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Textile Finishing

Finishing processes can be divided into two broad classes: physical and chemical. In most cases finishing comprises
3 stages:

Washing and Drying

Pressing and aesthetics

Washing processes are essential to ensure that fabrics are not contaminated and are preparatory for other finishing
stages. Processes that are carried out during washing include:

Bleaching: Whitens the fabric by destroying the colour in the fabric

Carbonizing: Removing vegetable from wool in an acidic treatment
Desizing: Removing any sizing in the warp threads
Scouring: Removing any dirt, wax or grease accumulated in the manufacture process.
Mercerizing: For cellulosic fabrics, caustic (using a base) treatment to improve strength, lustre and
Milling, Fulling or Walking- agitating the fabric under specific conditions to create friction and tighten up the

During drying, most performance-enhancing chemical finishes are applied. Chemical finishes can be either
subtractive or additive. An additive finish increases the mass of the fabric by absorbing onto the surface or into the
fibre. A subtractive finish carefully degrades the fabric surface to reduce its mass. Chemical finishes can be used to
modify fabric appearance, alter handle, control fabric dimensions, improve fabric performance, protect the fibre, or
impart easy-care properties. Not all finishes last for long; short-lived finishes are known as Transient. Durable finishes



It is preferable, both commercially and environmentally, for a chemical finish to be applied in an aqueous, rather than
an organic-solvent-based, environment. To make the process as efficient as possible, it is important to use a
concentration of finish approximately equal to the critical application value (CAV). Below this value the finish will be
uneven, but far above this value the energy costs of removing excess solvent become prohibitive.

Fabric handle is a very important quality in all textiles, and particularly in the Clothing market sector. Fabric handle
can be modified by mechanical means (through bending, flexing or abrasion), or by chemical softening agents.
Chemical softening agents are applied to almost all fabrics and are there to counteract the inherent harshness of
man-made fibres, or the harshness imparted by other finishes. Some fabric softeners, such as those used in industry,
are durable, whereas home-application softeners tend to last for one wash before being reapplied.

Antistatic finishes are applied by chemical means. They prevent the build-up of static electricity that can occur due to
friction between electrically-insulating fibres. Static electricity can be of annoyance in clothing but is of great concern
in the Automotive,Aerospace, PPE? and Geotextiles market sectors, where it can cause sparks, possibly leading to
fires or explosions. Antistatic finishes work by increasing the conductivity of fibres, thus preventing the build-up of
static charge, and by reducing the friction between fibres.

Water repellent (hydrophobic) and oil repellent (oleophobic) finishes can be applied chemically. Surface Tension? of















Easy-care and durable press finishes are a lucrative market and are largely applied to cotton or cotton/polyester
blends. Easy-care implies that the product requires minimal ironing or pressing, while durable press implies that
pleats and creases will be resistant to normal use. Easy-care products seek to reduce the shrinkage that cellulosic
fibres undergo during washing as this leads to creasing. They work by cross-linking the hydroxyl groups in the
cellulosic polymer. Easy-care finishes must be easy to apply, cheap, have minimal environmental impact and cause
no change in fabric whiteness. They are applied either when the fabric is wet, moist, or dry; each method produces
slightly different results.

Flame-retardant finishes can also be applied by chemical means, as can stain resistant and antimicrobial finishes.

Plasma finishing uses plasma, sometimes called the fourth state of matter, to alter a fabric. Plasma is a gas
containing both charged and neutral species and is present in flames, the sun, in lightning and in lasers. It can be
used to etch a fibre or fabric surface, to attach new functional groups to a surface, or to change structure. However,
plasma finishes are not yet durable as they affect only the surface of the substrate.

Stabilising occurs once the drying and performance finishing has halted. It is important because during wet finishing
fabrics are often stretched, so realigning and setting is necessary to limit their unpredictability when working in the

finished fabric. Without stabilising, fabrics are vulnerable to shrinking. Stabilising can be carried out in many different

Calendar compressing: a mechanical process that modifies a fabric surface by passing it through heated








Decatising: For wool fabrics, the fabric is sandwiched between a cotton cloth, the pressure of which will














Heat setting: Carried out both on natural and synthetic fabrics. It is much-used in the production of carpets
because it reduces the tensions in a yarn, which otherwise can detrimentally effect a carpet.
Sanforising: Fabric is mechanically stabilised with the application of heat and moisture, then ran through a
compressive roller.

The conditions experienced during stabilising need to be those which the fabric will not encounter again during its


Physical finishing encompasses many different processes, including brushing, calendering, and heat-setting.
Calendering is a mechanical process that modifies a fabric surface by passing it through heated rollers. This can be
carried out to increase sheen and lustre, to reduce thickness, or to reduce air permeability. There are many types of
calendering, and some can be carried out using embossed rollers to impart patterns on the fabric.

Pressing is the final opportunity to change the finish of a fabric. It is greatly influence by both the fabric fibre content,
structure and end requirement. Some fabrics will require a clean, lustrous finish, but that same fabric can be







Processes include:

Brushing is used to make a fabrics handle softer. The fabric is run through a series of wire bristles that lift








Calendering: the fabric passes through a set of rollers which can add lustre or an embossed effect.
Singeing: Heat is used to singe away any loose fibres on the fabric surface. It is a dry process, which can be




Raising is a physical finish where fibres are lifted to produce a warm-feeling and soft fabric, such as

During emerising, a fabric is passed over a rotating emery-covered roller (or over multiple rollers) to give a
suede-like or peach-like finish. It produces a very short pile (protruding fibres) that softens the handle of the
Textile Finishing
Textile finishing process is a separate subject a processor should be well versed. This is the end
process that adds up value, quality and appearance to the final product.
Each substrate according the end use would finished differently.
Finishing operations can be widely divided into 2 classes; 1) Mechanical means of finishing or
mechanical finishes or physical transformation of subtrate due to mechanical processes, 2) Chemical
Functional Finishes: The properties of synthetic fibers, most important among them being
polyamide, polyester and polyacrilonitrile, are essentially different from those of natural cellulosic and
wool fibers. Hence the sequence of finishing operations is likely to be different. While cellulosic's
require a resin finishing treatment to impart easy-care properties, synthetic fibers already have these
easy-care criteria and require only a heat setting operation. The use of 100% synthetic textiles has
increased considerably since the arrival texurised yarns consisting of filaments and the growing
production of knit goods. The use of open weave has enabled production of lighter, air permeable,
fabrics to ensure better wearing comfort.
What is Heat Setting?
Heat setting of synthetic fabrics eliminates the internal tensions within the fiber generated during
manufacture and the new state can be fixed by rapid cooling. This heat setting fixes the fabrics in the
relaxed state and thus avoids subsequent shrinkage or creasing of fabric. Presetting of goods make it
possible to use higher temperature for setting without considering the sublimation properties of dyes
and also has a favorable effect on dyeing behavior and running properties of goods. On the other
hand, post setting can be combined with some other operations such as thermosol dyeing or optical
brightening of polyester, post setting as a final finish is useful to get a high dimensional stability along
with desired handle.
The application of heat in heat setting can be done by hot air, on a pin stenter at 220c for 20-30
seconds for polyester goods and at a lower temperature range of 190-225C for 15 -20 seconds for
polyamides . Acrylics may be heat set partially at 170-190 c for 15-60 seconds to reduce formation of
running creases. but higher temperature should be avoided to prevent yellowing.
Hydro setting is so rarely used particularly to get fuller and softer handle on polyamides at 125-135c
in autoclaves for 20-30 minutes. It can be combined with dyeing or optical brightening.

Steam setting can be done by saturated or super heated steam. During steaming, uniform treatment
can be ensured by initial sequence of alternate short steaming and vacuum application for 20-30 min
at 130C under pressure. Super heated steam can be used in stenters and setting time is 25% shorter
than for hot air on account of quicker heating up rate. Acrylic fibers have to be protested as some may
under go excessive shrinkage or loss of handle. Before the material is heat set, it should be thoroughly
washed to remove spin preparations, lubricants, sizing agents and impurities as these are likely to be
burned in drying heat setting making their removal difficult.
Filling and Stiffening finishes:
A stiffening effect is desirable in certain polyamides and polyester materials for petticoats, collar
interlinings, etc., which can be done by reducing the mutual independence of structural element of
fabric by polymer deposition on coating as a fine film. Some special Urea-formaldehyde precondensates have been found to be useful. Application of film-forming acrylates dispersions as well as
latex rubber emulsions gives a fuller effect with sufficient stiffness.
When softening is desired it can be achieved by reducing the frictional coefficient between structural
elements of fabrics, cationic long chain fatty derivatives and silicones may be used in conjunction with
polymer forming agents. Recently some cationic softeners having reactive functional groups have been
developed to get better fastness of finish.
Hydrophilic finishes:
On account of lower moisture and water absorption capacity synthetic fiber materials become
uncomfortable in contact with skin. Certain products based on modified (oxy-ethylated) polyamides
makes the wearing more pleasant by reducing the cohesion of water so that it spreads over a larger
area and thus evaporates more rapidly.
Anti-pilling finishes:
Pilling is an unpleasant phenomenon associated with spun yarn fabrics especially when they contain
synthetics. Synthetic fibers are more readily brought to the surface of fabric due to their smooth
surface and circular cross section and due to their higher tensile strength and abrasion resistance, the
pills formed take a long time to be abraded by wear. With knit fabric, two more problems occur, viz.,
"picking" where the abrasion individual fibers work themselves out of yarn loops onto the surface
when garment catches a pointed or rough object. These two effects are more predominant in the
weave, is more open and yarn is bulkier.
The finish has to cement the fibers within the yearn so that their dragging becomes more difficult,
without affecting the handle adversely. Special polymer formers of acrylate type or latex type are
useful but should form a film of good cohesion, should hydrophilic and should not form a tacky
surface. padding in polymer dispersion or emulsion followed by drying at moderate temperature gives
the desired effect.
Permanent Anti-static effects:
Anti-static effective chemicals are largely chemically inert and require Thermosol or heat treatment for

fixing on polyester goods. Agents of polyether type are found to be useful but should not effect the
dye-equilibrium on fiber otherwise the rubbing fastness is impaired. In general Thermsolable antistatic agents also have a good soil release action which is as permanent as the anti-static effect. Antistatic finishes may also be of polyamide type being curable at moderate temperatures.
Non-Slip finishes:
Synthetic warp and weft threads in loosely woven fabrics are particularly prone to slip because of their
surface smoothness when the structure of fabric is disturbed and appearance is no loner attractive. To
avoid this attempts are made to give the filaments a rougher surface. Silica-gel dispersions or silicic
acid colloidal solutions are quite useful and they are used with advantage in combination with latex
polymer or acrylates dispersions to get more permanent effect along with simultaneous improvement
in resistance to pilling or snagging. These polymer finishes are also capable of imparting a soft and
smooth handle to synthetic fabric without imparting water repellency.
Fire Resistant finishes:
With synthetic fiber which melt on igniting by a flame, the molten moss is itself quite dangerous and a
fire resistant treatment is desirable for certain end uses. Polyester fabrics can be made flame resistant
by treatment with an aqueous emulsion of xylene soluble 2,3-dibromopropyl phosphate in a pad-cure
sequence. A semi-permanent effect can be produced by treating with a mixture of ammonium bromide
and brominated phosphoric acid esters.
Polyamides can be made flame resistant by applying phosphorous tri-chloride ammonia reaction
products or ammonium bromide with amino-triazine condensation products. For acrylics trisdibromopropyl-phosphate as well as 2-cyanoethyl-tetramethyl-di-amino-phosphate is quite effective.
Anti-microbial finishes:
With the increasing use synthetic fibers for carpets and other materials in public places, anti-microbial
finishes have assumed importance. A reduction in soiling tendency will along way in keeping textiles
free from germs and usual soil repellant as well as soil release finishes are effective in some way.
products which are commonly applied are brominated phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds,
organo-silver and tin compounds which can be applied as solutions or dispersions. They can also be
incorporated in a polymeric film deposited on the surface to get controlled release. Some reactive
systems similar to those for reactive dyes have been recently tried to incorporate anti-microbial
structural features.
Finishing of Elastomeric textiles:
The heat sensitivity of electrometric fibers limits the choice of products and finishing process that can
be employed. In order to eliminate the latent tensions, these electrometric textiles are simply steamed
or treated with hot water. Dry curing or heat treatment is restricted to temperature below 140C,.
These fabric have e to be dried and curd with minimum tension with over feed stenter. To groups of
materials, viz., foundation fabric and knitted fabric for bathing snits are resin finished. Water proofing
can be imparted by using Zirconium salts containing wax emulsions as it does not require a high
temperature treatment. A filling treatment can be obtained with modified methylol-urea type products.

Most of Anzeas textiles are treated with one of the following finishes for superior stain
resistance and moisture barrier.

Microscopic roughness is the technology behind GreenShield which leverages the enormous
surface area of each nanoparticle enabling the particles to efficiently deliver the appropriate
chemistry to the fabric. Through the use of nano-particles on the surface of a fabric
GreenShield creates a pocket of air allowing water and oil droplets to roll carrying dirt and
stains off the fabric for a self cleaning effect. GreenShield is a multi-functional technology
providing water and oil repellency and stain resistance in a single finish with greater
efficiency than each function delivered separately.

High performance nano technology builds permanent stain protection into the molecular
structure of the fabric. NANO-TEX covalently bonds to the fiber of the textile and lasts the
life of the fabric. It is durable to laundering, soft to the touch and safe to be next to the skin.

