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A GRAMMAR OF IN DIALECTIC CHANGES THE KISWAHILI LANGUAGE .

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etc. etc. TAYLOR.A GRAMMAR OF DIALECTIC CHANGES THE IN KISWAHILI LANGUAGE by CAPTAIN C.. W. E. with an Introduction and a Recension and Poetical Translation of the Poem INKISHAFI^ a Swahili Speculum Mundi^ by the Rev.A. STIGAND Author of The Land of Zinj To Abyssinia through an unknown Land. M. Interpreter in Swahili and H. imbridge at the : University Press 1915 .

Cambtttoge : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY.A. M. ' AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS .

are in most cases very imperfect.PREFACE LANGUAGE A **- character . C. made communities and sultanates in a situation favourable to the growth of numerous Modem transport facilities and the sinking of old feuds have caused a reversal of these conditions and now the newer dialect of Zanzibar The reader is is rapidly supplanting the older ones. so little written Swahili as is unstable in and forms rapidly pass as changes occur old words out of use. Although the records this. presumed to be familiar with the dialect of Zanzi- and others are compared with bar. 1915 H. as well as for of the old poetry in the the translation of the piece. SUDAN. they have the value of bringing to notice many words and forms which have not yet been elucidated and which might otherwise have passed into I am much indebted to Mr Taylor for oblivion. The isolation of different Swahili the past dialects. S. undertaking some revision Appendix and also for the addition of another version of the same in the Mombasa dialect. KAJOKAJI. .

.

CONTENTS .

for which the statements the Author speaks authoritatively.).K. Indeed it comes as the first Monograph published upon the subject.). and in the appearance of for the new generation . in my own African Aphorisms (S. THE the Africa in already well known from his works on East capacities of Soldier and Administrator. by reference to which works and to Krapf s Dictionary made here about Mombasa may be adjusted. It is therefore important to note that the point of view of the present work is taken as from the more Northern centre (Laniu). whether in English or in any other language. And no doubt the methods.P. to whom the Essay will be most precious . etc. so far as I am aware. To style this work the most elaborate on the Swahili Dialects which has yet appeared is not to give it more than its due. will be subjected to the critical tests of examination in the field at the hands of those capable of judging in such and use matters. but is no less worthy of attention. and will even be found to require a certain amount of modification. Traveller is and Hunter of Big Game. as for instance in the Preface to Steere's Tales. which involve certain new conclusions. departures. and detail. has kindly asked me to preface this Treatise with a few remarks of my own.. for the Lamu class of Dialects indeed we have no other English guide. because here he throws himself into a branch of research in which he is not perhaps quite so well known. of the book. though notes on these matters may be found in the extant handbooks and dictionaries. that of the original and enterprising Student of Language.C. and I have gladly acceded to his request.K. This "give and take" however is essential to progress.P.C. this Manual a delightful task is provided of East African scholars.INTRODUCTION who Author. and again in a tabulated form in a contribution to the (Mombasa) Swahili Grammar of Mrs Burt (S. Explorer and Ethnologist.

land. How easy then is it to see that while " " on the one hand the advantages of its sunken position would give it a speech which is both insular for purity and continental for and while its geographical situation." has become the subject of a sad play !" "war" as we are told say the natives. " which stands in contrast to the T above) and means thrust forth. lying in the midst between the South and the North sections of the Swahili coasts. I know that their uncouth jargon is so different a tongue as to be further or at Giryama or Pokomo from the Swahili . is itself I doubt not derived from " the root vi (otherwise zi). you have in a nutshell all the olden history of the turbulent little territory as far back as it can be traced. that in the Mvita or Mombasa may speak If I whole. from the feature of this "hidden Isle. displays and cultivates to the full respective excellences. The Mombasa is accordingly a dialect which proved in a moderately long." " throw out. experto crede. The Curtained Headpoint." As for the Gunyas of the extreme North. expeditions. meaning a sinking in. would secure a balance between the respective branches of the catholicity. I. experience. least as far off as is say while the Ngazija of the Comoro Islands is. though running on similar lines yet also a different language.INTRODUCTION IX of my own view of the language considered as a would say that the conclusion which much careful consideration has brought me to is. and corruptions of the careless South. then. tion. and the needless complications and ironbound archaisms of the too conservative Islanders of the North the the others Mombasa all their speech." with the root TA " It signifies. and warlike . is Vita "It upon words. either civil or external. for one. its native name. thus depicting with a single touch the outstanding geographical Now this name Mvita. and wide. to be " have valable " throughout the length and breadth of all that is really "Swahili." because while the the too patent crudities." as of a warlike expedition and in war. say Barawa. at least under Arab rule." (otherwise CHA). genius of the Mombasa dialect eschews the blemishes and excrescences which are to be found in Central. born and . I dialect one finds " what may be classed as the truly Central Swahili. in its purity. Languages the sterner stuff of the Mombasians of old. Now Vita is manifestly derived from the root TA ("cerebral" T restless history of the place. ambiguities. It will be interesting to note the reason for the facts I have Mombasa a little philology will be useful in illustra- alleged about Mvita.

T it is efrxnv. and Quiloa. and onwards under its once famous Queens. and Melind. dealing with moot points aye settled them true the learn'd in the Who Ne'er lay appeal from what they pronounced fair " 1 all this. retains men possessed of usemi na utakaand of profound intellect. such as one finds in native stories and tales. which are so interestingly discussed in it is this Book. for there are a few scattered representatives extant even now of these pristine .INTRODUCTION X bred as they were amid the clang of arms. as well as a eloquence malifu wa akili. or Milton's " the less maritime kings. quote the old Lament a memory of great Authorities. to of lore school of the Islam. However. whether in MS. and so on to the present day. Mombaza. or spoken. such as Mwana Kambaya. par excellence. "puritanic." then the Mazru'is. doubtless from the fact that formerly there was frequent intermarriage between the two strains. And a fact remarked by the Natives themselves that while the Dialect of Lamu and its congeners. the City's along boasted hero and founder of its Mohammedan fame." genius of their Dialect. treatises of different kinds. no doubt. from the far-off days of Shehe Mvita. as well as from the existence to some extent in the Mrima of the same disposing causes. And "just Judges who judgment could shew Law all concur in their view." the Isle Accordingly KO. the Dialect considered of all others the best fitted for accurate statement and grave discussion the Swahili for Prose. in a more or less unbroken succession the centuries. Also it must be admitted that good Mrima shares with the Mombasian somewhat in this excellence. must have reacted favourably to produce the virile. as well as in One uses the somewhat rare MS. " not surprising to find that Kisiwani. though no doubt there is good and bad literature or speech in every dialect here examined and some of the Mombasian examples are not of the former yet the above may be relied upon as a candid Native appreciation of their respective merits. are affected by the Swahilis at large as affording a mine and a mould for the forms and expressions of most Swahili Poetry. " " prose to signify all sustained speech. and while the Zanzibar group to the South has furnished a lingua the Mombasian or Kimvita is franca and a terminology for Trade. the And vestiges of whose in palace Bishop Tucker sketched 1906.

when the Christians of St Thomas worshipped in numerous Churches. since it was version. to say nothing of the happier days that were before them. T. religious Classic of But with these matters I have dealt more at length the race. if not the greatest. differing in so felt that the possession of this more Southern details from the Northern. in the proper place. to the study of languages. at the instance of Captain Stigand. E. and spirit. Certainly. The Translation and I believe that it presents the first poetical version published in our tongue of anything African ever written south of the Equator is will enable original also offered as an attempt to convey accurately the general sense. many important scholars better to judge as to what was probably the form of this important Classic. made many years ago. 1915. . and bearing. here in E. of which the ruins laid low by the Portuguese remain to Thankful am I that this Dialect happily once more restored to its ancient glory as a vehicle for the Praises of God. Africa and throughout the wide world (its Field). to add my own Recension of the same Poem.INTRODUCTION XI Worthies. but for the Gospel message and attest the truth of the tradition. and mutatis mutandis the form also of a piece of literature which has been certainly held in reverence for centuries past as a great. is the stimulus which its proclamation has given. W. KYRK. the present work would never have been written. In conclusion : To the Ancient Poem selected by the Author to serve as a specimen of the Kingozi I have been permitted through the hospitality of the University Press.

= English.) = Arabic. = Kiarau. Kip. Eng. = Kiuug. = Kimrima. derived from. 80. = Kitikuu. Lit. = derivation. PL = singular. Ar. Der. = plural. Kimg.ABBREVIATIONS (Also see p. Kiunguja. = Kipate. Kimr. Kiam. = literally. Kit. = Kimvita. Sing. = Kirngao. . Kimv.

at the present a language which is neither pure Mombasa nor pure talk day.name. Hindustani and Somali or Gala words. Zanzibar.-indicates. Nyasaland. Uganda and far info the Congo.gp.. but ) the more educated the proportion of words derived from S Arabic would perhaps amount to a quarter of the language. understood on the coasts of Somaliland and Arabia and It also penetrates It is holds sway as a trading and nautical language to a certain extent Malay Peninsula. so to speak. and Portuguese East Africa.. and as such is whole of the East African sea-board.A SHORT TREATISE ON DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES OF KISWAHILI THE langiifl. Zanzibar and the dialects. laces.the much farther than this. Where considerable intercourse exists between members of two owing to modern improvements in communications. Africa. In addition to this there is a good sprinkling of Portuguese. greater proportion of the language is of Bantu origin. r Js iswftbilj.. German language of the coast on the Swahili really only indigenous to the towns coast.. these dialects have naturally a tendency to merge together. now much what French used JjtSL.as jt&.. viz.Bantu The among Kiswahilj (or Kisawaheli in the Archipelago) is^j . of British East East Africa.. Lamu lJLcabs. refcrrpd to purer dialects of the as. .mtk . practically the It is -is . The | J great bulk of the inhabitants of Mombasa. Mrima. as far as the This widely spoken language and is divided into numerous dialects sub-dialects. Such is the state of things between Mombasa. to be to the court language. practical uses liowever extend This language is to Africa Europe.

and pointing by simple steps A knowledge of these dialectic differences will permit of many words being easily converted from one dialect into another by simple changes of letters and forms. fore it is best to these latter dialects On account of many apparent exceptions to rules it is not so when a certain change will take place. dialects not only remain purer but tend to differentiate still further. I shall call this group the Zanzibar . 2. For convenience in reference group. J have bracketed together into one group as they possess considerable similarity. as in the Lamu Archipelago. strange at easy to foretell first sight. It is. The great influx of natives from the interior cannot its mark on the language fail to leave of the vulgar. The 1. Here we have many little islands and towns. once the rules are known. 3. often become at once chief Swahili Dialects spoken on this coast are Kiunguja Kimrima Kimgao These three I } V : Zanzibar group. intelligible. So it is here that pure dialects can be found and moreover it is here that the birth of the Swahili language is said to have taken It would be more fitting therefore to commence with these place. In course of time this present language of the vulgar will very possibly become the so-called pure language. however.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 2 It would appear from old accounts. Thereit is assume that the reader is acquainted with one of and endeavour to lead up to the less known out the chief dialectic differences. and so words. each very conservative in its dialect and very punctilious in the observation of little dialectic differences. very easy to recognise the new word when a change has taken place. dialects and then proceed to the less pure. the language of Zanzibar and that of the Mrima However. that are the better known and it is these which have been chiefly expounded and supplied with a certain amount of literature. however. In places where there is little intercourse held with the outside world or between members of different dialects. that the language of the former city used to be a very pure dialect.

