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Dynamic Analysis

SOFiSTiK 2016

DYNA

Dynamic Analysis

DYNA Manual, Version 2016-0

Software Version SOFiSTiK 2016

c 2015 by SOFiSTiK AG, Oberschleissheim, Germany.

Copyright

SOFiSTiK AG

HQ Oberschleissheim

Bruckmannring 38

85764 Oberschleissheim

Germany

Office Nuremberg

Burgschmietstr. 40

90419 Nuremberg

Germany

F +49 (0)89 315878-23

F +49(0)911 397904

info@sofistik.de

www.sofistik.de

reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from SOFiSTiK AG.

SOFiSTiK reserves the right to modify or to release new editions of this manual.

The manual and the program have been thoroughly checked for errors. However, SOFiSTiK

does not claim that either one is completely error free. Errors and omissions are corrected as

soon as they are detected.

The user of the program is solely responsible for the applications. We strongly encourage the

user to test the correctness of all calculations at least by random sampling.

Front Cover

Project: MILANEO, Stuttgart, Germany | Client: Bayerische Hausbau and ECE | Architect: RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky

| Structural Engineering for Bayerische Hausbau: Boll und Partner | Photo: Dirk Mnzner

Contents | DYNA

Contents

Contents

Task Description

1-1

Theoretical Principles

2.1

Integration of the Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2

Computation of the Eigenvalues and the Modal Damping

2.3

Modal Analysis for Time-dependent Loading . . . . . . . . .

2.4

Modal Excitation through Ground Acceleration . . . . . . .

2.5

Modal Analysis of a Steady-state Excitation . . . . . . . . .

2.6

Excitation through a Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.7

Sign of corresponding forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.8

Kinematic Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.9

Elastic Stiffnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.10 Geometric Stiffness and P-delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2-1

2-1

2-3

2-4

2-4

2-6

2-8

2-9

2-10

2-11

2-11

Literature

2-13

3-1

3-1

3-1

3-3

3-5

3-9

3-12

3-14

3-16

3-17

3-20

3-21

3-23

3-26

3-30

3-32

3-34

3-36

Input Description

3.1

Input Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2

Input Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3

SYST System Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4

CTRL Calculation Parameters . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.1

SOLV Equation solver . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.2

CORE Parallel computation control . .

3.5

GRP Selection of Element Groups . . . . . . .

3.6

MAT General Material Properties . . . . . . . .

3.7

BMAT Elastic Support / Interface . . . . . . . .

3.8

SMAT SBFEM - Material Properties . . . . . .

3.9

MASS Lumped Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.10 EIGE Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors . . . . . .

3.11 MODD Modal Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.12 STEP Parameter of the Step-wise Integration

3.13 LC Load Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.14 CONT Contact and Moving Load Function . .

3.15 HIST Results within Time . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SOFiSTiK 2016

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DYNA | Contents

3.16

3.17

4

ii

ECHO Extent of Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Output Description

4.1

Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2

Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3

General Parameters . . . . . . . . . .

4.4

Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.5

Natural Frequencies . . . . . . . . . .

4.6

Load Cases, Functions and Loads

4.7

Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.8

Internal Forces and Moments . . . .

4.9

Time Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3-39

3-45

4-1

4-1

4-1

4-1

4-2

4-2

4-2

4-3

4-3

4-3

SOFiSTiK 2016

Task Description

The program DYNA can be used for static and primarily for dynamic analysis

of three-dimensional structures. It can perform the following tasks (Special licenses may be needed):

well as planar and axisymmetric structures.

Implicit direct integration of the equations of motion for structures with arbitrary damping

The static system is stored in the database after its generation e.g. by the program SOFiMSHA, SOFiMSHC or SOFiPLUS.

The following elements can be processed by DYNA:

and bedding profiles (piles)

Damping elements

Shell elements

3D-solid elements

For the explicit integration not all features are supported. Only the truss, cable,

SOFiSTiK 2016

1-1

spring and the 3D volume (BRIC) element are available. All interactions (Wind,

Loadtrain, Soil) are not available. But geometric and material nonlinearity are

supported.

The results of the dynamic analysis including the mode shapes are stored in the

database as displacements and stresses with a load case number.

The mode shapes can also be transferred from the database after a calculation

with the program ASE.

For the purposes of a dynamic analysis, the program may output the maximal

and the minimal of all displacements, velocities or accelerations as well as internal forces and moments, and eventually the time variation of selected degrees

of freedom or internal forces and moments.

For speed reasons almost all algorithms follow what is called IN-CORE solutions. The size of the problem is therefore limited by the amount of available

main memory. Modal solutions transferring the eigenvalues from ASE are not

subjected to this limitations.

1-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

Theoretical Principles

+c

+ k = p (t)

m

(2.1)

where

u

displacement

mass

viscous damping

stiffness

p(t)

external loading

The method of finite elements replaces the continuous vector fields by discrete

displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors. The material properties are

converted to mass, damping and stiffness matrices:

mj j + cj j + kj j = p (t)

(2.2)

diagonalise the mass and the damping matrix. This is permitted in most cases

without large errors, but can not be applied to rotational masses and kinematic

constraints with rotational degrees of freedom.

The consistent mass matrices imposes a larger numerical effort and bigger

memory requirements, but produce in general more accurate results. However

there is another disadvantage. The violation of the discrete maximum principle

may lead in case of very small time steps to oscillations of the solutions. The

times steps in such case must not be smaller that the time needed by the wave

to propagate through a single element.

For these reasons the program provides an input entry for the type of matrix

assembly in the CTRL MCON record.

2.1

For the most general approach the direct integration of the differential equations

a second discretisation in time has to be applied. The first step is to subdivide

the time in discrete time steps. Then the simplest form is to assume a constant

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-1

obtained using a linear approximation for the acceleration .

0) +

(t)

= (t

t t0

t

0 + t) (t

0 )]

[ (t

(2.3)

According to the Newmark method the following expressions hold for the velocity and the displacement at the end of the time interval t :

(t + t) = (t)

(t + t)]

+ t [(1 ) (t)

+

(2.4)

(t + t)]

(t + t) = (t) + t (t)

+ t 2 [(1/ 2 ) (t)

+

(2.5)

Then we have the choice between five different possibilities to select how or for

which time t + t the equilibrium equation is fulfilled.

As the variation of the acceleration along the time step is constant it is possible to calculate all values highly efficient explicitly by the mass matrix. The

method is well suited to be parallelized, but it is only stable if the time step is

below a certain critical value which is approximately equal to the wave speed

divided my the minimum mesh size.

The default of the parameters has no numerical damping at all. Thus small

errors may enlarge especially for the accelerations. In those cases the value

of should be enlarged. In the literature parameter is often given as .

Wilson-Theta-Method ( 1.37)

This value is a modification of the Newmark method where the numerical

damping enlarges the period to a greater extent, but keeps the amplitudes

to a higher accuracy. In the literature the parameter is given as but this

has been changed to avoid conflicts with the next method.

2-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

degrading the order of accuracy. It is especially suited for non linear problems. The value is taken from the input value as = ( 1.0). Thus

we have a formal equivalent to the Crank-Nicholson method (see program

HYDRA)

Modal Analysis

The system of equations to be solved can be significantly simplified if the

solution is calculated in the subspace of a few eigenvectors. This requires

knowledge of the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors, the calculation of which

is relatively extensive. But then it is possible to integrate the linear equations

exactly. Nonlinear effects may be treated in a simplified way if the modes

contain the nonlinear displacement possibilities.

accelerations at t + t . Compared to the explicit methods, the time step may

be chosen considerably larger. Specific errors (oscillations) may be introduced

however by a time step chosen to small with a consistent mass matrix.

2.2

another vector space. This results in significant simplification of the equations

of motion (decoupling). The fact that the contributions of the higher eigenvalues

can usually be neglected leads to a reduction of the vector space dimension.

