separately for each mode by three independent parts (direct value of D, mass proportional A and stiffness proportional B). The values are stored in the database.
The definition of this value will overwrite any damping definitions in the GRP
record or from explicit damper elements!
As the values in the literature are mostly given as modal damping values or
logarithmic decrements we will give some important formulas:
d =

=D+

1
2

(3.9)

In the next pictures you will see the influence of the factors A and B depending on
the eigenfrequencies of a SDOF-oscillator. The damping is shown as logarithmic
decrement ,describing the ratio of two consecutive amplitudes A1 and A2.
logarithmic dekrement

3-26

= og

A1
A2

(3.10)

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

Verschiebun

g SY [mm]

A1
1600.00
0

A2

1400.00
0

1200.00
0

1000.00
0

800.00
0

600.00
0

400.00
0

200.00
0

Zeit

0.00
0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

[sec]

Figure 3.1: logarithmic dekrement

The decrement is related to the modal damping with a factor of 2 . Usual


values for the modal damping D are (M LLER [2]):
elastic conditions [%] plastic conditions [%]
Reinforced concrete

1-2

Prestressed concrete

0.8

bolted steel constructions

welded steel constructions

0.4

Hint
MODD have to be specified as absolute value or with an explicit unit [%] !
For a direct integration without eigenvalues, there is no modal damping, thus it
is necessary to convert a given damping value to the parameters A and B. The
conversion of parameters A and B can be seen from the next picture.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-27

DYNA | Input Description


B = 0.0005

50

B = 0.001

45

B = 0.002

40

B = 0.005

35

A = 0.1

30

A = 0.2

Dekremente [%]

25

A = 0.5

20

A = 1.0

15

ALF = 0,3 DEL = 0,52

10

ALF = 0,25 DEL = 0,55


ALF = 0,4 DEL = 0,52

ALF = 0,4 DEL = 0,55

0
0.5

10

20

50

Eigenfrequenzen [Hz]

ALF = 0,17 DEL = 0,5 THE


= 1,4

Figure 3.2: Parameter A and B

To achieve a 10 % damping for a frequency of 5 Hz you may either define A


as 1.0 or B as 0.001. In General you want to define the damping between two
frequencies f1 and f2 with a relatively constant decrement. You have then to
specify a combination of A and B given by: (circular frequencies = 2 )
A = 2 1 2

B=2

1 2 2 1
2 2 1 2

2 2 1 1
2 2 1 2

(3.11)

(3.12)

If the damping at the start of the interval should be equal to the damping at the
end of the interval and by converting to the standard frequencies = 2 we
have:
A = 4

B=

1 2
1 + 2
1

(1 + 2 )

(3.13)

(3.14)

Example: A structural steel with bolted connections should have a mean modal
damping of 0.01 between 2 Hertz and 10 Hertz. We thus have a decrement of
2 = 2 0.01 = 0.063 i.e. the amplitude of a free oscillation should reduce

3-28

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

by 6.3 % from peak to peak within the range from 2 Hertz to 10 Hertz.

Factor ( 22 1 2) is given by
2 1

A = 4 0.01

B=

0.01

2 + 10

2 10
2 + 10

(102)

102 22

= 0.083. Thus:

= 0.21

(3.15)

= 0.000266

(3.16)

To check this we have from the diagram or the formulas:


at 2.0 Hertz at 10.0 Hertz at 5.0 Hertz
from A

0.0525

0.0105

0.021

from B

0.0105

0.0525

0.026

total

0.0630

0.0630

0.047

i.e. at the bounds of the interval we have the desired damping, but between we
have a little bit less. For 5.0 Hertz we have only d = 0.047.
For a direct integration there is an additional numerical damping effect possible
with the selection of the integration constant BET, DEL and THE. The default
(BET = 0,25; DEL = 0,5; THE = 1) will not have any damping effect. The same is
valid for modal analysis there is also no damping effect, because the equations
are integrated exactly.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-29

DYNA | Input Description

3.12

STEP Parameter of the Step-wise Integration

See also: ECHO, CTRL, GRP, MASS, EIGE, MODD, LC,


CONT, HIST, EXTR
Item

Description

STEP
Unit

Default

Number of time steps or divisor

10

DT

Time step or total time (sec)

0.1

INT

Output interval every INT steps

/ LT

Mass proportional damping

1/ sec

0.

