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EMPOWERMENT

TECHNOLOGIES

Unit 4: Applied Productivity Tools with Advanced Application Techniques

Lesson 6: Microsoft Word 2013


generation

So, what you can do in Microsoft Word is what Bill Gates has decided. What you can

do in Oracle Database is what Larry Ellison and his crew have decided.
-

Ted Nelson

Microsoft Office is Microsoft's ubiquitous office suite for Microsoft Windows and Apple
Mac OS X operating systems.
Microsoft Office made its debut in 1990, with successive releases adding to the suites
primary

Word processor (Microsoft Word),


Spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel), and
Presentation (Microsoft PowerPoint)
E-mail / personal information manager application (Microsoft Outlook),
Database tool (Microsoft Access),
Desktop publishing app (Microsoft Publisher),
Note-taking software (Microsoft OneNote),
Diagram and
Flowcharting tools (Microsoft Visio) and more.

Microsoft Office dominates the office suite market, but it has faced stronger competition
recently in the form of open source office suites like Google Apps for Business,
OpenOffice.org and LibreOffice. In addition to being available in the traditional desktopbased form, Microsoft now also offers versions of Microsoft Office through the cloud
(Office 365) as well as through mobile devices using Microsofts Windows Phone 7 and
Windows Phone 8 (Microsoft Office Mobile
Microsoft Offices most recent releases are Office 2010 for Microsoft Windows, which
debuted on June 15, 2010, and Office 2011 for Apple Mac OS X, which was released on
October 26, 2010. Microsoft is currently developing the next major release of Office,
Microsoft Office 2013, with an expected release date in late 2012, at about the same time
as the debut of Windows 8.

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Getting to know the Word 2013
Introduction
Word 2013 is a word processing application that allows you to create a variety of
documents like letters, flyers, and reports. With the introduction of several enhanced
featuresincluding the ability to create and collaborate on documents onlineWord
2013 gives you the ability to do more with your word processing projects. It is similar to
Word 2010. If you've previously used Word 2010, then Word 2013 should feel familiar.
But if you are new to Word or have more experience with older versions, you should first
take some time to become familiar with the Word 2013 interface.
The Word Interface
When you open Word 2013 for
the first time, the Word Start
Screen will appear. From here,
you'll be able to create a new
document, choose a template,
or access your recently edited
documents. From the Word
Start Screen, locate and select
Blank document to access the
Word interface.

Click the buttons in the interactive below to become familiar with the Word 2013
interface.

Working with the Word


environment
If you've previously used Word
2010 or 2007, then Word 2013
should
feel
familiar.
It
continues to use features like
the Ribbon and the Quick
Access toolbarwhere you
will find commands to perform
common tasks in Wordas
well as Backstage view.

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The Ribbon
Word 2013 uses a tabbed Ribbon system instead of traditional menus. The Ribbon
contains multiple tabs, each with several groups of commands. You will use these tabs
to perform the most common tasks in Word.

The Home tab gives you access to some of the most commonly used commands for
working with Word 2013, including copying and pasting, formatting, aligning
paragraphs, and choosing document styles. The Home tab is selected by default
whenever you open Word.

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Certain programs, such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, may install additional tabs to the
Ribbon. These tabs are called add-ins.
To minimize and maximize the Ribbon:
The Ribbon is designed to respond to your current task, but you can choose to minimize
the Ribbon if you find that it takes up too much screen space.
1. Click the Ribbon Display
Options arrow in the upperright corner of the Ribbon.
2. Select the desired minimizing
option from the drop-down
menu:

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3. Auto-hide Ribbon: Auto-hide displays your document in full-screen mode and
completely
hides
the
Ribbon from view. To show
the Ribbon, click the
Expand Ribbon command
at the top of screen.
4.
Show tabs: This option hides all
command groups when not in use, but
tabs will remain visible. To show the
Ribbon, simply click a tab.
5. Show tabs and commands: This option maximizes the Ribbon. All of the tabs and
commands will be visible. This option is selected by default when you open Word
for the first time. To learn how to add custom tabs and commands to the Ribbon,
review our Extra on Customizing the Ribbon.
The Quick Access toolbar
Located just above the Ribbon, the Quick Access toolbar lets you access common
commands no matter which tab is selected. By default, it shows the Save, Undo, and
Repeat commands. You can add other commands depending on your preference.
To add commands to the Quick Access toolbar:
1. Click the drop-down arrow to the right of the Quick Access toolbar.
2. Select the command you want to add
from the drop-down menu. To choose
from more commands, select More
Commands.

3. The command will be added to the Quick Access toolbar.

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The Ruler
The Ruler is located at the top and to the left of your document. It makes it easier to
adjust your document with precision. If you want, you can hide the Ruler to create more
screen space.