The computation of the real eigenvalues is done either by a simultaneous inverse vector iteration or by the Lanczos method. The algorithms find the lowest

eigenvalues of the structure along with the corresponding mode shapes V . The

following orthogonality conditions are always satisfied:

V T m V j = 0

V T

k Vj = 0

6= j

(2.6a)

6= j

(2.6b)

By use of these conditions both the mass and the stiffness matrix in the eigenvalue space become pure diagonal matrices. In order for the damping matrix

to become diagonal too, damping must be diagonal itself or proportional to the

mass and/or the stiffness matrix:

c=m+bk

(2.7)

A decoupled system can be solved in such case yielding the natural frequencies as well as the generalised masses (M), the modal damping (d) and the

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-3

Mn = V Tn m V n

Kn =

Cn =

Pn =

V Tn

V Tn

V Tn

(2.8a)

k V n = Mn

2

(2.8b)

(2.8c)

(2.8d)

c V n = 2 d Mn

p(t)

The mode shapes are scaled in such a way that Mn become equal to 1.0. When

(2.7) is used, the resulting modal damping d (Lehrs damping factor) is also a

diagonal matrix:

dn =

1

2

+ b n =

(2.9)

In a complex system the individual elements may have quite different damping

properties. The proportionality of the damping is then no longer given and the

damping matrix Cn does not become a diagonal matrix. In that case there are

three possibilities:

DYNA.

a static load case would yield the same response of the structure. This procedure, described in many design codes is not required within a software intended

for dynamic analysis, as all other dependant results for a eigenform are directly

evaluated and stored. Thus its use is for special non-linear cases or for verification purpose only.

2.3

As long as the conditions (2.6)-(2.7) are fulfilled, the equation of motion can be

solved decoupled and integrated exactly. The solution at each time moment

results from superposition of the computed mode shapes.

2.4

The displacements and velocities are computed in the reference system,

whereas the accelerations are given as absolute values in the original system.

2-4

SOFiSTiK 2016

(t)

p(t) = m r

(2.10)

The vector r defines the displacements of the individual nodes, when the base

point is subjected to a unit displacement. Excitations at particular base points

can be defined by this vector as well. The vector can be defined through the input

of its individual components or it can be read from the database (e.g. influence

line of the reaction force).

Applying equation (2.8d) to the load vector (2.10) one can obtain the modal

loads, which can also be represented as the product of the acceleration with the

so-called participation factors L.

(t)

P = V Tm p(t) = Lm

(2.11)

0.00

1.00

2.00

7.00

7.00

6.00

6.00

5.00

5.00

4.00

4.00

3.00

3.00

1.00

0.00

1.00

1.00

2.00

2.00

1.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

It is very important to keep in mind, that those modal loads describe the participation of the eigenforms and thus may have quite different values. If we consider

for example the first three modes of a column with an intermediate support:

1.00

0.00

1.00

we obtain for a horizontal acceleration the modal loads with different signs and

the largest contribution from the third Eigenform:

Mode

1

2

3

R*V-Factor

-2.278E+00

9.226E-01

2.747E+00

SOFiSTiK 2016

[o/o]

30.4

5.0

44.3

2-5

4

6.345E-08 0.0

5 -6.505E-01 2.5

------------------------Qu.Sum

1.401E+01 82.2

The sum of the squares of the participation factors represents the mass of the

system in the activated direction. The number of eigenvectors used in practical

analyses should be such that at least 90 percent of the total mass is taken into

account.

Many design codes use equivalent loads to calculate the forces and moments

for every mode. They are given by the relation:

HE, = M

L

M

S,

(2.12)

The given formula respective the load vector is a very nice picture if we have only

one principal mode. However if we have multiple modes and multiple directions,

we encounter a severe problem. Beside the inefficient evaluation of all those

data there is no such thing like an unfavourable load in a single node. Even the

maximum obtained acceleration is not a suitable measure for an unfavourable

action on any member.

As DYNA calculates the forces and moments of the Eigenforms in a much more

efficient and mathematical correct way, those bulk values are not available for

the user. However the resultant forces of those, the base shear is evaluated and

superposed like all other results according to the definitions of CTRL STYP.

If the user wants to see those load vectors in detail he may use SOFiLOAD

and the command ACCE NODE LINF i where i is the load case number of the

corresponding eigenform and an acceleration has to be defined from the value

2 times the modal response (Y ) taken from the DYNA results printout.

2.5

p (t) = p0 sn ( t )

(2.13)

(t) =

2-6

T p0

2

sn ( t )

2

1 r 2 + 4 (d r)2

(2.14)

SOFiSTiK 2016

where

r=

= + rctn

2dr

1 r2

(2.15)

These classical response functions have a region below the resonance frequency where the structure follows the loading with a dynamic enlarging factor

and a region above the resonance where it is no longer possible for the structure

to follow the loading, yielding in a steady decay of the counter phase response

until zero for high frequencies.

These response functions yield the true response including the shift of the resonance peak due to damping effects. All frequencies used in DYNA are always

there for those of the undamped oscillation.

The oscillation contains an additional r-multiple component, introduced through

the starting conditions and gradually reduced due to damping. The superposition of these oscillations results in a floating effect, which can be accurately

registered by time integration. DYNA can selectively omit this component or add

it if its unfavourable.

An accurate calculation of the maximum stressing taking into consideration the

phase shift can be carried out only for the final transient oscillation state by

neglecting the transient components. In all other cases only a statistical super-

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-7

2.6

In this case the factors f(t) with unknown phase shift are defined by their maximum value only, and they are usually prescribed in tables as functions of natural

frequency and damping. In order to compute the response frequency and damping are interpolated from the spectra.

For an earthquake analysis the response spectra define the acceleration dependant of the Perios and Damping or the behaviour factor.

For the wind the response is obtained by a background and a resonance response. While the dynamic response is obtained from a normalized power

spectrum, the background contribution is always assumed to be 1.0, as this

is on the safe side and is appropriate if the coherence effects are introduced by

the loading itself.

q=

S

v

u

t

1+

2

2

1 X + 2 X 2 + 3 X 3

(1 + b X c )d

L

z

X=

=

or

m

V

V

2

(2.16)

(2.17)

(2.18)

to probability theory. The CQC (Complete Quadratic Combination) method by

Wilson, or the Sum of the Absolute Values or the Square Root of the Sum of

Squares (SRSS) can be used for this purpose. The SRSS method is known to

be rather faulty in case of multiple eigenvalues, but the CQC method is no guarantee for correct results either. It should be especially noted that the method

without modal dampings will yield different values to SRSS only for multiple

eigenvalues.

q=

rX X

q j qj

3

8 d dj d + r dj r 2

j =

2

1 r 2 + 4d dj r 1 + r 2 + 4 d2 + dj2 r 2

(2.19)

(2.20)

For the case of shear within a quadratic section it can be easily shown, which

error is introduced by the SRSS Method. The acceleration in X-direction exits

the two diagonal Eigenforms with the same amount of 25 % of the total shear.

2-8

SOFiSTiK 2016

Eigenfor m 2

a

=

Eigenfor m 1

+

Eigenfor m 1

Eigenfor m 2

The SRSS-Method yields 35 % for all 4 walls, while the CQC Method will give

50 % for the x-walls and zero for the y-walls which is the correct value.

The

same method may be also used for the directional superposition for the most

unfavourable direction. Three load cases with accelerations in orthogonal directions may be analyzed together in a single DYNA run and combined with the

SRSS method. The correct sign of the corresponding forces will yield correct results, while the method used in other programs with independent extreme values

may yield results considerably to large.

2.7

For every type of superposition yielding only positive values, the sign of the

corresponding forces and moments should not be neglected. Although it is quite

common to use positive values for all results, this is not true and uneconomical

in most cases.

