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International Islamic University Islamabad

Faculty of Management Sciences

Bachelors in Business Administration

Submitted by:


Submitted to:


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We thank our respected teacher to give us an opportunity to work on this

project. Real life isn't always going to be perfect or go our way, but the
recurring acknowledgement of what is working in our lives can help us not
only to survive but surmount our difficulties.”

Misbah Shahzadi

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NGOs are playing very important role for over all development of back ward
segment of society through providing right base approach and service
delivery. NGOs are working in the field of Education, Health, women
development, economic development and capacity building of civil society
organizations. More over NGOs are playing pivotal role to create awareness
among community about their rights and responsibility. Pakistani NGOs are
very vibrant to watch the progress of overall development and had played
very active role to restoration of judiciary.

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20th century transferred the number of issues to its successor with regard to social sector.
Perhaps among those most discussion able and dispersing one is “The Role of NGO, s in
the Development” particularly with regard to third world having mushroom growth largely
depending upon the contribution made by the socially developed countries, which on its
turn also exalted a number of issues lying under the generous contribution made, by the
developed world.

But as far as our concern, the presentation contains in itself the evolutionary development
of the concept both theoretically and practically emerging the various types of NGOs i.e.
charitable organizations, national organizations, community organization boards and
international NGOs etc. The objectives of these NGOs as relief welfare, community
development, sustainable system and people’s participation are also considered in this
work. The role of NGOs which are common for almost all the Ngo, s with regard to
development in different fields as in education, health, women welfare etc are mostly
sponsored by international NGOs. NGOs also contribute their due share in the
development sector of Pakistan and the facts about their activities funds and utilization of
funds is also considered in this presentation. The NGOs are also working in rural areas of
Pakistan and their programs in these areas are also under the consideration of our paper. so,
all the presentation will provide the knowledge and basic facts about the role of NGOs in
development both at national and international level, their types, work ability and
objectives and some fact about their weaknesses.

The term NGO seems to be deceptively simple. It may overlook the enormous variety and
differential capabilities of different NGOs.In fact, NGOs offer a kaleidoscopic collection of
organizations varying in origin, size, programmes, ideology, role strategy, funding,
linkages evaluation, problem etc. NGOs embrace a bewildering group of organizations
varying in terms of innumerable parameters. No standard definition can include all
organizations working at present under the title of NGO, originally voluntarism was a
doctrine which held that the will is dominant factor or it is a principle relying on one’s own
free will for an action. The definition of NGOs vary as:
According to Asian Development Bank the term non-governmental organization refers to

Not based in government.

Not created to earn profit.

United Nations defines it “NGOs are private organizations that pursue activities to relieve
suffering, promote the interest of poor, protect the environment, provide basic social
services or undertake community development”

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Although NGOs have recently emerged into the development limelight but they are not a
recent phenomenon. They were the earliest form of human organizations. Long before the
governments, people organized themselves into group for mutual protection and self help.
First, there were farmer’s organizations as in Japan in 1868; such organizations played a
vital role in agricultural movement. Traditional self-help associations have also a long
history in Africa and Asia.

During the 18th and 17th centuries in particular there has been an explosion in the number
of NGOs and an upsurge for the realistic answers to problem over a king of neglected
issues related to ecological degradation, rights of people and other common property
resources appropriate technologies, health, safety, gender and equity.
The institutional forms to such organizations can be traced back in late 19th and early 20th
centuries particularly in west world where the history of social organizations seems to have
been largely influenced by “laissez fair” movement based on a more planned way.

NEW TRENDS IN NGOS ACTIVITY (people participation)

New trends emerge in NGOs activities from 1950 to 1960 when it start to work in field of
development. Similarly, the concept of people’s participation does not have a long history.
It reflects partly the failure of the” trickle down” model of economic development
advocated after World War II .In 1980,s NGOs become a major phenomenon in the field of
development. Tvedt analyzed NGOs “as an outcome of complicated processes where
factors like international ideological trends, donor policies and agenda interacts with
national historical and cultural conditions in a complex way. On the whole these
organizations are commanding growing attention as possible alternative to government in
addressing the needs of vast of population.So,we can summarize NGOs development in
three stages.

Social and cultural in early stage.

Community services and development in intermediate stage.

More recently target oriented activist groups.