To show or hide the Ruler:


1. Click the View tab.
2. Click the check box next to Ruler to show

or hide

the ruler.

Backstage view
Backstage view gives you various options for saving, opening a file, printing, and sharing
your document.
To access Backstage view:
1. Click the File tab on the Ribbon. Backstage view will appear.

Click the buttons in the interactive below to learn more about using Backstage view.

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Unit 4: Applied Productivity Tools with Advanced Application Techniques


Document views
Word 2013 has a variety of viewing options that change how your document is displayed.
You can choose to view your document in Read Mode, Print Layout, or Web Layout.
These views can be useful for various tasks, especially if you're planning to print the
document.
To change document views, locate and select the desired document view command
in the bottom-right corner
of the Word window.
Click the arrows in the
slideshow
below
to
review
the
different
document view options.

Read Mode: In this view, all of the editing commands are hidden so your document fills
the screen. Arrows appear on the left and right side of the screen so you can toggle
through the pages of your document.

If your document has many pages, Word


2013 has a handy new feature called
Resume Reading that allows you to
open your document to the last page you
were viewing. When opening a saved
document, look for the bookmark icon to
appear on the screen. Hover the mouse
over the bookmark, and Word will ask if you want to pick up where you left off.

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CHALLENGE

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Open or navigate to the Word 2013 interface.


Click through all of the tabs, and review the commands on the Ribbon.
Try minimizing and maximizing the Ribbon.
Add a command to the Quick Access toolbar.
Hide and show the Ruler.
Navigate to Backstage view, and open your Account settings.
Try switching document views.
Close Word (you do not have to save the document).

Hyperlinking MS WORD 2013


Adding hyperlinks to text can provide access to websites and email addresses directly
from your document. There are a few ways to insert a hyperlink into your document.
Depending on how you want the link to appear, you can use Word's automatic link
formatting or convert text into a link.
Hyperlinks have two basic parts:

The address (URL) of the webpage and

The display text.

For example, the address could be http://www.popsci.com, and the display text could
be Popular Science Magazine. When you create a hyperlink in Word, you'll be able to
choose both the address and the display text.
Word often recognizes email and web addresses as you type and will automatically format
them as hyperlinks after you press Enter or the spacebar. In the images below, you can
see a hyperlinked email address and a hyperlinked web address.
To follow a hyperlink in Word, hold the Ctrl key and click on the hyperlink.

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To format text with a hyperlink:
1. Select the text you want to format
as a hyperlink.

2. Select the Insert tab, then click the Hyperlink command.

3. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box will appear.


4. The selected text will appear in the Text to display: field at the top. You can
change this text if you want.
5. In the Address: field, type the address you want to link to, then click OK.

6. The text will then be formatted as a hyperlink.


7. After you create a hyperlink, you should test it. If you've linked to a website, your
web browser should automatically open and display the site. If it doesn't work,
check the hyperlink address for misspellings.
8. Alternatively, you can open the Insert Hyperlink dialog box by right-clicking the
selected text and selecting Hyperlink... from the menu that appears. Once you've
inserted a hyperlink, you can right-click the hyperlink to edit, open, copy, or
remove it.

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CHALLENGE

1. Create a new document. If you want, you can use our practice document.
2. Create a hyperlink that links to an email address. If you're using the
example, add a hyperlink for your email address, yourname@email.com, at
the bottom of the letter.
3. Type or select some text (a word or phrase), and format it with a hyperlink
of your choosing. If you'd like, you can use our URL www.usm.edu.ph to
practice with.
4. Test the hyperlink you created by clicking on it. The webpage should open in
your web browser.

ALTERNATIVES
Microsoft Office is one of the most popular programs on the market, with more than 1 billion users
worldwide. But at $139.99 for just the basic package (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and OneNote only),
it's also a little expensive. What if you can't afford it?
Thankfully, there are programs like Google Docs, Office Online, OpenOffice, and LibreOffice.
They don't have as many features as Microsoft Office (think of them as Office lite), but they're free,
easy to use, and readily available online. They're a great alternative if you're looking for something
simple or if you can't stomach the price of Microsoft Office.
We wanted to share these programs with you just in case you hadn't heard of them before. We hope
you find them useful at home, at work, or at school.
Google Docs
Google Docs is a web-based program you can access directly from your browser. This means
there's nothing to download or installall you have to do is sign in to your Google account and
navigate to Google Drive (where Google Docs is housed), and you can create and store files
online.
Libre Office and Open Office
Looking for a more traditional alternative to Microsoft Office? Something that you can actually
download and install on your computer? You might want to check out OpenOffice or LibreOffice.
These programs may not be as slick as Google Docs or Office Online, but they come with a few
extra features, including a tool for creating and managing databases. You can use them for
almost all of your home and office needs, and the environment is remarkably similar to older
versions of Microsoft Office.