For example if we look at a plane horizontally loaded framework, the internal

forces and moments vary depending on the sign of the horizontal force, yet in

every case it has to be observed that the sign of the moment and normal force

in one of the column are identical, while different in the other one.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-9

If we extremize for the maximum moment, then the associated normal forces

must have different signs. Exactly this is available from the mode shapes. If we

now assemble the maximum moment of different mode shapes, then we should

thus always add the mode shapes only completely with a global factor. When

we intend to add the absolute values, then it is sufficient that all mode shapes

are either added or subtracted according to the sign of the leading force. So we

are replacing the rule of combination

SUMj =

X

sj

(2.21)

by the general form for the vector of internal forces and for the maximum value

of force j:

SUM =

+1, s 0

j

(2.22)

1, s < 0

j

The same can be used for the method SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares)

the rule:

v

uX

sj 2

SUMj = t

(2.23)

is replaced through

SUM =

sj

= qP

2

sj

(2.24)

Last but not the same can be done for the CQC-method. In any case the leading

force value will be positive thence it must be introduced as an alternating load in

the final design superposition.

2.8

Kinematic Constraints

certain expertise, because the selection of the reference nodes is critical. The

same holds for kinematic constraints too.

While a force at a distance a generates a moment P , the inertia of an eccentric mass is given by m 2 . DYNA takes this effect into account automatically

for standard kinematic constraints. This, however, results in off diagonal mass

matrix components, which necessitate the use of a consistent, i.e. not diagonalised, mass matrix. These do not need not only more memory place, but

2-10

SOFiSTiK 2016

can lead also to oscillation of solution through violation of the discrete maximum

principle at small time steps that perform disturbingly. But as these matrices

are not always acceptable, the user therefore can switch to the use of a diagonalised mass matrix, which then requires special care in the description of the

constraints.

When modelling rigid floor disks one should place the reference node as close

as possible to the gravity or the shear centre in order to get the most realistic

results.

Kinematic constraints increase the band width considerably. The memory capacity can thus be quickly exceeded in cases of large systems or strongly recursive kinematic constraints.

2.9

Elastic Stiffnesses

DYNA employs very compact formulations of the element stiffnesses. The spring

and boundary elements are in the classical form given and do not distinguish

from those ones in programs ASE or STAR2.

The beam element is a real finite element with a displacement accretion with

Hermitical function of second redundancy (therefore cubical polynomials). That

is considered at:

The element always produces however only internal forces and moments for

internal sections if requested bei CTRL BEAM 1. Deformations along the beam

element will never be calculated.

The QUAD shell element corresponds to the simple accretion without nonconforming parts. (Hughes and/or Bathe-Dvorkin)

2.10

For beam and truss elements a load case can be read, which can be used

for the determination of the geometric stiffnesses. The second order theory

effects are exact in those cases where the axial force does not change due to

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-11

geometric nonlinear effects. Thus this approach includes not only but exceeds

the so called P-delta effects. The eigenfrequency of member with tension will

thereby increase, while those of members under compression will decrease until

they reach the value of zero for the buckling load.

For cable elements the complete separation of geometric stiffness is not always

a good approach, as this might generate negative eigenvalues in a buckling

analysis. On the other side a buckling factor is defined as the factor of the

loading. So it is generally foreseen for cables to split the prestress in two parts.

One part is included in the general stiffness (this is the value defined with the

element itself) and the difference from the actual primary estate to that general

value is then used to form the geometric stiffness for the buckling analysis. If that

general value is not defined and option CTRL PLC does not select otherwise,

the primary estate will be taken as general prestress.

2-12

SOFiSTiK 2016

Literature | DYNA

Literature

[1] Timothy A. Davis. Ldl: a consise sparse cholesky factorization package.

http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/ldl, 2003-2012.

[2] F.P. Mller. Baudynamik. Betonkalender, Teil II, 1978.

SOFiSTiK 2016

2-13

DYNA | Literature

2-14

SOFiSTiK 2016

Input Description

3.1

Input Language

The input is made in the CADINP language (see general manual SOFiSTiK:

Basics).

Three categories of units are distinguished:

mm

[mm]

explicit assignment of a related unit is possible (eg. 2.5[m] ).

[mm] 1011

by a corresponding identity number (shown in green). Valid categories referring to the unit length are, for example, geodetic

elevation, section length and thickness. The default unit for each

category is defined by the currently active (design code specific)

unit set. This input default can be overridden as described above.

The specified unit in square brackets corresponds to the default for

unit set 5 (Eurocodes, NORM UNIT 5).

3.2

Input Records

Record

Items

SYST

TYPE

NCS

PROB

CTRL

OPT

VAL

VAL2

GRP

NO

VAL

MODD

MAT

BMAT

SMAT

PHYS

CS

PLC

STAT

CS

FACS

HING

RADA

RADB

FACP

FACM

WIND

LMAX

NCSP

NO

MUE

GAM

GAMA

ALFA

EY

MXY

OAL

OAF

SPM

TITL

NO

CT

CRAC

YIEL

MUE

COH

DIL

GAMB

REF

MREF

NO

LC

EX

EY

EZ

RHOX

RHOY

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-1

Record

MASS

EIGE

Items

RHOZ

ALF

BET

NO

MX

MY

MZ

MXY

MXZ

MYZ

MB

NEIG

TYPE

NITE

MITE

MXX

MYY

MZZ

LMIN

STOR

LC

DEL

LCUP

MODD

NO

STEP

DT

INT

BET

THE

EIGB

EIGT

EIGS

DTF

STHE

LC

NO

FACT

DLX

DLY

DLZ

MODB

TITL

CONT

TYP

REF

NR

TMIN

LCUV

LCUT

TYPE

FROM

TO

STEP

RESU

LCST

XREF

YREF

ZREF

DUMP

EXTR

TYPE

MAX

MIN

STYP

ACT

ECHO

OPT

VAL

LCUR

HIST

The records HEAD, END and PAGE are described in the general manual

SOFiSTiK: Basics.

A description of each record follows:

3-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

3.3

SYST

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

Type of System

REST use existing main system

SECT use subsystem of section SNO

Section number

LT

REST

LT

LT

LINE

CS

LINE linear analysis

TH2

2nd order theory

TH3

3rd order theory

Physical type of the analysis

LINE linear analysis

NONL non linear analysis (all)

NSPR non linear analysis (Spring)

NMAT non linear analysis (Material)

Construction stage

PLC

STAT

State of analysis

SERV serviceability

ULTI

ultimate limit

CALC general nonlinear

LT

SNO

PROB

PHYS

The system for the analysis has to exist in the database. DYNA can use also

the FE-meshes of a specific section. This may be selected with SYST SECT

nnn, where nnn is the number of that section. The FE-system of the sections is

saved in separate data base in a sub-directory.

The geometric type of the analysis may be linear or according 2nd order theory

(small deformations, but stress induced geometric stiffness and 3rd order theory

(large deformations but small strains). The stresses for the geometric stiffness

are taken from the primary load case. Thus without a primary load case the

analysis is always linear, with a primary load case the default is TH2. Option

TH3 is currently only available for explicit integration.

The physical type of the analysis may be linear or including the nonlinear properties of the spring elements and/or the full material non linearity (explicit inte-

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-3

gration only). The definition of the state presets the selection of stress strain

laws and safety factors according to the INI-file of the selected design code.

The analysis uses the properties for construction stage CS and the stresses and

deformations according CTRL PLC from load case PLC.

3-4

SOFiSTiK 2016

3.4

CONT, HIST, EXTR

CTRL

Item

Description

Unit

Default

OPT

Calculation parameter

LT

VAL

V2

V3

V4

V5

V6

PLC

When entering a primary load case you will have initial stress stiffness included in the analysis, thus we have second order or pi-deltaeffects, but no iteration will take place for changes of the initial stress.

For an eigenfrequency analysis, a compressive stress field will reduce the eigenvalues until zero at the buckling limit, while a tensile

stress field will increase the eigenvalue. Non-linear stiffness created

by AQB will be taken into account.

Thus, for a buckling eigenvalue the specification of this value is

mandatory!

As the dynamic analysis is then based on the tangential stiffness,

loadings should always be defined as incremental loads.