The next two dialects might be grouped together into one group them as the differences are but slight between 8. Kialabi. with a sub-dialect : Kiviunba. still referred to as the This dialects : dialects of the Banadir coast. an exhaustive which occur on this coast. J Distinguished from the Zanzibar group by slight differences in some grammatical formations is : Kimvita. will suffice. j Sub-dialects of Zanzibar group. Kingazija. however. dropping or adding syllables. 6. Lastly comes the parent of 15. related to Swahili are all these dialects : Kingovi. Kiunga and other places on the coast N. Kipate} The Amu enumerated 10. list of all the lesser In addition to the true dialects there are several fanciful and useless forms A made up by few words on two changing. Very different lary Amugroup : 11. might be Farther afield but 13. at Rasini. Kiamu 9. This with a number of local dialects. is by no means. both in grammar and vocabu- : 12.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 3 There are a number of small sub-dialects and local variations of the above the chief of these are . : Kihadimu and Kitumbatu Kipemba 4. The 14. 7. Kitikuu. 12 . Kisiu. : Kinyume. viz. is } : from all the above. 5. group has several - local variations of which two will be Kishela. Bajun group. of Amu. such as those spoken Tundwa.

or te safi in Swahili. An exact understanding of some of these will facilitate the transposition of certain words into other dialects. I have. in a book which has in view a comparison of dialects one has thought it necessary to make distinctions not usually needed. The different t's in pure Swahili are (i) The Arabic (tamaruf) called in Swahili. It common other to the educated Swahili ear. shown Ku-Tii of the t t.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 4 Before dealing with the differences existing between these touch on certain letters as it would be as well to dialects pronounced by the Swahili. for dialectic reasons. The reader will of course get their correct sounds best from a native. This letter has a sound like a strong T followed by a susor sometimes rw. the letter T This is nearly always be found that the t and not the other Arabic t is O. tip of made by nearly closing the teeth the tongue against the edges of the teeth. J : Tamarufa. Certain Swahili Letters appears that there are no less than five different t's in use in pure Swahili and clearly distinguishable from each T. The Arabic (ii) = Koran a t occurs in an Arabic word which also contains (kh) tamamf. To get the correct pronunciation picion of a w make a swahili-educated Swahili from the coast say these words close to your ear : KhaTari = danger KaraTasi = paper KhaTi = sultan = allegiance = letter KhuTubu = reading KhaTua = KhaTibu = a SulTan Taa' pace step. This symbol preacher to obey. O called tay. a clear dental t and putting the upper will it above. = necessary KhaTamu = bridle SharuTi When N. However.B. A multiplication of different letters is not approved of by most authorities on the language who aim at the simplification of writing. distinguished by the .

come towards Ku-fuata = to follow Mto = a river to make a guest one. = leavings after sifting rice = a certain spotted fish = a small perch-like fish = a mistake. let down so. to your ear 5 Swahili. . fault T'akwambia=: I will tell you (abb. period Patapata = twins Mvita = to leave Ku-pata = to weave Ku-ata This t It is is shown by Taylor in italics. : Ku-tawala = to reign = to want Ku-taka Ku-tukua = to carry. and Aspirated dental t. Shown here by = a louse T'awa (iv) T'embe T'ewa in = to cut . Examples. This and the next two are called (iii) by the Swahilis te pindu or the overturned t. end = to snap the Ku-t'etea fingers. .CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS who does not and make him say close To obtain the pronunciation get a pure speak one of the Zanzibar group of dialects.we have quarrelled = the red bud of a banana tree = to put down (a load). important in the transposition of Kimvita words into Kiunguja. in distinction to the pure t. The Bantu cerebral t. to lose one's bearings in a house at night on suddenly rising out of bed. . Mto = Mombasa Ku-fita = to hide Mtanga = sand Tarikhi = date Wakati = time. form) T'aa T'ua Nt'i = country Nt'a = point. Ku-pata Ku-pita Ku-kata Tumeteta Tumbiri Ku-tua Ku-vuta = = to get to pass. take Tutatunga = we will herd (cattle) = toddle Tatetate = to rub Ku-tua = lamp Taa = pillow. hence or stranger to invite t'. to pass (or come) = to (sail) draw (towards one from a distance occasionally) .

this is by far the most common d I have shown as it Taylor shows it in italics. dal.) thus pound it thoroughly Hadimu =a servant Hadithi =a story. To pronounce this letter the must be placed in the same position as in pronouncing the tongue simple d. as in English. As i. however. n has a disturbing . T'embe Shown here by =a t'. T'eo There are all kinds of graduations of the t's above when pronounced in different words and with different vowels and these can only be learnt by ear.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 6 Aspirated cerebral (v) t. etc. Dimia = the world Ku-dirika = to meet Ku-dodosi . or pure. or pure Arabic 3 (dal) called by the Swahilis the clean. sling. grain Ku-t'enda = to do = dates T'ende T'umbiri = a monkey Mat'ongo = eye matter = a person Mt'u Kit' and a = a bed = a strap. at a time and and every other word in which a d occurs unless that d immediately preceded by the letter n.e. there is practically no such thing as a pure dental d so in those dialects this d must be pronounced more as a cerebral d. In pure Swahili there appear to be three d's in use. (i) The dental dali safi.to tap gently Ku-dongoa = to pound a little (mtama. The effect of combination with the letter influence on the pure d. dental t. D. is In the Zanzibar group. Examples.

CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 7 In pure Swahili on all occasions that the combination nd d must be pronounced in one of the two following occurs the ways : The semi-dental d called by the Swahilis dali pindu or ya pindu.) = to fold love Ku-tinda (Kimv. aid to those studying Swahili in Arabic characters I have shown it as d. Examples.) Kitandi (Kiam.) = to begin = a workman Fundi (Kimv.) = to kill Ku-anda (Kiam. viz.)= to Ku-penda (Kimv. The Kim vita words above N.) = belonging to Nda (Kiam. > = ndugu.) = outside Nde (Kimv.) Mwando (Kiam.) = beginning = come Ndoo (Kimv. The (iii) pindu or re slurred d called by ya pindu. the overturned d. The is supposed to represent the Arabic j and thus convey to the mind that in transliteration an r is to be used. This is As an Example. Ndani Ndoo Kanda = inside = a bucket = a matting bag .B.) = to taste Konda (Kiam.) = a loop.) = hunger Ndaa (Kimv. This sound is made by raising the tongue a little higher than for the dental d and opening the mouth a little wider.) = a road. the Kiamu words are all only used in occur also in Kimvita Kiamu but after undergoing dialectic changes. path = a kanzu (garment) Ku-kunda (Kiam. Ndia (Kimv.) Kandu (Kiam.e. re pronounced exactly half way between d and r. i. As this letter is important for dialectic reasons I have marked (ii) dali it 4 Examples. Swahilis not d but r.

) but in the Ingira. congeal Ku-ganda = to teach. has been vowel which bears its sound. The and R. soldier. as is However Ingia (Kiam. These two kinds when it and d have been touched on at length so letters t to distinguish between the different may comes to the transposition of one kind of t or d learn that the reader in a dialectic change. Certain other letters The Arabic . L c letter shown by an apostrophe be touched on briefly.) appears nyere (Kimr. As we are beginning at the newer dialects and working back to the older and purer it will appear as if these letters have been cut out. . and Kiung. more cerebral d takes the place dental of and (i) (ii). still pronounced in juxta- Thus nyele (Kiinv. may (a' in) after the a'skari Example. it appears as Ingila and thicker speech of Kimg. In the Zanzibar group however. as mentioned above.) and sometimes so an 1 or r inserted to help out the sound. Ku-fundisha Ku-kanda Hando Gando . the pure d is not used and a slurred. between these There is also a tendency.). in less pure dialects. In reality the thicker and less pure pronunciation of the southern dialects does not permit of certain vowels being position and nyee (Kiam. In some dialects there appears to be no clear distinction made letters and either may be used in the same word. and r are interchangeable in different dialects.. In pure Swahili no other d is used but these three. to insert one of these letters between two consecutive vowels. is pronounceable in Kimv. deep water Kilindi Ku-piga dondo = to iron (clothes) = to curdle. and Kiung. letters 1 = where pronounced.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 8 = to massage = a vessel for water = a lobster's claw = Adam's apple also. freeze.

Examples. viz. (ii) All words possessing this letter are of Arabic origin. Examples. sail to prawn * foromali ' is a . then. hold (ku)-kaba Kahawa = coffee = a caravan Kafila = truth. = paddle Kafi = oar Kasia = large jar Kasiki Ku-kataa = to refuse Kaa = ember Kwake Kwenda = at his (home) = to go = and afterwards. cray fish. lantern (ku)-kafini = to cover up = a tribe Kabila = to seize. K'aa K'asa =a =a crab turtle K'ajek'aje = ropes for fastening K'amba lobster.B. K. k'. and Kisa (iii) The aspirated form of the last. This strong guttural k. Hakika Karibu Kandili N.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS Other letters which are another dialect are 9 when passing interchangeable into : ch and t f s n m v and v g J s sh z d g k sh ch ch z th and y 1 t J f z and a few others more seldom. J called in Swahili kafu nyangwe. Of (i) The Arabic k's there are three kinds. = near = lamp. The simple k or Arabic J (kaf ). Examples.

They are certainly unintelligible to a native pronounced in the latter way. as kolokolo. Kaa ungoja utaona mimi takapo kupata. " law " 6. For in that this verse k'aa (a crab) does not sound to it him is not mentioned from the fact in the least like kaa. To pronounce such words as Kolokolo. have distinguished the sound of aw as in Eng. etc. may bring home to the reader how clear these differences in the pronunciation of a letter appear to the native. komba. Kaa is an ember of the fire which brightens and dies out. popoo. Other words which even in Arabic are never spelt with teshdid have been introduced with Roman characters into Swahili with a reduplication of some consonant. Kaa again is (the stalk) of the coconut which sways to and fro. is confusing and also leads them often to appropriate sign written. Kaa tena nda mnazi lendalo mbele na nyuma. I by the sign No k (ii) and (iii).CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 10 = the Indian drill = K'elele a shout K'ering'ende = a partridge = a kernel. Translation. The letters ch and p may be aspirated or not as is the case with 6. over a consonant have for long been spelt in Swahili with the double consonant. is used for this sound in Swahili." or the sign of duplication. The following little verse. thus impossible to speak correctly unless attention has It is been paid to them. komba. popoo. as usually shown by simple o. to the native ear. Certain words derived from Arabic words with " teshdid. it being pass for another word. Kaa is just wait you will see what I will do to you. I may mention that all the distinctions I have made represent. Kaa ni kaa la moto liwakalo na kuzima. ." Ch and P. very different sounds. " Kaa is sit on your hunkers that you may quiet your heart. K'oko K'ek'e In case anyone may think these distinctions in different letters unworthy of attention. enumerating the four meanings of the word kaa. Kaa ni kaa kitako utuze wako mtima.

although this consonant is hardly pronounced in Arabic. used the following signs. Thalimu Ramadhani. or most Bantu speaking natives. in strange words which do not occur in the dictionary I have. are usually spelt with the double consonant. Such spelling is not according to the pronunciation of these words by Swahili. the other differences in letters serve the purpose of distinguishing many words which to the unaccustomed ear sound alike.3 Example. ilia. viz. with a single consonant. This is more in accord with Swahili pronunciation and the inability of Bantu natives. marra. Th Th Th in italics = Arabic = Dh = Putting aside these last letter > . 11 billa.. tissa.. There Ku-pata is and no confusion in the native mind between : . J%elafAa Thikiri . Bassi. sitta. which do not count for much in Swahili.*. for facility of reference to Arabic dictionaries if required. followed Taylor's mode of spelling. in regard to such words.. I have therefore. letters. Th.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS To quote the commonest. to pronounce a closed syllable. with few exceptions. There are a variety of th and dh sounds in Arabic which Where such are pronounced or are seldom pronounced in Swahili. .