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Exercise
1.

Enter the following text in a new document:


Jeremy Bentham
The philosopher and jurist Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) was born at Houndsditch,
London, on 15th February 1748. He proved to be something of a child prodigy:
while still a toddler he was discovered sitting at his fathers desk reading a multivolume history of England, and he began to study Latin at the age of three. At
twelve, he was sent to Queens College Oxford, his father, a prosperous attorney,
having decided that Jeremy would follow him into the law, and feeling quite sure
that his brilliant son would one day be Lord Chancellor of England.
Bentham, however, soon became disillusioned with the law, especially after
hearing the lectures of the leading authority of the day, Sir William Blackstone
(1723-80). Instead of practicing the law, he decided to write about it, and he spent
his life criticizing the existing law and suggesting ways for its improvement. His
fathers death in 1792 left him financially independent, and for nearly forty years
he lived quietly in Westminster, producing between ten and twenty sheets of
manuscript a day, even when he was in his eighties.

2.

Save the file with the Jeremy.docx on the.

3.

Close the file.

4.

Cut the heading The Auto-Icon and use the Clipboard task pane to paste it above
the paragraph beginning: At the end of the South Cloisters... (the paragraph
above).

5.

In the fourth paragraph down from the heading The Auto-Icon, the one beginning:
Not surprisingly, this peculiar relic has... Add the following sentence to the
end of the paragraph:
In these cases, the Auto-Icon invariably votes for the motion.

6.

The last two paragraphs in the document are in the wrong order; reposition them
so that the paragraph starting: Many people have speculated as to exactly
why Bentham... is the last paragraph.

7.

Copy the heading Jeremy Bentham at the top of the document and paste it to form
a new heading above the paragraph beginning: Bentham is often credited

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8.

with being one of the founders of the University of London... (the fifth paragraph
down).
9. Now copy both of the headings in the document (The Auto Icon and Jeremy
Bentham) at once using the Ctrl key to select them simultaneously. Open a new,
blank document and paste the copied headings into it using the Clipboard task
pane. Notice that all items which you have copied or pasted in the Jeremy.docx
document are now available on the Clipboard task pane in the new document.
10.
Select the whole document and change the documents font to Palatino
and point size to 12.
11.
Format the headings in the text (there should be three) so that they are bold
and italic.
12.

Format the credit at the end of the document so that it is italic.

13.
In the third paragraph: Even for those who have never... select the quote at
the end of the first sentence: the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
Format the quote using the AvantGarde font and italicise the text.
14.
Using the Format Painter, paste the format used above and apply it to the
credit at the end of the text.
15.
Change the format of the title Jeremy Bentham to the Garamond font, 16
pt, bold and remove the underlining.
16.
Paste the above format to the other headings in the document. (Remember
to double-click on the Format Painter button, when a format is to be copied more
than once.)

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Lesson 6: Microsoft Excel 2013


generation

Excel 2013 is a spreadsheet program that allows you to store, organize, and analyze
information. While you may believe Excel is only used by certain people to process
complicated data, anyone can learn how to take advantage of the program's powerful
features. Whether you're keeping a budget, organizing a training log, or creating an
invoice, Excel makes it easy to work with different types of data.
Getting to know Excel 2013
Excel 2013 is similar to Excel 2010. If you've previously used Excel 2010, Excel 2013
should feel familiar. If you are new to Excel or have more experience with older versions,
you should first take some time to become familiar with the Excel 2013 interface.
The Excel interface
When you open Excel 2013 for the first time, the Excel Start Screen will appear. From
here, you'll be able to create a new workbook, choose a template, and access your
recently edited workbooks.

From the Excel Start Screen,


locate and select Blank
workbook to access the Excel
interface.
Click the buttons in the
interactive below to become
familiar with the Excel 2013
interface.

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Working with the Excel environment


If you've previously used Excel 2010 or 2007, Excel 2013 will feel familiar. It continues to
use features like the Ribbon and Quick Access toolbar, where you will find commands
to perform common tasks in Excel, as well as Backstage view.
The Ribbon
Excel 2013 uses a tabbed Ribbon system instead of traditional menus. The Ribbon
contains multiple tabs, each with several groups of commands. You will use these tabs
to perform the most common tasks in Excel.
Click the arrows in the slideshow below to learn more about the different commands
available within each tab on the Ribbon.

The Home tab gives you access to some of the most commonly used commands for
working with data in Excel 2013, including copying and pasting, formatting, and
number styles. The Home tab is selected by default whenever you open Excel.

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Worksheet views
Excel 2013 has a variety of viewing options that change how your workbook is displayed.
You can choose to view any workbook in Normal view, Page Layout view, or Page
Break view. These views can be useful for various tasks, especially if you're planning to
print the spreadsheet.
To change worksheet views, locate and select the desired worksheet view command
in the bottom-right corner of the Excel window.

