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UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

FIRST SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS


DECEMBER 2008

PROGRAMME

BEng (Hons) Civil Engineering Year 3

MODULE NAME Wastewater Engineering


DATE

Wednesday

MODULE CODE

CIVE 3223(5)

3 December 2008
TIME
NO. OF
QUESTIONS
SET

9:30 11:30 Hours DURATION


5

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Answer any FOUR (4) Questions.

NO. OF
QUESTIONS TO
BE ATTEMPTED

2 Hours
4

WASTEWATER ENGINEERING CIVE 3223(5)


Answer any FOUR (4) Questions.
Question 1
[4 marks]

(a)

What are the objectives of wastewater treatment?

(b)

Compare the rational or criteria on which the following units are designed

(c)

(i)

Grit chamber and

(ii)

Primary sedimentation tank

Design the primary settling tanks to settle


following design criteria:

Surface loading rate 25-60 m/day

Hydraulic retention time 1-2 hours

Side depth 2-4 m

1000m3/h

[6 marks]
of raw sewage given the

[10 marks]
(d)

Explain the impact on the secondary biological treatment process if there is a


breakdown of the primary treatment process.
[5 marks]

Question 2
(a)

Define the term sludge age, c and using a mass balance approach derive an
equation for the sludge age of a conventional activated sludge process.
[8 marks]

(b)

As a Consultant you have recommended the use of an activated sludge


process for the treatment of the wastewater from a small housing estate. A
continuous flow stirred tank reactor with sludge recycle and wasting from the
returned sludge line will be adopted. Compare the overall performance of a
unit operating at alternative sludges of 5 days and 10 days. Use:

m = 4.0 d 1

S 0 = 200mg/L

Y = 0.5 (mg MLSS/mg BOD 5 )

Q = 6000m 3 /d

K d = 0.05d - 1

NH 3 - N = 35 mg/L

K s = 120 mg/L
Se =

k s (1 + k d c )
c ( m k d ) 1

X=

Y(S o S e ) c
x
1 + k d c

State all assumptions made and comment briefly on your results.


[17 marks]
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WASTEWATER ENGINEERING CIVE 3223(5)


Question 3
(a)

(b)

(i)

Briefly discuss reasons that may be associated with poor sludge


settling.
[3 marks]

(ii)

If it is reported that the sludge has bulked explain how the extent of the
problem can be assessed. Give indicative values where appropriate.
[4 marks]

(iii)

Describe the effect of the bulking on the mixed liquor suspended solids
(MLSS) and the BOD removal efficiency.
[3 marks]

The settling characteristics for a particular flocculent suspension are as


follows:

Solids
Conc.(Kg/m3)
Settling
Vel.(m/h)

2.5

7.5

10

12.5

15

17.5

20

22.5

25

1.5

0.68

0.35

0.18

0.096

0.058

0.04

0.029

0.022

0.019

A wastewater of this composition is evenly divided to three identical


thickeners operating in parallel. The thickened sludge is drawn off at a
constant rate with a concentration of 18 kg/m3. Determine the solids loading
rate (kg/m2h) and the underflow velocity (m/h) for:
(i)

the original system with 3 thickeners; and

(ii)

if an identical fourth thickener is added to the system such that the 4


units operate in parallel, each taking a quarter of the flow. In this case
also determine the underflow concentration.
[15 marks]

Question 4
(a)

By means of a diagram, explain in detail the mode of action of a trickling


filter.
[8 marks]

(b)

An agro-industrial wastewater has been found to have the following average


characteristics:

Flow rate
=
1000m3/d
Suspended solids =
650mg/L
BOD5
=
1800mg/L
pH
=
6.5
Assuming that nutrient concentrations are not limiting, estimate the performance
characteristics and calculate likely pond dimensions for a series of stabilization
lagoons treating this wastewater. The final effluent BOD5 should not exceed 75
mg/L.
(Continued next page)

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WASTEWATER ENGINEERING CIVE 3223(5)


Question 4 (Continued)
Facultative pond BOD5 removal r , may be estimated from surface loading, s in kg
BOD5/ha/d using the following equation:

r = 0.725 s + 10.75
( s > 400kg /ha/d)
Anaerobic pond, estimated surface loading s = 4000kg/ha/d and BOD5 removal
[17 marks]
approximates 70%.
Question 5
(a)

Discuss the principal benefits that are associated with the application of flow
equalization at wastewater treatment plants.
[10 marks]

(b)

A survey of effluent from a textile dyeing factory are as shown in the table
below. Design an equalization tank from a constant flow rate to the
wastewater treatment plant.
Sampling Time
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Flow Rate (m3/h)


11.34
20.86
52.16
70.30
61.24
31.75
20.41
24.95
18.14
34.02
52.16
69.17
86.18
45.36
18.14
13.60
15.88
12.47
9.07
15.88
17.01
10.21
12.47
7.94
[15 marks]

END OF QUESTION PAPER


sg/

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