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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
1.1.

THE AIM OF EXPERIMENT


1. Study the heat exchanging proses at the fin.
2. Determine the temperature distribution at the fin.
3. Study the influence base temperature toward fin effeectivity and efficiency
at the fin.

1.2.

PRINCIPLE OF EXPERIMENT
Maintain the fin base temperature by controlling oil temperature and
then measure the temperature distribution at the several points at the fin.

1.3.

BASIC THEORY
Heat movement defined as energy movement that caused by
temperature difference. The methods of this movement can be divided in the 3
ways, they are conduction, convection and radiation where these 3 mechanism
of movement usually happen simultaneously.
Conduction is heat movement without followed by the movement of
its medium or can be said heat movement through stationary medium like
solid or fluid medium. In conduction, the heat movement happen through
particle collision in a certain medium from particle with higher energy
level( higher temperature) to lower energy level particle. This phenomenon
will caused energy move to state which have lower temperature.
However there is a heat movement which followed by its medium
example heat movement that happen between 2 surfaces in flowing fluid. This
kind of movement is called convection. In other meanings, convection can be
explained as fusion of 2 mechanism from energy diffusion(molecular random
movement) and also heat movement that caused by macroscopic fluid
movement. Macroscopic fluid movement is movement of most of molecules
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that triggered by outside force like pump, fan, blower, agitator, etc) and result
force convection also buoyancy force ( floating force that caused by density
difference between hot and cold particle and result free convection).
Last, will be explained about radiation. Radiation is energy movement
in electromagnetic wave form that spread by all of surface at the various
temperature. Generally radiation happen in solid surface but in certain case,
this movement can happen in fluid or gas. Every object can deliver radiation
if their temperature is not 0 K. In radiation, medium is not needed or can be
said the particles able to propagate in vacuum condition. Surface which can
deliver radiation with maximum flux called by black body or ideal radiator.
Heat movement process always applied in many kind of chemical
industries as heat exchaging instrument. However the usage of this instrument
is limited for small heat load. For distributing huge enough heat load,
automatically bigger heat transfer area is needed. Based on this problen, fin
installation on the pipe surface is done. With this installation, the heat transfer
area will be more bigger and it will increase the capacity of heat exchanging
instrument to transfer bigger heat load. The expectation increasing of the
capacity will make that heat exchanging instrument can work more effective
and efficent.
Fin is a human engineering product which made with purpose to
accelerate theheat transfer rate by enlarging effective area of the heat transfer.
Heat transfer which happen at fin involve conduction and convection with air.
From the picture :

Tsurr, h
A

Tsurr, h

Tsurr, h
A

Ts, A
Ts

Ts
(a)

(b)

(c)

Picture 1.1. Any Plane Wall


(a)Wall without fin;
(b)Wall with fin uniform cross section
(c) Wall with nonuniform cross section
Based on the picture above, if environment temperature (notated with
T sur) is in steady condition thus there are 2 methods to accelerate the heat
transfer rate. The value of convection heat transfer coefficient can be
increased or set the fluid temperature in lower value than before by
accelerating fluid velocity that flows on the wall surface. Unfortunately that
method is difficult to do and less economical. Therefore more efficient
alternative method is looked for by fin installation on the wall. Material
conductivity from fin will influence temperature distribution along that fin
and the degree of heat transfer significantly. Application of fin can be seen on
motorcycle machine cooler, lawnmover, and cooler for source of electricity
generation. Ideally, fin should have big thermal conductivity to minimize
temperature variation from base temperature to end of the fin. This fin
capacity can be measured from biot number.
hL
Bi 0,1
k

Bi is defined as comparation between conduction and convection resistance. If


value of Bi<0,1 therefore conduction resistance smaller than its convection so
the distribution of temperature can be assumed similar one of each other.
For determining the temperature distribution at fin, calculation by heat
balance method must be done in the control volume element of the fin.
Assumptions are used :
The heat transfer happen in steady state condition for 1 dimension. Steady
state condition means there is no heat that accumulated. Using 1
dimension because fin elongate along x axis so y and z-axis can be
neglected.
Constant heat conductivity of the
In experiment, fin material that used is uniform with heating machine
that called cast iron
Radiation is ignored
Radiation is ignored because it isnt efficient if not in vacuum
condition.
Convection heat transfer coefficient to environment can be assumed
constant
Temperature and pressure can be considered constant.
There is no heat that happen inside fin.
Contact between fin with wall can be assumed perfect contacted.