Click the arrows in the slideshow below to review the different worksheet view options.

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CHALLENGE

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Open Excel 2013.


Click through all of the tabs, and review the commands on the Ribbon.
Try minimizing and maximizing the Ribbon.
Add a command to the Quick Access toolbar.
Navigate to Backstage view, and open your Account settings.
Try switching worksheet views.
Close Excel (you do not have to save the workbook).

Modifying Columns, Rows, and Cells


By default, every row and column of a new workbook is set to the same height and width.
Excel allows you to modify column width and row height in different ways, including
wrapping text and merging cells.
To modify column width:
In our example below, some of the content in column A cannot be displayed. We can
make all of this content visible by changing the width of column A.
1. Position the mouse over the column line in the
column heading so the white cross
becomes a double arrow

2. Click, hold, and drag the mouse to increase or


decrease the column width.

3. Release the mouse. The column width will be changed.

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If you see pound signs (#######) in a cell, it means the column is not wide enough to
display the cell content. Simply increase the column width to show the cell content.
To AutoFit column width:
The AutoFit feature will allow you to set a column's width to fit its content automatically.
1. Position the mouse over the column line in the column heading so the white
cross

becomes a double arrow

2. Double-click the mouse. The column width will be changed automatically to fit the
content.

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You can also AutoFit the width for several columns at the
same time. Simply select the columns you want to AutoFit,
then select the AutoFit Column Width command from the
Format drop-down menu on the Home tab. This method can
also be used for row height.

To modify row height:


1. Position the cursor over the row line so the white cross
arrow

becomes a double

2. Click, hold, and drag the mouse to increase or decrease the row height.

3. Release the mouse. The height of the selected row will be changed.

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Inserting, deleting, moving, and hiding rows and columns
After you've been working with a workbook for a while, you may find that you want to
insert new columns or rows, delete certain rows or columns, move them to a different
location in the worksheet, or even hide them.
To insert rows:
1. Select the row heading below where you want the new row to appear. For
example, if you want to insert a row between rows 7 and 8, select row 8.

2. Click the Insert command on the Home tab.

3. The new row will appear above the selected row.

When inserting new rows, columns, or cells, you will see the Insert Options button
next to the inserted cells. This button allows you to choose how Excel formats these cells.
By default, Excel formats inserted rows with the same formatting as the cells in the row
above.

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To access more options, hover your mouse over the Insert Options button, then click the
drop-down arrow.
To insert columns:
Select the column heading to the right of where you want the
new column to appear. For example, if you want to insert a
column between columns D and E, select column E.

To delete rows:
It's easy to delete any row that you no longer need in your workbook.
1. Select the row(s) you
want to delete. In our
example, we'll select
rows 6-8.

2. Click the Delete command on the Home tab.

3. The selected row(s) will be deleted, and the rows below will shift up. In our
example, rows 9-11 are now rows 6-8.

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To delete columns:
1. Select the columns(s) you want to delete. In our example, we'll select column E.

2. Click the Delete command on the


Home tab.

3. The selected columns(s) will be


deleted, and the columns to the right
will shift left. In our example,
Column F is now Column E.

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It's important to understand the difference between deleting a row or column and simply
clearing its contents. If you want to remove the content of a row or column without
causing others to shift, right-click a heading, then select Clear Contents from the dropdown menu.

To move a row or column:


Sometimes you may want to move a column or row to rearrange the content of your
worksheet. In our example we'll move a column, but you can move a row in the same
way.
1. Select the desired column
heading for the column you
want to move, then click the
Cut command on the Home
tab or press Ctrl + X on
your keyboard.

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2. Select the column heading to the right of where you want to move the column.
For example, if you want to move a column between columns B and C, select
column C.

3. Click the Insert command on the


Home tab, then select Insert Cut
Cells from the drop-down menu.

4. The column will be moved to the selected location, and the columns to the right
will shift right.

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You can also access the Cut and Insert commands by right-clicking the mouse and then
selecting the desired commands from the drop-down menu.

To hide and unhide a row or column:


At times, you may want to compare certain rows or columns without changing the
organization of your worksheet. Excel allows you to hide rows and columns as needed.
In our example, we'll hide columns C and D to make it easier to compare columns A, B,
and E.
1. Select the column(s) you want to hide, right-click the mouse, then select Hide
from the formatting menu.

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1. The columns will be hidden. The green column line indicates the location of the
hidden columns.

2. To unhide the columns, select the columns to the left and right of the hidden
columns (in other words, the columns on both sides of the hidden columns). In
our example, we'll
select columns B
and E.