There is none the less a single answer to question why NGOs are formed? How they are
given meaning and how they operate? One cannot perceive NGOs as entities but we have
taken into account the notion of multiple relation. The entry of NGOs in the field of
development process thus represents important response to the need resulted due to the
overburdened government, the hesitant private sector and underutilized people power.
These are appeared to compose of overlapping social networks.

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The development experience of 1970s and 1980s have raised more and more critical
concerning as growing awareness about the widening gap between very few rich and the
vast majority of poor in developing countries. This has also given a momentum to search
for a more adequate and appropriate strategy for improving conditions. So, strategies
constitute basic elements of the development of a number of NGOs throughout the world,
which get people’s participation. recent, global transformations and the search to a variable
new option for supporting grass-root development presently provide quite significant
opportunities for a rapid development of NGOs in the decade of 1980s in following

Growing interest among donors and national governments in strengthening the

development roles of institution outside the public sector. The demonstrated capacity of
some non-governmental organizations to reach the poor more effectively than public

A sharp decline in public development resources, necessating a search by government for

more cost affective alternatives to conventional public services and development programs.

Ability to carry out programme on national scale and influence national policies and
Today, the NGOs address every conceivable issue and they operate virtually in every part
of the globe. Though international NGOs activity has grown steadily, most NGOs operate
within a country and frequently they function properly. According to one estimate some
25000 NGOs now qualify as international NGOs up from less than 400 a century ago.


NGOs play a critical role in all areas of development. People and policy makers are agree
on one thing that NGOs play a very important role in development. Role of NGOs vary
over the years as the policy of government changes. NGOs are almost dependent on polices
of government.
Socio economic development is a shared responsibility of both i.e. government and NGOs.
Role of NGOs are complementary but vary according to polices of government.

If we closely pursue the voluminous literature on NGOs many roles can be found
according to the expectations of people.

The major development roles ascribed to NGOs are to act as:

1) Planner and implementer of development programmers,

2) Mobiliser of local resources and initiative,

3) Catalyst, enabler and innovator,

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4) Builder of self reliant sustainable society,

5) Mediator of people and government,

6) Supporter and partner of government programme in activating delivery system

implementing rural development programmes, etc.,

7) Agents of information,

8) Factor of improvement of the poor, and

9) Facilitator of development education, training, professionalisation, etc.

10) Basically NGOs role is to prepare people for change. They empower the people to
overcome psychological problem and opposition of oppress. Its role cannot be denied.


NGO is one of the alternatives available among various development organizations and
one of the inputs among technical, financial and other resources, major merits of NGOs are
emerging from their limited scale of operation; the sporadic efforts of NGOs can be
consolidated and made more effective. Still the primary role of NGO is at the local level as
mobilizes of people and their resources for an indigenous self-sustainable development.
And at this level it can be a pioneer, mediator power broker, catalyst and has many other
roles. NGOs and their long lomerations also are very in playing their role as advocates in
policy issues beyond local level-national or even international level. Proper assessment of
expected an actual roles of NGOs enable us to make them an effective alternative in the
development process. However, small and sporadic NGOs are, they are valued in a
pluralist society as an alternative approach to conventional system of attaining human well
being and as such NGOs have a pivotal role to play in any society especially where
institutions are alienated and development is dehumanized.

An Ngo is nowadays not expected to deliver directly some benefits to people, but to
motivate people, mobilize resources, initiate leadership, and participate in development
programms for self reliance. An NGO is only an enabler and as and when a society is made
self reliant, role of NGO is shifted to another place where NGO service is required. But
NGO works in relief and delivery of public goods as direct suppliers and majority of the
development NGOs are also involved directly in productive activities. The roles of NGOs
an enabler or catalyst for self reliant society and as supplier or implementer is relevant
where bureaucracy is indifferent or inefficient, programs lack flexibility and cost
effectiveness poor are ignorant, elite are ambitious, successes and services are pre
conditions for motivation etc.


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Relief and welfare
Community development
Sustainable system
People’s movement.

Types of NGOs can be understand by their level of orientation and level of cooperation .

Types of NGOs by the level of orientation.

It has further types as under,

Charitable orientation.

It often involves a paternalistic effort with little participation by ’’beneficiaries’’. It

includes the ngo,s which directed the people towards meeting the needs of poor and help
them by gaining them food, clothing,medicine,provision of housing etc.such ngo,s may
also undertake relief activities during natural or man made herds.