Stiffness proportional damping

sec

0.

BET

Parameter of the integration method

1/4

1/2

DEL
THE

relative time value for equilibrium

1.

EIGB

Optional estimate of bending frequency

Hz

EIGT

Optional estimate of torsional frequency

Hz

EIGS

Optional estimate of soil frequency

Hz

DTF

Number of steps for SBFEM convolution

STHE

Extrapolation factor for SBFEM

1.4

STEP prescribes the type of time-dependent analysis. Three cases must be


distinguished:

STEP N > 0
Analysis of a time segment with duration N DT by direct (Newmark-Wilson)
or analytical modal integration. When N <1 is input, DT is interpreted as total
time and the individual time step becomes N DT .

THE = 0.0 for the explicit integration

THE = 1.0 for the Newmark method (Default constant average)

THE 1.4 for the Wilson method (BET = 1/ 6, DEL = 1/ 2)

THE < 1.0 for the Hughes-Alpha method (0.7 < THE < 1.0)

STEP 0 or record not defined


Static analysis (without record EIGE) or statistic analysis of spectra or
steady-state excitations. If the literal TIME or FREQ is input for INT, a response analysis for the oscillation periods or frequencies in the region from
0 to N DT times the specified load function frequency 2/ T0 is performed. If

3-30

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

the literal STIM or SFRE is given, the load is normalised to a constant displacement instead of the acceleration. If the literal VTIM or VFRE is selected,
the normalisation is based on a constant velocity.

STEP N < 0
Analysis of a transient steady-state condition taking phase shifts into consideration. Referred to the eigen period if DT not given.

A suitable size of the time step depends on the frequency of the expected response. In case of the direct method components with periods smaller than
about ten times the time step are damped out of the solution. A comparison
analysis should be performed if in doubt with a step approximately equal to one
fourth of the initial time step.
It should be taken care of the fact, that the standard Newmark-Method has no
numerical damping. Thus small errors may amplify easily. Those errors may
be introduced by a time step chosen to small together with consistent mass
matrices. In that or other cases the integration constant should be modified, eg.:

Definition of DEL > 0.5 for a damped Newmark-Method

Definition of THE > 1.4 for the Wilson Method

Definition of THE < 1.0 for the Hughes-Alpha Method

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-31

DYNA | Input Description

3.13

LC Load Case

See also: ECHO, CTRL, GRP, MASS, EIGE, MODD,


STEP, CONT, HIST, EXTR
Item

Description

NO

LC
Unit

Default

Load case number

FACT

Factor for all loads of the load case

1.0

DLX

Dead weight factor in X direction

0.0

DLY

Dead weight factor in Y direction

0.0

DLZ

Dead weight factor in Z direction

0.0

MODB

Modal base load case number

TITL

Identifier of the load case

Lt32

The loading in DYNA is subdivided in load cases identified by a number. Each


load case can be assigned in program SOFiLOAD loadings, time-functions or a
response spectrum. The use of the load cases differs according to the computational procedure:
1.

Transient analysis
During a time variation analysis (STEP N > 0) all the selected load cases
and their functions define the time dependence of the loading and the starting time. All functions act with their loads simultaneously upon the structure.
DYNA allows the extra definition of a contact condition CONT for a moving
load.

2.

Static or steady-state analysis


In case of steady-state analysis the periodical loads are converted to corresponding responses according to Section 2.5. In case of static analysis
the load cases are analysed separately.

If spectra are defined, DYNA computes by double interpolation of all the spectra
a system response, which is then superimposed by statistical methods according to the input for CTRL STYP.
For a modal analysis the general case is to apply the same load vector for all
eigenforms. However if every eigenform should obtain a separate loading as in
a modal wind analysis, the item MODB allows to specify the load case number
for the loading to the first eigen form. All following eigenforms will be associated
to the consecutive load case numbers.