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Wrapping text and merging cells
Whenever you have too much cell content to be displayed in a single cell, you may decide
to wrap the text or merge the cell rather than resize a column. Wrapping the text will
automatically modify a cell's row height, allowing cell contents to be displayed on
multiple lines. Merging allows you to combine a cell with adjacent empty cells to create
one large cell.
To wrap text in cells:
In our example below, we'll wrap the text of the cells in column D so the entire address
can be displayed.
1. Select the cells you want to wrap. In this example, we'll select the cells in column
D.

2. Select the Wrap Text command on the Home tab.

3. The text in the selected cells


will be wrapped.

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To merge cells using the Merge & Center command:
In our example below, we'll merge cell A1 with cells B1:E1 to create a title heading for our
worksheet.
1. Select the cell range
you want to merge.

2. Select the Merge &


Center command on the
Home tab.

3. The selected cells will be


merged, and the text will
be centered.

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To access more merge options:
Click the drop-down arrow next to the Merge & Center command on the Home tab. The
Merge drop-down menu will appear. From here, you can choose to:
Merge & Center: Merges the selected cells into one cell and centers the text
Merge Across: Merges the selected cells into larger cells while keeping each row
separate
Merge Cells: Merges the selected cells into one cell but does not center the text
Unmerge Cells: Unmerges selected cells

EXERCISE 6

1. Open an Excel 2013 workbook. Input at least your five (5) favorite NBA
players. First name, Last name and their Team. NBA Players Profile should
be the title.
2. Modify the width of a column. Use the column that contains the players' first
names.
3. Insert a column between column A and column B, then insert a row between
row 3 and row 4.
4. Delete a column or a row.
5. Move a column or row.
6. Try using the Text Wrap command on a cell range. Wrap the text in the
column that contains their respective teams.
7. Try merging some cells. Merge the cells in the title row using the Merge &
Center command (cell range A1:E1).

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Lesson 7: Microsoft Excel 2013


Simple Formulas

One of the most powerful features in Excel is the ability to calculate numerical information
using formulas. Just like a calculator, Excel can add, subtract, multiply, and divide. In this
lesson, we'll show you how to use cell references to create simple formulas.
Mathematical operators
Excel uses standard operators for formulas, such as a plus sign for addition (+), a minus
sign for subtraction (-), an asterisk for multiplication (*), a forward slash for division (/),
and a caret (^) for exponents.

All formulas in Excel must begin with an equals sign (=). This is because the cell
contains, or is equal to, the formula and the value it calculates.
Understanding cell references
While you can create simple formulas in Excel manually (for example, =2+2 or =5*5),
most of the time you will use cell addresses to create a formula. This is known as making
a cell reference. Using cell references will ensure that your formulas are always accurate
because you can change the value of referenced cells without having to rewrite the
formula.

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By combining a mathematical operator with cell references, you can create a variety of
simple formulas in Excel. Formulas can also include a combination of cell references
and numbers, as in the examples below:

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To create a formula:
In our example below, we'll use a simple formula and cell references to calculate a budget.
1. Select the cell that will contain the
formula. In our example, we'll select
cell B3.

2. Type the equals sign (=). Notice how


it appears in both the cell and the
formula bar.

3. Type the cell address of the cell you


want to reference first in the formula:
cell B1 in our example. A blue border
will appear around the referenced cell.

4. Type the mathematical operator you want to use. In our example, we'll type the
addition sign (+).

5. Type the cell address of the cell you


want to reference second in the
formula: cell B2 in our example. A red
border will appear around the
referenced cell.

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6. Press Enter on your keyboard. The formula
will be calculated, and the value will be
displayed in the cell.

If the result of a formula is too large to be displayed in a cell, it may appear as pound
signs (#######) instead of a value. This means the column is not wide enough to display
the cell content. Simply increase the column width to show the cell content.

Modifying values with cell references


The true advantage of cell references is that they allow you to update data in your
worksheet without having to rewrite formulas. In the example below, we've modified the
value of cell B1 from $1,200 to $1,800. The formula in B3 will automatically recalculate
and display the new value in cell B3.

Excel will not always tell you if your formula contains an error, so it's up to you to check
all of your formulas. To learn how to do this, you can read the Double-Check Your
Formulas lesson from our Excel Formulas tutorial.

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To create a formula using the point-and-click method:
Rather than typing cell addresses manually, you can point and click on the cells you
want to include in your formula. This method can save a lot of time and effort when
creating formulas. In our example below, we'll create a formula to calculate the cost of
ordering several boxes of plastic silverware.
1. Select the cell that will contain the formula. In our example, we'll select cell D3.

2. Type the equals sign (=).


3. Select the cell you want to reference first in the formula: cell B3 in our example.
The cell address will appear in the formula, and a dashed blue line will appear
around the referenced cell.