all down the meaning coast. In other cases there may be several words bearing the same of which are understood in several dialects. A few examples of different words used in two different dialects conveying the same sense. although not in use in in the sense of "to delay" is in general use Mombasa and Amu meaning "to have delayed until overtaken by something. " to delay. sun . ku-chelewa. III. Yet if one heard a man use ku-limatia several times during a conversation one would probably be correct in assuming that he came from the Lamu Archipelago. more or less.DIALECTIC CHANGES 12 Headings for Dialectic Changes I. all all Thus the three words. II. ku-kawia and ku-limatia." In Zanzibar ku-kaa is used almost to the exclusion of ku-keti. he would probably use all three. dialect prefers one of these and some other dialect another. but it is distinctly dialect. or the two most foreign to him. Showing forms used in the dialect referred to differing from those of the preceding. omissions or additions of letters will serve to turn a word from one dialect into another. Changes of Letters. Again a word may be used sense in one dialect Thus when it is in a different sense or in some special not used in others. If he was showing off. Showing what simple transpositions. as natives love to do. So not if mean one says that certain words are typical of a dialect it does necessarily that they will not be heard or known in another means that they are the favourite and most used of the words of their meanings." "to remain. but one meaning." are understood. Many words are foui>d absolutely distinct in two separate dialects. Thus one hears the word ku-keti in Zanzibar. Changes of Vocabulary. it a Mombasa and Amu group word. ku-chelewa. of the words above. Changes of Grammar. ku-kawia to the exclusion of the other two he was of Mombasa and if he used ku-chelewa Similarly if he used one might guess that he was of the Zanzibar group and possibly an Mgao. In Mombasa it is used almost to the exclusion of ku-kaa in the sense of "to live." viz.

sailor-man Chinese or Cingalese. hoping to make himself more intelligible. I have often heard two of our Nyasaland askari. Ku-tota (Kiamu)= to be sunk. be dealt with in anything but a meagre way. in addition to the above meanings (which are seldom used) "to be saturated commonly used. native returning A from a safari in his travels using any words he may have picked up and may pronounce them wrongly or assign to them will delight in wrong meanings. He not attempt to explain their meanings but will revel in comrades and showing what a travelled fellow he is. " E.g." left latter places is always used with kitako. E. both of the same tribe." In Kimv. talking to using their each other in very broken Swahili in preference to own language. will mystifying his nor will his comrades attempt to ask him their meanings. for the picking up of idioms is a matter which requires long residence in a country. dialects big tract of country they cover. it is " "foreign and therefore Neither this nor the last heading can IV. lost at sea. Changes of Idiom. Again a word in some dialect may have a wider meaning. " the tide or Ku-kaa is used for 13 " " being caught by stranded by the tide. briefly may give Zanzibar Group. possess almost . " in which sense it is For two reasons especially great care must be exercised in determining whether a word does or does not belong to a certain dialect. be he. drowned. Ku-kaa kitako but not ku-keti kitako. I fear that all these headings will be treated all too In fact and roughly. in spite of the more resemblance to each other than any other group of dialects. Indian or African. but it is hoped that at any rate they the reader a few ideas as to what to look out for. It is with exactly the same motive in view as that of the British " who says " Savey? to any native. The first is the native's love of display. the same word means." " " " to " live or remain in the although not used for " having oyerslept.ZANZIBAR GROUP and thus or tide. Another difficulty is that if a native talks to a white man who imperfectly knows his language he will put in as many foreign words as he can. The grouped together under this name.g. He thinks that that a foreigner should understand.

Nawafuata and nimewambia. does one meet with (v) One trained ear Thus is in of the most striking differences that the dental t and these dialects between such words as it in this group to the are almost absent. Amefanyani P = what has he done ? not heard in Kimv. is final -a of a change of the is : root in the second person plural of the Imperative into Pendeni = Example. you -e. love ye.).ZANZIBAR GROUP 14 The whole of this group The formation (i) distinguished by is of the pronoun in the second -m. Nitakwambia = or t'akwambia (vii) The Example. interrogative suffix -ni occurs in all this group. would mto and d must be pronounced d be difficult to distinguish into. Example. In the Zanzibar group there is no clipping of the (vi) personal pronouns prefixed to the verb but they are always used in their full form.). Amu (pi. This construction does not occur in the group. where the form is Amefanya nini P and sometimes Amefanyaje? which latter also means " how has is he done?" . This I will tell you (sing. This in the purer dialects would be pendani. The whole of this group is also ch which changes to t in Kimvita. (ii) or the by -wa-. in certain tenses.). etc. and not ntakwambia as in purer Swahili. in this group as a cerebral. its place being taken : Mombasa Example. the -e. have told you I In this group there (pi. (iii) of the (iv) The distinguished by the use farther one goes from Zanzibar in this group the more ch in place of k especially before certain vowels. Namfuatani = The the root sometimes changes to final -a of follow I Nimemwambieni = Example. objective person plural being. The corresponding construction in Kimvita. Exceptions however occur in poetry and in a few proverbs.(or -mw-) -ni.

replenishing Kimgao but Kiunguja. viz. accessible to the student. . It is unnecessary to make any comment on words on the pronunciation of certain letters. Kiunguja 1. dali safi. not Kiswahili or districts. Swahilis from such caravans settled Mrima and Mgao the down in various places in the original stock of Swahilis there and bringing with them the dialect of Zanzibar. The dental t it then.KIUNGUJA There is wonderfully little 15 difference in the vocabulary of the three dialects of this group. This is to be attributed probably to the slave and ivory caravans which started from Zanzibar and pushed into these districts. of grammars. especially the latter. It is thus easy to see why both these dialects should have been stamped with the impress of the Zanzibar tongue. These are tamarufa and the cerebral t aspirated and unaspirated. except a few and d are slurred over and do not occur as pure dentals. comparatively speaking. for t's. The only English -Swahili and Swahili-English dictionaries avail- able (Madan's) are in that dialect. for Zanzibar was the hub of their universe. to the labours of the Universities' known and other missions moreover provided with a considerable amount of way this of all the dialects. The Swahilis of Lake Nyasa call their language. vocabularies. and a kind of dali pindu and the re pindu for d's. literature. It has therefore been taken as the standard for comparison with other dialects. stories. alone and so have avoided the influence of the Zanzibar tongue. d's two The d used more approaches our English d than do any of the touched on above. During the last century there has been a tremendous amount of trade passing between Zanzibar and every part of the Mgao Mrima and coasts. etc. dali pindu and re pindu. Zanzibar therefore practically confines itself to three t's and d's. so The habitats of the other dialects have been left. is the language of Zanzibar and more especially of the town of Zanzibar Owing is the best It is in the itself.

with from Vanga nearly to Kilwa. one of the interior of the island and one of Pemba." The Arabic tamaruf with both J and ()*) is generally well marked following two words should be pronounced differently and $. R frequently changes to Examples (in certain sub-dialects).KIMRIMA 16 The Arabic c however is marked strongly in all its changes of pronunciation with different vowels. Kimrima. kwisha = to be finished ! . cluding a Swahili paper edited at Tanga. or the dialect of the Mrima coast. (fr. inlocal variations. is in use. for nothing s. for barua =a Kalama karama = a Halusi harusi Bule Chula bure chura Halili hariri often changes to letter feast = a wedding. to be hard. Examples. The dialect has been copiously dealt with by the Germans and possesses a considerable amount of German-Swahili literature. = a plan. which will be mentioned later. strengthen. Ku-saliTi Ku-saliti (fr. and so the and not be confused. make to flourish. conquer Kwisa . = = cJlo) Ar. Changes of Letters I. or circumcision ceremony = gratis. egg on. 2. Balua Sh 1. " " should there be confusion between Taa' = allegiance prosper. JaJLw) Ar. unyielding to urge. counsel Sauri for shauri Ku-siba ku-shiba = to become replete (with food) Ku-sinda ku-shinda = to overcome. Kiunguja has two sub-dialects. Thus ku-amrisha = to ku-a'mrisha = to and Nor no confusion between in Kiung. = a frog = silk. there should be order. for the first is spelt taa="lamp.

is not a nasal immediately precedes a conin to prevent a closed syllable. of a native with thicker lips to pronounce such vowels . in the next dialect. Example. when followed sit. however. Causative verbs sometimes have a different causative termination from the one used in Kiung. knock down to make. Kiza ku-sogea = to come near ku-koroga = to stir = what sort of? gani ? = darkness giza Koka koga Ku-sokea Ku-koroka for KaniP There as a tendency to is mutu for mtu = "a = a insert person. or e. When an m which sonant a u may be put Sanmli Examples. nyushi Ku-sitaki Nyusi G ku-shika shindo 17 sometimes changes to k. to break to fall." or to bathe. Examples. Ku-vunza Ku-anguza Ku-fanyisha The less inability ku-vunjisha= to cause ku-angusha = to cause ku-fanyiza = to cause pure a dialect to pronounce clearly. Ku-cheti This too more marked is for ku-keti = to stay. for is. the greater appears to be the dislike This is probably due to the two successive vowels.) must come. more marked in the next dialect. for Amuri samli = ghee amri = an order. u after a nasal m muje for mje = "you such (pi. into ch.KIMRIMA Ku-sika Sindo for = to seize = a noise ku-shitaki = to accuse = eyebrows. There by i is occasionally a tendency to change k. Examples." This is.

IL Changes of Grammar The objective pronoun of the second person plural same construction as in Kiung. i is often used for Kuiketilia ji.) Atamwambieni. etc. in dialect of the Example. Puku (i. In some of the local variations of Kimr. trouble. Choroko Kitambara More seldom one of the vowels Tabu Example. leg = hunger ku-pakua = to dish up kitoweo = something Jara jaa Mguru for guu njaa Njara Ku-pakuru (food) to flavour or eat with rice.) Nimemwambieni.). This is etc. he saiba is like) Similarly N.B. Chakwe. an old Swahili form which seems to have died but a few corners. viz. out in all : Bondei (of Pangani). vyakwe. oneself down. be cut out. his fellow is the mchirika rat. follows the : Infinitive Present Perfect Kumpendeni = to love you (pi.KIMRIMA 18 The usual method of an is to slur over the vowels by the introduction or r sound. Kitowero = foot. or nimekwambieni = I have told you Past Future Alimpendani = he loved you (pi. pakwe. closet (locative) chooko =peas kitambaa = handkerchief. chooni . . In reflexive verbs Example. kwakwe.e. the possessive pronoun -ake changes to -akwe.) Nampendani = I love you (pi. or atakwambieni = he (pi. for may taabu = rag. Choroni = dust = bathroom. for kujiketilia This = to is sit like Kiamu. yakwe mchirika = the Buku rat.. 1 Examples.) will tell you (pi.

On the coast immediately opposite Zanzibar. The demonstratives and verbal animate Ndugu yangu Example. Jma ja .B.KIMRIMA Possessive pronouns with sing. however. Ile = that is the brother ng'ombe = those are the cattle. nouns of the ya ma- 19 or ja are used in place of la to agree class. Jina ya fulani) . pronoun wapi P is often shortened to a suffix -pi ? Examples.. though not in the verbal concord.class and their possessive pronouns take concords as for the n. and not concords. Ndugu. are of the class. the n. appear to hold good.class analogy being carried The still farther. certain animate beings are in the form of the n. Examples. ndugu Zile mfaume = " that is mfaume is of the first class. of this class. ile ndugu but yule ndugu amefika imefika. Examples. Also yake for lake and similarly for other concords in the sing.class analogy is maintained in the demonstrative. In certain dialects of Kimr. so \ . Watokeapi Nitapitapi where do you come from ? P Utampatapi ? = where shall I pass ? = how (lit. . concords as in Kiung.. ng'ombe. Examples. Ile the chief. interrog. though In the next dialect we get cases of the n. N. where) will you ? find him ? 22 . In Kiung. fulani and so s name J = an axe Soka ya kuni Jicho ja babiye = for firewood his father's eye." is also heard. baba. Singo yangu = my neck = his kitchen Gongo yako = your staff Tango yetu = our pumpkin Jiko yake Neno ingine (or nyingine) = another word. however.class. mama.

