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Evolution of computers

Computer can be find in everywhere, is weird see someone without one, people can have
one with a moderate price, and nowadays you can find one in every type, like ipads, laptops,
iphones, smartphones, computers, etc. They are very useful, can help you to order your life,
you can have a schedule in it. Computers have applications to order the things you have to do
with your time, such as with your job. Many people needs the computer to make
presentations, share information, send e-mails or make programs according to their jobs. For
students is the most famous and awesome thing because you can find very useful
information, you do not need to go somewhere and find the only one book in library and other
one you need, is easier just look for the only information you need in internet using the
computer, also you can gain money working for pages, or making blogs, and also making
videos on Youtube. Nowadays anyone can live without a computer.
Computer has a transformation throw the years, it was not always the same. The first
invention was in 1642 by a French mathematician Blaise Pascal. This device used a series of
wheels ten teeth in each tooth representing a digit from 0 to 9. The wheels were connected so
that numbers could be added making advance the correct number of teeth, he start with the
first little computer, called abacus. In those days were very useful, help people count in every
situation was need it. Later in 1670 the German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried
Wilhelm Leibniz perfected this machine and invented one that could also multiply, that was
not just add or subtract numbers, helping the mathematics have the results easier.
The reason to create all those things was to help the mankind evolve the way they do
mathematics, making the life of everyone simple and useful, no matter if the person who need
use those things do not know how, they was very easy to use, and they can learn fast how
use it, expediting the way people do the economy in that days. In these days, computer make
life easier, and can be use to a lot of things. Other very important is communicate with people
who live in other countries or continent, it can connect families who cannot see anymore,

because of immigration, next government also use the computer to save information,
communicate things, and protect people, it have a data base to save all the information easier
to get.
The history of computer is awesome. Computer was just a thing where you can add or
subtract numbers, and multiply, then is evolve step by step to become the computer we now,
first was the Abacus. It was invented in Babylon in 500 BC, the ancient abacus counting
boards, they were not a computer because they had the ability to store information, but
transactions with this instrument took place in several cities of antiquity. Later, Pascal
Calculator in 1642 by the young French Blaise Pascal. When her father had trouble carrying a
correct account of taxes charged, he invented a calculating machine based working gears.
Next, Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz added to the machine invented by Blaise Pascal functions
like multiplication and division. Then, Charles Xavier Thomas (1820) invented a calculator that
could perform the four basic mathematical operations (add, subtract, divide and multiply).
Later, in 1801 the Frenchman Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a machine loom. One of the
advantages is that punch card machine was able to create different patterns on fabrics.
Containing holes punched cards, which the machine was able to read and thus effect the kind
of pattern you had indicated. A couple years later the first generation of computers ranging
from 1944 to 1956, in this first generation the creation of the computer called MARK I, which
was developed by Howard Aiken, in this period occurs the Second World War develops why
many projects were unfinished but there were also driven projects for the same reason that it
was the war that made big developments are achieved. Also the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical
Integrator and Calculator) which was a huge computer which occupied more than one room
was created, weighed over 30 tons and worked with more than 18,000 vacuum tubes, one of
its important features was that using the binary system instead of the decimal system. Then,
the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was built by Eckert and

Mauchley. This computer had a program, this program will allow the computer to switch
operations depending on the results previously obtained. And then the second generation
includes from the years 1959-1964, the highlight of this second generation is replacing the
use of vacuum tubes by transistors which made computers smaller and faster. This second
generation machine language was replaced by the assembly language, high-level languages
such as COBOL and FORTRAN were created. In addition to storing information they were
started using magnetic tapes. Although the size and increase slowed in this generation, even
computers meant considerable cost for businesses.
The five generation of computers
Computers are now an important part of our day by day and almost everyone needs a
computer for her or his activities. Computers have change our life in many ways and it is
because computers have evolved to provide a better service and to make our activities easier.
History of computers goes back several decades ago and it is divided by five generation
where everyone it distinguishes by change in their shape, velocity of processor, less
expensive, and other features that are important nowadays.
First generation (1940-1956), it was the first time that the world sees a computer and
as we can imaging, that kind of computers were so different to actual computers. The first
computers worked with vacuum tubes as circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, in
consequence of that, those computers were so big and their size was of an entire room. At
that time, technology was not developed as we know nowadays and the type of programming
consist in machine language that is the most basic programming language that computers
can understand. The two notable machines of this era were the UNIVAC and ENIAC