NANO-TEX +DURABLOCK is a high performance combination for extreme environments.
It couples the permanent stain protection of a nanotechnology with a breathable liquid
barrier to protect the cushion of any upholstery from being exposed to liquid. This
combination provides a complete barrier to liquids, cleaner and contaminates making the
application easily cleanable. NANO-TEX +DURABLOCK can be applied to virtually any
textile designed for high-traffic areas such as a restaurant, bar, waiting room or a hotel

All fabrics specified to be treated with Crypton will automatically arrive with the Crypton 2.0
beginning 1/01/2014.
Through advancements in both technology and machinery, Cryptons engineers have
invented a method that incredibly and significantly reduces stiffness, increases the loft and
maintains the compression recovery of every fabric. With the new Crypton 2.0 technology,
Crypton has radically reduced their reliance on petroleum-based materials and reduced CO2
emissions. They have changed the moisture barrier so that more than 10% of the feedstock
raw materials can be derived from renewable, farm-grown sources, including corn. These
advancements are made without sacrificing Cryptons performance, durability or
recyclability. The introduction of biobased content and the softening of Cryptons moisture
barrier also bring about environmental advancements in our production process. It takes
40% less energy to produce their corn-derived materials than the petroleum-based
alternative. Additionally, they have reduced CO2 emissions by improving their
manufacturing efficiency, thus generating less greenhouse gas. Crypton 2.0 has actually
improved cleanability. The new barrier utilizes the same repel and release functionality
that was previously reserved just for the fibers. The result is a barrier that more easily
releases ground-in stains. Cryptons continued use of the best dual-action chemistry allows
both water- and oil-based stains to easily release during spot-cleaning. The culmination of
these improvements brings forth the new industry standard Crypton 2.0.

The Infinity finish is used for stain and moisture resistance. It will resist stains from coffee,
oil, ketchup and wine. It is anti-microbial as well as anti-bacterial. This finish is completely
breathable and may be cleaned with soap and water. The Infinity finish is a proprietary finish
applied at the mill. It tests and performs similarly to the Nanotex finish.

Writers Block is a proprietary ink resistant technology for faux leather that offers the
highest level of cleanability. With its repel and release stain-inhibiting system, Writers
Block prevents ink and other stains from setting into the material and allows for easy
cleaning. Writers Blockalso offers excellent cleaning of other tough food and healthcare
stains including Mustard, Coffee, Red Wine, Iodine or Blood. Simply clean ink marks with a

dry cloth. If some stain residue is still present spray it with at 70% dilution of isopropyl
alcohol and wipe clean.
Writers Block creates an invisible barrier to indigo dye, allowing for the stains to be
removed. Any dye transfer can be removed by cleaning with 70% Isopropyl alcohol.
Writers Block is engineered to withstand bleach at a 1:5 dilution and alcohol at a 7:10
dilution. Several other commonly used soft surface disinfectants are safe to use as well.

FR acrylic backing enhances a fabrics stability and may reduce seam slippage. For direct
glue applications it reduces or eliminates bleed through. This backing is designed to meet
the ASTM E-84 for wallcovering.

All ANZEA textiles meet or exceed the California Upholstered Furniture Flammability code
Bulletin 117. For other codes Anzea will ship the fabric to a finisher. The finisher will issue a
certificate of compliance for the specific codes. ANZEA IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
must be supplied when arranging for flame retarding.
Regulations fabric is to meet
Location of the installation
Application of the product, i.e. upholstery, drapery, wallcovering, aircraft

Garment Costing: How to Calculate

Garment Cost using available
Topics: garment costing By: Prasanta Sarkar

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Question: I am a merchandising management student, I want to

know how to calculate the cost of a garment using following details.
1. Fabric consumption: 0.8 yards per garment.
2. Fabric wastage allowance 3%
3. Fabric price: $2.7per yard.
4. Total charges for insurance & fright $ 0.3 (per yard). Fabric is
being ordered from Hong Kong.
5. Finance charges for fabric purchasing is 15%.
6. Trim cost: $ 1.5 per garment (excluding thread cost).
7. 5000 meter of thread cones being used for sewing, 210 meters of
threads needed for a garment and the price of a thread cone is $6.
8. Garment SMV is 40.
9. Labor rate: the selling price of a minute is $ 0.03
... by OCS reader.
To calculate the cost of the garment, I will first create a table in
excel sheet. Then I will calculate material cost and labor cost. Finally
sum up all cost together to calculate total cost of the garment. In
the following I have shown you step by step process for calculating
cost of the garment using information provided on the above.
Step 1: Arrange information in the excel table, provided on the
above problem. See the following table, where I have arranged all
required information to find final garment cost. I have given code
number to each information A, B, ...J.
I added extra rows where I need to calculate something to calculate
sub costs and necessary information. Like M, N, O and P.

Step 2: Calculate total fabric consumption including wastage

percentage (M)
Total fabric consumption per garment = Calculated fabric
consumption (1+Wastage%)

Or M=A(1+B)
Step 3: Calculate fabric cost per garment (N): Factory has incurred
cost in insurance and freight and finance charge. I have calculated
fabric related cost together.
So, Fabric cost per garment (including freight and finance charge) =
Step 4: Trim cost: Total cost of the trims has been given.
Step 5: Calculate thread cost (O): From the thread rate (unit 5000
meters) and thread consumption, thread cost per garment is
Here thread cost per garment = G*H/5000
Step 6: Calculate labor cost per garment (P): Labor cost per
garment is calculated using garment SMV (standard time) and labor
cost per minute.
Labor cost per garment (P) = Garment SMV * Labor cost per minute
Step 7: Calculate total garment cost (GC):
I have calculated all sub costs required to find total garment cost.
Total garment cost = (Fabric cost + Trim cost + Thread cost + Labor
Total garment cost = ($2.81 + $1.50 + $0.25 + $1.20) = $5.76

Textile Finishing: Different Types of

Mechanical Finishes for Textiles
Topics: Finishing, textile basics By: Prasanta Sarkar
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In the previous post classification of textile finishes and
treatment are listed. This post will cover about those treatments?

1. Calendering

A simple device which simulates the effects of calendaring is the

domestic iron. Hot ironing makes garment smooth flat by removing
its crinkles and creases. Besides making the fabrics free from
creases by calendaring,

it is possible to raise the luster of the fabric,

make it compact by closing the threads,

impart a soft feel and thready or

linen like appearance to it

It reduces the yarn slippage as well as thickness of the fabric by
varying the calendaring operation.
The need of calendaring arises mainly because the fabric when it is
wet processed and dried, is in the least lustrous state and its surface
is not smooth because of presence of highly crimped and wavy
threads. To meet this need the fabric is passed between the rollers
or bawls of a machine termed Calender and this mechanical
process is called calendering.
Different types of calenders:

Ordinary Calender: An ordinary calender consists of a series of

hard and soft rollers or bawls mounted vertically in a robust frame
and the fabric is passed between the rollers. Hard bawls are made of
polished metal and soft bawls are made of compressed cotton or
paper or wood.

Swizzing calender: This is an ordinary calender usually with 7

bawls which run at the same peripheral speed so that there is no

slip between them.

Friction calender: When maximum increase of luster, higher gloss
and greater closing up of the fabric is desired, a calender in which
one bawl is made to rotate faster than the other and which is heated
and polished, is used. Friction calendars are used for finishing lining,
shirting, and printed clothes.
Chasing Calender: In this calender five bawls are used. All bawls
run at a same speed. This operation of chasing produces a thready
or linen-like appearance together with a soft fell.
Embossing Calender: In embossing calender fine lines are
embossed on the cloth. Embossing brings about a high degree of
luster on the cloth, makes it smooth and flattens it. Damask effect
can also be produced on cotton cloth by this process, but effect of
embossing is temporary.
2. Sanforising

A method of producing unshrinkable cotton fabric is to give it a

thorough wash in a washing machine so as to allow it to shrink freely
and then dry and finish it without stretching. This method however is
not reliable and not suitable for commercial production.
3. Raising

Raising is a process of lifting of a layer of fibres from the surface of

the fabric so as to form a hairy surface or pile. The process imparts a
warm and soft handle to both on the woven and knitted fabrics; in
fact, the formation of a pile on the fabric can make it exceptionally
soft. The pile also includes a large amount of air and since air is a
bad conductor of the heat, the raised fabrics feel vary warm as well
as soft.
In the early days, only cotton and woolen fabrics were raised, but
now besides these fabrics, man-made fibre fabrics also raised. If the

fabric contains a woven or coloured pattern, the weave and pattern

get subdued on raising and various colour blends.
It is easier to raise the fabric in the wet state than in dry state.
Therefore, moist raising is most widely adopted.
4. Napping

In napping the surface of the cloth is raised, cut even and smoothed
by a napping machine known as planetary napper.
5. Shearing

Shearing means removing or taking off fibre ends by cutting. It is

carried out to cut fibres of random length to produce a level pile and
prevent pilling in case of synthetic fibres by resulting of the height of
the fibres particularly to produce clean staple fibre fabrics. Napped
fabrics are mostly sheared.
Knitted fabrics are sheared on a machine having a single cutting
head per unit where in case of woven fabrics multiple sheared are
used. The pile heights are regulated by adjusting the distance
between the cloth rest and rotary blade.
6. Sueding

When a vary mild effect of raising is required a special type of

machine called sueding machine is used. This consists of a vertical
set of small diameter rotating rollers covered with an abrasive
surface such as sand paper or emery cloth. There is a rubber
covered pressure roll which presses the fabric against the abrasive
covered cylinder. The abrasion of fabric surface takes place when
the fabric is open width presses between the pressure roller and
abrasive covered cylinder. A vary sort pile thus raised according to
the pressure of the fabric against these rollers which rotate in a
direction of opposite to that of the fabric.
6. Setting and Heat-setting

During manufacturing processes like spinning, weaving or knitting,

the fabric is subjected to stresses and strains and release of these
distortions in fabric leads to distortions in fabric structure and woven
design and also uneven shrinkage. The purpose of setting is to
stabilize the woven structure of the fabric in a regular and
permanent manner by relaxing the stresses. The effect is bought
about by agencies like heat, moisture, and pressure and generally
no chemicals are used in the process.

By slide share

fabric and garment finishing

2. 2. Pressing Pressing is the application of heat, moisture and pressure to shape, mould, or
crease fabrics,garments, or garment parts into the geometric forms. Pressing may be
done : During assembly to facilitate other operations and improve quality. Final finishing
process The purpose of pressing is to make the fabric smooth or to give it a form, such as
turnup or hem.
3. 3. Elements of Pressing Heat : Heat is needed in most pressing processes to soften
fibers, stabilize and set the desired shape . Temperatures must be selected to suit the fibers ,
yarns , and fabrics used in a particular style . Sources of heat include heated surfaces and
steam. Steam (Moisture):It is the fastest means of transferring heat into the fabrics .
Steam is created by heating water in a pressure/boiler. The higher the pressure , the hotter
and drier the steam . Different fabrics require different amount of moisture and heat ,
excessive moisture may cause shrinkage and color bleeding and must be used under
controlled conditions.
4. 4. Pressure : It is applied to alter shape and increase the permanency of the moulding or
creasing. Too much pressure may distort fabric surfaces , flatten textures and create
permanent garment and/or fabric damage. Vacuum : After application of heat and
moisture , it is the vacuum which sucks ambient air through the garment as it lies on the buck
or pressing table. This rapidly dries out residual moisture from the garment and ensures that
the set imparted by pressing is retained. Suction also ensures garments is in place before
pressing and it does not shift.
5. 5. Types Of Pressing Equipment Buck presses. Iron pressing. Block or die pressing.
Form pressing. Steamers. Steam tunnels.

6. 6. Buck Pressing These are commonly used by manufactures of slacks , skirts , and
jackets. Components- 1. Lower buck 2. Moveable head with a linkage system 3. Buck
padding stem and vacuum system frame 4. Manual or automatic control for steams,
vacuum ,heat and pressure. 5. Covered with heat resistent silicon Foams It may be used
for in-process pressing & finish pressing. Press for jacket shoulders and collars.
7. 7. Iron Pressing Point presser: for pressing collars and cuffs Tailors ham: For darts and
curved seams Sleeve Board: It is two small ironing boards to press narrow areas such as
sleeves and trouser legs. MITT: to press sleeve caps and ruffles.
8. 8. Block Pressing It is a molding process that establishes a products conformance to a
form. It may change the surface characteristics and dimension of a product. The fabric
is placed on a fixed form before pressure heat and steam is applied. It is used to crease
patch pockets and pocket flaps. Fig:-Block pressing
9. 9. Form Pressing Form presses are made in the approximate shape of the finished
garments. Steam is forced from the inside of the form through garment while the form
expands to fill all the space inside the garment. It is designed to reduce the amount of
positioning and re-positioning time. Fig:- Form pressing
10. 10. Steamers These are the pressing machine that uses only steam to mold and smooth
the garment. Types of steamers- steam jets. steam guns. steam puffs. steam tunnels.
These devices may be used either to form and stabilize garment shape. fig:- Steamers
11. 11. Steam Tunnels These are used for final pressing. Garments are de-wrinkled within
a chamber by the average pressure of circulating steam. Garments are carried over the
nozzle of a steam jet in order for the garment to receive the full force of the steam pressure.
It reduces labor costs and process garment at a rate of 1200 to 3600 units per hour.
12. 12. Head is suspended on rocker arms for self aligning with the bed. Machined pressing
surface. Pneumatic raising and lowering with push buttons. Perforated bed prodded with
sponge padding. Powerful centrifugal suction for moisture exhaust. Automatic timed release
of the head at preset time. Automatic digital temperature control of the head. Flat Bed
13. 13. Compressed air Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than
atmospheric pressure. Compressed air, also referred to as the "4th Utility" (after electricity,
water & steam) is one of the major energy consumption utility in any industry.
14. 14. Use of Compressed Air in Textile Industry In Textile manufacturing units, generally
following Compressed air powered pneumatic systems are used : Spinning machine : For
control purpose through valves and cylinders Loom Jet Weaving : For the insertion of weft
Winding Device : For the purpose of splicing of yarn Stacking Device Printing
machines Thread Detector Sewing Machine
15. 15. Applications Compressed air is used mainly as a motive force to actuate the process
control valves and machines in a textile mill. System Cooling Clamping Blowing out
residual / dust material Sewing Needle Conveying Texturizing Automated Equipment
Cleaning Pneumatic control
16. 16. Energy Savings in Ironing and Pressing Despite growing concerns with energy,
companies are still suffering from low interest in energy efficiency mainly due to the low ratio