V2

0=

1=

2=

3=

V3

where:

+1 =

+2 =

SOFiSTiK 2016

added to results (beam elements only, default).

creates inverse loading (beam elements only)

Option 1 and 2 together.

axial force

bending moments

3-5

+4 =

V4

1=

2=

RLC

torsion

do not set the general prestress value for cables

from the primary load case for buckling eigenvalues.

suppress the coordinate update

With input of a result case RLC you will save results to the database

after every time step interval of an direct integration with individual

load cases starting at RLC+1. These results may be used for an

animated sequence. Via V2 you may control by adding the options:

+1 =

Displacements (default)

+2 =

Results of elements

+4 =

+8 =

BEAM

CONT

WARP

BETA

+1 =

+4 =

+8 =

+12 =

0=

deactivation

1=

activation

0=

no, the 2nd order Saint Venant theory for torsion is applied

1=

yes, unless the section is warp free. (CM 0.) The initial

stress stiffness for lateral torsional buckling is applied.

2=

becomes zero in that case, we do not obtain torsional

stresses directly at a warping support condition. Please

use this option only for very special cases.

0=

3-6

save

SOFiSTiK 2016

1=

superposition

The estimate of the buckling length will be saved only for those beam

elements where the estimate is less than the limit value LMAX specified in record GRP. It has to be marked however, that there are many

cases not applicable for a buckling length approach and that the second order analysis will be more suitable in most cases.

QUAD

BRIC

SPRI

MCON

0=

1=

nonconforming elements

2=

3=

0=

1=

nonconforming elements

+1 =

+2 =

+32 =

+64 =

1=

2=

Consistent translatoric element matrices

(default if such relevant kinematic constraints exist)

3=

rotational masses (default if CTRL WARP 1)

Hint

Rotational masses for torsion are always referred on the shear

centre. A constraint rotation must be considered therefore with

the definition of the cross section.

CCON

(same as MCON, definition however only in very special cases)

HLC

for internal purpose)

SRES

Steady-state response

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-7

STYP

0=

1=

initial conditions (to be used only in very special cases)

2=

MAX

max/min selection. (0)

ADD

SUM

The default is dependant on the type of analysis.

V2

base values:

ADD

All functions are added algebraically. (0)

SUM All functions are added by absolute values. (1)

SRSS The square root of the sum of squares is computed. (2)

CQC Complete Quadratic Combination (3)

SRSi SRSS with sign aligned to mode i.

CQCi CQC with sign aligned to mode i.

BLEV

3-8

Height ordinate of a layer for which the resultant base shear should

be calculated during the response spectra evaluation (may be defined multiple times). The resulting Moment is always taken to the

reference of the origin of the global coordinate system to allow the

superposition of different levels.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3.4.1

SOLV

Description

VAL

1

Direct Skyline Solver

(Gauss/ Cholesky)

2

Iterative Sparse Solver

3

Direct Sparse LDL Solver

4

Direct Parallel Sparse Solver

(PARDISO)

Unit

Default

For solving the equation systems of the Finite-Element problem, SOFiSTiK provides a number of solvers. Which solver is used best depends highly on the type

of the system and requires knowledge of relevant system parameters. Following

types are available:

This is the classical solver of the FE-Method. The current implementation

works best on a skyline oriented matrix. The storage needed depends on

the internal optimization of the node numbers and may become quite large

for 3D structures.

One advantage of the iterative solver lies in its reduced requirements for

storage, but it may also provide reduced computing time compared to the

previous two types especially in case of large volume structures.

These types of solvers correspond to state of technology. A quite efficient

version based on the work of DAVIS [1] is available as well as a direct parallel

solver PARDISO.

The advantage of the direct solvers is especially given in case of multiple right

hand sides, as the effort for solving them is very small compared to the triangulization of the equation system. Thus they are the first choice for any dynamic

analysis or in case of many load cases.

In order to minimize computational effort, the solvers need an optimized sequence of equation numbers. This optimization step is usually performed during

system generation. The programs SOFIMSHA/C by default always create a sequence which is suitable for the direct sparse solver (3). The solvers (1) or (2)

however require a skyline oriented numbering which may be obtained using the

option (CTRL OPTI 1) or (CTRL OPTI 2) during system generation. The correct

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-9

setting will be checked and a warning will be issued in case a correct numbering

is not available.

The iterative (CTRL SOLV 2) and the parallel sparse solver (CTRL SOLV 4) can

be run in parallel providing an additional reduction in computing time. A parallelization basically requires a license of type HISOLV. More information about

parallelization can be found in subsection 3.4.2 describing the input parameter

(CTRL CORE).

The equation solvers are selected using the parameter (CTRL SOLV). The first

value defines the type of the solver, followed by optional additional parameters.

Direct Skyline Solver (Gauss/ Cholesky)

SOLV

VAL

Description

Cholesky)

Unit

Default

equation numbers in SOFIMSHA/C using (CTRL OPTI 1) or (CTRL OPTI 2) in

order to minimize computation time as well as storage requirements.

Iterative equation solver

SOLV

VAL

Description

Unit

Default

V2

V3

V4

Type of preconditioning:

0

Diagonal Scaling (not recommended)

1

Incomplete Cholesky

2

Incomplete Inverse

V5

V6

The iterative solver uses a conjugate gradient method in combination with preconditioning. For the preconditioning, following variants are supported:

3-10

SOFiSTiK 2016

Although this is the fastest method with the least memory requirements, it

will need a considerable high amount of iterations and is therefore not recommended in most cases.

This type of preconditioning performs a partial triangulization of the input

matrix. Compared to a full triangulization with the Cholesky method, the

Incomplete Cholesky saves time by ignoring the so called Fill-In during decomposition.

This type of preconditioning is generally inferior to the Cholesky method.

This applies to the convergence-rate as well as the time required for computing the inverses. It shows however better performance in case of more

densely populated matrices (Recommended threshold V5: 0.01).

For any kind of preconditioning the number of matrix entries taken into account

during preconditioning can be reduced either by giving a relative threshold value

at V5 or via a maximum bandwidth size at V6. The optimum choice depends on

the type of the structure and may only be found by some tests.

Hint

The correctness of the solution of the iterative solver depends primarily on

the tolerance threshold. Therefore, changing the default setting V3 is not

recommended. In any case the analyst should carry out a proper assessment of the computation results.

SOLV

VAL

Description

Unit

Default

generate by default an equation numbering required for this type of solver which

minimizes the so-called Fill In of the matrix.

PARDISO - direct parallel sparse solver

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-11

SOLV

WERT

Description

Unit

Default

This solver PARDISO uses processor optimized high performance libraries from

the Intel Math Kernel Library MKL. It usually provides the least computing times.

It does not require an a priori optimization of the equation numbers during system generation. Hence, the equation optimization in SOFiMSHA/C could also

be deactivated using (CTRL OPTI 0) in order to save memory during system

generation. On the other hand however, this solver does not allow reusing the

factorized stiffness matrix in other programs. Thus, a usage in combination with

the program ELLA is not possible.

3.4.2

CORE

Description

VAL

Unit

Default

SOFiSTiK supports parallel computing for selected equation solvers. Additionally, some programs offer parallel element processing capabilities independent

of the chosen equation solver (CTRL SOLV).

Activation of parallel computing

By default parallel computing is triggered automatically where it is feasible.

Parallel computing requires corresponding harware and operation system support. In addition, availability of an adequate SOFiSTiK license is obligatory.

Hint

Parallel computing requires availability of a HISOLV license (ISOL granule).

If parallel computing is active, the number of adopted threads is determined as

follows (listed with increasing priority):

a) The software retrieves the information about the number of available physical

processor cores on the system. This number defines the default number of

3-12

SOFiSTiK 2016

b) This default can be modified via the environment variable

SOF_NUM_THREADS, which is also available as sofistik.def parameter.

c) Finally, an explicit statement CTRL CORE NN (or as relative input CTRL

CORE NN[%]) temporarily assigns the number of available threads for the

respective run.

Hint

Neither option b) nor option c) state an explicit parallel computation request. The decision if a parallel computation is triggered, depends on the

actual analysis option (parallel processing must be supported for the specific task) and the availability of an adequate license. Parallel computing

can be suppressed by explitly setting the number of available threads to 1

(or 0).

License

Solver

CTRL SOLV

Serial

Parallel

n.a.

Iterativ

SOFiSTiK 2016

HISOLV HISOLV

n.a.