Service orientation.

It includes with ngo,s with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or
education services. in which the program is designed by the ngo,s and people are expected
to participate in its implementation and in receiving the services.

Participatory orientation.

It is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly for
example in the implementation of a project in any village by
contributing,cash,tools,land,materials and labor etc. this type is basically cooperation based
and on limited scale.

Empowering orientation.

The aim of these NGOs are to help poor people an d develop a clear understanding of the
social, political and economic factors which are effecting their lives, and aware them how
can they solve their problem by using their resources and purpose to mobilize the people or
self mobilization. In any case there is maximum involvement of the people with NGOs
acting as a facilitators.

Types of NGOs by the level of operation.

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It has further types which are as following.

Community based organization(CBOs)

When people start feelings that what are their needs and how can they fulfill them. These
NGO,s arise out of people’s own initiatives. These can includes sports clubs women
organizations neighborhood organizations, religious and educational organizations. Some
supported by NGO,s ,national and international NGO,s and other independent outside help.
Some are devoted to raising the consciousness of urban poor or helping them to understand
their rights in gaining access to needed services while others are involved in providing
such services.

Citywide organizations.
These NGO,s are organized for some major or personal purpose. For example cambers of
commerce and industry,coaliation of business, educational group. Some exist for other
purposes and become involved in helping the poor as one of many activities, while others
are created for the specific purpose of helping the poor.

National NGOs.

It includes organizations such as the Red cross,YMWCAs,YWCAs,professional

organizations etc.Some of these have state branches and assist local NGOs.

International NGOs.

These range from secular agencies such as REDDA BARNA and save the children
organisation, CARE, UNDP, UNICEF. Their activities vary from mainly funding local
NGOs institutions and projects and implementing the projects themselves.


In Sub-continent NGOs culture took shape in the form of Ghandi Ashram Banaras in
1927.this venture created to provide jobs for natives in the days of British Raj.Diyal Sigh
trust is an example of the time but these efforts could not become a social norm due to a
highly centralized bureaucratic governance. As it is not a new phenomenon for Sub-
continent. it emerged during the colonial period when religious, linguistic and ethic
communities felt their cultural, religious and social identity threatened. Renouncing
politics they concentrated on religious, cultural and social assertion.

To control these associations, the colonial authorities introduced the system of registration
under the act of co-operative socities.each society was required to give constitution and by
laws and maintain financial accounts. The major purpose of theses organizations was to
open educational, institutions, help the poor and destitute and improve the condition of
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women. Such welfare, charitable and educational organizations produced a breed of social
workers who devote their lives to social work. They were sincere and concerned with the
welfare of their community. These community based organizations also created a since of
competition among each other which resulted in positive development. The great
contribution of old NGOs was that they preserved cultural, social and religious values and
in resistance to colonial states started movements which lead to positive struggle in the
field of development.

Unfortunately, in Pakistan these NGOs cannot work properly due to political weakness’ till, under these circumstances in 70s new type of NGOs emerge which were quite
different from old ones. The only thing common in old ones and new NGOs is that both
came into being into response of state weaknesses. But in the absence of well-defined
policy for NGOs, there is no moral considerations practiced by the people who have
monopolized this vital sector. On one hand they serve as an employment exchange for kith
and kin of the privileged and on other hand they are a symbol of prestige for the selected
few that know the art of preparing proposals and report written in the bureaucratic lexicon.

NGOs claim that there only task is to create social awareness but when people fell that
NGOs are not helping them concretely, they lose interest and merely social awareness is of
no use to them. Some of the clever participants turn this opportunity to their own favors by
manipulating different NGOs to get funds in the name of social work. They know that
projects are foreign funded and there is no commitment and sincerity behind it.

Most NGOs have more or less become family business making big profit .if you are a good
pretender you can generate huge funds. As it is discussed above that Ngos receive funds
from broad but nobody knows where and how these funds are utilized. So, people don’t
trust NGOs foe help as they consider them as fraud.


In Pakistan NGOs are functioning in different sectors like health, education, women
welfare, child welfare. Drug abuse, women development etc. many international NGOs are
working at national level in Pakistan.



health, provision of proper nutrition, formal education.

Established in 1967 is concerned with health, education.

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Established in 1989 is the health, education and literacy project.