There is no cavity in part of the fin that stick to the oil heater machine so
convection dont occur at the base which can caused Q loss.

Air
Temperature

Base
Temperature

Picture 1.2a. Nonuniform Cross Section Fin (Triangular straight fin)

Picture 1.2b. Area Dr zoom


At volume element with dx length and x distance, heat is conducted to this
element with input :
q x =kA

dT
w dT
=k x
dx
L dx ...........................................

(1)
Where A is cross sectional area (which its value is influenced by x
value).Meanwhile at x+dx distance,the output heat rate

q x+dx =qx +

d qx
dx
dx

.....(2)

Subtituting the equation(1) to (2)


q x+dx =[k

w dT d
w dT
x
+
k x
dx ] ..
L dx dx L dx

(3)
The heat transfer that flow by convection from fin surface to around air is:
h ds ( T Ta )=h(2 dx sec )(T Ta) ..

(4)

The temperature difference T-Ta is set such that equation above have positive
value if T>Ta. The surface that contact with air is ds width which same with
2dxsec . In steady state condition where there is no heat produced,
therefore:
input rateoutput rate=0

... (5)

Subtituting equation (1) and (3) to (5):


k

w dT
w dT d
w dT
x
+ k x
+
k x
dx h( 2dx sec )(T Ta)=0
L dx
L dx dx L dx

d
w dT
k x
h ( 2 sec ) ( T Ta ) =0 (6)
dx L dx

If thermal conductivity does not rely by x value therefore by substituting y=TTa, that equation will become

d y dy 2 hLsec
x 2+
y=0 .
kw
d x dx
(7)
where:
x

=distance from the end of the fin,ft

=fin temperature at x distance

Ta

= Surround air temperature

=Heat transfer coefficient from outside surface of fin to surround air,


Btu/(hr)(ft2)(oF)

= fin thermal conductivity

L = fin total legth measured from base , ft


W =fin thickness at base
= half angles of a fin
Equation (7) is called Bessel equation.The general form of Bessel equation is :
d2 y (
dy
x
+ x a+2 b x r ) + [ c +d x 2 s b ( 1a p ) x p +b 2 x 2 r ] y=0
2
dx
dx
2

.(8)

By multiplying equation (7) with x variable and using notation:

2h sec
..
kw

Resulting
x

d2 y
dy
+ x xy=0 ..............(10)
2
dx
dx

(9)

If equation (9) compared with equation (8) thus will be gotten value : a=1,
b=0, c=0, d=-, s=1/2, p=0, r=0.The equation(10)solving become
y=T Ta=c1 I o ( 2 x ) +c 2 K o ( x) ...

(11)

Fin temperature at the end x=0 must have certain. Because K o(0) , and
Io(0)=1, c2 must zero so equation (11) written :

T Ta=c 1 I o ( 2 x ) ..
(12)
For getting c1 value therfeore other limit condition must be known, for
example x=L, base temperature own certain value that is constant T B. If this
kind of limit condition occur thus when x=L.
c 1=

T BTa
I o (2 L) .

(13)
Finally the fin temperature distribution equation is:

T =Ta+

T BTa
I o ( 2 L )

x I o (2 x) .............

(14)
Heat which is transferred to fin by conduction at x=L(steady state condition)
is similar with heat that transferred by fin to air, so with that statement
obtained :

q=kx

( dTdx )

x= L

The equation (12) then differentiated, and got :


c 2 d
c 2
dT
d
=c1 [ I o (2 x) ]= 1
I o ( x) ] = 1 (x )
[
dx
dx
x dx
x

... (15)

The Bessel function solving is:

q=

kw c 1
2 c h ( sec ) L
I 1 ( 2 L ) = 1
I 1 (2 L)
L
L

(16)
Types of Fin

Straight Fins
1) Rectangular

Picture 1.3. Rectangular Straight Fin


2) Triangular

...