1. Type the mathematical operator you want to use. In our example, we'll type the
multiplication sign (*).

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2. Select the cell you want to reference second in the formula: cell C3 in our
example. The cell address will appear in the formula, and a dashed red line will
appear around the referenced cell.

3. Press Enter on your keyboard. The formula will be calculated, and the value will
be displayed in the cell.

Formulas can also be copied to adjacent cells with the fill handle, which can save a lot
of time and effort if you need to perform the same calculation multiple times in a
worksheet. Review our lesson on Relative and Absolute Cell References to learn more.

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To edit a formula:
Sometimes you may want to modify an existing formula. In the example below, we've
entered an incorrect cell address in our formula, so we'll need to correct it.
1. Select the cell containing the formula you want to edit. In our example, we'll select
cell B3.

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2. Click the formula bar to edit the formula. You can also double-click the cell to
view and edit the formula directly within the cell.

3. A border will appear around any referenced cells. In our example, we'll change the
second part of the formula to reference cell B2 instead of cell C2.

4. When you're finished, press Enter on your keyboard or select the Enter command
in the formula bar.

5. The formula will be updated, and the new value will be displayed in the cell.

If you change your mind, you can press the Esc key on your keyboard or click the Cancel
command
in the formula bar to avoid accidentally making changes to your formula.
To show all of the formulas in a spreadsheet, you can hold the Ctrl key and press ` (grave accent).
The grave accent key is usually located in the top-left corner of the keyboard. You can press Ctrl+`
again to switch back to the normal view.

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Exercise 7

Simple Arithmetic
In this exercise, you will create basic formulae involving simple calculations on a
pair of values. The sums involved are intentionally simple to allow you to check that
your answers are correct using a little mental arithmetic.
Enter the data shown opposite into a new blank Workbook. Leave the cells
containing the word formula empty for now:
1.

Enter a formula to add together the contents of cells B3 and B4. Place the
result in B6.

2.

Enter a formula to subtract the contents of cells B4 from B3. Place the result in
cell B7.

3.

Enter a formula to multiply the contents of cell B3 by B4. Place the result in
cell B8.

4.

Enter a formula to divide the contents of cell B3 by B4. Place the result in B9.

5.

Do a quick check that your answers are correct, then save the file as
SimpleArithmetic.xls

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Lesson 8: Microsoft Excel 2013


Complex Formulas
A simple formula is a mathematical expression with one operator, such as 7+9. A complex
formula has more than one mathematical operator, such as 5+2*8. When there is more
than one operation in a formula, the order of operations tells Excel which operation to
calculate first. In order to use Excel to calculate complex formulas, you will need to
understand the order of operations.
The order of operations
Excel calculates formulas based on the following order of operations:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Operations enclosed in parentheses


Exponential calculations (3^2, for example)
Multiplication and division, whichever comes first
Addition and subtraction, whichever comes first

A mnemonic that can help you remember the order is PEMDAS, or Please Excuse My
Dear Aunt Sally.

While this formula may look complicated, we can use the order of operations step by step
to find the right answer.

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Creating complex formulas


In the example below, we will demonstrate how Excel solves a complex formula using the
order of operations. Here, we want to calculate the cost of sales tax for a catering invoice.
To do this, we'll write our formula as =(D2+D3) *0.075 in cell D4. This formula will add the
prices of our items together and then multiply that value by the 7.5% tax rate (which is
written as 0.075) to calculate the cost of sales tax.

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Excel follows the order of operations and first adds the values inside the parentheses:
(44.85+39.90) = $84.75. It then multiplies that value by the tax rate: $84.75*0.075. The
result will show that the sales tax is $6.36.

It is especially important to enter complex formulas with the correct order of operations.
Otherwise, Excel will not calculate the results accurately. In our example, if the
parentheses are not included, the multiplication is calculated first and the result is
incorrect. Parentheses are the best way to define which calculations will be performed
first in Excel.

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To create a complex formula using the order of operations:
In our example below, we will use cell references along with numerical values to create
a complex formula that will calculate the total cost for a catering invoice. The formula will
calculate the cost for each menu item and then add those values together.
1. Select the cell that will contain the formula. In our example, we'll select cell C4.

2. Enter your formula. In our example, we'll type =B2*C2+B3*C3. This formula will
follow the order of operations, first performing the multiplication: 2.29*20 = 45.80
and 3.49*35 = 122.15. It then will add those values together to calculate the total:
45.80+122.15.

3. Double-check your formula for accuracy, then press Enter on your keyboard. The
formula will calculate and display the result. In our example, the result shows that
the total cost for the order is $167.95.

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You can add parentheses to any equation to make it easier to read. While it won't change
the result of the formula in this example, we could enclose the multiplication operations
within parentheses to clarify that they will be calculated before the addition.

Excel will not always tell you if your formula contains an error, so it's up to you to check
all of your formulas.