of energy costs / total costs and low internal knowledge on this area, accordingly there is an
interesting potential for savings in the clothing industry.
17. Vacuum Vacuum systems are used to remove the excess steam used in the
equipments of finishing and pressing sub processes and for suction of waste produced by
cutting and sewing sub processes. Over-consumption in this area is due to: All or nothing
utilization, i.e, even if only one production machine is in use the suction is being applied to all
machines; Leakage in network; Extracted hot air is wasted (of steam consumer
machines) Lack of electronic control and frequency variation.
18. Heat (boiler and gas/fuel supply) In the clothing industry thermal energy is used in air
conditioning, in finishing and preparation for sewing sub processes and, in some companies,
for treatment. This energy can either be supplied by direct combustion of gas in the
productive machines, or indirectly through production of steam or hot water.
19. Critical points for excess consumption by indirect means: Boiler / Steam Generator
oversized; Boiler / Steam generator poorly insulated or uninsolated; Produced steam
pressure higher than required; Misadjusted burner; Uninsulated pipes and fittings;
Leakage in steam / hot water network; Waste of condensates from the steam network;
Malfunction of network accessories; Inexistent flue gas heat recuperation; Deficient
maintenance / cleaning.
20. Critical points for excess consumption through direct feed: Uninsolated consumer
equipment; Misadjusted burner; Unmodulated burner control; Oversized ventilator or
without control.
21. Compressed air Compressed air is a critical point not only because is the most
expensive form of energy in the plant but also its optimization is relatively easy. The most
significant losses in production, distribution and use of compressed air, are: Inexistent cut
valves for air consumers; Leaks in the distribution network; Distribution network
undersized; Produced pressure is greater than necessary; Oversized air compressor;
22. Iron Ironing is the use of a heated tool to remove wrinkles from fabric. Ironing
involves sliding an iron back and forth to remove wrinkles and is normally only done to
finished garments. The heating is commonly done to a temperature of 180220 Celsius,
depending on the fabric. Ironing works by loosening the bonds between the long- chain
polymer molecules in the fibers of the material. While the molecules are hot, the fibers are
straightened by the weight of the iron, and they hold their new shape as they cool.
23. Types Of Iron A. Dry Iron light weight irons weighing about 1.4 kgs with a heat range of
between 70 and 240 degree C and electronic temperature controls that have a reliable
accuracy of +/- 3 degree C. This type of iron is made in a variety of shapes and is mainly
used for smoothing or finishing operations where steam is unnecessary.
24. Types Of Iron cont B. Electric Steam Irons These are the most commonly used type
of hand iron and carry out a wide variety of operations, especially those concerned with
under pressing. The iron has a heating element and steam is fed from a central or
independent boiler into the steam chamber in the base of the iron. The heat generated can
be controlled by a thermostat, and supplied with steam either from factorys main steam







supply or from a small boiler adjacent to the pressing unit. The steam function of the iron is
activated by the touch of a button.
25. Different temperatures required for different fabrics
26. The manufacturing Process Sole plate The sole plate is cast of molten aluminum. Part
of the mold creates the holes that are essential in a steam iron The cooled sole plate is
polished, coated with a non-stick PTFE(a thermoplastic polymer ) material, or stainless steel.
To polish the plate, an automated belt sander uses bands of abrasive to polish and buff
the plate. An automated spray-painting machine applies non-stick coating. After
application, the sole plate is baked in an automated industrial process. Thermostat In an
injection mold, a small metal post is cast. A spring is mounted onto the metal post. This
spring is a bimetallic switch made of two different metals with divergent linear thermal
coefficients bonded together which controls the iron's temperature. Assembly When all the
parts are manufactured, the iron is assembled on an automated assembly line.
27. Distinguishing Electric-steam Iron from All-steam Iron Steam is used to heat the iron
and discharge a moist spray, whereas a steam electric iron uses a heating element to keep
the iron warm and a solenoid holds the steam from the iron until called for All steam irons
have live steam circulating in the iron and the iron hoses can burst and scald someone. The
steam electric iron also has a hose but the electric solenoid holds the steam out of the hose
until the electric micro-switch is touched on the iron. Thus there is no steam under pressure
in the iron. In all-steam irons, temperature depends on the pressure of the steam. This
limits the working temperature for the irons between 140 to 1500 C, whereas a steam electric
has a thermostat which will allow the temperature to be finely adjusted from 100 to 2000 C.
28. Types of Iron Tables There are three types of iron tables 1. vacuum table 2. up
steamtable 3. Blow up table
29. Vacuum Table The vacuum is sucked through the table surface to lay the garment flat on
the surface as well as suck the residual moisture and heat from the garment after ironing.
30. Upsteam table In this steam comes up from table surface through garments thus
moistening the garment. This is used for knitted garments. An up-steam table
guarantees a complete and even distribution of steam and suction over the whole surface.
All parts contacted by steam are made of stainless steel. which prevents spots from
corrosion and guarantees a long working life and trouble-free operation.
31. Blow Up Table In 1969, VEIT invented the blow up table that offers cushioning effect to
the garments due to the upward thrust of air from the table which prevents ironing marks on
the garments. Air blowing is used in combination with vacuum to assist in finishing the
garment without leaving marks. Using air blowing, the garment is expanded and pressed
on a cushion of air where ironing is possible without putting in marks.
32. Ironing Table Cover Cloth It is very important to have a proper cover system to maintain
proper suction, which should not be too hard or too soft. The cover cloth should be porous to
be able to draw the vacuum through the garment to dry and cool it.
33. Ironing Table Consists Of Following Layers:- There are Five layers: 1. The Top Cover, 2.
The Intermediate Layer, 3. Adjusting Fibre, 4. Base Layer and 5. Ironing Surface.

34. 34. The Top Cover The Top Cover may consist of either synthetic fibre, which has long life,
short-term heat-resistance up to 1800 C and hand washable in soap water (300 C), or
polyester fibre, especially for fabrics that are subject to sheen and mostly used with hard
covers (seam ironing). It could also use synthetic coarse fibre, which is slide resistant. It
keeps the garment as positioned, has a long life and short-term heat-resistance up to 1900
35. 35. The Intermediate Layer(about 5 10 mm thick) This padding is responsible for the
softness of the covering and thus directly influences the ironing result. A hard padding
usually is more durable and speeds up ironing as the pressure of the iron is not absorbed.
Adjusting Fibre The Adjusting Fibre guarantees the complete splitting of the condensate
drops and reduces the humidity in the cover system.
36. 36. The Base Layer is generally a patented silicon mat for long term good suction result.
This distributes strong airflow evenly over the entire surface, can be cleaned easily by
compressed air. It could also be of polyurethane material of 6 mm thickness, which
permits good air flow over the entire surface. Base Layer
37. 37. Steam Brush A steam brush is indispensable to finish off smoothening out creases
and undoing shrinkage. It is very rational since it can be used to finish a hanging garment
on a hanger. With high quality and strong steam, it is suitable for finishing such clothes as
light suits, synthetic fibres and even gathers and frills.
38. 38. Parts
39. 39. How to use?? Once the appliance is plugged in, the light will turn on. Set the steam
control dial to the desired setting. After approximately 30 seconds, the light will turn off
indicating the steam brush, has reached working temperature. To begin steaming, press
the steam button with the steamer head facing away from you, in vertical position. Be sure
to remove lint pad when steaming as excessive water or steam can cause lint pad color to
40. 40. Steam setting
41. 41. Problems Related to Steam Brush With Their Solutions
42. 42. References thermodynamics-and-textile/ article/21/2059/growing-role-of-compressed-airsystem-in- textile-industries1.asp
=9 0air%20in%20Textile
projects/Critical_energy_saving_points_in_clothing_industry. pdf

Textile finishing bultan

1. 1. TEXTILE FINISHING Bultan Sarkar Govt. College of Engg. & Textile Tech. Berhampore
2. 2. TEXTILE FINISHING Any operation (other than preparation and coloring) that improves
the appearance and/or usefulness of fabric after it leaves the loom or knitting machine.









Finishing is the final series of operations that produces finished textile fabric from grey
3. The word "finish" means all the different treatments applied to a fabric to change such
things as its Appearance, Feel or hand, Wear ability or care requirements.
4. Aesthetic Finishes Classification of Finishes Textile Finishes are classified in several
ways: According to function Functional Finishes
5. Aesthetic Finishes Aesthetic Finishes modify the appearance and /or hand or drape of
the fabrics. Mercerization Napping And Sueding Shearing Softening Stiffening
6. Functional Finishes Functional Finishes improve the performance properties of the
fabric ; like durability, strength etc. Antimicrobial/Antiseptic Antistatic Crease resistant
Flame Resistant Mothproof Shrinkage Control Soil Release Water Proof/Repellant
7. According to the quality Temporary Permaanent Semi Permanent
8. Temporary Finishes A finish which is not stable and goes off after the first wash is known
as temporary finish and these finishes disappears during subsequent washing and usage.
Calendering Embossing Starching Softening
9. Semi permanent Finishes A Finishing on the fabric is said to be semi permanent finish if
it is stable to more than 5 to 10 washes and not afterwards. Schreiner Calendering.
10. Permanent Finishes If the finishing effect in the fabric does not disappear and remains
unaffected through all the conditions of wear and washing treatments, then the finish is said
to be permanent finish. Sanforising Resin Finish Water Proof Flame Proof
11. According to type of machinery Chemical Finishes Mechanical Finishes
12. Chemical Finishes Chemical finishes are usually applied to fabric by padding followed
by curing and drying. These are also called as wet Finishes. Stiff and transparent Flame
Retardant Soil Release Water Proof Crease Resistance Softening
13. Mechanical finishes Mechanical Finishes usually involved specific physical treatment to
a fabric surface to cause a change in fabric appearance. This is also known as dry finish.
Calendering Sanforising Milling
15. Calendering machines
16. Types of calendering
17. Finishes enhancing appearance Treatments enhancing appearance include such
processes as napping and shearing, singeing, tentering, calendering or pressing,
embossing, creping, polishing, and optical brightening.
18. Napping and shearing Napping is a process that may be applied to woollens, cottons,
spun silks, and spun rayons, including both woven and knitted types, to raise a velvety, soft
surface. The process involves passing the fabric over revolving cylinders covered with fine
wires that lift the short, loose fibres, usually from the weft yarns, to the surface, forming a
nap. The process, which increases warmth, is frequently applied to woollens and worsteds
and also to blankets.
19. Shearing cuts the raised nap to a uniform height and is used for the same purpose on
pile fabrics. The amount of shearing depends upon the desired height of the nap or pile, with
such fabrics as gabardine receiving very close shearing. Shearing may also be applied to
create stripes and other patterns by varying surface height

20. 20. Singeing Also called gassing, singeing is a process applied to both yarns and fabrics to
produce an even surface by burning off projecting fibres, yarn ends, and fuzz. This is
accomplished by passing the fibre or yarn over a gas flame or heated copper plates at a
speed sufficient to burn away the protruding material without scorching or burning the yarn or
21. 21. Singeing machines
22. 22. Tentering, These are final processes applied to set the warp and weft of woven fabrics
at right angles to each other, and to stretch and set the fabric to its final dimensions.
Tentering stretches width under tension by the use of a tenter frame, consisting of chains
fitted with pins or clips to hold the selvages of the fabric, and travelling on tracks. As the
fabric passes through the heated chamber, creases and wrinkles are removed, the weave is
straightened, and the fabric is dried to its final size. When the process is applied to wet
wools it is called crabbing;
23. 23. Tentering / stentering machines
24. 24. Creping A crepe effect may be achieved by finishing. In one method, which is not
permanent, the cloth is passed, in the presence of steam, between hot rollers filled with
indentations producing waved and puckered areas. In the more permanent caustic soda
method, a caustic soda paste is rolled onto the fabric in a patterned form; or a resist paste
may be applied to areas to remain unpuckered and the entire fabric then immersed in caustic
soda. The treated areas shrink, and the untreated areas pucker. If the pattern is applied in
the form of stripes, the effect is called pliss; an allover design produces blister crepe.
25. 25. Crepe effect
26. 26. Raising 1. Napping Using wire-covered rolls to "dig out" individual fiber ends to the
surface 2. Sueding Using abrasive-covered rolls (sandpaper, emery cloth, etc.) to produce
shorter pile surface - does cause an apparent shade change. Special type of raised surface
fabric is corduroy Sueding, sanding- creates softer hand of fabric.
27. 27. suede
28. 28. Fire Resistant finishes: With synthetic fiber which melt on igniting by a flame, the
molten moss is itself quite dangerous and a fire resistant treatment is desirable for certain
end uses. Polyester fabrics can be made flame resistant by treatment with an aqueous
emulsion of xylene soluble 2,3- dibromopropyl phosphate in a pad-cure sequence. A semipermanent effect can be produced by treating with a mixture of ammonium bromide and
brominated phosphoric acid esters.
29. 29. Stain and Soil Resistant Finishes prevent soil and stains from being attracted to
fabrics. Such finishes may be resistant to oil-bourne or water-bourne soil and stains or both.
Stain and soil resistant finishes can be applied to fabrics used in clothing and furniture.
Soil Release Finishes These finishes attract water to the surface of fibres during cleaning
and help remove soil.
30. 30. Anti-microbial finishes: With the increasing use synthetic fibers for carpets and other
materials in public places, anti-microbial finishes have assumed importance. Anti microbial
finish Eco-friendly anti microbial finishing agent for cotton fabrics & Garments.Useful for
eliminating bacterial growth due to sweat. Products which are commonly applied are
brominated phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds, organo-silver and tin compounds




which can be applied as solutions or dispersions. Mothproofing Finishes protect proteincontaining fibres, such as wool, from being attacked by moths, carpet beetles and other
31. Waterproof Finishes -Aallows no water to penetrate, but tend to be uncomfortable
because they trap moisture next to the body. Recently, fabrics have been developed that are
waterproof, yet are also breathable . Water-Repellent Finishes - Water-repellent finishes
resist wetting. If the fabric becomes very wet, water will eventually pass through. Applied to
fabrics found in raincoats, all-weather coats, hats, capes, umbrellas and shower curtains .
32. Peach Finish: Subjecting the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends) to emery
wheels, makes the surface velvet like. This is a special finish mostly used in garments.
33. Finishes for Synthetic fibers Heat Setting: Heat setting of synthetic fabrics eliminates
the internal tensions within the fiber generated during manufacture and the new state can be
fixed by rapid cooling. This heat setting fixes the fabrics in the relaxed state and thus avoids
subsequent shrinkage or creasing of fabric. Presetting of goods make it possible to use
higher temperature for setting without considering the sublimation properties of dyes and
also has a favorable effect on dyeing behavior and running properties of goods. On the
other hand, post setting can be combined with some other operations such as thermosol
dyeing or optical brightening of polyester, post setting as a final finish is useful to get a high
dimensional stability along with desired handle.