Is the patient welfare association and was established in 1979.


DIVISION is two main agencies working to control drug abuse. They aimed at policing
crop substitution and law enforcement. Besides these there are so many NGOs working in
different areas. Basically their aim is to work for the welfare of people.


The areas of service which may be entrusted to the NGOs to achieve sustainable
development in rural areas are

Agriculture and related land development

Irrigation system
Agricultural extension education
Employment generation ¬_ skill development through training
Health and family welfare_ family planning propaganda, motivation, research and training,
rural health centers, dispensaries etc.

Pakistani NGOS
Nongovernmental organizations have existed in Pakistan since Independence in 1947.
NGOs generally have worked for rehabilitation and social welfare and to serve the poor
and marginalized. The number of NGOs had remained static for some 30 years, but has
mushroomed in the 1980s and 1990s.

Some NGOs in Pakistan have played an important role in creating awareness of

issues such as human and legal rights, women in development, and overpopulation. Others
have provided badly needed services such as basic health care, water and sanitation, and
employment opportunities to underdeveloped areas. By showing their ability to succeed
where the Government has had difficulties, NGOs have helped change national perceptions
and policies concerning sustainable development.

In recent years NGOs have become increasingly important players in designing and
delivering community-based programs. Today NGOs in Pakistan range from completely
voluntary organizations with small budgets contributed by volunteers to those run by well-
paid full-time professionals. The majority are somewhere in the middle. Increasingly, NGO
sector is becoming institutionalized, motivated both by altruistic goals as well as the ready
availability of funds from external aid sources.

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With a very few exceptions, NGOs in Pakistan do not have well defined
governance, transparency, and accountability structures. While some rely entirely on
financial support from Pakistan I public and Pakistani institutions, a larger proportion rely
almost entirely on project aid fro international funding agencies. They are constantly
challenged to prove their integrity.

The Pakistani Government has in general been positive about the development of
NGOs, starting from the first Five-Year Plan (1955-1960), when a permanent social
welfare section was created within the Planning Board (now called the Planning
Commission). More recently, the Seventh and Eighth Five-Year Plans contained
supportive policy statements, many of which have guided government action to assist

There are five laws under which NGOs in Pakistan operate. The Societies
Registration Act of 1860 pertains to professional, cultural, and educational bodies. The
Trust Act of 1882 provides legal cover for private acts of public charity. Many NGOs are
registered under the Cooperative Societies Act of 1952. The voluntary Social Welfare
Agencies (Registration and Control) Ordinance was promulgated in 1961 to regulate and
assist the development of NGOs undertaking welfare activities. The Companies Ordinance
of 1984 allows NGOs to set themselves as nonprofit companies.


The Asian Development Bank is interested in promoting greater NGO involvement in
Bank-funded projects. However, staff members at the Bank’s Resident Mission recognize
that there is limited opportunity for NGOs to be involved in all Bank projects. One reason
for this is that the energy and infrastructure sectors are major areas of cooperation between
the Government and the Bank, while NGOs are largely involved in the social sectors. At
present, direct cooperation between the Bank and Pakistani NGOs and community-based
organizations (CBOs) is limited.

When the Bank’s Resident Mission administers a project in which NGOs are
involved, the mission tends to be in close touch with these NGOs. Currently, NGOs are
involved indirectly in the following Bank-supported initiatives;


The Bank has provided funds to the Government which, in turn, has involved
NGOs in the delivery of a part of this program.


An NGO called the National Rural Support Programme (NRSP) is working with
the provincial Government in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) on
community development, community contribution, and cost recovery.

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An NGO called the Sarhad Rural Development Cooperation is working with the
provincial government on training, savings, and credit programs.


An NGO called Balochistan Rural Support Program is working on training and

credit programs.


Origin and Growth of NGOs:
The history of Pakistani NGOs goes back to Partition in 1947, when British India was
divided into the two sovereign states of India and Pakistan. Although not referred to as
NGOs at that time, many voluntary organizations were set up to provide humanitarian aid
to the refugees pouring into the country and to help victims of communal riots. A very
large proportion of these voluntary organizations were set up and run by women, many of
whom had played an active role in the Pakistan Movement.