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Exercise 8
Using Formulae
1. Open the SimpleArithmetic.xls Workbook created in the previous exercise.
2. Go to Sheet 2 and on a blank Worksheet try the following calculations:

There are 20 females and 30 male students in each of 10 groups. How many
students are there?

There are 23 black pens, 46 blue pens, and 11 pencils to be shared among
10 students. How many writing implements would each student get?

100 sandwiches were delivered for a lunch buffet, 30 were eaten by the
helpers before the delegates (6 from Davao City, 12 from General Santos
City, and 17 from Kabacan) arrive. How many sandwiches would each
delegate have?

Your friends birthday is the 14 June. If today is 24 May, how many weeks do
you have to buy a present?

Exercise 9

Copying Formulae
1. Open the maths.xls Workbook created in the previous exercise.
2. Modify the Worksheet by adding two new sets of values as shown below in cells
C3, C4, D3, and D4
3. Copy each of the formulae in Column B to Columns C and D.
4. Click in cell C6 and check that the formula is correct (when you click in the cell
you will see the formula rather than the result). It should be =C3+C4

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Lesson 9: Microsoft Excel 2013


Functions
A function is a predefined formula that performs calculations using specific values in a
particular order. Excel includes many common functions that can be useful for quickly
finding the sum, average, count, maximum value, and minimum value for a range of cells.
In order to use functions correctly, you'll need to understand the different parts of a
function and how to create arguments to calculate values and cell references.
The parts of a function
In order to work correctly, a function must be written a specific way, which is called the
syntax. The basic syntax for a function is the equals sign (=), the function name (SUM,
for example), and one or more arguments. Arguments contain the information you want
to calculate. The function in the example below would add the values of the cell range
A1:A20.

Working with arguments


Arguments can refer to both individual cells and cell ranges and must be enclosed
within parentheses. You can include one argument or multiple arguments, depending on
the syntax required for the function.
For example, the function =AVERAGE (B1:B9)
would calculate the average of the values in the
cell range B1:B9. This function contains only one
argument.

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Multiple arguments must be separated by a comma. For example, the function
=SUM(A1:A3, C1:C2, E1) will add the values of all the cells in the three arguments.

Creating a function
Excel has a variety of functions available. Here are some of the most common functions
you'll use:
SUM: This function adds all of the values of the cells in the argument.
AVERAGE: This function determines the average of the values included in the
argument. It calculates the sum of the cells and then divides that value by the
number of cells in the argument.
COUNT: This function counts the number of cells with numerical data in the
argument. This function is useful for quickly counting items in a cell range.
MAX: This function determines the highest cell value included in the argument.
MIN: This function determines the lowest cell value included in the argument.
To create a basic function:
In our example below, we'll create a basic function to calculate the average price per
unit for a list of recently ordered items using the AVERAGE function.
1. Select the cell that will contain the function. In our example, we'll select cell C11.

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2. Type the equals sign (=) and enter the desired function name. You can also
select the desired function from the list of suggested functions that will appear
below the cell as you type. In our example, we'll type =AVERAGE.

3. Enter the cell range for the argument inside parentheses. In our example, we'll
type (C3:C10). This formula will add the values of cells C3:C10 and then divide
that value by the total number of cells in the range to determine the average.

4. Press Enter on your keyboard. The function will be calculated, and the result will
appear in the cell. In our example, the average price per unit of items ordered was
$15.93.

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Excel will not always tell you if your formula contains an error, so it's up to you to check
all of your formulas. To learn how to do this, read the Double-Check Your Formulas lesson
from our Excel Formulas tutorial.
To create a function using the AutoSum command:
The AutoSum command allows you to automatically insert the most common functions
into your formula, including SUM, AVERAGE, COUNT, MIN, and MAX. In our example
below, we'll create a function to calculate the total cost for a list of recently ordered items
using the SUM function.
1. Select the cell that will contain the function. In our example, we'll select cell D12.

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2. In the Editing group on the Home tab, locate and select the arrow next to the
AutoSum command and then choose the desired function from the drop-down
menu. In our example, we'll select Sum.

3. The selected function will appear in the cell. If logically placed, the AutoSum
command will automatically select a cell range for the argument. In our example,
cells D3:D11 were selected automatically and their values will be added together
to calculate the total cost. You can also manually enter the desired cell range into
the argument.

4. Press Enter on your keyboard. The function will be calculated, and the result will
appear in the cell. In our example, the sum of D3:D11 is $606.05.

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5. The AutoSum command can also be accessed from the Formulas tab on the
Ribbon.