Garment finishing methods

1. 1. TEXTILE and GARMENT FINISHING METHODS Submitted By:- Abinash Mohanty
Anurag Singh Avinash Kumar DFT-IV
2. 2. What is finishing?????? Finishing is a final process given to a textile material to-
Give a good appearance Desirable feel Impart certain durable properties Stiffness
Softness Wash and wear finish Water repelling finish Fire proof finish etc.
3. 3. Classification of finishing Classification according to the nature of finish According to the
nature of Finish Physical or Mechanical Finish 1) Calendering 2) Sanforizing etc. Chemical
Finish 1) Mercerization 2) Easy care finish etc.
4. 4. Physical or Mechanical Finish Mechanical / Physical finishes involve specific physical
treatment to a fabric surface to cause a change in the fabric appearance. Also known as
dry finish Compacting (Shrink proofing) Calendering Raising (Napping, Sueding)
Shearing Polishing Decating Chemical Finish Chemicals are used followed by curing
or drying. Also known as wet finish.
5. 5. Classification of finishing Classification according to performance According to
Performance Aesthetic Finish Improved / Altered Appearance 1. Calendering 2. Fulling 3.
Mercerization 4. Napping and sueding 5. Shearing Functional Finish Improved / Altered
Performance 1. Antistatic 2. Crease resistant 3. Flame resistant 4. Shrinkage control 5. Soil
release 6. Water and stain repellent 7. Waterproof

6. 6. Aesthetic Finish These finishes modify the appearance and / or hand or drape of
fabrics. Functional Finish These finishes improve the performance properties of fabrics.
7. 7. COMPACTING SHRINK PROOFING Controlled residual shrinkage is an important
quality parameter for many fabrics. For example, excessive shrinkage is undesirable for
fabrics to be made into garments. Here, the residual shrinkage should be less than 2%
otherwise the garment will not fit after it is laundered.
8. 8. Why Fabrics Shrink ??? Crimp. Thickness of yarn. Stretching Tension.
9. 9. Sanforizing Sanforizing is used to describe shrink proofing processes. The process,
consists of a range where the fabric is first moistened with steam, to make it more pliable, run
through a short tenter frame (pup tenter) to straighten and smooth out wrinkles through the
compressive shrinkage head and then through a Palmer drying unit to set the fabric.
10. 10. Fabric Sample
11. 11. Sanforizing
12. 12. Decating This process is mainly carried out on wool by exploiting its elastic properties in
hot and wet conditions by the direct action of the steam on the fabric. It involves the
application of heat and pressure to set or develop lustre and softer hand and to even the set
and grain of certain fabrics. When applied to double knits it imparts crisp hand and reduces
shrinkage .
13. 13. CALENDERING Calendering is a process where fabric is compressed by passing it
between two or more rolls under controlled conditions of time, temperature and pressure.
Produces different types of surface appearance 1. Simple calendering 2. Glazed calendering
3. Embossed calendering 4. Schreiner calendering
14. 14. Objects of Calendering To improve the fabric handle and to impart a smooth silky touch
to the fabric. To compress the fabric and reduce its thickness. To reduce the air
permeability by closing the threads. To increase the luster. To reduce the yarn slippage.
Surface patterning by embossing.
15. 15. 1. SIMPLE CALENDERING It is a high speed, high pressure pressing of fabric (100 yds
/ min) The high pressure flattens the yarn Smoothen the fabric Increases fabric lustre
(fabric cover increases and more light is reflected) Used for woven plain or twill weaves
Over-calendering however is to be avoided Yarns weakened out due to very high pressure
It is a temporary finish Yarns return to its natural cross section after first laundering
16. 16. Simple Calendering Process
17. 17. 2. GLAZED CALENDERING It is a calendering finish to produce highly glazed / shined
polished cotton. The calender machine used is a friction calender, One cylinder of highly
polished steel cylinder rotating at speed much higher than the fabric passing through it.
Fabrics are first treated with starches or resins before calendering The spaces between the
yarns are thus filled up and glazed appearance is obtained.
18. 18. 3. Embossed calendering It is a calendering in which a three-dimensional design is
created on a fabric This is done on a special embossing calender in which the roller
cylinder is engraved with the embossing design The pattern is then pushed or shaped into
the cloth when the fabric passes between the rollers Some embossed fabrics are made to
imitate more costly woven jacquard or dobby designs

19. 19. Embossed patterns of fabrics treated with resins and cured after embossing are
durable. Embossing of fabrics of thermoplastic fibres are permanent because the heated
metal roll heat-sets the design.
20. 20. 4. Schreiner calendering Schreiner calendering produces a low, soft-key lustre on the
fabric surface. To produce this effect, one of the steel cylinders of the calender is embossed
with fine diagonal lines. These embossing are barely visible in naked eye. Widely used on
cotton & cotton/polyester sateen. Schreiner calendering may be permanent, durable or
temporary finish Is permanent if the fibre is thermoplastic. Is durable if the fabric is resin
treated but not cured. Is temporary if the fibre is non-thermoplastic and not treated with
21. 21. Fulling Fulling is a permanent finish. Used in wool fabrics. Gradual or progressive
felting of wool. Done by carefully and controlled scouring or laundering. The resultant
fulled fabric is more compact and more smoother. Woolens are frequently heavily fulled.
Fabrics of worsted are usually very lightly fulled.
22. 22. Napping It is a mechanical finish. Fibres being raised from woven/knitted fabrics by
rotating, bristled, wire covered brushes. Overall effect is a raised fibres from fabric surface.
Example: cotton flannel, rayon flannel, woolen. Napped fabrics have softer handle. Better
insulation properties due to more air entrapment. Mainly used as blankets, winter clothing
23. 23. Raising (napping) machine: 1- roller 2- rollers equipped with hooks 3- fabric 4- nib
cleaning brushes 5- fabric tension adjustment
24. 24. Problems are- Subject to pilling. Rapid wear at abrasive points (like sleeve ends,
elbows, button holes etc.) Not recommended for hard wear.
25. 25. Antistatic finish Synthetic fibres of hydrophobic nature are prone to generation of static
charges. This problem is very troublesome while processing the fabric at high speed in dry
state. Antistatic agents absorb small amount of moisture from the atmosphere, thus
reducing the dryness of the fabric. Antistatic finishes are semi-durable Washes out at
several launderings or dry cleanings.
26. 26. Water Repellent Finish Water repellent are chemical finish. Resist the penetration of
water into or through the fabric. Permits the passage of moisture or air through the fabric.
Methods The yarns are coated with water repellent material like wax The water repellent
do not permit the water drop to spread and penetrate Could be of durable and non-durable
27. 27. Non-durable repellents are easily removed in laundering or dry cleaning. Durable
repellent finish can be either repellent to water or oil or both. Fluro carbon compounds have
excellent durability to both dry cleaning and laundering.
28. 28. Water Proof Finish A water-proof fabric, unlike a water repellent fabric, is completely
moisture proofed. The fabric is coated or laminated with a film of natural or synthetic rubber
or plastic, such as vinyl or polyurethane. Water proof fabrics are uncomfortable. Water
proof fabric possesses a rather firm, non- drapable hand.
29. 29. Washes Alters the look by different washing procedures. Mainly used for denim and
similar items to have a faded and worn appearance. Have different methods Stone
washing Acid washing Enzyme washing
30. 30. THANK YOU

2. 2. INTRODUCTION Dyeing and printing is not the ultimate steps Something is required to
make the fabric moresuitable for end-use Quality of the fabric in terms ofappearance,
handle, functionally enhanced bysome physical means or by chemicals Therefore, ultimate
value addition is done to thefabric by finishing
3. 3. WHAT IS FINISHING ?????? Finishing is a final process given to a textile materialto
Give a good appearance Desirable feel Impart certain durable
propertiesStiffnessSoftnessWash and wear finishWater repelling finishFire proof finish
etc. To impart some desired functionalproperties
4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHING Classification according to the nature of
finishAccording to the nature of Finish Physical or Mechanical Finish1) Calendering2)
Sanforizing etc. Chemical Finish1) Mercerization2) Easy care finish etc.
5. 5. Physical or Mechanical Finish Mechanical / Physical finishes involve specific
physicaltreatment to a fabric surface to cause a change in thefabric appearance Also
known as dry finish Compacting (Shrinkproofing) Calendaring Raising (Napping,
Sueding) Shearing Polishing Corduroy Cutting Decating Chemical Finish
Chemicals are used followed by curing or drying Also known as wet finish
6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHING Classification according to degree of
permanenceAccording to degree of
permanence PermanentFinish TemporaryFinish Durable Finish Semi - DurableFinish
7. 7. DEFINITIONS Permanent Finish: Usually involve a chemical change in fibrestructure and
do not change or alter through out the life of thefabric Durable finish: Usually last through the
life of the article, buteffectiveness becomes diminished after each cleaning; and nearthe end
of the normal use life of the article, the finish is nearlyremoved Semi-durable finish: Last
through several laundering ordrycleanings and many are renewable in home laundering
ordrycleaning Temporary finish: Are removed or substantially diminished thefirst time the
article is laundered or drycleaned
8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHING Classification according to performanceAccording to
Performance Aesthetic Finish Improved /Altered Appearance1. Calendering2. Fulling3.
Mercerization4. Napping and sueding5. Plisse6. Shearing Functional Finish Improved
/Altered Performance1. Antiseptic2. Antistatic3. Crease resistant4. Durable press5. Flame
resistant6. Mothproofed7. Shrinkage control8. Soil release9. Water and stain repellent10.
9. 9. Aesthetic Finish These finishes modify the appearance and / or handor drape of
fabrics Functional Finish These finishes improve the performance propertiesof fabrics
10. 10. AESTHETIC FINISHES Aesthetic Finishes modify the appearance and/or hand or drape
of the fabrics. Fulling Mercerization Napping And Sueding Plisse Shearing Softening
11. 11. FUNCTIONAL FINISHES Functional Finishes improve the performanceproperties of the
fabric ; like durability,strength etc. Antimicrobial/Antiseptic Antistatic Crease resistant






Durable Press Flame Resistant Mothproof Shrinkage Control Soil Release Water
17. COMPACTING - SHRINKPROOFING Controlled residual shrinkage is an
importantquality parameter for manyfabrics. Forexample, excessive shrinkage is undesirable
forfabrics to be made intogarments. Here, the residual shrinkage should be less than2%
otherwise the garment will not fit after it islaundered.
18. WHY FABRICS SHRINK ??? Crimp Thickness of yarn Stretching Tension.
19. SANFORIZER Mechanical compacting is one method of reducing residualshrinkage.
The process forces yarns closer together andthe fabric becomes thicker and heavier. As a
result ofthis, the net yardage yield is reduced. A Sanforizer is a fabric compactor developed
by CluettPeabody. The term Sanforized, is their registeredtrademark and is used to market
fabrics that meetcertain shrinkage specifications. The term Sanforized isnow generally
accepted to mean a fabric that has lowresidual shrinkage and the term Sanforizing is used
todescribe shrinkproofing processes. The process, consists of arange where the fabric is
firstmoistened with steam, to make it more pliable, run througha short tenter frame (pup
tenter) to straighten andsmooth out wrinkles,through the compressive shrinkagehead and
then through a Palmer drying unit to set thefabric.
22. COMPACTOR HEAD The key to any compactor is the head where force isapplied to
move parallel yarns closer together. Morefabric must be fed in than is taken off. A Sanforizer
uses a thick rubber blanket runningagainst a steam heated cylinder as the compactingforce.
The thick rubber blanket first goes over asmaller diameter roll which stretches the
convexsurface of the blanket. Fabric is metered onto the stretched blanket andthe fabric and
blanket together come in contact withthe steam heated cylinder. At this point, thestretched
rubber surface contracts to its originallength and then is forced to contract an
additionalamount as it forms the concave configuration of theheated drum.
23. Since the fabric is not elastic, an extra lengthof fabric is thrust between the rubber
blanketand the heated cylinder. Friction between therubber blanket and steel drum force
adjacentyarns to move closer together until the unitlength of fabric become equal to the unit
lengthof rubber blanket it rests on. Heat is created by constantly stretching andrelaxing the
rubber blanket. The blanket iscooled by spraying water on it after the fabricexits from the
25. The degree of shrinkage can be controlled bythe thickness of the blanket. The thicker
theblanket, the greater is the stretched length atthe bend. A longer length of fabric will be
fedinto the compactor causing the degree ofcompacting to be greater. To be effective, the







degree of compactingneeded should be predetermined ahead of time.This is done by

characterizing the shrinkingbehavior of the fabric by laundering. The degreeof compacting
should not exceed the degree ofshrinking otherwise over-compacting will causethe fabric to
"grow" when relaxed. This is asmuch a disadvantage as is shrinkage.
26. DECATING This process is mainly carried out on wool byexploiting its elastic properties
in hot and wetconditions by the direct action of the steam onthe fabric. 1) dimensional
stability; 2) setting of pile after raising; 3) reduction of possible glazing effect
aftercalendering, thank to the swelling caused by steam blown onfibres; 4) modification of
the hand, which is much more consistentafter the treatment; 5) pre-stabilisation to autoclave
27. SEMI-DECATING Semi-decating is a bach process requiring three steps: 1. winding the
fabric onto a perforated cylinder between a cotton decating apron, 2. steaming and followed
by cooling the fabric 3. unwinding and batching the finished fabric. The fabric be wound
onto a perforated drum between theinterleaving cotton decating apron to form a reasonably
thick roll. Steam is forced through the roll (inside - out) for several minutes toprovide
moisture and heat. Compressed air is then blown through the roll in much the samemanner
as the steam to remove some of the moisture and cool downthe fabric. To insure that the
effect is uniform from the inside tothe outside of the roll, the fabric and blanket are rewound
ontoanother perforated drum so that the outside layers become theinside layers and the
cycle is repeated. At the end of the cycle, the fabric and blanket are separated andwound
into individual rolls.
30. WATER REPELLENT FINISH Water repellent are chemical finish Resist the penetration
of water into or throughthe fabric Permits the passage of moisture or air throughthe fabric
Methods The yarns are coated with water repellent materiallike wax The water repellent
do not permit the water drop tospread and penetrate Could be of durable and non-durable
31. Non-durable repellents are easily removed inlaundering or drycleaning Non-durable
repellents do not providesatisfactory resistance to oily liquids Durable repellent finish can be
either repellentto water or oil or both Flurocarbon compounds have excellent durabilityto both
drycleaning and laundering
32. WATER PROOF FINISH A water-proof fabric, unlike a water repellent fabric,
iscompletely moisture proofed The fabric is coated or laminated with a film of natural
orsynthetic rubber or plastic, such as vinyl or polyurethane Water proof fabrics are not
necessarily more desirable thanwater-repellent fabrics Water proof fabrics are
uncomfortable Water proof fabric possesses a rather firm, non-rapable hand
33. PARAFFIN WAXES The oldest and most economical way to make a fabricwater
repellent is to coat it with paraffin wax. Solventsolutions, molten coatings and wax emulsions
are ways ofapplying wax to fabrics. Of these, wax emulsions are themost convenient
products for finishing fabrics. Animportant consideration in making water repellent
waxemulsion is that the emulsifying system not detract fromthe hydrophobic character of