3-32

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

In this case there is a special feature for spectral loading:


For the load cases the user defined parameter CRIT will be evaluated. If it is
zero, no evaluation will be taken from the spectra. The response is 1.0. If defined
otherwise the period of the eigenforms will be scaled with that value. Thus for a
Wind spectrum this value is to be defined with Ltrb / men / or z/ men / .

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-33

DYNA | Input Description

3.14

CONT Contact and Moving Load Function

See also: ECHO, CTRL, GRP, MASS, EIGE, MODD,


STEP, LC, HIST, EXTR

CONT

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

Selected contact value (obsoleted)

LT

REF

Ident of a reference axis for load trains

NR

Number of an edge element

Travel speed

m/ sec

YEX

Local Eccentricity

0.0

TMIN

Time at start of travel

sec

0.0

LCUV

Load case for vertical track irregularities

LCUT

Case for transverse track irregularities

LCUR

Case for rotational track irregularities

Dynamic contact is governed by a changing location of contact point within time,


as it is given in the case of a vehicle travelling along a bridge.
This record allows the definition of the development in time of the contact point
and a mechanism to create loads based on current deformations of the system.
For the time dependant location you have to select a sequence of nodes and
specify the time value for each node when the contact point is exactly at that
point. In most cases the selection of the number NO of a boundary/edge element
will select all nodes in the given sequence. However explicit definitions with
FUNC (program SOFiLOAD) records and mixing and concatenation of several
elements is possible. Defining a travelling speed V will generate all the needed
time values from the distance either directly or taken along the reference axis
and the optional start time TMIN.
If the load case has a load train created within SOFiLOAD, all loads of the train
will follow each other with the appropriate distance. If the load train has also
structural- or visualisation objects created via the TREX command, the nodes
of those objects will receive the current coordinates as displacements and the
absolute velocities. Only the point loads are processed by the CONT command.
The three load cases LCUV, LCUT and LCUR allow to introduce track irregularities or uneven pavements as additional displacements or rotations for the
contact-point. The load functions of these load cases must have the absolute

3-34

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

displacements as a function of the travelling time of the load reference point.


The reference displacement at the contact point is obtained by a linear interpolation between the adjacent nodes. The loading at the contact point is similarly
distributed between the adjacent nodes. External nodal loads are placed at the
contact point only if the node number is specified as 0.
For the definition of a load train moving along a bridge according to DIN FB 101
/ EC1 the input may be as follows:
PROG SOFILOAD
HEAD DEFINE A DEFAULT LANE GEOMETRY
ECHO FULL
GAX AXIS 0.0 X
0.0
0.0 R 150 NZ +1.0
AXIS 3.0 X
30.0
0.0 R 150
LC 191 ; TRAIN RFAT 4 p4 0.0 ; trex 191 901 900 11 1
END
PROG DYNA
GRP 1,2,3 ; GRP 901 FAKS 0.0
CTRL ELF 1001 7
LET#1 30.0
$ SPEED in m/sec $
STEP 0.01 300.0/#1
$ TOTAL TIME FOR TRAVELING $
LC 191
$ LOAD TRAIN $
CONT REF AXIS NO 10 #1 2.0 $ AUTOMATIC TIMEVALUES IN NODES FROM EDGE $

Further variants may be seen within the example dyna9_travelling_loads.dat


and at SOFiLOAD loadtrains.dat.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-35

DYNA | Input Description

3.15

HIST Results within Time

See also: ECHO, CTRL, GRP, MASS, EIGE, MODD,


STEP, LC, CONT, EXTR

HIST

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

Result value (see table)

LT

FROM

Smallest node or element number

TO

Largest node or element number

FROM

INC

Increment or Identifier

/ Lt

RESU

Output request

LT

PRIN
LCST

numerical value printout

Number of case to store in database


0

do not save in database

XREF

Beam section or reference point for the

0.

YREF

sum of the spring force components

0.

ZREF

or dP/P width

0.