Picture 1.4. Triangular Straight Fin

3) Parabolic

Picture 1.5. Parabolic Straight Fin

Circular Fin
1) Rectangular

Picture 1.6. Rectangular Circular Fin

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Pin Fins
1) Rectangular

Picture 1.7. Rectangular Pin Fin


2) Triangular

Picture 1.8. Triangular Pin Fin


3) Parabolic

Picture 1.9. Parabolic Pin Fin

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Fin Performance
Fin Efficiency
Other aspect that shows the competency from a fin is fin efficiency.
One of the parameter from this efficiency is temperature distribution. From
temperature distribution, can be known the numbers of heat released. Fin
efficiency will be bigger if the temperature difference on the fin surface with
temperature along fin is not big. For that purpose, fin material used must be
chosen such thar the heat resistance give small value. If the material used is
good conductor therefore the temperature difference along part of fin is not
too big.
Fin efficiency also can be defined as ratio of the actual heat rate
compared with rate occur when whole of part from fin have same temperature
with base temperature(maximum heat transfer/heat released by fin). That
statement can be written :

Fin _ Efficiency

actual _ heat _ released _ by _ fin


max imum _ heat _ released _ by _ fin

2 h ( sec ) ( T BTa ) dx

c 1 [ I 1 ( 2 L ) ]

L ( T B Ta ) ..

(17)

I1
I o L

(18)

(19)

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or

1 I 1 (2 mL)
mL I 0 ( 2 mL )

With

2h
kw .......

(20)
Effectiveness Fin
Fin is used for accelerating heat transfer by enlarging surface area.
However fin also can become conduction resistance in heat transfer from base
surface. Because of that reason, there is no guarantee that the heat transfer rate
wil be always increase by fin addition.
Fin effectiveness defined as ratio from heat transfer of the wall with
fin toward the heat transfer from wall without fin so can be known how much
the benefits of fin using.

Fin _ Effectiven ess

kP
f
hAc

flow _ heat _ transfer _ with _ fin


flow _ heat _ transfer _ without _ fin

(21)

Fin effectivity able to be increased by using material which have high


heat conduction value. Material that often used are alloy aluminium and iron.
Althought iron have higher heat conductivity value, alloy aluminium often
more used because its properties like light and cheap price. Fin effectivity also
can be increased by adding parameter ratio compared by transection. Because
of that reason, thin and closed range fin more priority with condition slit in the

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fin is not minus to a value where flow between fin will be hampered and
decrease the convection coefficient.
Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient At Fin
For triangular straight non uniform cross section fin, there are 2
beside side that have triangle shape, 2 upper side and under that contact with
air where the convection heat transfer occur. Convection heat transfer can be
calculated from this equation :

L= h L
Nu
k

..(22)

As
P

.(23)

k
cp

.(24)

where Nusselt number (NuL) is dimensionless number that show temperature


gradient at surface. Nul isfunction from Rayleigh numbers(Ral)
RaL =

g cos ( T sT surr ) L
v

...

(25)

For beside side, end, and base (vertical plate)

Nu L 0.825
9

1 0.492 / Pr

0.387 Ra L

6
16

27

(26)

Or if the fluid give laminar flow properties with 0 < RaL < 109

0.67 Ra L

14

Nu L 0.68
9

1 0.492 / Pr

16

...(27)

For the up side :


Nu L 0.54 Ra L
Nu L 0.15 Ra L

(104 RaL 107)...... (28)

(107 RaL 1011).. (29)

(105 RaL 1010). (30)

For the bottom side :


Nu L 0.27 Ra L

Where :
NuL

= Nusselt Number

RaL

= Rayleigh Number

= average convection heat transfer coefficient.

As

= heat surface area of the heat transfer wall.

= perimeter of heat transfer wall.

=acceleration constant of earth gravitation.

=plane elevation angle toward vertical line.

= 1/TF
= volumetric thermal expansion coefficient koefisien ekspansi termal
volumetrik (Tf = 0,5 [fin average temperature+ air temperature] )

Ts

= fin base temperature

Tsur

= air temperature

= air kinematic viscosity

= fin thermal diffusivity

=fin thermal conductivity

15

cp

1.4.

= fin heat capacity

HYPOTHESIS
1. The heat transfer that occur at fin are conduction and convection .
2. The heat move from higher temperature base to end of the fin which has
lower temperature.
3. As long as temperature increasing occur therefore time needed to result
constant fin temperature will be shortened.
4. In this experiment effectivity and efficiency from fin estimated influenced
by base temperature.

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