paraffin. Either non-rewetting emulsifiers or some means of deactivating thehydrophilic group

after the fabric is impregnated with thefinish must be used. Paraffin wax melts and wicks into
the fabric when thefabric is heated. This will cause most of the fibers to becovered with a thin
layer of wax, especially those that areexposed to water, and the fabric will have excellent
waterrepellent properties. The major disadvantage of wax waterrepellents is poor durability.
Wax is easily abraded bymechanical action and wax dissolves in dry cleaning fluids.It is also
removed by laundry processes.
34. WAX EMULSION COMPOSITION A typical wax emulsion consistsof paraffin wax as
thehydrophobe, an emulsifyingagent, an emulsion stabilizer(protective colloid) and
analuminum or zirconium salt todeactivate the emulsifyingagent when the fabric isheated.
35. SILICONE WATER REPELLENT Resinous polysiloxanes, Are more resistant to
abrasion and less solublein dry-cleaning fluids or laundry products. Aqueous pH is
maintained between pH 3-4, stable emulsions can be prepared. When theseemulsions are
applied to a fabric with a tincatalyst (e.g. dibutyltin-dilaurate), the Si-Hgroup hydrolyzes and
condenses to a three-dimensional resinous polymer, making the fabrichighly water repellent.
36. APPLICATION TO FABRICS Silicone finishes are applied to fabrics either froman
organic solvent or from water as an emulsion.When cationic emulsifiers are used to make
anemulsion, the finish may be applied by exhaustionsince the negative fiber surface charges
attractpositively charged particles. Generallyhowever, silicone water repellents are co applied
witha durable press finish. Durable press resins enhancethe durability of the water-repellent
finish. Silicone repellents are also used to make upholsteredfurniture stain repellent.
Chlorinated solventsolutions are sprayed onto upholstery by the retaileras a customer option.
The fabric is resistant to waterborne stains such as coffee and soft drinks.
37. FLUOROCHEMICAL REPELLENTS Fluorochemical repellents are unique in that
theyconfer both oil and water repellency to fabrics. The ability of fluorochemicals to repel oils
is relatedto their low surface energy which depends on thestructure of the fluorocarbon
segment, thenonfluorinated segment of the molecule, theorientation of the fluorocarbon tail
and thedistribution and amount of fluorocarbon on fibers. Commercial fluorochemical
repellents are fluorine-containing vinyl or acrylic polymers. This is aconvenient method of
affixing perfluoro side chainsto fiber surfaces that can orient air-ward and give areasonably
close packed surface of -CF2- and -CF3groups.
38. RECIPE A typical formulation forpolyester-cotton rainwear andouterwear is given. The
finish is applied by paddingthe formulation ontofabric, drying at 120C andcuring 1-3 minutes
at 150-182oC. The fabric will give a 100 sprayrating initially and an 80 ratingafter 5 home
laundering-tumble drying cycles. An 80spray rating is expected afterone dry cleaning cycle.
In addition, oil repellencyrating of 5 initially and 4 afterlaundering or dry cleaning isexpected.
40. 100 - No sticking on wetting of upper surface 90 - Slight random sticking or wetting of
upper surface 80 - Wetting of upper surface at spray points 70 - Partial wetting of whole of
upper surface 50 - Complete wetting of whole of upper surface 0 - Complete wetting of
whole upper and lower surface

42. 42. FLAME RETARDANT FINISH When solid materials are heated, physical andchemical
changes occur at specific temperaturesdepending on the chemical make-up of the solid.
Thermoplastic polymers soften at the glass transitiontemperature (Tg), Melt at Tm. Both
thermoplastic and non-thermoplastic solids willchemically decompose (pyrolyze) into lower
molecularweight fragments. Chemical changes begin at Tp andcontinue through the
temperature at which combustionoccurs (Tc). Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI). This is the
amount ofoxygen in the fuel mix needed to support combustion.The higher the number, the
more difficult it is forcombustion to occur.
43. 43. NONDURABLES FLAME RETARDENT 1. Boric Acid/Borax. 2. Diammonium Phosphate
and Phosphoric Acid 3. Sulfamic Acid and Ammonium Sulfamate
44. 44. DURABLE FLAME RETARDANT 1. Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)PhosphoniumDerivatives
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium Chloride(THPC) b. THPC-Urea Precondensate
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium Hydroxide(THPOH) 2. N-Methyloldimethyl
Phosphonopropioamide(PYROVATEX CP) 3. Phosphonic and Phosphoric Acid Derivatives
45. 45. Limiting oxygen index (loi)Is the minimum concentration ofoxygen, expressed as a
percentage, that willsupport combustion of a polymer. It is measuredby passing a mixture of
oxygen and nitrogen overa burning specimen, and reducing the oxygenlevel until a critical
level is reached
47. 47. CALENDRING Calendaring is a process where fabric is compressedby passing it
between twoor more rolls undercontrolled conditions of time, temperature andpressure. It is
a type of mechanical finish Produces different types of surface appearance1. Simple
calendering2. Glazed calendering3. Cie calendering4. Embossed calendering5. Moir
calendering6. Schreiner calendering
48. 48. OBJECTS OF CALENDERING To improve the fabric handle and to impart asmooth silky
touch to the fabric To compress the fabric and reduce its thickness To reduce the air
permeability by closing thethreads To increase the luster To reduce the yarn slippage To
increase the opacity of the fabric Surface patterning by embossing
49. 49. 1. SIMPLE CALENDERING It is a high speed, high pressure pressing of fabric (100
yds /min) The high pressure flattens the yarn Smoothen the fabric Increases fabric
lustre (fabric cover increases and morelight is reflected) Used for woven plain or twill
weaves Over-calendering however is to be avoided Yarns weakened out due to very high
pressure It is a temporary finish Yarns return to its natural cross section after
50. 50. 2. GLAZED CALENDERING It is a calendering finish to produce highly glazed /
shinedpolished cotton The calender machine used is a friction calender One cylinder of
highly polished steel cylinder rotating atspeed much higher than the fabric passing through it
Fabrics are first treated with starches or resins beforecalendering The spaces between the
yarns are thus filled up and glazedappearance is obtained Glazed calendering using starch
are semi-durable Glazed calendering using resins are durable
51. 51. 3. CIE CALENDERING It is a type of glazed calendering Here, the friction rollerrotates
at speed much greater than ordinary friction calendering The resulatant fabric become highly







lustrous and takes on a wetlookCotton, rayon, polyester, nylon and blends can be given
cirefinish Fabrics are however, treated with waxes and resins beforefriction calendering
Highly polished effect is produced When thermoplastic fabrics are cie finished, they
becomesmoderately water-repellent Due to flattening Due to partially fusing of fibres
52. 4. EMBOSSED CALENDERING It is a calendering in which a three-dimensionaldesign
is created on a fabric This is done on a special embossing calender inwhich the roller
cylinder is engraved with theembossing design The pattern is then pushed or shaped into
the clothwhen the fabric passes between the rollers Some embossed fabrics are made to
imitate morecostly woven jacquard or dobby designs
53. Embossed patterns of fabrics treated withresins and cured after embossing are durable
Embossing of fabrics of thermoplastic fibres arepermanent because the heated metal roll
heat-sets the design
54. 5. MOIR CALENDERING The moir finish produces a wood-grain design on the face
sizeof the fabric Moir finish can be temporary, durable or permanent Cotton or rayon
moir finish is temporary withoutpretreatment with resin Durable moir finish requires initial
resin treatment followedby calendering Moir finish on thermoplastic fiber fabrics are
permanent ifa heated roller is used for calendering Methods of producing moie Using
engraved cylinder Using smooth calender roller
55. Using engraved cylinder In this case engraved roller is used on the calender roller
Calender roller flattens one part of the fabric more thanother, causing different light
reflectance The different light reflectance cause moire effect Definite repeat pattern
moie is produced Using smooth calender rollers Two fabrics, each face to face, are fed
through the calender Ribbed fabrics are mainly required for this The high pressure on
the calender rolls causes the rib tosqueeze into each other in certain areas Creates light
reflectance pattern which produces moieeffect The effect is completely random and has
no specific pattern
56. 6. SCHREINER CALENDERING Schreiner calendering produces a low, soft-key lustre
on thefabric surface Distinct from the high glaze of the glazing calender or thelustre shine of
the simple calender To produce this effect, one of the steel cylinders of thecalender is
embossed with fine diagonal lines. These embossingare barely visible in naked eye Widely
used on cotton & cotton/polyester sateen Schreiner calendering may be permanent, durable
or temporaryfinish Is permanent if the fibre is thermoplastic Is durable if the fabric is
resin treated but not cured Is temporary if the fibre is non-thermoplastic and nottreated with
57. FULLING During the traditional milling operation, fabrics of combed,carded or blended
wool (nonscoured, scoured or carbonisedand neutralised), at about 40C, are soaked and in
presence ofspecial surfactants, are subjected to continuous pressure bothin weft and warp
direction. Under these conditions, woolfibres tend to felt, thus causing fabric shrinkage and
asubsequent dynamic compacting. After this operation, thematerial must be washed to
remove dirty water and thechemicals used. Fulling is a permanent finish Used in wool
fabrics Gradual or progressive felting of wool Done by carefully and controlled scouring or









laundering The resultant fulled fabric is more compact and moresmoother Woollens are
frequently heavily fulled Fabrics of worsted are usually very lightly fulled
59. NAPPING It is a mechanical finish Fibres being raised from woven/knitted fabrics
byrotating, bristled, wire covered brushes Overall effect is a raised fibres from fabric surface
Example: cotton flannel, rayon flannel, woollen and worstednapped fabric like kersey, melton
Napped fabrics have softer handle Better insulation properties due to more air entrapment
Mainly used as blankets, winter clothing
62. Problems are Low resiliency and hence premature flattening occurs Nap can be
partially restored by frequent brushing Subject to pilling Rapid wear at abrasive points
(like sleeveends, elbows, button holes etc.) Not recommended for hard wear
63. SUEDING It is a mechanical finish Similar to napping Produces a soft, suede-like
surface Sand paper like material is used instead ofrotating wire covered cylinder
64. PLISS Pliss is the name of the finish as well as the fabric producedwith this finish
Permanent and chemical finish Sodium hydroxide is printed on cotton fabric as a paste
Fabric shrinks only where the sodium hydroxide isapplied, producing a puckered effect
Pliss fabric do not require ironing When the sodium hydroxide is applied as lengthwise
stripes, thefabric puckers and takes on the appearance of seersucker
65. Seersucker Lengthwise stripped puckered effect Produced by alternative stripes of
loose and tightwarp yarns Plisse is a cheaper imitation of seersucker Plisse does not have
that depth degree of pucker thatis common to seersucker Plisse puckers stretched out flat
but seersucker donot
66. SHEARING A process to used to cut off surface fibers onfabrics Uniforms the surface of
napped fabrics to provideuniform pile height High-speed cutting machine cuts the piles
similar tothat of a lawn mower The blades in the machine are stationary and thefabric moves
through the cutting blade
67. STIFFENING Some fabrics need to be made stiffer and more crisp as per asthe end use
Stiffening agents are applied to the cloth to build up thefollowing properties To increase the
weight of the fabric To improve the thickness To improve lustreBut, their effect is
temporary and once the fabric iswashed, most of the finishes are removed
68. STIFFENING Stiffening agents Starches finishing of cotton cloth. Ex: potato , wheat,
corn Dextrines used for dyed and printed fabrics. No undueeffect on the dye or print.
Natural gum mainly used in printing as well as finishingprocess Modified cellulose
CMC ResinsAcid stiffeningFine yarn cotton fabrics can be finished to be both stiff
andtransparent by a process known as acid stiffening. It involves rapidimmersion in sulphuric
acid, followed by immediate neutralization in sodiumhydroxide. The finish is permanent. This
finish is also known as Organdifinish or Parchmentisation.
69. SOFTENING Required for more pleasant hand and betterdrapability Fabrics are harsher
and stiffer because of theirconstruction or due to some prior finishing process Softening can