DUMP

Filename for a dump of the values

Lt48

The record HIST requests the time history of particular values. These will be
saved into the database for the presentation with DYNR, but it is also possible
to print the values directly or to save them to an external dump file. Up to 32
values can be addressed per input record.
The computed maximum and minimum values of the curves will be printed in
any case.
Table 3.21: Possible literals for TYPE

TYPE

Meaning

UX, UY, UZ

U-X

3-36

U-

U-Z

Displacements

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

Table 3.21: (continued)

TYPE
U-RX

Meaning
U-RY

U-RZ

Rotations
VX, VY, VZ

V-X

V-Y

V-Z

Velocities

V-RX

V-RY

V-RZ

Angular velocity

AX, AY, AZ

AX

AY

AZ

Accelerations

ARX

ARY

ARZ

Angular acceleration

PT

Spring forces and moment

PX

PY

PZ

Spring force total global components

PT/P

DP/P

Spring force ratios

SP

Sum of all spring force components

SPX

SPY

SPZ

Sum of the spring force components

SPRX

SPRY

SPRZ

Sum of the spring moment components

TRUS

Truss-bar axial force

CABL

Cable axial force

BEAM

All Beam forces

VY

VZ

Beam forces normal and shear

MT

MY

MZ

Beam moments torsion and bending

SIG

TAU

SIGV

Stresses in sectional points

QUAD

All Shell forces

MXX

MYY

VXX

VYY

NXX

NYY

MXY

Shell moments
Shell shear forces

NXY

BRIC

Shell membrane forces


All continua stresses

TXX

TYY

TZZ

Stresses of 3D continuum

TXY

TXZ

TYZ

DSX

DSY

DSZ

Shear stresses of 3D continuum (only available for


EIGE REST from program ASE).
Calculation of the dynamic stiffness with its real
and imaginary part for a range of frequencies
Translational degrees of freedom

DSRX

DSRY

DSRZ

Rotational degrees of freedom

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-37

DYNA | Input Description

For the beam results XREF is used to define the section where the results are
evaluated. A negative definition is taken as the ratio of the section to the total
beam length, thus a value of -1.0 selects the end of the beam.
For the stresses INC is used to define the identifier of the stress point (SPT)
within the section where the stresses should be evaluated.
The spring force ratios may be useful for vehicle-structure-interaction. They are
defined as follows:
PT/P

The ratio of the resulting transversal force PT to the main force P


of a spring

DP/P

The ratio of the difference of the main forces of two springs to the
mean value of the same spring forces:
P
P

3-38

P1 P2
P1 + P2

(3.17)

INC=0

only between FROM and TO

INC>0

change relative to the prestressing force or:


For all springs a following rotational spring is searched
having the same nodes. Then the value P will be established from the moment and the plan view distance
derived from values XREF to ZREF.

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

3.16

EXTR Evaluation of Max. Internal Forces and Moments

See also: ECHO, CTRL, GRP, MASS, EIGE, MODD,


STEP, LC, CONT, HIST

EXTR

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

Structural magnitude

LT

MAX

Load case number for maximum

MIN

Load case number for minimum

LT

CQC

0
STYP

print only

Superposition type statistical/steady-state


ADD

sum of values

SUM

sum of absolute values

SRSS

square root of sum of squares

CQC

Complete Quadratic Combination


harmonised SRSS

SRS1

CQC1 harmonised CQC


...
SRS9

harmonised SRSS

CQC9 harmonised CQC


The default value (CQC) may be changed
with CTRL STYP V2.
ACT

Action names of the results


See below

LT

The following literals are possible for TYPE. The values of the first line activate
all possible internal forces and moments as maximum value only. No corresponding internal forces are computed in this case.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-39

DYNA | Input Description

Table 3.23: For nodes

TYPE

Designation

Displacement

Velocity

Acceleration

Table 3.24: For beams (BEAM)

TYPE

Designation

BEAM

Maximum values for beam elements


(not usable for superposition)

Normal force

VY

Shear force Vy

VZ

Shear force Vz

MT

Torsional moment

MY

Bending moment My

MZ

Bending moment Mz

MB

Warping moment

MT2

Secondary torsional moment

Table 3.25: For truss elements (TRUS)

TYPE

Designation

TRUS

Forces in truss elements

3-40

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

Table 3.26: For cables (CABL)

TYPE

Designation

CABL

Forces in cable elements

Table 3.27: For springs (SPRI)

TYPE

Designation

SPRI

Maximum values for spring elements


(not usable for superposition)