HISOLV HISOLV

3-13

3.5

CONT, HIST, EXTR

Item

Description

NO

Group number

VAL

Selection

OFF

YES

FULL

SOIL

GRP

Unit

Default

LT

FULL

CS

do not use

use, but do not print

use and print the results

elements define boundary to halfspace for SBFEM

Number of the construction stage

FACS

1.0

HING

Lt16

RADA

1/ sec

0.0

RADB

sec

0.0

MODD

Modal damping

0.0

FACP

1.0

FACM

1.0

WIND

LMAX

NSCP

SBFEM Method

All elements are used if nothing is input. When there is input, only the specified

groups get activated. This effect has to be especially taken care of, if only some

groups get a damping assigned to.

The elements of a group can be provided with two damping types. the value

RADA represents an external damping proportional to the mass and thus the

excursion (e.g. air or water). The value RADB represents an internal damping

proportional to the stiffness (material damping).

The geometric initial stress stiffness will not be multiplied with the factor RADB in

general. Only for the cable the prestress defined with the element is contributing

3-14

SOFiSTiK 2016

to the damping.

C

RADA m

RADB K

kNsec/ m

1/ sec Nsec2 / m

sec kN/ m

For a modal analysis it is possible to specify a modal damping for every group.

This value is then converted using the element masses to an approximate equivalent modal damping of the total eigenform.

More explanations for the damping you will find at MODD

The description of the half space with the Scaled Boundary Element Method

(SBFEM) allows to define the respective static and dynamic properties of the

infinite space accounting for the radiation damping properties. GRP selects the

boundary elements of a 2D Analysis or the QUAD elements of a 3D analysis

defining the boundary of the half space. The local z axis must show into the

direction of the half space. Without definition of NSCP the scaling point will be

located on the upper center of all soil interface nodes.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-15

3.6

MAT

Item

Description

Unit

Default

NO

Material number

Elastic modulus

kN/ m2

MUE

0.2

Shear modulus

kN/ m2

Bulk modulus

kN/ m2

GAM

Specific weight

kN/ m3

25

GAMA

kN/ m3

ALFA

1/ rK

E-5

EY

kN/ m2

MXY

MUE

OAL

x axis

Descent angle of anisotropy about the local

x axis

deg

deg

1.0

Lt32

OAF

SPM

TITL

Material name

Materials which can be used for SVAL or QUAD and BRIC elements may be

defined with the record MAT and MATE. The number of the material must not be

used for other materials.

The differences between the two records are mainly the used dimensions. MATE

is analogue to CONC,STEE etc. (MPa) and has additional strength values, while

MAT uses (kN/m2 ) analogue to NMAT. MAT has older item names for the orthotropic parameters.

3-16

SOFiSTiK 2016

3.7

BMAT

Item

Description

Unit

Default

NO

Material number

kN/ m3

0.

CT

kN/ m3

0.

CRAC

kN/ m2

0.

YIEL

kN/ m2

MUE

COH

Cohesion of interface

kN/ m2

DIL

Dilatancy coefficient

0.

GAMB

t/ m2

TYPE

Reference

LT

PESS

PAIN

HALF

CIRC

SPHE

NONE no reference

MREF

NO

Reference dimension

(thickness H or radius R)

elastic support. For a QUAD element it is thus possible to select for a foundation the properties of the plate and the soil within a single element number. For

pure supporting materials, BMAT is the second step transforming the elasticity

constants from a material to support constants by including a geometric dimension and a specify geometry rule. This step is also necessary if one wants to

define just the constants. However for this case a direct definition of a value at

the element is much more straight forward. The bedding approach works according to the subgrade modulus theory (Winkler, Zimmermann/Pasternak). It

facilitates the definition of elastic supports by an engineering trick which, among

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-17

others, ignores the shear deformations of the supporting medium. The bedding

effect may be attached to beam or plate elements, but in general it will be used

as an own element. (see SPRI, BOUN, BEAM or QUAD and the more general

description of BORE profiles)

The determination of a reasonable value for the foundation modulus often

presents considerable difficulty, since this value depends not only on the material parameters but also on the geometry and the loading. One must always

keep this dependance in mind, when assessing the accuracy of the results of an

analysis using this theory.

The subgrade parameters C and CT will be used for bedding of QUAD elements

or for the description of support or interface conditions. A QUAD element of a

slab foundation will thus have a concrete material and via BMAT the soil properties attached to the same material number. The value C is than acting in the

main direction perpendicular to the QUAD surface in the local z-direction, while

CT is acting in any shear direction in the QUAD plane.

If subgrade parameters are assigned to the material of a geometric edge (GLN),

spring elements will be generated along that edge based on the width and the

distance of the support nodes.

Instead of a direct value you may select a reference material and a reference dimension for some cases with constant pressure based on the elasticity modulus

and the Poisson ratio [1] :

Planar layer with horizontal constraints e.g. for modeling elastic support by

columns and supporting walls (plane stress condition):

Cs =

1

(1 + )(1 )

Ct =

E

H

1

2(1 + )

(3.1)

E

H

(1 )

(1 + )(1 2)

Ct =

E

H

1

(1 + )

(3.2)

Cs =

Planar layer with horizontal constraints for settlements of soil strata (plane

strain condition):

Cs =

E

R

2

(1 + )(1 )

(3.3)

Circular hole with radius R in infinite disk with plane strain conditions (bedded

pipes or piles):

3-18

SOFiSTiK 2016

Cs =

(1 + )(1 2)

Ct = Cs

(3.4)

Cs =

E

R

Ct = Cs

(1 + )

(3.5)

Including a dilatancy factor describing the volume change induced by shear deformations, we have for the bedding stresses the following equations depending

on the normal and transverse displacements:

= Cs (s + DL t )

= Ct t

(3.6)

Cracking:

both the axial and the lateral direction. The failure load

is always a tensile stress. If the bedding reaction is applied to a QUAD element, a deformation in the direction

of the local z-axis will create compressive (negative)

stresses.

Yield load:

Upon reaching the yield stress, the principal deformation component of the interface increases without an

increase of the stress.

Friction/cohesion:

Defining a friction and/or a cohesion coefficient, the lateral shear stress can not become larger than:

Friction coefficient * normal stress + Cohesion

Please note, that before reaching this limit the stiff-ness

CT will produce the shear stress only if a deformation

is present.

If the principal interface has failed (CRAC), then the lateral bedding acts only if

0.0 has been entered for both friction- coefficient and cohesion.

The non-linear effects can only be taken into account by a non-linear analysis.

The friction is an effect of the lateral bedding, while all other effects act upon the

principal direction.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-19

3.8

SMAT

Item

Description

Unit

Default

NO

Material number

LC

Characteristic Length

EX

EY

EZ

RHOX

RHOY

RHOZ

ALF

Inhomogenity of elasticity

BET

Inhomogenity of density

E = Ere E

= re

3-20

||

Lc

||

Lc

+ Ey

+ y

|y|

Lc

|y|

Lc

+ Ez

+ z

|z|

(3.7)

Lc

|z|

Lc

(3.8)

SOFiSTiK 2016

3.9

CONT, HIST, EXTR

Item

Description

NO

MASS

Unit

Default

Node number

MX

Translational mass

0.

MY

Translational mass

MX

MZ

Translational mass

MX

MXX

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MYY

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MZZ

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MXY

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MXZ

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MYZ

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

MB

Rotational mass

tm2

0.

SOFIMSHA in the database. They are maintained over several input sets until

they are redefined. They are not effective as dead load in static load cases as do

the primary masses, but the have also a group number of the last GRP-record

assigned and may be switched on or off with the GRP record. MASS 0 can be

used to delete all temporary masses, thus the primary masses from SOFIMSHA

are kept.

A mass acts usually the same in all three coordinate directions and thus, it need

to be defined independently only for special cases. Rotational masses with inclined axis will have off diagonal masses MXY till MYZ.

The dead weight of the entire structure is always applied in the form of translational masses. If necessary, rotational masses must be defined separately with

MASS or CTRL MCON 3. If the dead weight of a structure is not to be applied, the

dead weight of the material or the cross section should be input as zero.