. wa- have not had any opportunity to collect any of these except the three following. for namna = sort.tense the pronominal prefixes a. Changes of Idiom IV. I have gone. In the -me. =a panali ..and we-. . . which must not be confounded with the -ngali. Examples. = while I was as yet in the way Ningali njiani = he was as yet only a youngster Angali mtoto Angaliko mujini = while he was yet in the village.conditional tense. babake = his father kind Ku-gwia ku-fikicha = to crumble ku-kamata = to seize Kinyumenyume nyuma (in certain senses) Kiribiti kibiriti = a match Kitumba Machufuko kanda = a fisherman's basket = disorders = his mother = a chief Ku-fikinya fitina mamake Mamiye Mfaume mfalme Pahara) > Pahala j . Aina Babiye is are some- = he has come Emekuja Examples. = behind place. alivyopata a few instances are given under. Wemekwenda = they In place of -vyo-.KIMKIMA 20 For the -kali (as yet) tense -ngali may be used.and times represented by e. -vofor Alivopata Nimevokwambia III. Nitafanya namna gani P for is : nifanyeji ? = what shall I do ? " there inside. A common expression in Kimr. These are very used in phrases such as follow : = how he got = nimevyokwambia as I have told you." occasionally used for humo meaning Kati and kati ya are used instead of katika in such phrases as Mnamo is : Kati ya nchi ile for katika nchi ile = in that country. Changes of Vocabulary slight.

such as the Kiamu nyee and mbee. have already been provided with an 1 before reaching Zanzibar or the Mrima. and a word may equally well be pronounced with either. however. There is also a settlement of Mgao Swahilis on Lake Nyasa. Thus we have exactly half : for Njala njara (Kimr. The vowels that are especially objected to in juxtaposition are : ee eo oo aa ia ea. or with a letter which is way between the two. oo. Many of the sounds in eo. as has been shown already.) = hunger Tajili tajiri Kadili kadiri Ku-ludi ku-rudi Ku-luka ku-ruka Leale Haluzi harusi Kwa heli kwa reale = a rich man = value. The language of these latter has borrowed a certain amount of words from the languages of the surrounding tribes. As in Kirnrima r and 1 are interchanged but to a still greater extent. The following remarks will refer more especially to this latter dialect. In this dialect. As will be shown later sounds in ee.KIMGAO 3. . received r or 1 in Kimrima before reaching this dialect. in Kimrima there is a great aversion to pronounce two As vowels successively and the sound is carried over by means of 1 or r. Changes of Letters I. and aa have. heri There does not appear to be a tendency to substitute s for sh. Kimgao is the language of the 21 Mgao coast from Kilwa (or Kirwa) southwards. it would appear that the natives do not properly distinguish between the two letters. amount = to return = to fly = a dollar Bira bila Ku-pereka ku-peleka Asari asali = a wedding = goodbye = without = to send = honey Mari mail = property.

and as the objective infix of the third person is in sing. especially after nasal ms.) must beat him = I will give him. as the pronominal prefix of second person plural. general use instead of m. in Kimr. K before = and you (pi. viz.. are pronounced or r. Examples.) want mwampige = you (pi. is if followed certain consonants. avoided by the use of y. kingine = another (thing) kikaanguka = and (the thing) = this (thing) hiki kichwa =head ku-kimbia = to run away. Mu Auwali for awali = before Ku-amuka ku-amka = to awake Muti mti =a tree. often changes to eh. Fanya hivo Example. however. but here they usually take the 1 ia and ea. aendaye and aliraye but this is more a grammatical than phonological change. In fact in the u is U by Muungu word for Mungu = " God. Examples." a second added. Examples. Chingine for Chikaanguka Hichi Chichwa Ku-chimbia . There appears. nitampa mkataka i for fanya hivyo = do like that. frequently added. as in goes. Ku-ingira (or ingila) for Ku-gwira Ku-lira Ku-mera In all = to ku-gwia (Kimr. Examples. fell . to be no aversion to the use of two u's is in juxtaposition.KIMGAO 22 The remaining two sounds on the list. cries. Mukataka for Miunupige Nitamupa Hivo is used instead of hivyo.) = to = to ku-lia = to ku-mea ku-ingia the Zanzibar group the -ae of Mombasa aendae = he who aliae he who or enter seize cry grow.

= he loved. except that the place of before a consonant. no doubt from contact with the surrounding inland languages many of which make no distinction. Grammar Changes of The construction of the objective pronoun of the second person plural resembles that of Kiung. Kukupendani Infinitive or kumupendani = to love you (pi.23 KIMGAO II.) Perfect = I tell you (pi. = you do Haupendi Haukupenda = you not love did not love Haujapenda = you have not yet loved.). in the negative . Alipenda = Hakupenda he did not Hajapenda = he has not love.) he must tell you (pi. .) Past Tulimwambiani = We Future _ Nitamupendam| Nitakupendam j Present -Ear tense The junctive. and Kimr.) Namwambiani = Tumemwambiani We have told you (pi. Examples.) = final -a of the and loved you verb of course changes to -e in the sub- in the -ka. they have loved they loved they did not love they have not yet loved. Amwambieni Akakwambieni = and The pronominal prefix of second person is hau. and the the animate class.tense after a subjunctive. yet loved. Examples. This is Examples. and also. Examples. (pi.) Tumemupendani = We have loved you (pi. mu takes m However. Amependa = he has loved. There appears to be a tendency to use the same pronominal third person plural of prefix for both the third person sing.instead of hu- tenses sing. the last -a of the verb does not appear ever to change to -e as in the last dialect. = he must tell you (pi.

and the verb. " " " are with They chiefly used such words as house or village. Examples. Very often.class This however is not done with human beings. kwenda = where he (or they) went = he who wants Anao kutaka Tuliwo kuwapa = we who gave them Unapo kufika = when you come. Such are pindi for uta = " a bow. The first part ends with the relative while the next part consists of the verb root with a ku. used with a relative the word is is broken up into two parts. However the sub-dialect (Nyasaland) we are chiefly talking about. are used in place of the locative in -ni. Examples. borrowed from the surrounding languages. with an objective prefix the ku- is dropped. In this dialect the agreement of concords of animate beings in is occasionally carried as far as the verb. Alike Occasionally locative forms.K1MGAO 24 The result of this When a verb is considerable ambiguity. draws a number of local words from the surrounding languages. = I hunted elands = Zimepata they (the elands) have been Ng'bmbe zinakwenda = the cattle go Ndugu yangu anapita = my brother is passing. it comes between the ku. Mnyumba mwake = in = at Pa muji pake Ku (or kwa) muji kwake = to The form -akwe his house his village his village.or kw.prefixed to it." Examples." . however." and ku-saka for kuwinda = " to hunt. hit Changes of Vocabulary The vocabulary of this dialect is very like that of Kimr. of the possessive pronoun appears not to be in use. If there is an objective prefix. Nalizisaka mbunju risasi but III. the n.

kufika akaona Mazuri is j _ fHe went there and when he arrived ~~ fulanij he saw so and \ so. There seems to be a general aversion to the use of the Passive. The Active form of the verb is preferred in this dialect and is often used instead of the Passive at the expense of perspicuity. older words or forms being retained in a newer dialect. Example. and he beat him himself). can be noticed in some so-called "Americanisms. in well). . used in place of vizuri. Kihadimu and Kitumbatu are the names by which the dialect of the isle of Zanzibar. I Amekwenda kumpiga ) _~ akampiga mwenyewej The f he Infinitive of the verb is used more frequently than in other dialects. viz. = Amenipiga was hit (lit. Alikwenda kule. are said to 1 A similar state of things. agreeing with mambo. Examples. Si maziiri = it is not good (proper or The above remarks can N. This is a dialect much corrupted by intercourse with inland tribes. ku-ima. the old Swahili word in use before is ku-simama \ Its causative ku-imiza also used. This latter word. Example.or -ki." . no way be taken as applying to a pure dialect.B. is Changes of Idiom IV. stand. outside the town.KIHADIMU KIMGAO. The Wahadimu is known. 25 Examples of other words. be descendants of the original inhabitants of Zanzibar before the coming of the Arabs. they hit me) went to beat him and he himself was \ beaten (lit. Mahali for Kabila Ku-ima = a place pahali kabla or kabula = before = to ku-simama . understood. It is place of used on every conceivable occasion and often takes the what in other dialects would be the -ka.tenses. 4.

meet the true dental letters t and d which have not occurred in any of the dialects yet enumerated. 6.26 KIMVITA KIPEMBA. for it is a The former explanation simple transition to change f into v. This dialect is more Bantu and less Arabic than the dialect of the town of Zanzibar. There is more difference between this dialect and Kiunguja than between any of the dialects yet touched on. said to be the same dialect called by another name is and Kitumbatu is at the north of the island. words into Kimv. Ku-fita ku-ficha Matezo machezo mchanga Mtanga = unripe = to hide = games =sand . It is very contains words drawn from isle isles. would involve the changing of t into t and the addition of m. Kimvita is the dialect of Mombasa. Mombasa drew its Swahili largely from It is in Kimv. It might be said to extend from Malindi (north of Mombasa) to Gasi (south). it must be remembered that we are probably going backwards. Many of Steere's Swahili Stories are much in the style of this dialect. This latter derivation would appear more likely. Kihadimu the dialect of the east and south of the island. That is to say that words probably came from Pate or Mombasa to the newer civilisation of Zanzibar. then only savages. that we first It is also probable that Amu and northwards. Ch Changes of Letters Kiung. hid in the bush. being often altered in transit." because. 5. the Mombasa people. I. changes to t Kimv. Kipemba is the dialect of the akin to the former dialect and like the old inhabitants of the it of Pemba. In converting Kiung. is said to be is said by the people of Mombas derived from mfita="one who when the Pate people swept down the coast." to be derived from vita = By others it hides. -biti for -bichi . The origin of the name Mvita " war.

Words which are spelt in Kiung. kietu. The exceptions (i) to the rule that In words in which the eh Kiung. These pronouns should really be kia. mto. as the Swahilis say. kiangu. but have undergone a euphonistic change to eh. for =a ncha point T'awa T'ewa = a country chawa = a louse chewa = a certain fish T'ini chini nchi Nt'i = below. with eh. : and pronouns agreeing with ki.27 KIM VITA mchawi = wizard Mtele mchele =rice Mtunga = a herdsman = gravy mchuzi pachapacha = a pair. etc.class beginning with eh. or some other Examples. chako. changes eh to t are stands in place of ki. (a) Particles (6) Words reason as (a). Mtawi for mchunga Mtuzi Patapata Ku-tagua Ku-teka Tokaa Tui Ku-tukua it In other cases where a disturbing influence has acted on the t has been. is aspirated. of the ki. There are all grades of sound ranging between the pure dental t and the aspirated cerebral t'. Words which do not occur in Kiung. turned over a little and becomes t'. changu. Such influences may be the letter n. marked t nearly all occur in : Words derived from Arabic words spelt with O. or that the eh in Kiung.class such as cha. alike ku-chagua = to choose = to laugh ku-cheka = lime chokaa = a leopard chui ku-chukua = to take. Nt'a causes. kiako. and others. for the same . chetu. There are however several exceptions such as wot'e. etc. I have not tried to distinguish these sounds as they Those (i) (ii) (iii) differ letters almost with every vowel used. carry. : viz.

chaki. chandarua. cheo. A few other words might be remarked on containing ch.or in the ma.) is follows the rules above. chuni (=a kind of water bird). choyo. changes to nd in Kimv. change. Ku-cha (to dawn) does not change in Kimv. ku-chelewa. In Kiamu it belongs only to the n. Foreign words and beginning with ch-. chambo. expressions being used in Nj in its place. chapa.class in Kimv. Ndaa Nde Ndia Ndiwa Ndoo for . chumvi. -chache. All of these are the same in Kimv. chokora. Taking are first those occurring at the beginning of a word. path njiwa = a dove njoo = come (imperative). uchafu. used indiscriminately in the n. Chakula. ku-chota. chooko. ku-chafuka. and Kip.). and kichwa change to kutwa and kitwa (Kimv. Kiung. choo. mchekeche. chaza (ma. ku-pambauka and other Kuchwa in the purer dialects (Kiam. chumba. njaa = hunger nje = outside njia = road.. the d being the semi- dental explained above.) they appear as kuTa and but kiTa pronounced with tamaruf (1). chungu. Possibly however the word is borrowed in its entirety from Zanzibar as this word is never heard in the purer dialects. chuma. there : Examples. chuo. mchikichi. heard as both tupa and chupa in Kimv. -changa. chungwa. Ku-choka. ehenza. this d is not quite the pure dental owing to the disturbing effect of the letter n..class and is always called tupa. any = Examples. Chai. chura.. chombo.class so it Chupa but it is (Kiung. In Kimv. ku-cha ( to fear). (ii) many of the words of the ma- class Examples.).KIM VITA 28 Examples. A (iii) few other exceptions which do not appear to follow rule. .