be done by either mechanical orchemical process Simple calendering softens hand, but it is
70. Silicone compounds are used mostly as softner Silicone finish is a durable finish and
require curing Different types of emulsified oils and waxes can beused but they are semidurable finish
71. Different types of softners Anionic softners Cationic softners Non-ionic softners
Reactive softners Emulsion softners Silicon softners
72. Anionic softners This is not fast to wash Compatible with resin Used in temporary
finish with starch and cationicproduct Ex; Sulphonated oils, fatty alcohol sulphates etc.
Non-ionic softners Have excellent stability against yellowing Not fast to dyeing No
effect on in the shade of dyestuff
73. Cationic softners Substantive to cellulosic material Therefore, remain on cloth for
few washes Produce yellowing on white fabrics Compatible with resins Reactive
softners Durable softners React chemically with the OH groups of cellulose High
cost Yellowing of treated fabric Toxic
74. Emulsion softners Popular because it reduces the loss of tear strength onresin
finish Fast to washing Give fuller appearance Silicon softners Recently most used
softners These are the manmade polymers based on the framework of alternate silicon
and oxygen bonds with organicsubstituents attached to silicone
77. SOIL RELEASE FINISH How?? Making the fibres more absorbent (hydrophilic)
Permitting better wettability for improved soil removal Done by using hydrophilic finishes
Facilitates soil release during washing Prevent soil redeposition Also, reduce static charge
by maintaining moisture on thefabric surface Thus soil attraction during wear can be
reduced Mainly observed in polyester fabrics
78. SOIL RELEASE FINISH What is soiling of textiles? Textile material getting attracted to
dirt or soil Development of static charge electricity tohydrophilic textiles, making them prone
to soiling Re-deposition of soil during washing The soils cannot be readily removed
Hydrophobic materials are not wetted properlyduring laundering
79. SOIL RELEASE FINISH What is soiling of textiles? Soil release finish is a chemical
finish This permit easy removal of soil with ordinary laundering Hydrophilic fibres and fabrics
with resin finish are not easily wet able Hence, stains of oily nature are not removed easily
Soil release finish increases the hydrophilicity of the material andincreases wetability Soil
release finish also improves the antistatic properties, fabricdrapability and comfort
81. WRINKLE RESISTANCE FINISH The ability of the fabric to resist the formation of crease
or wrinklewhen slightly squeezed is known as crease resistance fabrics The ability of a
fabric to recover from a definite degree from creasing iscalled crease recovery Finish to
reduce the undue wrinkles on fabric or garments Cotton, rayon and flax are more
susceptible to wrinkle Wrinkle occurs due to the hydrogen bonds of the cellulosic molecules
inthe amorphous region Due to application of heat or moisture, the hydrogen bond breaks







and newhydrogen bond occurs at new dimension Therefore wrinkling can be reduced if the
hydrogen bond formation canbe reduced
82. Formaldehyde DMU ( Di-methylol urea) DMEU (Di-methylol ethylene urea) DMDHEU
(Di-methylol di-hydroxyl ethyleneurea) Modified DMDHEU (Di-methylol di-hydroxylethylene
83. APPLICATION TECHNIQUE Dry Process The classic process: the fabric is
impregnated bymeans of a padding unit (the quantity of finishistuned by modifying the liquor
concentration and thesqueezing ratio) and dried at 100-120 C in a stenter. The crosslinking process occurs in the stenter, attemperatures varying according to the type of crosslinking agent used (generally 4-5 minutes at 150-160C). Double treatment: the fabric is
impregnated with asoftener and dried at 100- 130 C.
84. HUMID PROCESS The fabric is wetted by means of a padding unitwith a cross-linking
agent and a catalyst solution; Then 6-8% of residual moisture is removed fromcotton (or 1015% from other staple goods.) Thefabric is then wound up on a roll, covered with
apolyethylene sheet and left 16-24 hours to restat ambient temperature. Strong catalysts
must be used for this process. The final effect depends on the residualmoisture: in case of
low residual moisturecontent, the results will be similar to thoseobtained with the dry process
whereas if theresidual moisture content is high, the result isvery similar to the cross-linking
effect on wetsubstrates.
86. FRAGRANCE FINISH Microencapsulation is a useful method for protecting
variousfunctional finishes on textiles. As the capsules do not haveaffinity to fabrics, a binder
should be used to fix thecapsules for the purpose of finish durability. Conventional fixation is
a thermal process, in which a fabric iscured at 130-170C for 1-10 minutes to make the
componentsof the binder cross-link together, and tightly fix capsules onthe fabric. During
curing, however, the aroma inside capsules can be lostthrough quick evaporation and
swelling to escape or break thecapsule. The loss from capsules can seriously reduce
theamount of aroma on the fabric and decrease the durability. An aroma capsule finished
cotton fabric treated by a thermalcuring process can only bear 25 wash cycles. To avoid
thethermal process, an UV resin can be used to fix capsulesbecause the resin can be cured
under UV light at lowtemperatures in seconds. If a cotton fabric is finished withthe selected
aroma capsule and UV resin, and cured under theoptimal conditions, the aroma function can
withstand 50 washcycles. Whiteness and stiffness of the finished fabrics werealso examined.
88. ANTISTATIC FINISH Synthetic fibres of hydrophobic nature are prone to generationof
static charges This problem is very troublesome while processing the fabric athigh speed in
dry state Antistatic agents are used Antistatic agents absorb small amount of moisture from
theatmosphere, thus reducing the dryness of the fabric Antistatic finishes are semidurable Washes out at several launderings or drycleanings Permanent antistatic effects
are obtainable manufacturedfibres which are specially modified for this purpose (Ex: AntronIII
nylon fibre by Dupont & Cadon nylon fibres by Monsanto)
89. Pilling

90. 90. Anti-pilling finishes: Pilling is an unpleasant phenomenon associated with spunyarn
fabrics especially when they contain synthetics. Synthetic fibers are more readily brought to
the surfaceof fabric due to their smooth surface and circular crosssection and due to their
higher tensile strength andabrasion resistance, the pills formed take a long time to
beabraded by wear. With knit fabric, two more problems occur, viz., "picking"where the
abrasion individual fibers work themselves outof yarn loops onto the surface when garment
catches apointed or rough object.
91. 91. Permanent Anti-static effects: Antistatic finish for synthetic textiles to avoid staticcharge
build up & give a natural feel. Anti-static effective chemicals are largely chemically inertand
require Thermosol or heat treatment for fixingon polyester goods. In general Thermsolable
anti-static agents also have a goodsoil release action which is as permanent as the antistaticeffect. Anti-static finishes may also be of polyamide type beingcurable at moderate
92. 92. Non-Slip finishes: Synthetic warp and weft threads in loosely woven fabricsare
particularly prone to slip because of their surfacesmoothness when the structure of fabric is
disturbed andappearance is no loner attractive. To avoid this attempts are made to give the
filaments arougher surface. Silica-gel dispersions or silicic acid colloidal solutions arequite
useful and they are used with advantage incombination with latex polymer or acrylates
dispersions toget more permanent effect along with simultaneousimprovement in resistance
to pilling or snagging. These polymer finishes are also capable of imparting a softand
smooth handle to synthetic fabric without impartingwater repellency
93. 93. WASHES Alters the look by different washing procedures Mainly used for denim and
similar items to have a fadedand worn appearance Have different methods Stone
washing Acid washing Enzyme washing
94. 94. Stone wash Stone washing transforms a new unworn garments intoused-looking
faded garments Done in garment form Pumice stone are used No chemicals are used
for fading Pumice stone are added to the laundry with thegarments which abrade the
garment Worn look Faded colour The garment also become softer and obtain a
95. 95. Acid wash No acid is used Pumice stones are soaked with oxidising bleachingagent
(sodium hypochlorite) Also known as frosting or ice washing The other procedure is
same as that of the stonewash
96. 96. Enzyme wash Cellulase is used Added to pumice stone or can be used separately
While using pumice stone soaked with enzyme the garmentis laundered with the pumice
stone The cellulase attacks and weakens the cellulosic fibre The surface colour of the
denim comes out and colour fadesoff
97. 97. ROT PROOFING OF CELLULOSE Cellulosic fibres are made up of carbohydratewhich
is a food for fungi and microorganisms The attack of these organism on the
cellulosicmaterials cause rottening of them To protect the cellulosic materials from
suchhazards rot-proof finishes are applied on cotton Organo-lead componds Advantages
It does not affect the handle of the fabric It retains 100% of the fabric strength It does not
discolour the fabric

98. 98. Hg containing antibacterial agents Can be used in cotton as well as other cellulosic

Textile finishes
2. 2. What is a Fabric Finish? A fabric finish is applied to a fabric once it has been made to
improve its appearance, feel or other properties. Finishing processes are carried out to
improve the natural properties or attractiveness of the fabric and to increase its serviceability.
3. 3. Why are fabric finishes used? Fabric Finishes are used to improve the fabric in some
way. This could be: improve the appearance - color, pattern or sheen. change the texture
of the fabric - embossing, brushing or smoothing improve the feel - softer, crisper, firmer.
improve the drape (how the fabric hangs) - weighted improve wearing qualities - crease
resistance, stain resistance, flammability, waterproof etc. modify care requirements - easy
wash, quicker drying times, colourfast, less shrinkage.
4. 4. Provide aesthetic value Soften fabric or change the hand Adds to durability
Adds to comfort Provide safety Improves performance
composition, state, weave etc. this determines the transparency, luster, fullness, weight,
whiteness etc. i.e. the appearance PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FABRIC i.e. softness,
stiffness, tensile strength, elongation, shrinkage property, insulation etc END USE OF
MATERIAL- e.g. non shrinking, non-creasing, crease retention, draping, resistance to
abrasion etc.
7. 7. Aesthetic finishes Functional finishes According to quality: Temporary Semi
permanent Permanent According to the type of machinery Chemical finishes
Mechanical finishes
8. 8. The appearance of fabrics is sometimes deceiving. In part, the appearance depends on
the type of fibers, the construction of the yarns and fabrics, and the dyeing and printing
involved. However, finishes can be applied to fabrics that enhance the basic aesthetic
qualities. Aesthetic finishes influence the luster, texture, drapability,hand and surface
appearance of fabrics as well as enhance a host of other qualities. Aesthetic finishes
change the appearance and/or hand or drape of the fabrics.
9. 9. Lustre finishes produces a change in fabrics light reflectance by making them more
shiny. Permanent or temporary changes in surface pattern and luster of fabrics can be
achieved through a variety of finishing techniques. Techniques such as calendering,
beetling, and burning-out influence the resulting appearance of the fabric. Calendering is
a mechanical process that finishes fabrics by passing them between a series of rollers. By









varying the rollers, adding any additional chemical treatment and/or temperature, a variety of
calendered finishes result, including: glazed, cir, embossed, Schreiner and moir fabrics.
10. OBJECTIVE- To give soft and smooth surface to the fabric To give luster or glaze to
the fabric To give silk like appearance To decrease the air permeability To flatten the
11. In general calender usually have 2 to 7 rollers with more common being the 3 bowl
calender Textile calender are made with alternate hard steel and elastic bowls The
elastic bowls are made from either compressed paper or compressed cotton, however a lot
of modern calender are made with a covering which is usually NYLON 6
12. 1,3 & 6 are hard rollers 2,4,5 & 7 are soft rollers This provision is given so that
there must be resiliency property in between two consecutive rollers so that compression
remain uniform. Heating arrangement via steam circulation chamber The process
parameters that can be controlled during the process of calendering are : SPEED OF
13. For light weight fabrics/cloth, less no. of bowls are used in calendering and for heavy
weight fabrics more no. of bowls are used Different types of calendered effects are:
14. Glazed fabrics such as polished cottons or chintz fabrics are created by saturating the
fabric in a starch, wax or resin solution and allowing it to dry before calendering it. If starch
or waxes are used, the finish is temporary and and if resins are used, the glaze is durable.
The speed of the metal rollers is greater than the speed of the f/c. A 10 bowl calender is
used for swizzing, when the production is very large and high glaze is required
15. Cir fabrics with their glossy or wet look are produced in a manner similar to glazing.
Cir fabrics are coated with a wax or resin before being calendered with heated rollers.
When thermoplastic fibres are used, the fiber surface that comes in contact with the metal
roll melts and flattens slightly and produce highly polished f/c. Cire is a taffeta, satin or
tricot, silk or silk blends f/c
16. Moir fabrics have a distinctive water marked look created in the calendering process.
Moir is developed using either a moir embossing roller or a high compression
calendering of two layers of ribbed- base fabric in a single pass. One popular method of
preparing moir fabric involves using rollers that have been engraved with a design. The
material is run between the engraved rollers with some sections of the fabric crushed to
reveal the finished design that has a fluid or watery look. This type of application is often
used to create material styles are ideal for evening gowns, formal capes, clutch handbags,
and other types of formal apparel and accessories for women.
17. Another approach to achieving a moir fabric style is by using several different colors in
printing fabrics, allowing the colors to overlap. The design achieves a sense of depth that
varies as the eye travels across the pattern of the fabric. Because of the crushing of the
fabric during the process, the color variation as the nap is brushed one way or the other will
create a stunning effect.