Second generation (1956-1963), at this era, computers machine suffered a big change
because the vacuum tubes and drums was obsolete and technology gave way to transistors.
The use of transistor allowed that computers were cheaper, smaller and faster than machines
with vacuum tubes and drums. In this era was possible to introduce two new types of
programming language, COBOL and FORTRAN.
Third Generation, by this phase, transistors were miniaturized and grouped into a chip
and it was the first time when a user could interact with the system by keyboards and
Fourth generation Integrated Circuits, in this generation is one of the most important
because at this time integrated circuits were introduced to improve the function of computer
machines. An integrated circuit is a system that consist on positioned all computer
components (CPU, memory, input/output controls) onto a single chip. Most of people are
related with this kind of technology because integrated circuits are used in machines that we
use actually.
Fifth generation, in this era is based in systems that have the most developed technology that
we know. It is time to create capable systems to interact with people in a natural way. The
object of artificial intelligence is create systems based in human beings. Engineers and
Scientifics want to create systems that can respond to natural language, and have capability
to learn and organize themselves.
One of the things that helped to computers evolution was the war between companies.
The war between companies have been helping for the developed of better software and
hardware, saying some examples, Steve Jobs and Apple, Steve Jobs began working on
computer sciences in 1970 when he became to work with Wozniak did the first Apple

computer, which was the beginning of an innovation series, as in 1976 when Apple created a
computer with a video memory for the color of monitor, and an expansible memory. After that
evolutions Apple used the first mouse in a computer and another peripheral artefacts. In XXI
century Apple did maybe one of the most important innovation at moment in which introduced
devices like Iphone, Ipod, Ipad, and now the Iwatch that change the computer world, perhaps
the problem with Apple could be the prices of them devices. On the other hand we have
Microsoft and Bill Gates, principally Microsoft started making software for computers and
companies as IBM that in 1980 made a business with Microsoft for one software, but was until
1985 when Microsoft created Windows which maybe is the most popular and use operating
system of computers in the world. Microsoft had good and bad decisions in some computers
system, however, nowadays is in addition to most popular, one of the best system and with
medical prices in comparison with Apple. Other of the important things for developed of
computers are the companies as Dell, HP, Acer, Samsung, etc. Those companies make great
designs innovations as pad and monitor touch, laptops with more RAM memories, better
graphic targets, more thins computers, audio systems, among other stuff. Finishing,
processors innovations help computers to run software faster than another, for example, Intel
core i7 is better than i3, but i3 is yet good for some works.

The internet was a military network called ARPANET created by the United States in
the 60s as a form of communication in case of a Russian attack. It began with a series of four
computers connected between different universities. Nowadays the internet is one of the most
important and most frequently used tools of all time. Most people say that the internet has
many advantages, while others say that instead of helping to being a better society only we

have been worse. Certainly communication, education and society have been the most
impact have the appearance of this tool.
The internet has become the principal way of communication used throughout the
history. According to a study published by Martin Hilbert in 2010, 95% of all existing
information on the planet is digitalized and most of it is accessible on the internet. With
internet we can communicate with people in different countries in real time, it is the way to
find people with the same interest of interest as ours, and is a way to express our thoughts. In
fact, some people have questioned some concepts and theories that before we accepted as
unique and true.
Definitely the current way of education is completely different and easier according to
people who took their education based on books and encyclopedias. Today the way of
education has changed completely. The internet is a great support to teachers and students,
especially when they have to research and do their homework. However, students accept that
they lose most of the time on social networks and other blogs that are not related to their
homework. Having internet on computers is a distraction and it has affected the academic
efficiency of students.
Teachers complain that students have become lazy and distracted because they use
their smartphones instead of paying attention. However, there are tools that the internet offers
that can help us to know if the information that we consult to is real and current. For example,
there are libraries and online bookstores, online study programs that are opportunities to
continue studying.

Of course there are areas that have been affected by the use of the

internet, such as the economy of the newspapers. Now most of people prefer to read about
what happens in society by the computer.
Speaking of society is complicated. It is because the society is form by people, animals
and things, including the diversity of contexts and human behavior. The impact of the internet
is huge and unbelievable. Human behavior has been the most extensive impact of the

network, good, bad or moderate behavior is always an important aspect for social

Excessive use of the computer with internet access in society has created

a big number of problems and diseases. For example, overweight, vision problems,
individualism, physical and psychological dangers. There are problems psychologically as
bullying, dependence, depression and anxiety. The internet and social networks have affected
the way that we relate with others, mainly the family relationship. So internet has both positive
and negative impact on our society. Many people appreciate and cannot live without internet
while others believe it would be a better society if we talk face to face.
The computers of the future will have technology so instead of using passwords to
access to your computer, it will be through facial recognition using the retina of the person or
fingerprint. Also the computer will recognize body movements and voice as commands. Some
other features that have been planned for future computers are not have keyboards or cables.
Also high hours of battery, reduction in weight and size. The characteristics of these
computers are still developing, more designs and more technologies.