but change according to rule in Kiam.tenses. The possessive Yuaja is Yualia is crying is laughing. . construction for the objective pronoun of the third person plural. -akwe is in coming some sub-dialects used in place of -ake..as the pronominal prefix for the third person plural of the present. Kiam.and -ka. Of those occurring not at the beginning of a word we have first : Examples.to n-..29 KIMVITA Exceptions. not often heard. The Njama.). njuga. njugu and njema.) love you (pi. ku-onja and ku-kunja which remain the same in Kimv. are probably not of pure Swahili origin while the last is sometimes pronounced ngema. The construction Changes of Grammar of the objective pronoun in the second person plural with the verb differs in Kimv.) you (pi. Chuo chakwe This however With is = his house book. three of these. Nyumba yakwe = his Examples. this dialect begin the clipped forms of pronominal prefix. in the Zanzibar group.) Past Tuliwapenda = we Future Watawapenda = they =that Niwapende Infinitive Present Subjunctive In each case this is loved you will love I may identical with the (pi. Ku-vunda for ku-vunja = to break ku-chrnja = to Ku-tinda kill. from that employed : Perfect Kuwapenda = to love you (pi. These are only heard with the future -ki. The most usual is the ordinary colloquial Mombasa changing ni. II. Yua. = he = he Yuateka = he Examples. The construction is as follows etc. However there are many exceptions such as mbinja. however.) Nawapenda = I love you (pi.) Amewambia = he has told you (pi.is used in place of a.

is distinctly to simplify even these to the simple -o. n In this case the proximity of the has the disturbing effect of aspirating the t of the tense particle. an abbreviation of nika. is full form is used except used for -wo. neno ulilonambia = the word which you vitu nilivyonunua = the things which I said to me bought. Examples. Kaa t'akulipa Kamwambia There (for = just wait I'll pay you out = akamwambia) and he said to him. = he who went = the tree which fell ilioanguka = the house which fell. However in adverbial phrases as : atakavyotenda = as he the full form -vyo- When is will do (behave). from -ye.which was. Hapita Relatives of all classes for nikapita = and I passed. always used. nt'akwambia nitakwambia = I for will tell you. Examples. The tendency. Examples. -po-. . it is said. -lo.KIMVITA 30 Thus. -zo- and -vyo-.in the verbal infix. alipofika and occasionally -cho-.and -yo-. In the purer Mombasa and in the Lamu Archipelago this becomes t'akwambia. an abbreviation of the relative of the third person sing.to -e-. of the narrative tense. the relative occurs as a suffix the occasionally the simple -o- Examples. -mo-. Upendacho = (the thing) you wish you are going Wendako = where Mti utakao = the but However there is tree you want. Examples. however. alikokwenda = where he went = when he came. Aliokwenda Mti ulioanguka Nyumba Exceptions are the locatives.to ha- is in the first person sing. the old form of the relative irrespective of classes. and -ko-. Example. tend to become simple -o.

III. recognize them as two words. They are none the less characteristic of the dialect they are assigned to. each bearing an accent on the penultimate. remain = a hare = to climb = to mount (a horse.KIMVITA 31 This serves to distinguish other dialects from the Zanzibar group. however. being in more common use in that dialect. = woman's robe. used ally in Other of the words will practically never be heard in the opposite dialect. For the convenience of the reader in pronouncing these I have often written them as two separate words. relative in Examples. Kimvita English = hippo = sjambok) = finger. The Swahilis themselves. and Kimv. Many Changes of Vocabulary of the words given below will be understood and occasion- both Kiung. = he who wants Atakae Examples. Kimv. and in all the dialects enumerated above causes the verb and its particles to be broken into two parts. Tuliko ffka denotes the accent. toe = to sneeze = a book = suddenly = pitcher (Arab decanter) = cob of maize (stripped grains) Hasa haswa Ku-keti ku-kaa Kitunguli sungura ku-panda ku-panda kanga Ku-kwea ku-panda Leso (but = exactly = to sit. Mtu aendae = the man who The goes. although this is not the usual custom in English Swahili writings. etc. The Atakapo kwe*nda = when he shall go = where we arrived.) of .

or smitten by. don't worry me also. gather = mushroom = strips for sewing mats = to bear (children. hebu = come let us. health is best. one who has not performed the necessary ablutions (ku-tamba) Usingizi unaniuma = I feel sleepy (lit. for cooking-pot after extrac- tion of tui Ku-teta = pumpkin = syphilis = to descend ku-gombana = to quarrel Tomoko stafele Tango Tego Ku-teremka boga sekeneko ku-shuka ) topetopej Ku-tunda ku-chuma Uoga (and woga) kiyoga Usitu ukili Ku-vyaa ku-zaa IV. let me (pass) Kula njama . foremost) Heri apendalo Mungu = what God wishes is best (often Mwenda pweke = one an excuse for doing some shady trick to get out of a difficulty) . fruit). please. Changes of Idiom Below are a few idiomatic expressions. hebu mi = leave me alone. sleep is hurting me) that goes alone.to take counsel Ku-kumbwa na sheitani = to be possessed. the devil ! ! (a frequent occurrence) Mwenyi paliti = an unclean person. = custard apple = to pluck. the majority are more or but a few may be met with in others.32 KIMVITA Kimvita Kiunguja Maboga English = vegetables miboga mafya for Mafiga = three stones = breasts maziwa tembo Matiti Ndovu Ku-nena = elephant = to say = to drink = peas = grated coconut ku-sema ku-nywa chooko Ku-nwa Pojo Taki chicha . buck) Bora azima = never mind (lit. lone (buffalo. less confined to this dialect Utampata wapi P (for utampataje P) = how will you find him 1 Utaka nini ? (for utakani ?) = what do you want ? Ana matata = he is difficult to deal with Hebu or.

more than one other and yourself) Sijui anaketije = I don't know what is the matter with him (or. now it will give no more trouble (when the brunt of a piece of work has been successfully performed) Ku-kata roho = to die Gazeti! (exclamation) = lie falsehood. rest oneself Mangaribi inatangamana = twilight is falling Konde mzigo = a very stalwart person (lit. A. 3 . the fist a load) Ku-oga kabisa = to wash all over Mamako ndiye mungu wa pili = your mother is (your) second God (therefore obey her) = Have you not treated me badly ? P neno Hukunifanya Sasa haina neno = Now there is no more fear. Ao is often omitted between two alternatives. Gazette ? Example. what he is thinking of) Nini hii = this what's -its-name Nani hii = that what's-his-name. 7. with apologies) Amekucheza = he has made evil medicine against you. It must be remembered that Kimvita has drawn largely on Kinyika and Kigiryama for its Bantu words. (ii) to take (a leso) into wear Ku-patisha moto = to heat up Ku-nyosha mkono = to make a long arm Twende zetuni (also twendeni) = let us go (only if more than two go. Nilete kijiti kibiriti P = am I to ya kumba kumba = a big Mkono kwa mkono = from hand Safari bring a toothpick or a match ? safari to hand Akili ni mali = (your) wits are (your) fortune (sarcastically) Haina maana wala haina tamu = it has no rhyme or reason Ku-kata nguo = (i) to buy clothes.KIMVITA Kujilalia = to lie 33 oneself down.e. i. There are also other sub-dialects on the coast between and Vanga consisting of Kirnvita with a greater or less Mombasa admixture of Kinyika. viz. Kivumba is the dialect of Vanga and Wasini island. you lie (der. Kidigo. from the E. s. This might be considered as a sub-dialect of Kimvita. The process of time however has so altered many of these that they are scarcely to be recognized.

K'ayek'aye Kiyakazi Kiyamanda for k'ajek'aje kijakazi .. is mzee (not mzele) tele = old person = much. who came from the Persian Gulf. or the island of Ndeo. The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo. I. Mzee for Tele (not tee) J Kimv. the dialect of the town of is Amu. softened into y.KIAMU 34 Kiamu 8." an Arab As this dialect is not well known hope to go into I it more fully than any of the preceding. kiwa being old Swahili for kisiwa = "island. Examples. or Lamu.cords = slave fastening sail to yard girl . the Banu Lami. The word Lamu is said to have been derived from the name of tribe. have when passing had an 1 placed between them Kimv. on the island of that name. Two Changes of Letters successive e's in Kiam. Exceptions. into Examples. Kiamu Kimvita Makee English makalele = shouts mawele = millet for Mawee Mbee mbele = before Mtee mtele =rice Muwee mwele =a Nyee Ku-tea (teea) =hair nyele ku-peleka = to send ku-telea = to add to Upee upele Ku-peka (peeka) =a sick person pimple. .

KIAMU Yambo 35 .

K1AMU 36 Occasionally Examples. Kiyemba Yeo is for changed to y. kilemba = a turban = to-day. leo . Baghaa 1 in Kimv.

Examples. Thus za. zile. are -vyo-.class change v.to begin ku-funza = to teach = a fly inzi = a kanzu kanzn = a loop kitanzi kwanza = first mpenzi . used in to z. zenu. etc. utenzi Ku-kanza (Kimv. Examples.or vyto z-. -kavu. ndevu. mwavuli. ku-vua. . -vi-. nguva. vyake.KIAMU 37 All concords agreeing with plural of ki.) . = a cricket nyenzi = a bough tanzu ku-tunza to take care of = a story in verse.. between two vowels is sometimes dropped. vile. Ku-awanya for ku-gawanya Mbeu Nduu mbegu ndugu Tendeo tendego ku-tegua Ku-teua Nz in (or = to divide = seeds = brother = a leg of the kitanda = tagua) to choose. zote. Ku-anda Ku-funda for Indi Kandu Kitandi Rwanda Mpendi ku-anza . mavi. -zi-. . Kimv. place of vya. -zo. becomes nd. hivi.. mvuvi mwivi concords connected with the plural of the ki- words which make this change. vyenu. = a fisherman = a thief = to give birth ku-vyaa ku-vumbua = to explore. ku-vaa. nguvu. vyote. hizi.a loved one Mwandi mwanzi ^bamboo Mwando mwanzo = beginning Nyende Tandu Ku-tunda Utendi Exception. etc. zake. and many others. Exceptions. mvua.) = ku-kanga (Kiam. Examples of other words changing v Mvuzi Mwizi for Ku-zaa Ku-zrnnbua Apart from all class there are few G -ovii.

village mji mjinga = a simpleton mwele = a sick person = you (pi. on the left side. page Examplest Mui (xmiyi) Muinga (muyinga) Muwee Muyue Muyukuu Muynmbe 1 for = a town..KIAMU 38 Nj if it has not already become nd in Kimv. ku-piga uzi " nyuzi) being used for to whistle. kwisha occasionally takes place of ch Kimv. Very possibly northern words and forms were brought down to the Mrima time Jumbes from Pate were put in some of the towns on that coast.to sneeze chungwa = orange. see 35.) must know mjue mjukuu = grandchild mjumbe = a sultan's crier. (as is also the case in Kimr.). ku-ehenma . Examples^ Kwisa Mwiso Ku-pisa Ku-soto Sh for = to finish mwisho = the end ku-pisha = to make way for ku-shoto = left. M has a tendency to become mu Some = oyster chaza of the examples below (as in elide a y Kimr. at the same time.. Examples^ Ku-sikilia for ku-fikilia = Simbo fimbo =a Ku-sita ku-fita stick -to hide ku-fyonda = to suck. at the . *). Shaza Ku-shumua Shungwa for . Ku-sonda S to reach to." P (pi. wanja The word mbinja does not occur in Kiam. occasionally changes to s at the beginning of a word. Ku-kunda Ku-onda for Wanda ku-kunja = to fold ku-onja = to taste = antimony. arrive at occasionally occurs in place of sh in Kimv. Examples. changes now. Examples.