18. 18. Schreiner finishes on fabrics produce soft luster and hand by flattening the yarns and
surface of a fabric through calendering. The schreiner calender has a metal roller
engraved with 200-300 fine diagonal lines per inch that are visible only under a magnifying
glass. A schreiner finish is used on cotton sateen and table damask to make them more
lustrous and on nylon tricot to increase its cover
19. 19. Embossed fabrics have a pattern imprinted or embossed into the fabric. The
embossed pattern is created by passing the fabric between a heated embossing roller and a
shaped paper roll. Damask effect can be produced but the effect is temporary. It lasts
longer on mercerised fabric. The degree of lustre may be modified by :- heating the chilled
iron roll, pressure at the nip, speed of the m/c, moisture percent present in f/c etc. 2-bowl
embossed roller or 3-bowl embossed roller arrangement can be used.
20. 20. Beetled fabrics have a smooth, lusterous linen look. In the beetling process, the yarns
of the fabric are flattened as the fabric revolves around a drum while the surface is pounded
with hammers. Burn-out finishes are created by applying chemicals that dissolve, burn-out
or shrink parts of a fabric creating distinctive patterns. Acid designs are created by printing a
chemical solution in a particular pattern. The acid, or chemical solution, causes the fabric to
burn-out and become transparent rest portions remain opaque. Pliss has distinctive
puckered areas. Puckering is the result of the application of chemicals on the base fabric,
which causes portions of the fabric to shrink.
21. 21. Finishes used to change the luster and texture of fabrics often have affects on the
drapability and hand of the fabric. Yet, other finishes have been developed to directly affect
the drapability and hand. Depending on the desired use, some finishes are intended to stiffen
the fabric while others are intended to soften it. Drape finishes changes the way or fabric
falls or hangs over a 3D shape. These finishes include: 1. Parchmentizing 2. Acid designs
3. Burned out 4. sizing
22. 22. Crispness or body is given to cottons in the process of parchmentizing.
Parchmentizing uses an acid wash (sulphuric acid) to make cotton almost transparent, and
yet permanently stiff such as in organdy. Split-second timing is necessary to prevent
weakening or tendering of the fabric. After the acid treatment, the cloth is neutralized in a
weak alkali, washed and calendered to improve surface gloss. Several effects are
possible: an all over, a localised, or a plisse effect. Because all over parchmentizing
produces a transparent effect, sheer combed lawn is used. The lawn is singed, desized,
bleached and mercerised. The fabric is then dyed, printed with colors that resist acid
damage. Fabric is now immersed in acid solution and fiber surface is partially dissolved. This
surface rehardens as a cellulosic film and when dry, it is permanently crisp & transparent.
This all over treatment produces organdy fabric
23. 23. In localised parchmentizing, if the design is a small figure with large transparent area,
an acid resistance substance is printed on the figures and the fabric is run through the acid
bath. The acid resistant areas retain their original opacity and contrast sharply with
transparent background.
24. 24. Burned out effects are produced by printing a chemical solvent on a blend fabric made
of fibers from different groups such as rayon and polyester. One fiber is, usually less









expensive or more easily dissolved fiber, is dissolved, leaving sheer case of rayon
and polyester, rayon has been dissolved by acids. This finish is also known as ETCHED
OR DEVORE because part of the fiber are removed by this subtractive finish.
25. In sizing or starching, the fabric is immersed in a mixture containing waxes, oils,
glycerines & softners to or control fabric body. Gelatin is used on rayons because it is a
clear substance that enhances the natural luster of fibers Sizing adds stiffness, weight and
body to the fabric. Its permanance is related to the type of sizing,& method of application.
26. If the sizing is resin based and heat set, it will be permanent. If the sizing is water
soluble, it will be removed during washing or it may create problems for consumers.
Gelatin, e.g. may create a water spots on rayon if consideration or other water drops onto the
fabric, these spots are difficult to remove.
27. Weighting is technique used to add weight & body to the fabric. A metallic salt such
as stannous chloride is used, Salta that bond with the fiber are durable whereas others
produce temporary surface coating.
28. The feel, appearance or consistency of a surface or a substance is known as texture.
Texture finishes modify fabric texture or add components that completely change the
fabrics original texture. Fabrics can be made smoother or rougher, or given textured
patterns through a variety of means.
29. The finishes for achieving different textures are: 1. Shearing 2. Brushing 3. 3D or
raised embossing 4. Pleating 5. Flocking 6. Embroidery 7. Expanded foam 8. Napping
30. Shearing is a process that evens out the length of the pile of fabric in a controlled
manner i.e. Shearing is a procedure to remove surface fibers, yarn ends, knots and similar
irregularities and surface flaws. During shearing the fabric passes through a series of
tension bars and over an angled shearing bed. The prominent fibres are cut by blades,
wound helically around a rotating cylinder against a stationery blade. Strong suction removes
cut fibres. It may create a smooth surface or a patterned or sculptured effect by flattening
portions of the pile with an engraved roller, shearing off the areas that remain erect , and
steaming the fabric to raise the flattened and now taller portions.
31. Together with shearing, singeing is often used to control surface fibre, particularly for
blends. During singeing, surface fibres are removed by an intensive flame or by reflected
heat. Singeing is more invasive then shearing and penetrates deeper into the fabric than is
possible by shearing, which is limited by fabric surface topography Shearing can be used
to create raised patterns or to smooth the overall nap of a fabric.
32. Below is example of terry towel with and without shearing
33. Some sheared fabrics are also brushed. Fabrics are brushed to remove loose fibers,
and in some cases, to direct the nap of the surface in a single direction. Common
examples of fabrics with brushed finishes are brushed corduroy and brushed denim.
Below is an example of denim twill (in red) with or without brushing. Also in white plain
woven flannel with brushed finish.
34. The embossed design is permanent if the fabric has a thermoplastic fiber content or if
a resin is used and heat set. Often used in combination with foil stamping, embossing is a
process that alters the surface of paper stock or other substrates by providing a three






dimensional or raised effect on selected areas. The procedure requires the use of two dies:
one that is raised and one that is recessed. The dies fit into each other so that when the
paper is pressed between them, the raised die forces the stock into the recessed die and
creates the embossed impression. A specific level of pressure is applied to the dies in order
to squeeze the fibers of the paper, which results in a permanently raised area in the paper.
When the dies are produced, a die maker engraves the desired image into several metal
plates, which are the embossing dies for use on an embossing press. A thorough
understanding the process will enable a more successful result. Generally, embossing is the
process most often employed to attract attention or convey a high quality textural contrast in
relation to the surrounding area of the paper stock.
35. Below are the examples of 3D or raised embossing
36. A pleated fabric is made using a variation of embossing. Pleating is a highly
specialized operation done by either the paper pattern technique or by the machine process.
Puckered surface are created by partially dissolving the surface of nylon or polyester with
37. Plisse means to crease, to fold or to pleat. It refers to an intentionally wrinkled,
pleated, or puckered fabric. The word can either be used to denote the finish of the fabric or
the fabric itself. Plisse finish on fabric can be either temporary or permanent.
38. Two common methods of creating this fabric are through the use of a caustic soda,
such as sodium hydroxide solution, or through tension weaving. Both processes tighten the
fabric in the areas where the puckering or creasing is desired. Though usually found on finer
fabrics such as cotton, nylon, rayon, or silk, other materials, such as wool and leather, can
also be given a plisse finish. The alkali shrinks the fabric in the treated areas. As this
shrinkage occurs, the untreated stripes pucker. shrinkage causes a slight difference in count
between the two stripes. Plisse gives a similar effect of a seersucker fabric, but
seersucker is achieved by different work tensions during weaving and is not a finish.
39. Texture can also be developed by adding fibers ( 5 natural or synthetic surface fibers)
in the finishing processes on the base fabric. Flocked finishes add texture by adhering
short fibers to the surface of a fabric. Flocking can be used to create the appearance of a pile
design or allover piles. Flock fibers attached to a fabric surface are very short and straight
and are attached by an adhesive to create an inexpensive pile. The two basic methods of
applying the flock fibers are mechanical and electrostatic.
40. MECHANICAL FLOCKING 1. This process is called beater bar or gravity flocking
system and is a mechanical process. 6-20 beater bars are used which are used to get fibres
stand erect.. 2. The flocking fibers are randomly adhered to the surface of the substrate and
all the fibres are adhered at different depths, creating an irregular flocked surface. 3. Some
fibers shedding occurs as the fibers are adhered and not penetrate or imbed.
ELECTROSTATIC FLOCKING 1. Flocking is the application of fine particles to adhesive
coated surfaces. Nowadays, this is usually done by the application of a high-voltage electric
field. In a Flocking Machine the "flock" is given a negative charge whilst the substrate is
earthed. Flock material flies vertically onto the substrate attaching to previously applied glue.
A number of different substrates can be Flocked including; textiles, fabric, woven fabric,








paper, PVC, sponge, toys, automotive plastic. 2. This process can also used to apply fibers
on both sides.
41. The majority of flocking done worldwide uses finely cut natural or synthetic fibers. A
flocked finish imparts a decorative and/or functional characteristic to the surface. The variety
of materials that are applied to numerous surfaces through different flocking methods create
a wide range of end products. The flocking process is used on items ranging from retail
consumer goods to products with high technology military applications. As the fiber length
increases, the denier also must increase so that the fiber will remain erect in the fabric.
Fibres that are cut square at the ends anchor more firmly in the adhesive.
42. Embroidered finishes are machine or hand applied yarns added using satin or fancy
stitches to create textured patterns. Machine embroidery uses compact zigzag stitches of
various lengths. Two machines are used for embroidery: 1) shuttle embroidery machine 2)
multihead embroidery machine
43. A coloured compound printed on the fabric expands during processing to give a 3D
texture to the fabric. These foams are durable but create problems during pressing. It is
commonly known as rubber print. Rubber like Neoprene, Nitrile, Viton, Natural, SBR,
EPDM, silicone, Hypalone, Polyurethane, Teflon, coated fabric on fabric like Cotton, Nylon,
Polyester, Fiber Glass, etc.
44. Nap is a layer of fiber ends raised from the ground weave of the fabric. Velvets,
flannel, corduroy and satin are all examples of napped fabrics. The rich hand and surface
texture of napped fabrics make them ideal candidates for luxury garments and design
interest. There are ways to 'raise the nap', most of which involve wire brushes such as
raising cards Originally, dried teasel pods were used and were still preferred for use on
woolen cloth for a long time.Woollen fabrics, which must be damp when raising the nap, are
then dried and stretched before the nap is trimmed or sheared. Cotton cloth goes straight to
the shearing process, where the nap gets trimmed to ensure that all the raised fibres are the
same length.
45. Napping is now done by pile rollers covered by a heavy fabric in which bent wires are
embedded. Napping machines may be of single action or double-action. Napping is
done on fabrics with low twist staple yarns. Gigging and raising may also describe the
napping process. Gigging & raising process is applied to wool fabrics. The raised fibers of
wet fabric are brushed in one direction which gives a smooth and lustrous appearance to the
46. FULLING/ FELTING 1. Fulling is performed on wool fibres to improve their
appearance, hand, thickness, softness, body and cover and the process is known as felting.
2. Felt is made by a process called wet felting where the natural wool fibers, stimulated by
friction and lubricated by moisture (usually soapy water), move at a 90 degree angle towards
the friction source and then away again, 3. fulled fabrics are denser and more compact in
both warp and the filling directions.
47. Tufted finishes or decorations are created by sewing additional yarns to the surface of
a fabric, creating a multi-dimensional appearance. Below is the example of tufted fabric
with its face and reverse side.

48. 48. Special finishes or functional finishes are those finishes that are applied to the fabric
that makes it suited for specific uses. Various functional finishes are Waterproof finishes
Water repellant finishes Flame retardant finish Moth proof finish Antistatic finish
49. 49. Water proof finishes are those finishes which will not allow water to pass through
regardless of the time exposure. These finishes also adversely affect the comfort property
as they limit the passage of air These finish is coated with a resin, wax and oil etc.
50. 50. Water repellant finishes are which resist the penetration of water into the fabric but
permits the passage of moisture or air. If the fabric becomes very wet, water will eventually
pass through. The principle is that it is coated with the repellant chemical which permits
the passage of air and vapour between the interlacing in fabric. Water and the other liquid
remain on the surface in small bead rather than spreading out and getting absorbed.
51. 51. The chemicals used are silicones, fluorocarbons,paraffins etc Some chemicals
used for water repellancy are also stain repellant. ASSIGNMENT- SEARCH FOR WATER
52. 52. These finishes play an important role on textiles by providing safety and giving escape
time from a potential hazard When a fire starts flame, retardants reduce the flame spread
and rate of fire development. Chemicals such as THTC- tetakis hydroxymethyl
phosphonium chloride etc are used
53. 53. These finishes re used to: Inhibit the growth of bacteria and other odor causing
germs. Prevent decay and damage from perspiration Control the spread of diseases
Reduce the risk of infection These finishes are also called anti- bacteriostatic, germicidal or
antiseptic finishes These finishes are used for skin contact clothing, shoe lining, hospital
items etc
54. 54. Common chemical used is ziconium peroxide Exposure to ethylene oxide gas is
also used
55. 55. Moth silverfish etc attacks fiber like cotton Fluorine compounds, napthalene, DDT,
paradichloro benzene etc are used for imparting moth proof finishes. They are available in
crystal cake and spray form. Cellulosic fibers are also treated with boric acid to prevent
the rapid growth of the mildew fungus etc.
56. 56. Static electricity is produced or created when two non conducting surface such as
synthetic textiles rub together. The two surfaces become oppositely charged and as the
rubbing continues an electrical charge will build up. The wearer can experience the
electric shocks and the fabric tends to cling to the body of the wearer. Anti static finishes
are chemical substances applied to reduce and eliminate static charge It absorbs moisture
from the atmosphere and thus reducing the dryness of the fabric that causes the static
charge build up

Special finishes
1. 1. Special FinishesFabric & Garment Finishing

3. 3. Bio-polishingTo produce this effect celluloseenzymes were introduced. Theregular acid

acting cellulosesproduced following effects: More cutting Colour loss Prone to contour
patches Bluish heavy effect High back staining Economical
4. 4. Bio-polishingGenetically Modified enzymes were produced, called GMOs(Genetically
Modified Organisms).Enzymes have various activities Endoglucanase (I, II)Exoglucanase,
cello-biohydrolase (CBH II) etc.With the advent of genetic engineering it is now possible
toincrease or suppress one or more of these activities to achievetailor made results.The
effectiveness of the catalytic core (to hydrolyse glycosidiclinkages) depends greatly on the
absorption by the CBD tail.
5. 5. Bio-polishingWhen tightly bound to the substrate, certainendoglucanases disturb the
crystalline structure and inducesthe various properties like fading, defibrillation, etc. as
aresult of the mechano-chemical effect.optimal temperature range of about 45 C to 60 C.
6. 6. Denim BleachingLaccases enzymes are used to get outstanding contrast lookon denim
fabrics.They also eliminate all the negative effects of the indigo dyeredeposition at the same
time reducing the time of the processnecessary to achieve a highly abraded look.Various
effects are obtained on denim fabrics using Laccases.
8. 8. Insect Repellent FinishingAn ANTIMO MGL a menthoglycol is a natural insectrepellent
active ingredient, derived from lemon eucalyptus,which is a natural and renewable
source.Testing of Antimos MGL with a moderately aggressive cagepopulation of Aedes
aegypti mosquitoes resulted in no bites upto at least 4 hours.This indicates that the products
has unusual repellency.
9. 9. Antibacterial FinishingMicrobes are minute organisms, which can be mostdangerous for
creating harm to our lifestyle in different ways.So to make the environment healthy, hygienic
and fresh, itbecomes very important to have the control over growth of themicrobes and for
these the garments / fabrics should be treatedwith some specialty chemicals, which can
restrict the growthof these microorganisms.Antimicrobial finishing is one of the special types
offinishing given to the textiles where the chances of bacterialgrowth are high and the safety
is paramount. .
10. 10. Antibacterial FinishingBiquanides, phenols and their derivatives, isothiazolones,metals,
ammonium compounds and alcohols serve as anti-bacterial agents in finishing recipe. Some
other importantchemicals are Zeolite (inorganic compound of sodiumaluminose ), Triclosan
( a phenolic derivative), Chitin(extracted from shells of crabs and shrimps) and
Quarternaryammonium compounds .
11. 11. Action of Antimicrobial finishAnti-microbial treatment on the undergarments controls
thegrowth of microbes on it, which will in turn control the aboveeffects .CharacteristicsThis
type of finishing inhibits the growth of microbes on thesurface of the fabric.Maintains
hygiene and freshness, stops bad odour.Controls or eliminates microbial staining.Improves
life of the articles wherever it is applied.Improves hand of most of the fabric.Eliminates the
chances of disease transmission.
12. 12. Antibacterial chemicals: - Effective on any substrate like cellulose, synthetics as well as
their blends and any surface other than textiles. Antibacterial chemicals: 13. 13. FUNCTIONAL FINISHES