Spring force in main direction

PT

Resultant spring force in transverse direction


PT =

PTX 2 + PTY 2 + PTZ 2

PTX

Spring component in global X direction

PTY

Spring component in global Y direction

PTZ

Spring component in global Z direction

Spring moment

SP

Sum of spring forces

SPX

Sum of spring force components in X direction

SPY

Sum of spring force components in Y direction

SPZ

Sum of spring force components in Z direction

SPRX

Sum of rotational spring forces about X direction

SPRY

Sum of rotational spring forces about Y direction

SPRZ

Sum of rotational spring forces about Z direction

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-41

DYNA | Input Description

Table 3.28: For plates/shells (QUAD)

TYPE

Designation

QUAD

Maximum values for QUAD elements


(not usable for superposition)

MXX

Bending moment m-xx

MYY

Bending moment m-yy

MXY

Torisonal moment m-xy

VXX

Shear force v-x

VYY

Shear force v-y

NXX

Membrane force n-xx

NYY

Membrane force n-yy

NXY

Membrane shear force n-xy

NZZ

Membrane force n-zz

Table 3.29: For volume elements (BRIC)

TYPE

Designation

BRIC

Maximum values for BRIC elements


(not usable for superposition)

TXX

Stress in global X direction

TYY

Stress in global Y direction

TZZ

Stress in global Z direction

TXY

Shear stress in global XY plane

TXZ

Shear stress in global XZ plane

TYZ

Shear stress in global YZ plane

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SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description | DYNA

Table 3.30: For result sets (RSET)

TYPE

Designation

RSET
RS1

Maximum values for RSET elements


(not usable for superposition)
the first entry of each RSET

RS2

the second entry of each RSET


...

RS31

the 31th entry of each RSET

The maximum values are stored in the database, if a load case number is input
for MAX and/or MIN. For nodal values (U,V,A) only the maximum values are
output as default. Use ECHO DISP, VELO or ACCE to see all nodal results.

Special remarks on the extreme values of response spectra


The maximum forces will become positive for SUM, SRSS and CQC. The versions SRS1 and CQC1 will scale the results according to the sign of the first
eigenform. (SRS2 to CQC9 analogue to the second to the 9th eigenform) In any
case the results have to be inserted in other tasks with a positive or a negative
sign multiplier.
For the global maximum values of the first row the extremas will be calculated
for every force independently. The extremas will be collected and stored within
a single record. The real response may be any positive or negative combination
of these individual values. This might be unconvenient for design purpose, and
it is definitely not suited for a display with the program ANIMATOR.
At superposition of a single internal force on the other hand the corresponding
internal forces are formed in the same ratio with a linear combination, so that one
can employ the complete set of the internal forces and moments. The algorithm
used for that has been invented by SOFiSTiK and is therefore hardly to be found
in other programs.
SUM offers an upper limit, SRSS may overestimate or underestimate the probable magnitude. CQC usually gives the most reasonable results.
The base accelerations are also included within the resulting nodal accelerations. Displacements and velocities however are always relative to the free field

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DYNA | Input Description

movements of the soil.


The types SP and SPX, SPY, SPZ address the total sum of all components of
support spring forces in the global coordinate directions. The output is done
group-wise. Types PTX to PTZ have only the tangential components.

Action names of the results


At ACT the results can be assigned to a specific action for a later superposition.
All actions preset in program SOFiLOAD record ACT are possible here.

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Input Description | DYNA

3.17

ECHO Extent of Output

See also: CTRL, GRP, MASS, EIGE, MODD, STEP, LC,


CONT, HIST, EXTR

ECHO

Item

Description

Unit

Default

OPT

A literal from the following list:

LT

FULL

LT

FULL

NODE Nodal values


SECT

Cross section values

ELEM

Elements

MASS Masses in nodes


EIGE

Natural frequencies

LOAD

Loads

DISP

Displacements

FORC Internal forces and moments

VAL

VELO

Velocities

ACCE

Accelerations

STAT

Warning for convergence check

FULL

All the above options

The extent of the output


OFF

Option complete deactivate

NO

No output

YES

Regular output

FULL

Extensive output

EXTR

Extreme output

The name ECHO must be repeated in each record to avoid confusion with similar
record names (e.g. CROS).
The default value is NO for NODE, CROS, and ELEM; for all others it is YES.
The warning no. 10918 (No convergence of the iterative equation solver in load
vector) for convergence checks can be switched off with ECHO STAT NO.