During the first few years of Pakistan, many of these NGOs concentrated on
rehabilitation and basic services such as health and education. Some of these voluntary
organization remain active today, although their roles may have changed somewhat. Many
continue to be led by begums, the wives of influential bureaucrats, politicians, and

The next upsurge in the formation of NGOs took place in the late 1970s, when the
Marital Law Government expounded its philosophy of social work and welfare. During the
1980s, many new NGOs emerged to avail of the funding set aside for development through
local bodies (district, municipal, town, and local councils). In the party-free polls of 1985,
many legislators encouraged the growth of new NGOs to absorb the special funds available
to them for the development of their constituencies. A number of women’s NGOs were
also instituted during this period, coinciding partly with the International Women’s Decade
of Development and the Government’s attempts to curtail the rights of women. A large
proportion of these NGOs were registered under the Social Welfare Ordinance, particularly
when the Population Welfare Department and Women’s Division made a large part of their
support to NGOs conditional on social welfare registration.

In the early 1990s, there was another rapid increase in NGOs, when new
organizations were formed to take advantage of new available funding under the People’s
Works Programme, particularly in rural Sindh and Punjab.

It is difficult to estimate the number of NGOs working in Pakistan. Because NGOs

can be registered under five different laws, with registration offices in different provinces,

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and with a general lack of systematic updating, only rough estimates are possible. In a
recent publication, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) suggested that
the number is between 8,000 and 16,000. Many of the organizations, however, may simply
be social welfare organizations. If non-registered NGOs and CBOs are added to those
registered under the five laws, the number of Pakistani NGOs could be anywhere between
25,000 and 35,000.

Classification of NGOs:
NGOs in Pakistan can be divided into several broad categories:

• Those involved in advocacy and lobbying

• Those involved in policy issues and debates
• Emergency, rehabilitation and relief organizations
• Those involved in implementation of development projects and programs,
including service delivery organizations and CBOs

Advocacy and Lobbying NGOs:

Advocacy NGOs usually get the most attention. Being interested in mass contact, they
know how to use the media well (particularly newspapers and magazines) and are well-
known, even if their actual impact is low. These include organizations focused on legal
rights, literacy, women’s issues, children, minorities, and human rights. Many of these
are favored by funding agencies because their founders and managers are usually
involved in training and awareness programs, but not in the actual implementation of
development initiatives at the community level.

NGOs Involved in Policy Advocacy:

Policy-based NGOs are relatively new in Pakistan. Their purpose is to participate in

and initiate dialogue about policy issues, be it with the Government, other NGOs, or
international organizations. Policy-based NGOs are usually top heavy, involved in
international and regional networking, and keen on conferences and seminars. They
most often do not get involved in project implementation or service delivery.

Emergency, Rehabilitation and Relief Organizations:

The majority of NGOs in Pakistan fall into the category of emergency, rehabilitation,
and relief organizations, including some of the finest and oldest in Pakistan. These
include the Eidhi Foundation, the Fatimid Foundation, the Red Crescent, the LAYTON
Rahimtoola Benevolent Fund, and the Marie Adelaide Leprosy Center. Smaller grass-
roots organizations are overwhelming in this category.

NGOs Involved in Implementation of Development Programs:

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Only a small proportion of NGOs in Pakistan can be described as development-
oriented and even fewer as CBOs. They are largely service delivery organizations,
many of which are trying hard to transform themselves into either CBOs or community
support organizations. A hand-full have been successful, and others are working hard
to get there.

The Role of NGOs in Basic and

Primary Education in Pakistan
The Importance of Primary Educations

By primary education, we explicitly mean the first five years or grades of education, where
the age of the child is between 5 to 9 years. In some countries there is a public examination
at the end of the fifth grade when a completion certificate gives entry to higher level
schools as well as an independent confirmation of the literacy of the child.

Whether there is a public examination or not, we will take primary education to be the first
five years of education for a child starting at the age of about 5 or 6 years and graduating
from primary school at the age of 9 or 10 years.