MASS can be used also to import nodal loads from the database as masses

to DYNA. The negative load case number must be input for NO here. The val-

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-21

ues MX till MZ, with default value of 1.0, are then the factors for the individual

directions of the mass components which are generated from the loads in the

dead weight direction. If other load directions are to be converted to masses as

well, these directions have to be specified additionally at NO encoded with the

addend 10000 for the X direction, 20000 for the Y direction and 30000 for the Z

direction. The input

MASS -12

creates translational masses from all loads of load case 12 in the direction of the

dead weight. By contrast the input

MASS -30012 0.1 0.05 0.1

MASS -20013 0.0 0.1 0.0

creates masses (t) in the x and z direction from all PZ loads (kN) of load case

12. Only half of the mass is activated in the y direction, however. The second

input processes PY loads of the load case 13.

Masses can get also a factor with MASS. For this purpose the literal FACT has

to be input for NO. This can be reasonable particularly for larger systems, where

it is favourable to suppress many low frequencies which are not essential for the

analysis. With the input

MASS FACT MZ 0.01

3-22

SOFiSTiK 2016

3.10

CONT, HIST, EXTR

Item

Description

NEIG

TYPE

MITE

REST Eigenvalues already available

SIMU Simultaneous vector iteration

LANC Method of Lanczos

RAYL Minimum Rayleigh-Quotient

BEUL Buckling

BESI Buckling (Vector iteration)

BELL Buckling (Lanczos)

BERA Buckling (Rayleigh)

Number of iterations

Lanczos vectors

Maximum number of iterations and options

LMIN

Eigenvalue shift

STOR

EIGE

Unit

Default

LT

SIMU

1/ sec2

NEIG

LC

LCUP

NITE

The input of EIGE requests calculation of the eigenvalues and the mode shapes.

If the eigenvectors have been already computed, one must enter TYPE REST.

Special attention must be paid to this when importing eigenvalues from program

ASE.

Eigenvalues and forms may represent dynamic vibration modes or buckling

eigenforms. While the first uses a well defined positive definite mass matrix,

the second problem may encounter indefinite geometric stiffness matrices (negative Eigenvalues) and establish problems. Only SIMU and RAYL have some

provisions for that type of problem. In any case you should start with a few

Eigenvalues in those cases.

All the eigenvectors have to be simultaneously in storage, therefore in cases of

large problems sufficient memory should be provided. The mode shapes can be

stored in the database similarly to static load cases and can be then represented

graphically as deformed structure.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-23

A modal evaluation of forces is possible only when all required mode shapes

have been stored also as stresses or forces of the elements.

On the other side also computed influence areas for the processing of selective

foot point excitation or other special cases may be introduced into the analysis.

In this case the numbers of these load cases have to follow the eigenform load

cases immediately and may be requested through the explicit input of LCUP.

The eigenvalue problem can be shifted by one value. This finds application in

structures that are not supported (zero eigenvalue is the smallest value) as well

as in checking the number of eigenvalues by means of a Sturm sequence. The

number of skipped eigenvalues is manifested during the shift by the number of

sign changes of the determinant.

The choice of method for the eigenvalue analysis depends on the number of

the eigenvalues. The simultaneous vector iteration is used in most cases. The

number of iterations can be reduced when a somewhat expanded subspace is

used for the eigenvalue iteration. For that reason the default value for NITE is

the minimum between NEIG+2 and the number of unknowns. The iteration is

terminated when the maximum number of iterations (default max (15, 2 NTE))

is reached or when the highest eigenvalue has only changed by a factor less

than 0.00001 compared to the previous iteration.

The method of Lanczos is significantly quicker than the vector iteration, when

a large number of eigenvalues is sought. A good accuracy is achieved when

the number of vectors NITE is at least double the number of sought eigenvalues (default). In case of NITE=NEIG, by contrast to vector iteration, the higher

eigenvalues are usually worthless.

The method of Rayleigh is especially useful if only few eigenvalues are required

and if there are also negative Eigenvalues. As it uses the iterative solver it

requires a special license ISOL and a skyline optimization (CTRL OPTI 1) but

can handle very large systems with least memory requirements.

If a primary load case is selected with CTRL PLC, the geometric initial stiffness is

included in the eigenvalue analysis. So you will get the frequency zero if you are

approaching a buckling case.

In that case you may however evaluate the buckling eigenform directly via TYPE

BUCK (or more specific BULL, BUSI or BURA). For lateral torsional buckling

BURA is the best method in general to suppress the negative eigen values.

3-24

SOFiSTiK 2016

Number of

Eigenvalues

Range of

Eigenvalues

multiple

Eigenvalues

missing

Eigenvalues

negative

Eigenvalues

Memory

requirement

Speed

Vektoriteration

Lanczos

Rayleigh

moderate

high

few

Ritz-Step

problematic

yes

no problems

yes

sometimes

problems

yes

very rare

rare

very rare

yes

only positive

moderate

high

small

moderate

fast

variable

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-25

3.11

Item

Description

NO

MODD

Unit

Default

all

1/ sec

sec

The damping may be specified within the GRP record with different values for

each group. When using direct integration, these values will become effective

in just this way. For a modal analysis however the modal damping will be calculated, following the computation of the eigenvalues, from the defined damping

values by a diagonalisation process. Each Eigenform will then have one distinct

modal damping value.

However the modal damping (Lehrs damping factor), can also be defined separately for each mode by three independent parts (direct value of D, mass proportional A and stiffness proportional B). The values are stored in the database.

The definition of this value will overwrite any damping definitions in the GRP

record or from explicit damper elements!

As the values in the literature are mostly given as modal damping values or

logarithmic decrements we will give some important formulas:

d =

=D+

1

2

(3.9)

In the next pictures you will see the influence of the factors A and B depending on

the eigenfrequencies of a SDOF-oscillator. The damping is shown as logarithmic

decrement ,describing the ratio of two consecutive amplitudes A1 and A2.

logarithmic dekrement

3-26

= og

A1

A2

(3.10)

SOFiSTiK 2016

Verschiebun

g SY [mm]

A1

1600.00

0

A2

1400.00

0

1200.00

0

1000.00

0

800.00

0

600.00

0

400.00

0

200.00

0

Zeit

0.00

0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

[sec]

values for the modal damping D are (M LLER [2]):

elastic conditions [%] plastic conditions [%]

Reinforced concrete

1-2

Prestressed concrete

0.8

0.4

Hint

MODD have to be specified as absolute value or with an explicit unit [%] !

For a direct integration without eigenvalues, there is no modal damping, thus it

is necessary to convert a given damping value to the parameters A and B. The

conversion of parameters A and B can be seen from the next picture.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-27

B = 0.0005

50

B = 0.001

45

B = 0.002

40

B = 0.005

35

A = 0.1

30

A = 0.2

Dekremente [%]

25

A = 0.5

20

A = 1.0

15

10

ALF = 0,4 DEL = 0,52

0

0.5

10

20

50

Eigenfrequenzen [Hz]

= 1,4

as 1.0 or B as 0.001. In General you want to define the damping between two

frequencies f1 and f2 with a relatively constant decrement. You have then to

specify a combination of A and B given by: (circular frequencies = 2 )

A = 2 1 2

B=2

1 2 2 1

2 2 1 2

2 2 1 1

2 2 1 2

(3.11)

(3.12)

If the damping at the start of the interval should be equal to the damping at the

end of the interval and by converting to the standard frequencies = 2 we

have:

A = 4

B=

1 2

1 + 2

1

(1 + 2 )

(3.13)

(3.14)

Example: A structural steel with bolted connections should have a mean modal

damping of 0.01 between 2 Hertz and 10 Hertz. We thus have a decrement of

2 = 2 0.01 = 0.063 i.e. the amplitude of a free oscillation should reduce

3-28

SOFiSTiK 2016

by 6.3 % from peak to peak within the range from 2 Hertz to 10 Hertz.