to feel soft (of fruit) = a bell = a cockroach = to be alike = to prosper = a ship's yard = drill.) = silent kimya ku-zimisha = to extinguish. e. Ku-dudumia for ku-didhnia = to sink down Bulmsha Kula Ku-kurubia Nahutha Ku-shumua Ku-shundua = kila all. ahira) Ku-bokea Kimvita for ahera ku-bopea Chenjele kengele Ende mende Ku-fana Ku-fana ku-fanana Foromani foromali Garide gwaridi ku-fanikia English = the next world . Examples. as (cp. N occurs rarely in place of m. changes to like ^ (tamarufa) and is pronounced Tw. skipper nahotha ku-chemua = to sneeze ku-shindua = to set ajar (a door) = we all sote = to shake the head (in ku-tikisa Sute Ku-tukusa There are exceptions which change reversely. = like. Disimali Kasidi for dusumali = = kusudi viz dissent). Kana for Kinya Ku-zinya Chw something . a snuff (Bahasha. Below are given about fifty words which suffer slight changes of but which do not come under the rules above. band .. Examples. every ku-karibia = to draw nigh . Examples^ KiTa for kichwa = head KuTa kuchwa = the MTa mchwa = whole day termites (in wingless stage). = captain. letters Kiamu Akhira (or. : a scarf intention.KIAMU U -39 occasionally occurs in place of the other vowels a. = a bundle of clothes for bahasha = box of leather or miaa) Kiam.. Kimr. i and o. purpose. kama of Kiung.

a ball = a line = a servant - a fable = skin. hide.) = to swallow = an insect = rubber. Guduwia for guduria hot rags Kijibao = waistcoat = small insect.a giraffe = a chief = a smith c.KlAMtJ 40 Kimvita Kiamu English = a clay decanter Guu (ma) (mguu not used) for mguu (mi) = a leg = to hunt Ku-inda for ku-winda = violence Jauri jeuri = ku-kanza Ku-kanga (moto) (moto) to apply fomentations. = a hammer = who? = a hyaena pelt . bathe = potash to mix with snuff = a place = scents = a weed with crow's foot thorns . crab = a sore = cashew-nut = to wash.

be well done = jaa) ing II. freely used in Kiamu. Nali- a } Uli- you he Ali- Tuli Muli-* ata= we got (to-day or yesterday). Changes of Grammar There are a certain number of tenses. etc. husks after pound- Ku-ziwia ku-zuia to resist. Past. In Kiam. (dust in house ripen. The second Near applies to the past or distant past. J got (long ago) or. . * v^etc. used to get. Distant Past. which either do not occur or are not in frequent use in Kimvita.pata Waliki- ye they Uliki- it etc.KIAMU Kiamu 41 Kimvita Uwingu Uwongo for English ubingu udongo = uthia Uzia Ku-va Ku-viva the heavens : clay = trouble. there are two past tenses and two negative past tenses. ku-vua (samaki) = to annoyance fish ku-iva to Vumbivumbi kivumbi (in cooking) dust (out of doors) Ku-waka Wisha ku-aka ushwa to build (stone buildings) bran. Naliki-^ I Uliki- you Aliki- he Tuliki- we Muliki. The first or ordinary past applies only to the immediate or present past. < ye Wali- they Uli- it etc.

(The usual form.) S1KU- HukuHakue did not get (to-day or yesterday). etc.tense (page 44). as uli uki-. As in the other persons he gives the alternatives past. and stories so is For an example of -nga. it is probable that he means nali (n)ki " " penda = I was loving and not this tense.KIAMU 42 The distant past tense chiefly occurs in historical narrations more used in the third person than otherwise. of the Near Past Negative. ali aki.as an alternative for the first person sing. . its use see below in a sentence under the Krapf gives naliki.

KIAMU Negative -ki- tense. 43 .

etc. The tense particle is -lime- = " had already. as before etc.= although." Examples. Mtende hunu zamani walikitenda sana na-u-nga-wa sasa hautendi tena = this date now it no longer tree formerly bore well although bears." Example. is Examples. Ulipotoka alimekuya = he had already come when you went The "although" The tense tense. hazi-. Past Perfect. The tenses which remain I hope to explain by a few examples only. verb ends in -a following a vowel the -a it may change The meaning is " to is elided. takes concords zi-. Alikuwa na mali nangawa masikini sasa = he was rich although now poor." though occasionally occurs with a few others. Nangafa u hai kwa-ni ameata kij ana = although he is dead (yet) is he alive for he has The left a son (who bears his name)." generally used with the verb ku-wa="to be. in place of vi-. It it out. There a past perfect tense which to a certain extent takes the is place of the rather cumbersome alikuwa amekwisha ku .although I am hungry I do not eat. Niangawa na ndaa sili . -zii tense. Nalimdirika utukuzii mzigo = I met him in the act of carrying a load Uketizii = he (she) was in the act of sitting (or. particles are na " nga. -i. havi-. as she was sitting).class which. . to be in the act of doing something. stated. These the reader can transpose to suit any case or concord by following the usual rules.KIAMU 44 The only exception is the pi. of the ki. Formed by the addition If the otherwise of -zii to the verb.

" "still. It is however in everyday use at the present in Kiamu. Upende farasi = he is riding a horse (viz. Another tense is the perfect in -e-e." The Yana usiku nilele Kasikia makalele 1 Mojo nampenda Chele 1 Mojo is Last night as I slept I heard a noise My heart loves Chele. nikali ndiani = and he recognized as yet in the way Akanitambua Akali mtoto amu yake me while akashika ufaume = as he was I was still a child his uncle governed." or. The meaning is "while as yet. " he has mounted a perfect amepanda farasi would mean horse (but at the time of speaking he may have dismounted again). etc." "yet. Also see the first line of verse on page 116. Examples. Verbs having their two prefix." "while yet. last to be preferred for present last two day syllables bearing the vowel a seem use. The usual construction is "while yet so and so something is. he has still mounted and is mounted). . This tense is formed by changing the vowels of the and adding the pronominal syllables of the verb to e ene for ona. for Moyo." It generally requires another verb following before the sense rendered complete. viz. Taylor mentions this also as being an old poetic preterite. "as yet." Examples. kee for kaa. It appears to have the meaning of a completed action still in continuation. For examples containing no contingent condition and with a verb see appendix to Taylor's African ApJiorisms.KIAMU The " while yet This tense is 45 " tense. ibid. mentioned by Taylor. The tense particle is -kali generally used only with a copula but occasionally with a verb. supposed by the poet to be Kimv. happened.

Examples. has grown Akamtoma Limpeteo = that which has There -to. so some are given full. occurs only much the same as if sana had been placed after In a few expressions Kiam.and not a-. an intensive form of the verb A final This up but has not yet been harvested) ulele = and he stabbed him while aaleep -a made by the addition of sometimes changed to -e. Pronouns.e. Akailalia Kuisifu Kuiketilia = and he laid himself down = to boast (praise oneself ) kujiketilia = to sit oneself down.of place well. for akajilalia kujisifu The imperative second person plural is always pendani and the Zanzibar group pendeni is never heard. Fungato (or fungeto) = bind tightly = Weketo The reflexive -ji. ni.KIAMU 46 For first person sing. but otherwise Its meaning is it is it the verb. mentioned by Steere in his handbook as occurring in is poetry. Kimv. The demonstratives in differ slightly from Kimv. becomes -i-. in common use at the present day in in poetry. as it occasionally is in incorrect Kimvita.and not na.. is is befallen him. hunu) mtu huyu mtu huyo mtu yule watu hawa watu hawo watu wale mti huu = this person = that person = that (far) person = these persons = those persons = those (far) persons = this tree . u.must be used with this tense and for third person sing. Examples. Sultani wa Manda ulele = the Sultan of Manda sleeps Mtama usimeme = the mtama is standing (i. Mtu huyu Mtu hoyo Mtu u!6 Watu hawa Watu hao Watu wale Mti huu (or for .

is used in Kiam. have been omitted also which comes on the last syllable. for the accent. etc. viz. plain u. zile.KIAMU Miti hii (or for him) 47 = these trees miti hii = this house hizi . period that time.tenses. Nawapenda = I love you (pi). It is also used in the -e-e tense.. T'akwambia = I Kasikia Kipata Where yua- or yu- is will tell you and he hears (heard) = and when he had got. in the first and third persons sing. i!6e. wa!6e. The remainder nyuso .these houses Nyumba hii (or him) Nyumba hizi nyumba nyumba Chuo hiki Zuo hizi chuo hiki vyuo hivi Ito hili jito hili this book = these books . as they are the hii huwo. There is also a demonstrative for a very distant object made by adding -e to the farther demonstrative. Examples. the -zii tense other instances. il.and the -ki. Examples. There is also a form used with wakati = time. only. as a pronominal prefix for third person sing. these faces have etc. The farther demonstratives ule. occasionally used in Kipate with other nouns of this class. B. of the objective pronoun of the second person in Kimv. : Wakati hunu = at Wakati hono = at N. used in Kimv. The clipping of the pronominal prefix occurs in the future and the -ka. and in several . The arrangement plural is the same as Example. period. hiyo. Hono is this time. etc.this eye Mato haya Uso huu (or hunu) Nyuso hizi Hoko mato haya = these eyes uso huu = this face = there. hizi of the demonstratives same except = huko been omitted as they are the same. ule. period.

of the second person plural often mu. lye It is Hamtopata = you (pi. there is no difference between the interrogative kwani (der. Hoyo una hila sana = he Ukaa hali Una Uwene gani ? Utukuzii U- is of guile taking. for Ufaume upia Except when the adjective commences with a vowel. Example. Example. latter. Tutapata iye Takwenda Interrogative ? tutapataje ? nt'akwendaje ? = how = how shall we shall I get go ? ? nni ? The Kimv. suffix. Wataka nni wataka nini = what do you want ? In Kimv.) did not get (pi.) shall not get. is full = he sleeps = what is his state ? = he has = he has seen = he is in the act of Ulele adjective. Examples. Ufunguo umoya ufunguo mmoya = one key ufalme mpya .) went (pi. used in place of -je the interrogative forms a separate word unlike the . fr.a new kingdom. Example. P . Examples. The pronominal changes to prefix m wall. nini the for iye P ? is converted into Kiam. agreement with nouns in the with the verb but with the also used as the concord for of the sixth class not only sing. by cutting out the first -i-.KIAMU 48 Examples. kwa nini P for ?) and the conjunction kwani. Uknta mwingine = another Example. Mulikwenda = you but before t Hamulipata = you it is m.

8.KIAMU The interrog. Mikate atakao = the loaves he wants. in which dialect the nini P In Kiam. Tumezotaya Amezotenda for tulivyotaja = as we have related alivyotenda . N. -mo. Examples (of locative relative). form. Examples.as he has done (or. Even with these however there -y.is used as an infix for all classes of nouns. an unusual con- struction in Kimvita. the two words differ Kwa nni ? or 49 viz. Tulipokwenda = when we went Tulikokwenda = where we went Tulimokwenda = in where we went.and the infix -zo. Kwani P is suffix -ni ? takes the place of of Kiung. distinction is infix for all made between the different classes. 4 .and Example. is a tendency to suppress the w. The latter takes the place of -vyo. Examples. how he has done) Kama nimezokwambia for kama nalivyokwambia = as I told you.(agreeing with zitu understood) when used in an adverbial sense. In all When other cases the simple -othe relative occurs as a is used as an suffix.B.in Kimv. kwanni Kwani ? : = what = for. -po-. The The relative -o. locative particles alone have their own relative forms -ko-.in -wo and -yo. for ? why ? Relatives. Apendalo Mwana apendae = the (matter) he desires = the child he loves = the things he wants Zitu atakazo Chakula atakacho = the food he wants. Note the use of relative with perfect.