The literature on education identifies a number of reasons why societies have focused on
developing a network for primary education, on achieving hundred percent literacy for
their populations, and on ensuring that a significant number of their populace goes beyond
the primary level. Broadly speaking, the reasons fall into two categories

The right to primary education

Access to primary education is taken to be a basic right of every citizen. All citizens need
to be literate to function productively and to make their full contribution to society as well
as to realize their own potential. Almost all countries hold the welfare of their citizens as
the prime objective for their existence. The citizen is taken to be the end for which the state
functions. If citizens are to be treated as an end, their needs and prerequisites for a good
life become part of the package of basic rights that are the foundation of a state or society.
Given that, education becomes a pre-requisite for developing the full potential of a citizen
and it becomes a prime concern for the state. It should be clear that the argument for basic
rights does not depend on the question of the ability of the citizen or even of the state to
pay for this education. It depends solely on the perception of the welfare of citizens and
what is considered to be necessary to ensure this welfare

The responsibility for actual provision of education falls on the provinces, and the actual
executing agency is usually the local government. All provinces have made primary
education compulsory through appropriate legislation, or are working on such legislation.
However, the implementation of this legislation remains uneven. The National Education
Policy (1998-2010) also envisages universalization of primary education in Pakistan. It has
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ambitious targets, and if the government is able to achieve these targets most of the work
of getting all children of the relevant age in schools would be completed. This will take us
a long way in achieving universal literacy eventually.

Furthermore, at a current insititutional level the Constitution of Pakistan places the

responsibility for basic education unambiguously on the State. This is reflected in the
principles of policy in Article 37, which states:

“The State shall:

1) Promote, with special care, the educational and economic interests of backward classes
or areas.

2) Remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within
minimum possible period

Major Constraints

Primary education in Pakistan faces a number of severe constraints which not only prevent
it from reaching 100 percent enrolment, but also leads to high dropout rates and the
provision of low quality education. These factors relate to the public sector to a large
extent. We need to understand these aspects in detail before we can look at the role that
NGOs can and are playing in the area of primary education. The next section looks at these
impediments in detail.

Low-income households

Probably the most important impediment to the universalization of primary education in

Pakistan is the low income and relative poverty of a large number of the target population.
There is significant empirical evidence that shows a positive correlation between income
and educational attainment, and income and primary enrolment. In other wards, families in
higher income quintiles have more children enrolled in schools than families in lower
income quintiles. The government also estimates that 33 percent of the Pakistani
population lives below the poverty line. Most of the poverty is in the rural areas. The
family size amongst the poor and rural population is also higher on the average, as
compared to higher income groups and city dwellers. This implies that many of our target
group, children between the ages of 5-9, will make up the disadvantaged groups mentioned
above. The chances of a female child from a poor rural household going to school,
finishing primary education and studying further are very slim.

Supply of schools and teachers

For the year 2001 there were 154 primary level children (aged 5-9) for every primary
school available. Boys were relatively better off in terms of children to school ratio as there
were 112 boys for every boys’ school as compared with 257 girls for every girls’ school.
As with other statistics, there is significant variation across the provinces in this respect
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too. Sindh has the most asymmetric distribution with respect to gender. It has 119 children
per school on the average, and there are only 74 boys per school, as compared to 374 girls
per school.

Clearly for Sindh, there is a need for more primary schools for girls. For all other provinces
as well, the number of female children per school is larger than that of male children, but
the asymmetry is not as stark as in the case of Sindh.

The situation today

Research in the last few years, however, suggests a substantial growth in the private sector
both at the primary level of education as well as at other levels. According to Andrabi, Das
and Khwaja, more than 36,000 private institutions in Pakistan attend to the educational
needs of 6.3 million children. In 1983 there were approximately 3,300 private primary and
secondary schools in the four provinces. In 2000 the same four provinces had over 36,000
such schools, “an almost ten-fold increase in less than two decades.”

Moreover, a private sector school survey indicates that out of the total private institutions,
66.4 percent lie in Punjab, 17.9 percent in Sindh, 12.3 percent in NWFP, 1.5 percent in
Balochistan, 0.9 percent in FATA and 1 percent in Islamabad capital. Overall 39 percent of
the institutions are in rural areas and 61 percent in urban areas. This has led experts to
suggest that “this rate of private school formation far exceeds the rate of population
growth” in Pakistan.