Factor ( 22 1 2) is given by

2 1

A = 4 0.01

B=

0.01

2 + 10

2 10

2 + 10

(102)

102 22

= 0.083. Thus:

= 0.21

(3.15)

= 0.000266

(3.16)

at 2.0 Hertz at 10.0 Hertz at 5.0 Hertz

from A

0.0525

0.0105

0.021

from B

0.0105

0.0525

0.026

total

0.0630

0.0630

0.047

i.e. at the bounds of the interval we have the desired damping, but between we

have a little bit less. For 5.0 Hertz we have only d = 0.047.

For a direct integration there is an additional numerical damping effect possible

with the selection of the integration constant BET, DEL and THE. The default

(BET = 0,25; DEL = 0,5; THE = 1) will not have any damping effect. The same is

valid for modal analysis there is also no damping effect, because the equations

are integrated exactly.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-29

3.12

CONT, HIST, EXTR

Item

Description

STEP

Unit

Default

10

DT

0.1

INT

/ LT

1/ sec

0.

sec

0.

BET

1/4

1/2

DEL

THE

1.

EIGB

Hz

EIGT

Hz

EIGS

Hz

DTF

STHE

1.4

distinguished:

STEP N > 0

Analysis of a time segment with duration N DT by direct (Newmark-Wilson)

or analytical modal integration. When N <1 is input, DT is interpreted as total

time and the individual time step becomes N DT .

THE < 1.0 for the Hughes-Alpha method (0.7 < THE < 1.0)

Static analysis (without record EIGE) or statistic analysis of spectra or

steady-state excitations. If the literal TIME or FREQ is input for INT, a response analysis for the oscillation periods or frequencies in the region from

0 to N DT times the specified load function frequency 2/ T0 is performed. If

3-30

SOFiSTiK 2016

the literal STIM or SFRE is given, the load is normalised to a constant displacement instead of the acceleration. If the literal VTIM or VFRE is selected,

the normalisation is based on a constant velocity.

STEP N < 0

Analysis of a transient steady-state condition taking phase shifts into consideration. Referred to the eigen period if DT not given.

A suitable size of the time step depends on the frequency of the expected response. In case of the direct method components with periods smaller than

about ten times the time step are damped out of the solution. A comparison

analysis should be performed if in doubt with a step approximately equal to one

fourth of the initial time step.

It should be taken care of the fact, that the standard Newmark-Method has no

numerical damping. Thus small errors may amplify easily. Those errors may

be introduced by a time step chosen to small together with consistent mass

matrices. In that or other cases the integration constant should be modified, eg.:

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-31

3.13

LC Load Case

STEP, CONT, HIST, EXTR

Item

Description

NO

LC

Unit

Default

FACT

1.0

DLX

0.0

DLY

0.0

DLZ

0.0

MODB

TITL

Lt32

load case can be assigned in program SOFiLOAD loadings, time-functions or a

response spectrum. The use of the load cases differs according to the computational procedure:

1.

Transient analysis

During a time variation analysis (STEP N > 0) all the selected load cases

and their functions define the time dependence of the loading and the starting time. All functions act with their loads simultaneously upon the structure.

DYNA allows the extra definition of a contact condition CONT for a moving

load.

2.

In case of steady-state analysis the periodical loads are converted to corresponding responses according to Section 2.5. In case of static analysis

the load cases are analysed separately.

If spectra are defined, DYNA computes by double interpolation of all the spectra

a system response, which is then superimposed by statistical methods according to the input for CTRL STYP.

For a modal analysis the general case is to apply the same load vector for all

eigenforms. However if every eigenform should obtain a separate loading as in

a modal wind analysis, the item MODB allows to specify the load case number

for the loading to the first eigen form. All following eigenforms will be associated

to the consecutive load case numbers.

3-32

SOFiSTiK 2016

For the load cases the user defined parameter CRIT will be evaluated. If it is

zero, no evaluation will be taken from the spectra. The response is 1.0. If defined

otherwise the period of the eigenforms will be scaled with that value. Thus for a

Wind spectrum this value is to be defined with Ltrb / men / or z/ men / .

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-33

3.14

STEP, LC, HIST, EXTR

CONT

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

LT

REF

NR

Travel speed

m/ sec

YEX

Local Eccentricity

0.0

TMIN

sec

0.0

LCUV

LCUT

LCUR

as it is given in the case of a vehicle travelling along a bridge.

This record allows the definition of the development in time of the contact point

and a mechanism to create loads based on current deformations of the system.

For the time dependant location you have to select a sequence of nodes and

specify the time value for each node when the contact point is exactly at that

point. In most cases the selection of the number NO of a boundary/edge element

will select all nodes in the given sequence. However explicit definitions with

FUNC (program SOFiLOAD) records and mixing and concatenation of several

elements is possible. Defining a travelling speed V will generate all the needed

time values from the distance either directly or taken along the reference axis

and the optional start time TMIN.

If the load case has a load train created within SOFiLOAD, all loads of the train

will follow each other with the appropriate distance. If the load train has also

structural- or visualisation objects created via the TREX command, the nodes

of those objects will receive the current coordinates as displacements and the

absolute velocities. Only the point loads are processed by the CONT command.

The three load cases LCUV, LCUT and LCUR allow to introduce track irregularities or uneven pavements as additional displacements or rotations for the

contact-point. The load functions of these load cases must have the absolute

3-34

SOFiSTiK 2016

The reference displacement at the contact point is obtained by a linear interpolation between the adjacent nodes. The loading at the contact point is similarly

distributed between the adjacent nodes. External nodal loads are placed at the

contact point only if the node number is specified as 0.

For the definition of a load train moving along a bridge according to DIN FB 101

/ EC1 the input may be as follows:

PROG SOFILOAD

HEAD DEFINE A DEFAULT LANE GEOMETRY

ECHO FULL

GAX AXIS 0.0 X

0.0

0.0 R 150 NZ +1.0

AXIS 3.0 X

30.0

0.0 R 150

LC 191 ; TRAIN RFAT 4 p4 0.0 ; trex 191 901 900 11 1

END

PROG DYNA

GRP 1,2,3 ; GRP 901 FAKS 0.0

CTRL ELF 1001 7

LET#1 30.0

$ SPEED in m/sec $

STEP 0.01 300.0/#1

$ TOTAL TIME FOR TRAVELING $

LC 191

$ LOAD TRAIN $

CONT REF AXIS NO 10 #1 2.0 $ AUTOMATIC TIMEVALUES IN NODES FROM EDGE $

and at SOFiLOAD loadtrains.dat.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-35

3.15

STEP, LC, CONT, EXTR

HIST

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

LT

FROM

TO

FROM

INC

Increment or Identifier

/ Lt

RESU

Output request

LT

PRIN

LCST

0

XREF

0.

YREF

0.

ZREF

or dP/P width

0.

DUMP

Lt48

The record HIST requests the time history of particular values. These will be

saved into the database for the presentation with DYNR, but it is also possible

to print the values directly or to save them to an external dump file. Up to 32

values can be addressed per input record.

The computed maximum and minimum values of the curves will be printed in

any case.

Table 3.21: Possible literals for TYPE

TYPE

Meaning

UX, UY, UZ

U-X

3-36

U-

U-Z

Displacements

SOFiSTiK 2016

TYPE

U-RX

Meaning

U-RY

U-RZ

Rotations

VX, VY, VZ

V-X

V-Y

V-Z

Velocities

V-RX

V-RY

V-RZ

Angular velocity

AX, AY, AZ

AX

AY

AZ

Accelerations

ARX

ARY

ARZ

Angular acceleration

PT

PX

PY

PZ

PT/P

DP/P

SP

SPX

SPY

SPZ

SPRX

SPRY

SPRZ

TRUS

CABL

BEAM

VY

VZ

MT

MY

MZ

SIG

TAU

SIGV

QUAD

MXX

MYY

VXX

VYY

NXX

NYY

MXY

Shell moments

Shell shear forces

NXY

BRIC

All continua stresses

TXX

TYY

TZZ

Stresses of 3D continuum

TXY

TXZ

TYZ

DSX

DSY

DSZ

EIGE REST from program ASE).