Asopata for Asopenda asio pata = he who did not get asio penda = he who did not love. Exceptions. when I do not want). however they are the names of trees or plants. nyoto for nyoyo nyaka nyako nyamba nyambao nyandiko nyango . Examples. = a fire = a heart mioyo = a year miaka = heat.KIAMU 50 When the relative used with the past tense is (-11-) the -i- of the tense particle is elided. as in the cases elision takes place.. a flame miako miamba = a rock miambao = a coast miandiko = a manuscript miango = an echo mioto . or anything pertaining to trees or plants. Aloeta When for alioleta the relative is used with the future (-taka-) the final -a- is elided. If Examples. plurals of certain nouns of the second class commencing or mo.as they shall get Alipo Nisipo taka The with = if I do not want (or. (-si-) the -i- of the is elided. When the full form of the relative mentioned above. Moto Moyo Mwaka Mwako Mwamba Mwambao Mwandiko Mwango pi. Nalopata = he who brought = which I got naliopata Walonipa walionipa = which they gave me. Examples. Watakopata Tutakokupa When for the relative tense particle watakao pata = they who tutakao kupa = which we is used with the negative shall get shall give you. of the tense particle Examples. Examples. no is used. treated as if belonging to the sixth mw- class. they remain as of the second class.are in Kiam. kwenda = when he went Watakazo pata .

Nyaka miwili Nyoto mikuu Examples. Nyezi nyingine = other months Nyeleko nyeupe = white slings. theirs). ndao) 1 = whose is this thing ? = it belongs to so and so = it is mine (thine. dialects. of sixth class. theirs) = this house is so and so's = it is mine (thine. treated. Examples. takes plural as of the second class although beginning with mw- or mo-. quite correctly. or for 51 mianya mieleko miendo . Mwembe miavuli = an umbrella miembe = a mango tree Mwiko miko Mwiwa miwa Mwavuli Mwewe with pi. consonant it takes a concord as class. but There are two particles but not in the They words less pure mbwa and nda which occur in Kiam.. 1 Mweleko nyeleko Mwendo nyendo Mwezi nyezi A tree. wewe = is pi. are used as genitives and sometimes take the place of the mwenyi and mwenyewe. mbwake) Mbwetu (mbwenu. his) = it is ours (yours. Examples. Kitu hiki Mbwa mbwa nyani P fulani Mbwangu (mbwako. moon. anything to do with a tree or plant. Also nyawanyo. miezi = a gap in the teeth = a sling = a going = a month. If the adjective begins with a for pi. commences with a vowel it takes a concord as for pi. = two years = big fires. ndake) Ndetu (ndenu. of = a wooden spoon = a thorn. mbwao) Nyumba hini nda fulani Ndangu (ndako." The agreement of adjectives with the as of the sixth class is If it second nouns above with plurals as follows. his) = it is ours (yours. 42 . in Kiam.KIAMU Mwanya nyanya pi.. as of the first class "kites.

invite = to put (food) on Ku-angalia Bibi ku-tazama nana = to look = grandmother Bombwe funza. Ku-tunda in i." is frequently heard in viz. Ku-toa is never heard in this sense but it its other sense of "to turn out. in a meaning not given. Example. akamtoa muini = and he put him out Kiamu you say of the town. Kimvita English Ku-andika (chakula) ku-ita ku-teleka = elder brother = to call.. There is considerable difference in vocabulary between Kiam. to aim) = a pigeon = shoulder to = change residence early a ku-kataa the fire dawn growth coconut inside = to refuse = neighbourhood a . word has several distinct meanings it does not follow that the word is not also used in Kiam. jirani come across = smallpox = to come near to = a cock = to hunt (lit. Chembe Ku-dauka Ku-dirika Dudu Ku-egema .KIAMU 52 Changes of Vocabulary III. Kiam. take out.e. N. " to give out (rupees) " ku-tunda (rupia) and not ku-toa (rupia). and Kimv.B. Where the Kimv. mkubwa ku-karibia Pahali Ku-fuma (nyama) ku-winda Pungwa ndiwa Puzi bega Ku-gura ku-hama Hirijiiri alfajiri sana Ifu Ku-iza Janibu = to fear = an arrow = to melt to meet. About one hundred words are appended as examples. if ku-toa = for you want to say to give out. sea slug Ku-cha ku-ogopa mshale ku-yeyuka ku-kuta ndui Abawa Ku-amkua for . jongoo -jigger." "put out.

KIAMU Kiamu 53 Kimvita Ku-jepa Jura Kata for Katiti kwiba }> mjinga 3> pishi )5 kidogo Kidundu Kifuvu mayonde kitoma kobe Kiharahara paka wa mwitu Kiliwia mjeledi Kipitu Ku-kiri msetu ku-kubali Kisha paruru] Kisindi guguta J Kitangu Kitikuu kiunga kigunya Kiunga nyumba ya \ kutilia nazi I = shambani Kiwe ) .

-a small out. sound out ku-lia = luck. male = a traveller. = to get ku-pata ku-taka shauri = to consult = to uproot ku-ng'oa = to cry. ring. without anyone on board Ku-poa for Ku-shawiri Ku-sumuka Ku-takata Taufiki Tiati Tineni . on the ground nyumba za watun _ (labourers' huts on a tini. goer = a demon. fortune bahati .the ground.KIAMU 54 Kiamu Muyungu Kimvita for bugu la mtoma Mvnle mume Mwendao Mzuka Nana Ndwe msafiri Nina mama Nsi samaki kucha zimwi bibi ugonjwa Nyaa = mistress = sickness = mother =fish Nyai mwayo Nyangwa jangwa manyasi Nyika Nyota Nyuni Ku-ova English = the pumpkin plant = a man. arthi wa shamba ) shamba ( -dogo - Tototo matope =mud Ku-tunda ku-toa Twene jeneza tone = to give = a bier toto taki little. devil kiu ndege ku-tota -ovu -baya Ku-pambauka ku-cha Ku-pea ku-fagia Fepe umeme (Jahazi inaenda p'epe = the = a claw. nail = a yawn = mangrove swamp = grass = thirst = bird = to be drenched = bad = to dawn = to sweep = lightning vessel is drifting by itself. or. take out drop = scraped coconut after ex- traction of tui Ufuto Ulingo u P aa urambe dungu utosi = white flesh of a dafu coconut = a look-out platform = crown of head (roof of house) ..

A man rushed in after it saying. IV.' The worshippers were streaming up to the mosque and joined in the ' out. ' Siyo mbwangu. will get two rupees). that the breaking up of the town of Kitao was due to a fowl entering the congregational mosque on a Friday. Ni mbwake. mwenyi ku-pata..chain = length = road." probably untruthfully. Ule mbwa kupoa rupia mbili = he is due two rupees (or.' It is related. used in addition to the Idiom between Kimv. useja Uwo ala Ku-vurundua Yau yau ku-tibua vivi hivi Yonda nyani Yowe Ku-zengea .. Sometimes the word given Kimv.KIAMU Kiamu 55 Kimvita Upeto Ure for Usita . ' and another seized it saying. look out for Zijaya vigae Ku-zimba ku-ezeka = potsherds = to roof (a N. urefu ndia Utunda . are con- differences in idiom siderable. Kuku mbwangu. in of the used be to seem ordinary possessive when place They emphasis is required.' ' Ni mbwako. Mbwa kupoa is an expression meaning. Taylor mentions the use of a negative perfect in the case of simekwenda ? . scabbard = to stir up mud mkufu -just like that = baboon = a shout kalele ku-tafuta. word.' till strife calling at last all the male in- habitants were engaged and a civil war ensued.B. A few instances only will be given here. and Kiam. path = a string of beads = sheath. The use of mbwa and nda have already been touched on. angalia = to see after." but if anybody else's boy was about to take it one would say Tumbako ndangu (or tumbako nda mimi mwenyewe) = " the tobacco is mine (not yours or his). The Changes of is hut). Eta tumbako yangu = " bring my tobacco. English = silver neck. For instance one might say to one's boy..

walee. The word -pya Kimv.) (= come). and as an first " not 1 " or. = is food not ready after = until he died. yes he has done something. means one can detect a native from the Amu group if one hears him say but one word. Mbona hukufika P = Answer.) one of them Moyali = that matter Yambole for yambo lile mwanawe Mwane =his child (the waane but is pi. The accent remains as shown. Simekuya P = You Why did you not come ? say that I did not come (but I did come). ziatu zipia = "new sandals. wa!6. is one syllable and takes the accent on " the syllable before.. ilee. on purpose. viz. ulee." In Kiam. etc. Talking of anything distant. viz. You say I did ?" not Example. ? There is a difference in pronunciation of the far demonstratives. his intention (was) . either in point of place or time. all this while Kitu hiki hufa iye P = how is this thing sold ? (how much?) Ndio za nini P = what do you say yes for ? (when someone Kasidi yake = Ndoo says. with hata. It has the meanimg " of. viz." The following abbreviations are used : = his aunt Shangalize for shangazi yake = = moja wapo (Kimv. mkate mpya = a new loaf. (Takes the place of makusudi. however -pya is pronounced as two syllables. wale. and has not) purposely . one o. taking the accent on the first. ? when not used by itself loses Ndo wewe = come you. . is only used in the interrogative reply. which has already been mentioned. Hatasa from hata sasa Chakula tayari hatasa Hatakafa P = till now (or. and must thus be spelt -pia to bring the accent right. Example. ule. in place of Stress is laid on this accentuation because by its ytile. if that word is one of these far demonstratives. Kimv.KIAMU 56 This. as he says. not wane) Abb. Have I person sing. etc. not yet). an e is added to the far demon. viz.

human Mwida is being. When great emphasis is laid on kabisa the accent is placed the last syllable which is jerked out by on itself." etc. Zitu fulifuli Watu fulifuli There is an abbreviation meaning "both. " huisi. is kwa kuama = kulala Pulifuli has been confounded with fudifudi by several writers." Example. look out for . all two (persons) Wowatatu = all three (persons). Kwa lina is used for the usual palikuwa = " once upon a time. s& = the town has been utterly and com- Mui umeharibika k&bi pletely ruined. in Kiam. he does not know (recognize) me. ghasia). is = things in plenty (and therefore cheap) = people in crowds.57 KIAMIT Wametuteza shere = they have played a trick on fun of us us. are making Hapana katu = there is none whatever (in any shape or form). of animate Wowawili = both. haniisi = he does not know. beings. Its meaning quite different. from a verb ku-isa which is seldom heard." occasionally used in place of muda for a space of time." Ku-yua Kulala used ordinarily for all other tenses. Why not ? Of course Can you do can (or." Kwa lina mtu = alikuwako (or alikuwapo) mtu. Katu means much the same as kabisa but is more forcible. coming and going (and thus want of privacy. Unaweza kuzengea mashairi ninunue P = Will you some poetry for me to buy 1 Answer. Si-isi =" I do not know " . fudifudi = to lie face downwards. all three. Kwanni ? = Why not ? Of course I will. questions as: this work 1 " " Will you come with will). in anything but the negative present. viz. haisi. you do not know. Mwana adamu is used in place of the usual bin adamu = " son of Adam.. To such " is I "Were you able to read my letter?" me ? " Kwanni ? " used as an affirmative reply meaning.