14. 14. Cool Finish (snocool)When temperature rises, we tend to sweat. This is a
naturalreaction of our body to maintain the temperature around97F.The sweat when
evaporates, takes along with it heatequivalent to heat of evaporation of water,
therebymaintaining the temperature of the body.The Snocool finish uses the moisture
management route i.e. itwill enhance the natural phenomenon of sweat evaporation.This
finish absorbs and dissipates sweat evenly throughoutand thus gives a cool feeling to the
15. 15. Cool Finish (snocool)Characteristics: -Garments finished with Snocool produces a cool
effect.The finish has two fold effect, it reflects light (special polymer)and transfers moisture
faster than normal from body to fabricand finally to the atmosphere.These finishing agents
can be manufactured with or withoutfragrance.
16. 16. Thermocat FinishA finishing agent for producing heat retaining effect.This type of
finishing when applied to the fabric keeps itwarm. Produces heat retaining effect due to
infrared radiationowing to its porosity.Especially suitable for 100% cellulose and its blends.
17. 17. UV Protective FinishThe protection offered by UV cutting fabrics is expressed interms of
UV protection factor (UPF) or sun protection factor(SPF), which are equivalent to the
user.UPF of 40 for a garment means the wearer can stay 40 timeslonger in the sun before
skin reddening (erythema) sets inother words if skin reddens in 15 minutes without UV
cuttinggarment, the same level of reddening would take 10hours, when UV cutting garment is
worn.This means that UPF is a ratio of the time taken for skinreddings with and without
18. 18. UV Protective FinishCharacteristics: -A specialty finishes for protecting the fabric from
UVradiation. Protects humans underlying tissues from UVradiation. Protects against short
wavelength radiation i.e. from100 - 400 nm, Non-yellowing. Should be applied duringdyeing
under a reductive process Applicable by exhaust aswell as padding method

Finishing Processes
After construction of fabric through one of the many techniques described above, it is known as greige
good or gray good. This simply denotes any unfinished fabric. Many finishing processes are employed
for improving the appearance, feel and durability of the fabric. These processes are broadly classified
as Preparatory Processes, Stabilizing Processes, and Textural Processes.
Preparatory Processes

The unfinished fabric or the gray good may contain many impurities such as dirt, soil, sizing, oils and
other additives. As such, they need to be cleaned before proceeding towards finishing of the textile.
Singeing or Gassing

In this process one or both sides of a fabric are passes rapidly over a gas flame to burn off the
protruding fibers. For thermoplastic fibers other methods including infra-red or heat is used.
Thermoplastic fibers are harder to singe as compared to cotton or other such fibers because they melt
and form hard residues on the fabric surface. When singeing is done in the yarn stage, it is called

It is the process of decolorization for removing all natural colors from the gray good. It is a chemical

based process. Bleaching is further classified into oxidative bleaching and reductive bleaching. Natural
fibres are all generally bleached with oxidative methods using such chemicals as sodium hypochlorite,
sodium chlorite or hydrogen peroxide. Fibers like Polyamide, Polyacrylics and Polyacetates are
generally bleached using reductive bleaching technology using sodium hydrosulphite, a powerful
reducing agent. In addition to bleaching, Optical Brightening Agents (OBA) are also applied to give the
textile material a brilliant white look.
Stabilizing Processes

Stabilizing processes are required for improving properties such as strength, luster, and other qualities
of the fiber.

This process is important for cotton fabric which is treated with a caustic solution for improving
properties such as fiber strength, shrinkage resistance, luster, and dye affinity. The yarn or fiber is
dipped in a solution of sodium hydroxide and then treated with water or acid to neutralize the sodium
hydroxide. A variation of this process is hot mercerization. It adds more value to the fabric. This
process involves saturation of fabric in caustic soda solution at higher temperatures and then cooling,
stretching and final washing.

It is done for increasing luster, affinity for dyes, abrasion resistance, smoothness etc. particularly of
cotton and rayon fabrics. The yarn or fabric is passed through a weak solution of ammonium at such
temperatures at which swelling and shrinkage occur. Then it is rapidly passed through hot water and
dried in hot air.

The fibers have tendency of reverting back to their natural state, thus causing shrinkage of the fabric.
To avoid the subsequent shrinkage, the process of shrinking the gray good is carried out through
different methods such as immersion in cold water, followed by hot water, steaming, resin or a
chemical treatment.

He main purpose of tentering is drying and making the fabric even for further processing. The tenter
frames consist of two endless chains having an adjustable distance within them. The fabric runs
through this frame and is carried into the heated housing where a blast of hot air removes any moisture
present in the fabric.

Improves luster, appearance, feel as well as preshrinks the fabric. It may be applied to woven as well
as knitted fabrics. Wet decating and dry decating are the two methods adopted. Wet decating is
generally used for woollen fabrics. The fabric is wound on a perforated roller and treated in hot water
or steam boiler. In dry decating, the fabric is passed together with a blanket around a perforated
cylinder. The moist heat causes the fibers to become wrinkle free.

Enzyme Washing
Sometimes enzymes are used to produce stone washed effects on fabrics. Enzymes are organic
catalysts that are used for speeding up a chemical reaction. This process is less damaging to fabrics
than actual stone washing. Also, it gives a very soft feel to the treated fabric

Textural Processes

Textural processes are meant for improving the texture of the fabric such as stiffness, smoothness,
weight or strength.

Temporary Stiffening

Fabrics, particularly cotton and linen, are given a temporary stability and stiffness by application of a
firming agent which is often a solution of starch. It is commonly known as 'starching' or 'temporary
stiffening'. When this process is done while preparing warp for weaving, it is called 'sizing' and
'dressing'. The term 'dressing' is generally used for the warp of wool. Other than starch, the substances
used for stiffening fabrics are flour, dextrine, glue, shellac, fats, wax, and paraffin. Sometimes clay,
chalk, barium sulfate, calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate are also used for stiffening cotton fabrics.
At times back starching is also done in which only the back side of the fabric is starched. Temporary
stiffening is required to retain the freshness of the fabric till it is not used for making any product.
Stiffening also allows the fabric to be cut more easily into patterns for the textile products.
Permanent Stiffening

The fabrics which are permanently stiffened usually need less laundering and therefore become more
durable. Permanent Stiffening is done by chemical processes that change the cellular structure of the
fiber. This process makes the fabric smoother and dirt resistant as the dirt tends to slide off rather
than cling onto the fabric. Some of the permanent finishes are Ankord, Basco, Clearight, Kandarized,
Saylerizing, Sheercroft, Staze- Right and Turbenizing. They all give the fabric such properties as tensile
strength, luster, shrinkage resistance, crispness, abrasion resistance and improve the appearance of the
fabrics. Turbenizing is done to avoid the need of starching fabric for its life. This can be done through
three methods. The parts to be stiffened like collar, cuffs, belts are interlined with a thermoplastic
fiber or with cellulose acetate or the fabric my be coated with synthetic resin. The thermoplastic
fibers melt and bonds with the garment when pressed with a hot iron producing a stiffened fabric.
When cellulose acetate is used, it is softened by acetone which is also heat pressed on to the fabric
giving permanent stiffness. A coating of resin is also heat pressed on to the fabric.

Sometimes the weight of certain fabrics, such as silk, is increased to improve its feel and draping
quality by immersing it in a solution having metallic salts. Low-grade wool fabrics are also weighted
sometimes by felting short wool fibers into the fabric. These fibers, called flocks, are obtained by
washing, brushing and sheering the wool fabrics. Excessive weighting tends to weaken the fabric.

Calendering is done to add luster to fabrics. Calenders are heavy machines made up of at least two
rollers that can go upto seven in number. Alternately, one roller is made of steel and the other is made
of softer material like wool paper, cotton fiber and corn husks. The steel rolls may be equipped to be
heated by gas or steam. The fabric passes rapidly between the rolls and then wound up on the back of
the machine.


The Glazing process consists of treating the fabric with glue, starch, paraffin, shellac, or resin and then
moving it through hot friction rollers. This process gives the fabric qualities such as luster, resistance to

dust, spots and shrinkage.


Through embossing, raised figures or designs are produced on the surface of the fabrics. This is done by
passing the fabric between heated engraved rollers. This process can be applied to all the fabrics
except wool. When the process is combined with certain chemical resins, the embossing becomes

Moireing is done through ridged rollers that produce a waved or watered effect on a textile fabric. The
design becomes permanent when heat-set. A moire pattern obtained on a rayon fabric is not
permanent. On silk, it comparatively remains for a longer time but diminishes gradually. Moireing is
permanent on acetate, nylon or other thermoplastic fibers because these fabrics have the tendency to
melt when subjected to heat. When cooled down, the pattern is conformed and hardened on the

Beetling process is applied to linen or cotton. The fabric is beaten with large wooden blocks in order to
produce a hard, flat surface with a sheen. Only table linen is put through beetling and not the dress
linen. When applied to cotton fabrics, beetling gives it the feel and appearance of linen. This process
permanently flattens the yarns of the fabric on which it is applied.


For giving a hairy surface to a fabric, several methods are adopted for pulling fiber ends to its surface.
This fabric is then known as raised fabric. It is different from pile construction ( such as tufting) which
is woven or knitted with extra yarns placed on the fabric. Some of the methods of raising are Napping,
Sanding, Gigging and Tigering.

It is done to get a deep hairy surface. The fabric is passed under a roller having fine steel wires with
small hooks on the ends. The hooks scrape the surface of the fabric pulling up the fiber ends. It
produces a soft fabric with air trapped in the cells lending warmth to the fabric. Flannellete and wool
flannel are the examples of napped fabrics. When both sides of a fabric are napped in one direction, it
is called single napping. When both surfaces are napped in opposite directions, it is called double
When a fabric is passed through a series of emery-covered rollers, it gets a suedelike surface. This is
known as sanding or emerizing. A soft nap is produced by this process.
This raising process is applied to wool fabrics. The raised fibers of wet fabric are brushed in one
direction which gives a smooth and lustrous appearance to the fabric.

A tigering finish is given to a fabric already having naps. This improves the height of the raised naps
and removes the loose fibers. The tiger roll, with long fine wires, pulls up the fibers that are not raised
by the process of napping. This process is generally applied to such fabrics as velour, plush and
imitation fur.

Shearing refers to the process of trimming the pile on a fabric to a desired height. This process gives an
attractive and smooth surface to the fabric. Patterns can also be made by shearing through high and
low surface levels. It is done by a machine having rotating cylinders with spiral blades. Its action
resembles that of a lawn mower.
Crepe and Crinkled Effects

Some of the finishing processes impart crepe or crinkled effects to the fabric. This is done through
various methods. One method involves the use of engraved rollers. In another method, cotton is
treated with caustic soda which is applied in the form of stripes and then the fabric is washed. The
portions having soda shrinks and the remaining parts gather into small wrinkles. In yet another method,
wax is used in place of caustic soda. Silk is sometimes given a crepe effect by carefully applying
sulfuric acid to it.
Finishing Processes for Functionality of Fibers

The finishing processes that have been described in the above section improve the appearance and feel
of the treated fabric. There are other finishing processes that give special properties to the fabric for
particular functions.
Water Repellency

The fabrics that do not allow absorption or penetration of water for a fixed period of time are said to
be water-repellent fabrics. As opposed to waterproof fabrics, these fabrics are porous for allowing
body perspiration to escape and therefore are more comfortable. Some fibers such as nylon and
polyester do not readily absorb water where as other fibers such as cotton and rayon can absorb water
easily. Therefore, often the fibers of water absorbent fabrics are preferred for making items such as
rain coats. As the time of water resistance differ, the garments too differ in their properties. The
shower-resistant garments are effective for light rains only and rain-resistant garments for moderate
rains where as storm-resistant garments can resist water penetration for many hours and are suitable
for heavy rains.
There are generally three types of finishes given to water repellent fabrics. These are nondurable,
semidurable and durable finishes.
Nondurable Finishes

These finishes are based upon a paraffin wax-aluminum acetate emulsion. This emulsion is applied
through padding and drying operations. Sometimes zirconium salts are used instead of aluminum which
gives better water repellency. These fabrics loose water repellency if subjected to heavy washing or
dry cleaning.
Semidurable Finishes

Wax and salt solutions are used for these types of finishes. However, they can not stand laundering but
are resistant to dry cleaning.

Durable Finishes

There are many approaches for producing flame retardant fabrics such as application of chemical
finishes, manufacturing of modified manmade fibers or new flame retardant fibers. The chemicals
mostly used for giving flame retardant finishes include ammonia?cured tetrakis-hydroxymethylphosphonium hydroxide (THPOH), decabromodiphenyloxide (DBDPO), halogen phosphorous, nitrogen
phosphorous, boron phosphorous, inorganic salts and others. Sometimes, flame retardant fibers are
created by adding certain chemicals to existing solutions for making fibers. They are more stable and
safer for human health. Special flame retardant fibers are also developed which are more flame
resistant than the other two types.
Flame Retardants

Wax and salt solutions are used for these types of finishes. However, they can not stand laundering but
are resistant to dry cleaning.
Slip Resistance

Other than rough surfaced fabrics with hard twisted yarns, some fabrics have the tendency of slipping.
Permanent firmness is given to such fabrics by immersing them in synthetic resins, then stretching and
drying them under tension.