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UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

FIRST SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS

NOVEMB
NOVEMBER/DECEMBER
ER/DECEMBER 2010
PROGRAMME

BEng (Hons) Civil Engineering

MODULE NAME

Wastewater Engineering

DATE

Wednesday

MODULE CODE

CIVE3223(5)

1 December 2010

TIME
NO. OF
QUESTIONS SET

09.30 11.30 Hrs


5

DURATION
NO. OF QUESTIONS TO
BE ATTEMPTED

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Answer any Four (4) Questions.

2 hours
4

WASTERWATER ENGINEERING CIVE 3223(5)


Question 1
(a)

Discuss in details the role of primary treatment in the treatment of domestic


[8 marks]
wastewater.

(b)

Primary sedimentation is to be provided for the primary treatment of 3000m3 of


sewage per day. The overflow rate is not to exceed 30m3/m2/d and the
maximum permissible horizontal flow through velocity is to be 0.30m/min.
Stating all assumptions made, recommend the appropriate dimensions for a
typical primary sedimentation tank.
[12 marks]

(c)

Explain the effect on the operations of a wastewater treatment plant as a result of


the failure of the grit removal system.
[5 marks]

Question 2
(a)

Explain the physical, biological and chemical reactions which take place when
an organic substrate, a mixed microbial culture and dissolved oxygen are
brought together in an aerobic reactor.
[10 marks]

(b)

An extended aeration activated sludge process is used to treat wastewater from


a small housing estate. The following information is available:
No. of housing units
No. of persons/household
Domestic water consumption

= 300
=
5
= 200l/c/d

Loading factors: 90g BOD5/c/d


: 80 g ss/c/d
Ammonia conc. NH3-N = 30mg/L
The treated effluent is expected to have the following characteristics:
BOD5
SS
NH3-N

=
=
=

20mg/L
30mg/L
5mg/L

The sludge wastage rate: 0.5Kg/MLSS/Kg BOD removed.


Stating all assumptions made with respect to operating conditions in the
aeration unit, calculate the:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

BOD5 and SS conc. of the raw sewage


[2 marks]
% BOD5 and SS removal efficiency of the plant
[1 mark]
Volume of the aeration tank
[3 marks]
F/M Ratio
[3 marks]
Sludge age in days
[3 marks]
Air requirements assuming 4% transfer efficiency and that 24L of air
contains (32 x 0.21) g of O2.
[3 marks]
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WASTERWATER ENGINEERING CIVE 3223(5)


Question 3
(a)

Using a mass balance approach, derive an equation for the sludge age of an
activated sludge reactor.
[6 marks]

(b)

Discuss the use of sludge-age to control the activated sludge process and explain
how it is measured and how it may be varied.
[4 marks]

(c)

A town has been directed to upgrade its primary wastewater treatment plant to
a secondary plant that can meet an effluent standard of 30.0 mg/L BOD5 and
30mg/L suspended solids. Assuming that the BOD5 of the SS in the final
effluent may be estimated as equal to 60% of the SS concentration, estimate the
required volume of the aeration tank.
The following data are available:
Existing plant effluent characteristics
Flow
=
0.15m3/s
BOD5
150 mg/L
=
The Monod kinetic constants for the waste are:
Ks

100mg/L

Kd

0.05d-1

2.5d-1

0.5

Assume that the plant may operate at a MLSS of 2000-30000 mg/

[15 marks]

Question 4

(a)

(b)

(i)

Explain the meaning and importance of the term Stirred Sludge Volume
Index (SSVI) and describe how it is measured in the laboratory.
[6 marks]

(ii)

Discuss the likely cause for bulking and explain the effect of bulking on
BOD removal efficiency.
[6 marks]

Two 20-m-diameter circular clarifiers are used for liquid-solids separation for an
air activated sludge system. The mixed liquor suspended solids concentration
(MLSS) is 3000 mg/L and the return activated-sludge recycle ratio is 50%.
Assuming a maximum solids loading flux of 6Kg/m2.h determine the allowable
average influent flow rate in m3/d and the return activated sludge MLSS
[15 marks]
concentration.

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WASTERWATER ENGINEERING CIVE 3223(5)


Question 5
(a)

Briefly describe the physical and biological characteristics of the various types of
stabilisation ponds which might be used for sewage treatment in tropical areas.
[9 marks]

(b)

By means of a diagram, explain in detail the mode of action of a trickling filter.


[6 marks]

(c)

Discuss the benefits of wastewater recirculation in the treatment of wastewater


using trickling filter.
[5 marks]

(d)

Explain the rationale for the application of flow equalisation at wastewater


treatment plants.
[5 marks]

END OF QUESTION PAPER

/ph

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