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UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

PAPER NO

EXAMINATION

DATE

First Semester 2006/07


BECE/06F/6

BEng (Hons) Civil


Engineering

Thursday
30 November 2006

Level 4
SERIES

PAPER

TIME

Nov/Dec 2006

Wastewater Engineering

13:30 15:30 Hours

[CIVE 4016 (5)]

This paper contains FIVE (5) Questions. Candidates are required to


answer ANY FOUR (4) Questions.

Question 1
(a)

Explain why grit must be removed from wastewater and list the various
methods available for the disposal of grit.
[5 marks]

(b)

A constant velocity grit channel is controlled by a venturi flume with a


throat width, b, equal to 0.2m. The flow rate through the flume is given
3

by the relationship, Q = 1.71 b Y 2 .


Working from first principles or deriving any formula used, design a
constant velocity grit channel for a DWF of 5000 m3/d. Assume that the
settling velocity of the grit particles is equal to 0.018 m/s.
[10 marks]
(c)

Discuss the importance of primary sedimentation in the biological


treatment of domestic wastewater and explain the likely effect on the
final effluent if the primary sedimentation tank does not operate
properly.
[10 marks]

Question 2
(a)

Wastewater is treated in a conventional continuous flow stirred tank


reactor with wasting from the mixed liquor at steady state. Plot the
effluent substrate and MLSS concentration as functions of the sludge
age, c, if the influent BOD5 is 250 mg/L. Use Y = 0.4 (mg/mg of
BOD5), m = 4d-1; kd = 0.05d-1, ks = 120 mg/L, Xe = 20 mg/L and the
hydraulic retention time, = 8 hours. Comment on your results.
[18 marks]

(b)

With the help of a neat diagram, describe in details the mode of


operation of the contact stabilisation type of activated sludge.
What are its advantages and disadvantages over the conventional actual
sludge process?
[7 marks]

Question 3
(a)

A series of batch settling tests were performed on the mixed-liquor


suspended solids (MLSS) from an activated-sludge process. Each test
yielded a curve which gives the relationship between the position of the
solids-liquid interface and the subsidence time. The slopes of the curves
in the region of constant subsidence were used to construct the settlingvelocity-concentration curve. Using the data given below, determine the
area of the final clarifier if the process flow stream is 3600 m3/d and it is
desired to maintain the MLSS in the aeration tank at 2000 mg/L. State
any assumption made.
/continued next page
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Question 3 (continued)
Suspended
Solids
1700
conc.
(x mg/L)

Settling
Velocity
Vs
(cm/mins)

2.74

2000

2200

2700

3100

3700

4700

5300

5700

6300

1.89

0.915

0.457

0.305

0.244

0.183

0.152

0.122

0.122

[15 marks]
(b) (i) If it is reported that the sludge has bulked, explain briefly the meaning
of the term and how the extent of the problem can be assessed. (Give
indicative values).
[5 marks]
(ii) What is the effect of the bulking on the MLSS and the BOD removal
efficiency.
[5 marks]

Question 4
(a)

Differentiate between anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds used


[15 marks]
for wastewater treatment.

(b)

Recommend a suitable pond system to treat domestic sewage from a


developing country small community of 5000 people to an effluent
standard BOD5 < 25 mg/L and faecal coliforms < 1000\100ml. Make
necessary assumptions.
BOD5 loading in anaerobic ponds = 4000 kg/ha.d. (70% BOD5 removal)
BOD5 loading in facultative ponds = 500 kg/ha.d
BOD5 removal in facultative ponds = 0.725 BOD5 design loading + 10.75
kg/ha.d.
No of faecal coliforms\100 ml of pond effluent
= No of faecal coliforms \100 ml of pond influent
1 + 2.6 x retention time
Aerated lagoon Fe =

Li
1 + kt *

k = 5 d-1
t * = Retention time
[10 marks]
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Question 5
(a)

By means of a diagram, explain in detail the mode of action of a trickling


filter.
[8 marks]

(b)

3785 m3/d of an industrial wastewater with a BOD of 900 mg/L is to be


pretreated to an effluent of 300 mg/L. A plastic tower with a specific
surface of 98 m2/m3 and a depth of 6.0 m is to be used. Determine the
hydraulic loading, the recirculation ratio, and the filter area required.
The maximum BOD applied to the filter is 600 mg/L. The reaction rate
coefficient for this wastewater is 1.0. The media has a coefficient n of 0.5.
[10 marks]

(c)

Describe the Alternate Double Filtration Technique (ADF) that can be


used to operate a trickling filter plant.
[7 marks]

END OF QUESTION PAPER

/sf

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