Acceptance of NGOs’ role and public-private partnerships

There is a growing consensus in Pakistan that public-private partnerships may address key
shortcomings within the country’s public service-delivery system. More specifically, it has
been noted that such partnerships would be better able to address issues of access, equity
and quality in primary education. The following sections will elaborate on some of these

Problems of public-private partnership programs

While the above discussion casts a favorable light on the recent expansion of the private
sector vis-à-vis primary education in Pakistan, the new trend of public-private partnerships
also faces several challenges. Firstly, even though the nationalization of education
institutions in Pakistan came to an end in 1979, the legacy of this policy continues to
shadow the new phase of cooperation between the private and public sectors. For its part,
private enterprise is unwilling to invest heavily in education fearing the withdrawal of the
government’s current policy. The government, at its end, has learnt to disregard the private
sector, as a history of legislative turmoil has allowed the government to take over private
schools as and when it pleases. Although much is being done to encourage investment in
education and to provide the private sector with incentives to join it, complete faith is still
lacking from both parties.

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The role of NGOs revisited

In the end, it is also important to note the cautionary tone of many NGO managers who are
optimistic about the current phase of cooperation with the government but who, at the
same time, insist that the private sector cannot and should not completely take on the role
of the government.


Pakistan still does not have 100 percent literacy, and more damagingly, it does nothave
100 percent enrolment for primary education for the relevant 5-9 year population.

There is no doubt that progress has been made in the last few decades, but progress has
been slow, and universalization of primary education still remains a relatively distant goal.
There are also other issues that limit the progress that has been made.

Enrolment rates vary significantly with the degree of urbanization, with provincial and
district setting and with gender. In fact, in some areas the gender gap continues to be very
large. Dropout rates are also too high, and most importantly, the quality of primary
education given by the public sector leaves a lot to be desired.

The role of the private sector has increased tremendously in the last decade or so, but it is
still small, and most of it tends to be in the for-profit market. With high poverty,
universalization of primary education cannot happen through the for-profit sector alone.

NGOs have also expanded their role in the area of primary education. They have used
some very innovative ways of reaching the public, dealing and collaborating with the
government and the private sector to increase the reach and quality of primary education.
But there is still a long way to go before Pakistan can boast a primary network that can
cover the entire country.

The state and society in Pakistan have, in many ways, accepted the fact that they need the
help of NGOs and the private sector to ensure better delivery. The experiments of today,
and especially the successes of today, can thus act as guides for tomorrow. In the chapters
that follow we have documented some of these experiments, discussed their strengths and
weaknesses, and also pointed out directions in which the education sector can go. Our hope
is that by sharing this information and analysis, which is based on the insight of many
people in the area, with a wider audience, we will be able to learn from best practices and
avoid some of the mistakes others have made.



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Due to high poverty levels throughout Pakistan, child exploitation is widespread. With
thousands of children orphaned, over 50% will face different problem Girls in their early
teens are brought from other Asian countries and forced into prostitution in Pakistan. 95%
of these girls are abused in their “line of work” as the smugglers call it. Some children are
imprisoned and used as slaves. Who could possibly say that this is a nation that serves and
fears God?

There is also a raging problem of trafficking adult women in Pakistan. Some police have
even been involved (big shocker, not) claiming shares of the money earned when women
are bought. This is not just a blip on the radar – this is iceberg straight ahead!


There are about fourteen thousand registered non governmental organisations (NGOs) in
Pakistan today. Out of them, 7000 are in Punjab, 4500 in Sindh and the rest are in
Baluchistan and NWFP. From some analyses, there are 60% NGOs in Pakistan which
don’t exist in practice and they exist only on the paper. They have no activity at all.

To think about mutual social work is the basic principle of society’s evolution and there
was no shortage of such people and associations in Pakistan who work on such thoughts.
From the beginning, there have been such people and associations whose basic principle of
work was to develop their village, town or city. But their principles were never based on
acquiring money or other wastes. At present, it is claimed that such a work is only done by
the help of those NGOs. Before the rule of Zia-ul-Haq and Afghan War, there would a very
few people who knew about this term. Due to that War, Pakistan became the centre for a
international funding. Many people and the groups of people made true and fake
organisations to help those Afghan immigrants and those organisations were provided
funds from abroad. Since the offices and other networks of those associations were in
Pakistan hence the involvement of Pakistani people in them was unavoidable.

The aid doesn’t bring money only but it brings the philosophy of the donor too. This matter
is important because two super powers were in front of each other in Afghan war and both
had a different social and economic system with them. Both of them wanted to weaken
each other. The organisations who had their base in west, built their foundations in the
middle class however the organisations who were funded from different Islamic countries,
started to manipulate their religious objectives among lower and middle class through this
aid. This way, different schools of thought spread over the country.