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DYNA | Input Description

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SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description | DYNA

Output Description

4.1

Nodes

The nodes are output by use of ECHO NODE YES only. The table includes the
coordinates and constraints, and by ECHO NODE FULL the equation numbers of
the freedom degrees as well.

4.2

Cross Sections

The table of the cross sections appears after request by ECHO SECT and contains
the following value:
CROSS SECTIONS
A

Cross sectional area

Ay

Shear cross sectional area

Az

Shear cross sectional area

It

Torsional moment of inertia

Iy

Geometric moment of inertia about principal axis

Iz

Geometric moment of inertia about secondary axis

Elastic modulus

Shear modulus

Da

Factor of external (mass proportional)


damping

Di

Factor of internal (stiffness proportional)


damping

Rho

Mass density

4.3

General Parameters

At the beginning of a dynamic analyses appears a table CONTROL INFORMATIONS with the general parameters. These are:

Number of unknowns and profile size of the equation system

Number of used eigenvalues

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DYNA | Output Description

Number and size of time steps

Rayleighs damping by direct integration

Parameters of the integration method

4.4

Elements

The tables of beam elements and spring or truss elements as well as lumped
masses and damping elements appear upon request by ECHO ELEM. They contain for each element the participating nodes, the length, the spring stiffnesses,
the local axis directions and the mass components.
In the table of the total masses, the first line has the sum of the nodal masses,
i.e. the rotational masses are only the rotational inertias of the nodes. However
the following rows contain the ordinates of the global centre of gravity and the
total rotational inertia of all translatoric masses measured to this centre as a 3x3
matrix.

4.5

Natural Frequencies

After the first computation of the natural frequencies the program outputs the
error in the eigenvalues along with the number of the required iterations. The
rest of the output is controlled by ECHO EIGE as follows:
ECHO EIGE YES

frequencies and modal damping only

ECHO EIGE FULL

node displacements as well

ECHO EIGE EXTR

element internal forces and moments as well

For a uniform ground acceleration in the three coordinate directions the modal
contributions may be evaluated (columns f-XX, f-YY and f-ZZ). Taken as percentage of the total mass this gives a criteria for a sufficient number of eigenvalues.
The eigenvectors are normalised with respect to the masses (equation 2.8 of
the theoretical principles). The internal forces and moments of the eigenvectors
are usually to be understood as an indication of the stressing type. The absolute
value depends on the normalisation and it can take considerably large values.

4.6

Load Cases, Functions and Loads

The table of functions and loads is always introduced before the description of
the function, followed by the loads of this load case.
The generalised loads of the individual modes and the sum of their squares are
output in the case of a modal loading.

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SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description | DYNA

There is a second value printed, which may be used to integrate the square of
Eigenvalues for only parts of the structure via special load patterns.

4.7

Displacements

The displacements of the individual load cases are output by static analysis.
In case of dynamic analysis the maximum displacements, velocities and accelerations can be output for all nodes. There result two lines per node with the
minimum and maximum values as well as the corresponding time values if a
time analysis was carried out. In case of stochastic or steady-state excitation
the extreme values were computed by statistical methods or by analysis of one
period of the steady-state excitation.

4.8

Internal Forces and Moments

The internal forces of the individual load cases are output by static analysis.
The maximum values are calculated for all internal forces and moments specified by EXTR along with the other corresponding values. The given time value
holds for the whole line. In case of stochastic or steady-state excitation the
extreme values were computed by statistical methods.

4.9

Time Variations

The time variation of the structural magnitudes specified with HIST is presented
lastly. This can take the form of a table, a printer graph and/or a curve in the
database for further processing with DYNR. The nodes or elements addressed
by each HIST record are output in a general graph. Time is plotted in the longitudinal direction of the paper, while the various magnitudes are plotted in the
transverse direction. A common scale for all involved magnitudes is selected for
each plot. The curves are marked by numbers or letters.

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4-3