Calculation of the dynamic stiffness with its real

and imaginary part for a range of frequencies

Translational degrees of freedom

DSRX

DSRY

DSRZ

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-37

For the beam results XREF is used to define the section where the results are

evaluated. A negative definition is taken as the ratio of the section to the total

beam length, thus a value of -1.0 selects the end of the beam.

For the stresses INC is used to define the identifier of the stress point (SPT)

within the section where the stresses should be evaluated.

The spring force ratios may be useful for vehicle-structure-interaction. They are

defined as follows:

PT/P

of a spring

DP/P

The ratio of the difference of the main forces of two springs to the

mean value of the same spring forces:

P

P

3-38

P1 P2

P1 + P2

(3.17)

INC=0

INC>0

For all springs a following rotational spring is searched

having the same nodes. Then the value P will be established from the moment and the plan view distance

derived from values XREF to ZREF.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3.16

STEP, LC, CONT, HIST

EXTR

Item

Description

Unit

Default

TYPE

Structural magnitude

LT

MAX

MIN

LT

CQC

0

STYP

print only

ADD

sum of values

SUM

SRSS

CQC

harmonised SRSS

SRS1

...

SRS9

harmonised SRSS

The default value (CQC) may be changed

with CTRL STYP V2.

ACT

See below

LT

The following literals are possible for TYPE. The values of the first line activate

all possible internal forces and moments as maximum value only. No corresponding internal forces are computed in this case.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-39

TYPE

Designation

Displacement

Velocity

Acceleration

TYPE

Designation

BEAM

(not usable for superposition)

Normal force

VY

Shear force Vy

VZ

Shear force Vz

MT

Torsional moment

MY

Bending moment My

MZ

Bending moment Mz

MB

Warping moment

MT2

TYPE

Designation

TRUS

3-40

SOFiSTiK 2016

TYPE

Designation

CABL

TYPE

Designation

SPRI

(not usable for superposition)

PT

PT =

PTX

PTY

PTZ

Spring moment

SP

SPX

SPY

SPZ

SPRX

SPRY

SPRZ

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-41

TYPE

Designation

QUAD

(not usable for superposition)

MXX

MYY

MXY

VXX

VYY

NXX

NYY

NXY

NZZ

TYPE

Designation

BRIC

(not usable for superposition)

TXX

TYY

TZZ

TXY

TXZ

TYZ

3-42

SOFiSTiK 2016

TYPE

Designation

RSET

RS1

(not usable for superposition)

the first entry of each RSET

RS2

...

RS31

The maximum values are stored in the database, if a load case number is input

for MAX and/or MIN. For nodal values (U,V,A) only the maximum values are

output as default. Use ECHO DISP, VELO or ACCE to see all nodal results.

The maximum forces will become positive for SUM, SRSS and CQC. The versions SRS1 and CQC1 will scale the results according to the sign of the first

eigenform. (SRS2 to CQC9 analogue to the second to the 9th eigenform) In any

case the results have to be inserted in other tasks with a positive or a negative

sign multiplier.

For the global maximum values of the first row the extremas will be calculated

for every force independently. The extremas will be collected and stored within

a single record. The real response may be any positive or negative combination

of these individual values. This might be unconvenient for design purpose, and

it is definitely not suited for a display with the program ANIMATOR.

At superposition of a single internal force on the other hand the corresponding

internal forces are formed in the same ratio with a linear combination, so that one

can employ the complete set of the internal forces and moments. The algorithm

used for that has been invented by SOFiSTiK and is therefore hardly to be found

in other programs.

SUM offers an upper limit, SRSS may overestimate or underestimate the probable magnitude. CQC usually gives the most reasonable results.

The base accelerations are also included within the resulting nodal accelerations. Displacements and velocities however are always relative to the free field

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-43

The types SP and SPX, SPY, SPZ address the total sum of all components of

support spring forces in the global coordinate directions. The output is done

group-wise. Types PTX to PTZ have only the tangential components.

At ACT the results can be assigned to a specific action for a later superposition.

All actions preset in program SOFiLOAD record ACT are possible here.

3-44

SOFiSTiK 2016

3.17

CONT, HIST, EXTR

ECHO

Item

Description

Unit

Default

OPT

LT

FULL

LT

FULL

SECT

ELEM

Elements

EIGE

Natural frequencies

LOAD

Loads

DISP

Displacements

VAL

VELO

Velocities

ACCE

Accelerations

STAT

FULL

OFF

NO

No output

YES

Regular output

FULL

Extensive output

EXTR

Extreme output

The name ECHO must be repeated in each record to avoid confusion with similar

record names (e.g. CROS).

The default value is NO for NODE, CROS, and ELEM; for all others it is YES.

The warning no. 10918 (No convergence of the iterative equation solver in load

vector) for convergence checks can be switched off with ECHO STAT NO.

SOFiSTiK 2016

3-45

3-46

SOFiSTiK 2016

Output Description

4.1

Nodes

The nodes are output by use of ECHO NODE YES only. The table includes the

coordinates and constraints, and by ECHO NODE FULL the equation numbers of

the freedom degrees as well.

4.2

Cross Sections

The table of the cross sections appears after request by ECHO SECT and contains

the following value:

CROSS SECTIONS

A

Ay

Az

It

Iy

Iz

Elastic modulus

Shear modulus

Da

damping

Di

damping

Rho

Mass density

4.3

General Parameters

At the beginning of a dynamic analyses appears a table CONTROL INFORMATIONS with the general parameters. These are:

SOFiSTiK 2016

4-1

4.4

Elements

The tables of beam elements and spring or truss elements as well as lumped

masses and damping elements appear upon request by ECHO ELEM. They contain for each element the participating nodes, the length, the spring stiffnesses,

the local axis directions and the mass components.

In the table of the total masses, the first line has the sum of the nodal masses,

i.e. the rotational masses are only the rotational inertias of the nodes. However

the following rows contain the ordinates of the global centre of gravity and the

total rotational inertia of all translatoric masses measured to this centre as a 3x3

matrix.

4.5

Natural Frequencies

After the first computation of the natural frequencies the program outputs the

error in the eigenvalues along with the number of the required iterations. The

rest of the output is controlled by ECHO EIGE as follows:

ECHO EIGE YES

For a uniform ground acceleration in the three coordinate directions the modal

contributions may be evaluated (columns f-XX, f-YY and f-ZZ). Taken as percentage of the total mass this gives a criteria for a sufficient number of eigenvalues.

The eigenvectors are normalised with respect to the masses (equation 2.8 of

the theoretical principles). The internal forces and moments of the eigenvectors

are usually to be understood as an indication of the stressing type. The absolute

value depends on the normalisation and it can take considerably large values.

4.6

The table of functions and loads is always introduced before the description of

the function, followed by the loads of this load case.

The generalised loads of the individual modes and the sum of their squares are

output in the case of a modal loading.

4-2

SOFiSTiK 2016

There is a second value printed, which may be used to integrate the square of

Eigenvalues for only parts of the structure via special load patterns.

4.7

Displacements

The displacements of the individual load cases are output by static analysis.

In case of dynamic analysis the maximum displacements, velocities and accelerations can be output for all nodes. There result two lines per node with the

minimum and maximum values as well as the corresponding time values if a

time analysis was carried out. In case of stochastic or steady-state excitation

the extreme values were computed by statistical methods or by analysis of one

period of the steady-state excitation.

4.8

The internal forces of the individual load cases are output by static analysis.

The maximum values are calculated for all internal forces and moments specified by EXTR along with the other corresponding values. The given time value

holds for the whole line. In case of stochastic or steady-state excitation the

extreme values were computed by statistical methods.

4.9

Time Variations

The time variation of the structural magnitudes specified with HIST is presented

lastly. This can take the form of a table, a printer graph and/or a curve in the

database for further processing with DYNR. The nodes or elements addressed

by each HIST record are output in a general graph. Time is plotted in the longitudinal direction of the paper, while the various magnitudes are plotted in the

transverse direction. A common scale for all involved magnitudes is selected for

each plot. The curves are marked by numbers or letters.

SOFiSTiK 2016

4-3

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