Those organisations, not only spread their means among the Afghan immigrants but they
also created some pockets in Pakistani society whose remote was in foreign hands. Those

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foreign strings could never pull the country’s interests, and some times they come close in
dispute with country’s interests.

The skeletons of NGOs in Pakistan are followed by the western style whose main merit is
that the ratio of education in those countries is far better than us. The other thing is that
their base of democratic culture is quite older. Every citizen realises that he has to take part
in the national interest. He contributes to NGOs of the city and take part the works which
are not attended by the government.

Unlike that Pakistani society is an agricultural society and a common man doesn’t
contribute to national interests. The issues of cities and the whole country are dominated by
some influential persons. That’s why the involvement of common man through NGOs in
this country is very limited. The role of NGOs in this society is most commonly
beaurocratic who mostly take time to fill up the files.

NGOs bring change in society and they usually fill up those gaps which are created due to
certain break-ups. In other words, we can say that their role is to maintain the
governments’ affairs and their status-quo. Till today, we have seen the results of working
NGOs in Pakistan that they don’t drag the disease from its base but they just make a fake
argument to get rid of the disease and get a cheap media fame.

Few years back, there were scandals of private jails owned by landlords and tribal byrons.
Were those jails created without any reason or there was some venerability in our society
which created them. It was out of reach of those NGOs to sort out the reason and remedy
of those jails. Hence now they are in search of some other issues. In the same way, the
issue of private jails in Sindh is not solved as yet.

In Sindh, where the feudal system is a great resistance for its development, these NGOs
can play a role to encourage it. Because the social, political and the organisations of
farmers could never work easily in Sindh in the presence of Wadera (Land lord ). The main
reason of the resistance given by Waderas was that these organisations challenged their
power in the area. But today there would be no Wadera who could oppose the creation of
NGOs and could affect its activists.

If we see the matter from social development, there would be a few NGOs in Pakistan
whose works can be counted but they will also be counted on fingers. If some one points
out to " Orangi Pilot Project" only, then its not enough. This project can’t be compared
with common NGO because it is a missionary project and its aim was to help people and
let them stand on their own feet. The well known personality of Akhtar Hameed Khan was
behind this project who had not only the experience of Komela project but he had a selfless
feeling to work. The important thing in this project was that it was built according to norms
of common man. The international fame of this project was cashed by many people and
they opened their own shops. No other project like Orangi Pilot project has been developed
in Pakistan after; it is the main argument of NGOs failure. The main reason is of
commitment and the feeling of service in this field.

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Mostly in our era, the NGOs use to talk about successes and failures of different
organisations as a tool to hide their failures. Recently in a monthly magazine, called
"Subhooh Thindo" ( Dawn will come ), one discussion about Grammin Bank of
Bangladesh has been published and this bank is praised due to its services because it gives
loans to the people for generating business and get that loan back from them. In the
specific condition of Bangladesh, it is a successful experience. In Pakistan also, some
governments has tried to experience such activity but has been failed so far. Question is
that, can we quote an organisation of another country? And don’t find any work like that
here in our society?! This is just to hide our failures.

NGOs have encouraged the existing corrupt culture of Pakistani society. People from every
walk of the society like writers, villagers, political workers, social workers and even
political organisations are eager to earn from this phenomenon. The culture of five star
hotels, cheap seminars and workshops have made them busy. A man belonging to an NGO
told :

" If I conduct a programme at my house, people give me money 200% more than the
expenses of that programme."

This is unfortunate for Pakistan and other third world countries that they don’t use their
talent available on their own land and cream of the society likes to make their careers in
Britain or America. Those who are left here, are captured by this NGO culture very easily.
The situation is so clear that the change is felt every where. Those people who were the
souls of small social, literary and political groups, have become the part of corrupt NGOs.
It is seen in the mirror that their role in society is almost killed and now their aim is to
develop their NGOs.

A few NGOs are there for which one can say that they have worked to aware the common
man of Pakistan. This question still looks for a reply that whether this society can pull the
burden of NGOs or not??

Singh Kumar Ravi, Role of NGOs in Developing Countries, 2003,Deep and Deep
publishers New Dehli, India.
Edward Michael and flower “Introduction: Changing challenges for NGDOs management”
The earthscan readerson NGOs Management, 2002,edited by Michael Edward and Alan
Flower, London.

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