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# DESIGN OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS (BEAMS)

..ASD..

## The nominal moment of the section is calculated from:

Mn = S.Fy
The working (applied) moment is calculated from:
M = Mn / factor of safety = S.[Fy / f.o.s]
Fy / f.o.s depends
on class of section

## (1) according to limitations of width to thickness ratio

(pages 9,10,11 and 12 EC-2001):

## If the section is compact:

M = Sx0.64F y
M = Sx0.72F y rectangular

M = Sx 0.58 F y

## If the section is slender:

M = Seff x 0.58 F y

## (2) according to limitations of lateral unbraced length

(lateral torsional buckling):
Lu act = actual laterally unbraced (unsupported) length of the
compression flange of the beam
20 bf
1380 Af
T-section
Lu =
or Lu =
Cb
bf
F yf
d Fy
tf
where
Af = bf t f
rt =

1/6 d

t f bf3 16 dt w3
+
12
12
t f bf + 16 dt w

tw

If Lu act Lu
there is no lateral torsional buckling (LTB)
And the moment is calculated according to compact or noncompact section

If Lu < Lu act
there is LTB, thus M = SxF LTB
2
2
+ FLTB
0.58Fy = 1.4t/cm2
where FLTB = FLTB
1
2

FLTB1 =

800 Af
Cb
Lu act d

FLTB 2
LTB

1.4t/cm2
FLTB 1
2
1.4t/cm
.
1.4t/cm2

FLTB2 = 0.58 F y
FLTB2 = [ 0.64

FLTB2 = [

If
( Lu act / rT ) 2 F y

1.176 x10 5 C b

12000
]Cb
( Lu act / rT ) 2

Lu act
rt

< 84

Cb
Fy

] Fy

If 188

C b Lu act
Cb

84
rt
Fy
Fy

If 188

C b Lu act
<
Fy
rt

V = Aweb .qb
qb depends on
the ratio h/tw

Aweb = d x tw

h
105

tw
F yw
105
h
159
If
<

F yw
F yw tw

If

q b = 0.35 F yw

q b = [1.5

If

159
h
<
F yw tw

qb = [

( h / tw ) F yw
212

] 0.35 F y

119
] 0.35 F y
( h / tw ) F y
:
rolled
0.35Fy

..LRFD..

Mu = .Mn
Mn depends on
class of section

resistance
factor =0.85

f=Fy

f=Fy

f=Fy

f<Fy

plastic
elastic
plastic

I-section

M=Mp
plastic
section
Mn=Zx Fy

plastic
My<M<Mp

M=My
Mn=Sx Fy

M<My

(1)

## according to limitations of width to thickness ratio

(pages 9,10,11 and 12 EC-2001):
Flange

web
rolled
welded
d w 127
C 16.9
C 15.3

compact
Fy
Fy
tf
tf
tw
Fy
16.9 C
23 15.3 C
21 127 d w 190
Non<

<

<

Fy
tf
Fy
tf
Fy
tw
Fy
Fy
Fy
compact
d w 190
C
23
C
21
>
>
>
slender
tf
Fy
tf
Fy
tw
Fy

C
tf

C
tf

tw

dw

welded

tw

dw

rolled

## If the section is compact:

M n = M p = Z .F y

## If the section is non-compact:

M n = M r = S .( F y F r )

## If the section is slender:

taking the effect of reduced section into consideration

0.7t/cm2 (rolled)
1.16t/cm2 (welded)

Where:

## Z = plastic section modulus,

S = elastic section modulus (given in the tables),
.. For I-section only, Zx 1.10 Sx
Seff = effective elastic section modulus for
reduced slender section,
Fr = compressive residual stresses in the flange.
:

## For non-compact or slender section..

Fy
Flange
(welded built-up
Fr
Mr = S. (Fyf Fr) or (Fyw)

web
) hybrid section
. flange

(A.y)
)

C.G.
f=Fy

## plastic section modulus

stress
.(
f=Fy

d/2
s
t
I-section

plastic

M=Mp
= ZFy

M=My
= SFy

d 2
d
) / 2 ( b s )( t ) 2 / 2 ] x 2 xF y
2
2
d
d
Z = b ( ) 2 ( b s )( t ) 2
2
2

M p = [ b(

(2)

## according to limitations of lateral unbraced length

(lateral torsional buckling):
plastic range

My

Mr

Mp
inelastic range

elastic range

Lp

Lr

## Lb = actual laterally unbraced (unsupported) length of the

compression flange of the beam
80 r y
1380 Af 1
Lr =
Lp =
,
[1 + 1 + ( 2.X .FL ) 2 ]
F yf
d FL
2

where:
ry radius of gyration of I-section
0.104 rT d 2
X =(
) , Af = bf t f
Af
rT =

t f bf3 16 dt w3
+
12
12
t f bf + 16 dtw

bf
tf
1/6 d

d
tw

T-section

## If Lb Lp the section is in plastic range

M n = M p = Z .F y

## If Lp Lb < Lr the section is in inelastic range

Lb Lp
]
M n = C b M p ( M p M r )[

L
L
r
p

Lb L p

plastic range

Lr L p

Mp
Mn

M p M n
M p Mr

inelastic range

Mr

elastic range

Lp

Lb

Lr

## If Lr < Lb the section is in elastic range

1380 Af 2
20700 2
M n = M cr = C b S x (
) +(
)
d Lb
( Lb / rT ) 2

Where:

Mp = z.Fy
Mr = S.FL
FL = smaller value of (Fyw) or (Fyf Fr)
Fr = 0.7t/cm2 (rolled) , 1.16t/cm2 (built-up)
Cb = is the modification factor for non-uniform
moment diagram (page 20 EC-2001) or.
M1
M
+ 0.3 ( 1 ) 2 2.3
M2
M2
12.5 M max
Cb =
2.3
2.5 M max + 3 M a + 4 M b + 3 M c

C b = 1.75 + 1.05

M2
big

+ve

M2
-ve

0.75L
0.5L

M1
small
M1

Mc
Mmax

Mb

Ma

0.25L

## The ultimate shear of the section is calculated from:

Vu = .Vn
Vn depends on
the ratio h/tw

resistance
factor =0.85

If

h
112

F yw
tw

Vn = 0.6 F yw Aw

112
h 140
<

F yw tw
F yw
140
h
If
<
260
F yw tw

Vn = 0.6 F yw Aw (

If

112 /

Vn = 0.6 F yw Aw (

F yw

h / tw

9500
)
( h / tw ) 2

Taking Aweb = d x tw

tw

h d

tw

shear yielding

rolled

## nominal shear strength Vn

welded
inelastic buckling
in shear

elastic buckling
in shear

112
F yw

140
F yw

260

h d