The Function Library


While there are hundreds of functions in Excel, the ones you use most frequently will
depend on the type of data your workbooks contain. There is no need to learn every
single function, but exploring some of the different types of functions will be helpful as
you create new projects. You can search for functions by category, such as Financial,
Logical, Text, Date & Time, and more from the Function Library on the Formulas tab.
To access the Function Library, select the Formulas tab on the Ribbon. The
Function Library will appear.

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To insert a function from the Function Library:
In our example below, we'll use a function to calculate the number of business days it
took to receive items after they were ordered. In our example, we'll use the dates in
columns B and C to calculate the delivery time in column D.
1. Select the cell that will contain the function. In our example, we'll select cell D3.

2. Click the Formulas tab on the Ribbon to access the Function Library.
3. From the Function Library group, select the desired function category. In our
example, we'll choose Date & Time.
4. Select the desired function from the drop-down menu. In our example, we'll select
the NETWORKDAYS function to count the number of business days between the
ordered date and received date.

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5. The Function Arguments dialog box will appear. From here, you'll be able to enter
or select the cells that will make up the arguments in the function. In our example,
we'll enter B3 in the Start_date: field and C3 in the End_date: field.
6. When you're satisfied with the arguments, click OK.

7. The function will be calculated, and the result will appear in the cell. In our
example, the result shows that it took four business days to receive the order.

Like formulas, functions can be copied to adjacent cells. Hover the mouse over the cell
that contains the function, then click, hold, and drag the fill handle over the cells you

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want to fill. The function will be copied, and values for those cells will be calculated relative
to their rows or columns.

The Insert Function command


If you're having trouble finding the right function, the Insert Function command allows
you to search for functions using keywords. While it can be useful, this command is
sometimes difficult to use. If you don't have much experience with functions, you may
have more success browsing the Function Library instead. For more advanced users,
however, the Insert Function command can be a powerful way to find a function quickly.
To use the Insert Function command:
In our example below, we want to find a function that will count the total number of
items ordered. We want to count the cells in the Item column, which uses text. We
cannot use the basic COUNT function because it will only count cells with numerical
information. Instead, we will need to find a function that counts the total number of
cells within a cell range.
1. Select the cell that will contain the function. In our example, we'll select cell B16.

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2. Click the Formulas tab on the Ribbon, then select the Insert Function command.

3. The Insert Function dialog box will appear.


4. Type
a
few
keywords
describing the calculation you
want the function to perform,
then click Go. In our example,
we'll type Count cells, but you
can also search by selecting a
category from the drop-down
list.

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5. Review the results to find the desired function, then click OK. In our example, we'll
choose COUNTA because it will count the number of cells in a cell range.

6. The Function Arguments dialog box will appear. Select the Value1: field, then
enter or select the desired cells. In our example, we'll enter the cell range A3:A10.
You may continue to add arguments in the Value2: field, but in this case we only
want to count the number of cells in the cell range A3:A10.
7. When you're satisfied, click OK.

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8. The function will be calculated, and the result will appear in the cell. In our
example, the result shows that a total of eight items were ordered.

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Exercise
Create a Chart
Enter the following data into Excel.
Labels: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September,
October, November, December
Average Temperature:

Total Precipitation

January was 15
February was 27
March was 45
April was 58
May was 64
June was 72
July was 79
August was 83
September was 78
October was 57
November was 42
December was 33

January got 18
February got
March got 29
April got 18
May got 10
June got 24
July got 17
August got 7
September got 25
October got 16
November got 10
December got 11

Create Charts from the Data


Chart 1:
Create a Column chart that shows JUST the Average Temperature.
Make sure to include the labels on your chart
Name the chart "Average Temperature"
Chart 2:
Create a Chart that shows the JUST the Total Precipitation.
Make sure to include the labels on your chart
Create the Chart as its OWN page
Name the chart "Total Precipitation"
Format the chart with the colors, shape effects, and background fill of your
choice.

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Exercise
Set Up a Checkbook
Enter the Labels
In Cell A1 type: Check No
In Cell B1 type: Date
In Cell C1 type: Description
In Cell D1 type: Amount
In Cell E1 type: Deposit
In Cell F1 type: Balance
Select Row 1 and format the labels big, bold, and centered
Add the data
Type in six records
Such as:
Opening balance: 500
Office Supplies: 78.50, check number 100
Phone Company: 50, check number 101
Format the columns
Select column D, E, and F and use the Currency tool
Note: the numbers are aligned with two decimal places
Practice: use the toolbar to increase and decrease the decimal places
Set up the Equations
Select Cell F3 and enter the following equation: =F2-D3+E3
Select Cells F3 through F5 and 'Fill Down'
Test your equations

1
2
3
4

A
Check No
100
101

B
Date

C
D
E
Description
Amount
Deposit
Opening Balance
500.00
4/7/04 Office Supplies
78.50
4/7/04 The Phone Store 180.98

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F
Balance
500.00
421.50
240.52

110