just like that. took fifty dollars Kwanni kupenda ukowa usipende na_ kilichomo ukowani P = why do you like the lamp chimney and do not like chimney too? (The light inside is the reason for having a lamp and the chimney is only an adjunct) Hitieri yako is used in Kiam.) Mtu mrepana = a Bora ana care (lit. i.KIAMU 58 Ni mtu mzima sana = he is a very old man. hivyo. Hamkuliwa and hitwa are used in place of the Kimv. is inside the your business. . now at once. for Palikuwa mtu jina lake man called so aliitwa fulani = once upon a time there was a and Na so. well built. generally used of a male child much as in Kimv. it is it is for you to say. where shauri lako. akaitwa (jina lake). Example. " give (a piece of) tambuu. Kupa tambuu = to to the Eng. Mtu hiyau = a man like that (of that sort) Sitaki kazi hiyau = I do not want this soft of behaviour Mtu mvivu hiyau Sasa hiyau Kijana "a youth" is so for a man as lazy as he is sasa hivi = just now. (Proverb) what it to you.e. person. is largely used in both Kimv. or upendavyo " it is as you wish. Kwa lina mtu hamkuliwa fulani. to tip (equivalent to give the price of a drink "). I don't first consideration). I leave mwenyewe. This is health is big." (Hitieri -hitiari. bora azima = never mind. as you please. would be used in Kimv. Yau yau is used in place of vivi hivi or vivyo Ufanye yau yau = do Hiyau for hivi. generally used as a reply to some taunt. and this dialect in the sense of "also (or) too." Examples. used is best. for the Kimv. and does not mean Amepata kijana = he has got a son (and heir). or (it) hivyo. Nipa chai eta na mkate = give me some tea and bring bread Akatukua nguo akatunda na reale khamsini = and he clothes and took out also also.

guessing articles are held in the = youths zijana ziondowe = riddles = war. Kipate is called by us Patta Changes of Letters I. with regard to changes of letters.B. The following words. There are only two important changes of Z in Kiam. 9. strife zita = mongooses zitete = grindstones ziwe = annoyance. Jithani (from jitha for giza) = a quarter (lit. form. and whether the z is prefix. however. rejeza.. pijana. Ku-pija Ku-rejea Shemeji for in the ku-piga ku-regea -to -to shemegi -brother-in-law. how hand its Kimv. This th is pronounced written in Swahili characters with the letter >. whether of Bantu or Arab origin. There (ii) is no use then G in Kiam. Also. vocabulary and idiom stands good for Kipate. of in multiplying examples. Practically all that has been said of Kiam. (i. grammar. is occasionally softened to hard and fast rule like the last and appears j but this is not a to differ with individuals. with a few further changes and a few exceptions..KIPATE 5 the dialect of the town of Pate in the island and by the Arabs Bata. strike return . Examples.) The rule is the same for every word. (i) as th in "this The " and letter j does is letters in this dialect. appear to be always pronounced with j. infix. Kiamu baraza = verandah. not occur. Some words are pronounced sometimes with g and sometimes with j. town of Pate in the darkness) beat. audience Mathu mazu = bananas Thibafti zibafti = games Kipate Baratha for . Examples. always changes to th. suffix or particle.e. of kibafti many Thijana Thiondowe Thita Thitete Thiwe Uthia . uzia This last word by pure coincidence returns to (N.

an egg I (pi. future which takes the particle -te. chimney. a tendency to place y or This is occasionally also done in Kiam.) = white flesh of a dafu = unripe.B. cylinder. Ku-tawala (N. a chief Mfalurae = to toddle (of a child) tatetate Tatatata ku-tawali = to reign. form. shall not get. these (trees) hini Hinu .KIPATE 60 letters occur in the Other changes of words below : Binamu for binami = cousin = this (house). Examples.in place of -to-. two vowels occur together of which the first is i or o there between them. mai) yai = above Iu yuu = dead of night makungi Makungu = horn of mgambo mbiu Mbia mfaume = sultan. although the latter is understood in Pate. Changes of Grammar The grammar is practically the same as in Kiam. There appears to be a slight difference in the neg. green = to ripen. Negative Future. etc. . Aingiye for aingie = he must enter ukoa = Ukowa II. This last word returns to Ufito for ufuto -witi -biti Ku-wiva ku-viva its Kiung. and very frequently When is w occurs in poetry. Site- HuteHateHatute- HamteHawate- ri you he pata = we - ye they Haute- it etc.

many of the people took refuge in On viz. Two = soko Changes of Idiom idiomatic expressions follow : Kitovu cha mui = the hub (centre) of the town Kutanga konda = to be about to marry (lit. . . roping for Utuku . Kishela kitanda bazaar. the dialect of the town of Shela. south of Amu. Taka and Kitao. Most KISHELA 61 Changes of Vocabulary Kiamu hold good of the words under this heading in in Kipate. is stir up strife). .KIPATE. III. Amu. Manda. the breaking up of the various old towns on Manda island. . strife = departed. bustle = empty coconut shell = a bier = a mash = inside wall screening choo = war. IV. to a con- or summation = usutu Ushitu (of strips miaa) for sewing mats. drying Fathaa Kifuvu for haraka kifuu tusi Kilili Kimboe kipitu Kistahali kisitiri Kondo zita Mahua Mwiko wa kifuvu marehemu Ndia imethiwanai imethiwa J\ . A few local words are also used in Pate such as : Kiamu Kipate kata = haste. " . . lamented = ladle (of half coconut) ndia imezibwa = the way Ngumi nyangumi Pwayi into = a whale = a creek. is blocked at low tide Ku-usha ku-aua (nathiri) = (nathiri) to bring a vow conclusion. to 10..

The dialect. chiefly Examples. Probably the Amu people either did not use this form or had already dropped it. differ of Kiam. . Manda. and I III." word we have we have now come back to the same word as that used in the southernmost and farthest dialect touched on. Kishela may follow either. they moved out in a body to Shela. is easily accounted for as it would appear that this was the old form of the possessive for the third person sing. so that they might all live together instead of being scattered. This was the origin of the town of Shela. Kimgao. This has died out in most places presumably the town Manda. There are a few words however which differ slightly from both. When They Pate words from Amu. The j of Pate in place of g is not used. This is exactly as one might have expected from the old viz. although remaining many years in Ainu. It is curious that. the town of geographical position of most of its original stock. is just half way between that of Amu and that of Pate. Changes of Letters and Vocabulary The vocabulary is practically the same as that The th of Pate is often used in place of z. made use of this form. with a few small exceptions. as they were in the large town of Amu. must have kept very much to themselves for. however follow Kipate. directly they received permission. The word mahali is used for "place. Iu and mfalume are used in place of yuu and mfaume. Another interesting feature -akwe is This is that the possessive termination used. after all the variations in this met with. the oldest in the neighbourhood. of The Manda people.KISHELA 62 After a while they were allowed to found a town of their own. The Manda people would have cherished little dialectic differences of this sort as distinguishing them from the Amu people and stamping them as being more aristocratic. .

Kiam. These are similar to It and Pate. j observed above.) = this (person). from the latter it Those given Changes of Idiom There are no doubt a few intercourse with : two. It bears a strong resemblance to the Bajun group but to the Amu group. is local idioms in use but. Examples. In addition to these the Bajun cerebral t's are changed to ch. used as an abbreviation for nyinyi in address as is Ndo nyi wawili = come you II. Any is changes in ki. no use in giving more examples of these changes of as what has been said for Pate can be referred to. hold good. Kisiu is the dialect of the town of Siu. 11. differing Amu. as snte (Kiam. though = (Kiam.) like. hold good save only when which of course becomes they clash with what all Amu thus has the Pate th and There letters Changes of Letters is said for Pate. for kwamba kana for Sote These : used for Changes of Grammar There appears to be no marked changes of grammar. its idioms and grammar belong more I. = his stick Simbo lakwe Nyumba ndakwe = the house is his Pa mahali pakwe = in his (or its) place. IV. That is to say that . Of other little distinctions Chamba is Kama Huyu Nyi = if. form. Amu except the zi.for the concord of the plural of the thi-.class.63 KISIU KISHELA. Both town and dialect stand half way between Pate and Faza.) = we all hoyo (Kiam. last three it will be observed return to the Kimv. ch is used. from its unlikely that Shela possesses daily many dialect.

Changes of Vocabulary There appear to be a considerable amount of I have only been able to collect two or three. local words of which Examples. Kisiu Kipate Athani Foko (fr. etc.KISIU 64 N. Jy) . Examples. athana thayidi ya = more than Gubu nyika Kisitiri (like Kiam.class follow the usual rules and not those for Kitikuu to be described hereafter. The tenses to be described in Kitikuu are not used. for Ar. Words like nyumba follow Kipate and not Kitikuu. t's Do not confuse with Kiung. as in Kitikuu.. in which it is only the dental which turn to eh. Changes of II.B. R is not Grammar The grammar is the same as in Kipate. III. in such words as kitambaa.) kistahali Marahanm Mwendio mahua mwen^o Ku-oa Pakuwathini . For this change however see the next dialect. . Ku-ehambua Ku-chukana Ku-chuma Chutakwenda for Mchu Mchumbwi Wachu ku-tambua ku-tukana ku-tuma tutakwenda mtu mtumbwi watu = to recognize = to abuse = to send = we will go = a man. = muezzin ku-oza = grass = interior wall of choo = late lamented = a distance = to rot =minara from muezzin Ku-pija tumata ku-toma Toma nt'a Usichu ushitu ku-oa Ku-wowa is = to stab = a point = strips of miaa = to marry. which the called for mats. person = a canoe = people.. brought in. Nouns of the ma.

The KITIKUU following are two Siu proverbs with their Kiamu equi- valents. Ndovu wawili wakisongana ziumiazo ni nyika. for . Kisiu. Examples. 65 Changes of Idiom IV. in place of -ake. changes to ch. viz. of is the language of Rasini and the mainland north Amu. Changes of Letters whether aspirated or not. it is wont to man or dependent who suffers. which is hurt is the grass. that ndovu that of is pronominal prefix of the verb. The cerebral t. As mentioned before there are several local The remarks below apply more especially to or the variations. Kiam. Notice the agreement of the concords with be some small ndovu which follows treated as the n. is that when two great The meaning men quarrel. -akwe is used in Kisiu. When two elephants jostle against one another that English. Ndovu mbili thikipambana liumiao ni gubu.class Kimgao in concords. Kisiu. The meaning is men or strong tribes who fall out with that neither will get the better. for the possessive. I. as in Kishela. Two sharp points cannot stab one another. not only with the adjective but also with the its exactly. Kitikuu 12. town of Faza or Paza. Chachu Ku-chafuna Ku-chambua Ku-chandika s.KISIU. = three ku-tafuna = to chew ku-tambua = to recognize ku-tandika = to spread out tatu .. cannot prick the point of one needle with that of another. Toma kwa toma hathitomani. (You English. Nt'a kwa nt'a hazitomani. the dialect of Rasini. they only slip past one another.) This is said of two strong each other. Kiam.

KITIKUU 66 Changa .

Examples. like in the plural. machumbo) = stomach Idau (pi. ehutapaeha The for tutapata = we possessive termination twende zechu shall get. Chu- takes the place of tu.they have died. Kitowakupacha The kitopata = for possessive termination -akwe is if I do not get. In place of the -kito. class has. madau) Ishikio Idowe Ifuthi Ithiva Examples. leg Iguu (pi. mashikio) = foot. instead of ma- which changes to no prefix. (pi.tense of Kiam. the prefix i- viz. madowe) mafuthi) mathiva) = claw. magim) = rump Ichako (pi. of the n. (pi. = a dhow = a rudder (pi. machako) Ichiunbo (pi. 52 . -echu takes the place of -etu twende zetu = let for ma- The singular of the other dialects.as the pronominal prefix for person plural viz. nail = shoulder = milk.to : us (two) be going. the latter not being used.KITIKUU II. Example. used as in Siu in place of -ake. Iti for nti = country Isi nsi-fish.class change n. The -ndo- Changes of 67 Grammar This takes the place of the perfect in -me- tense. Some nouns first : i-. -kitowaku- is used. (pi. - 'Ndokufa I have died Undokufa = thou hast died = he has died Andokufa Chundokufa = we have died Mundokufa = you have died Wandokufa . Perfect.

Examples.but may be prefixed..class .KITIKUU 68 Or i- if or u- the noun does not commence with n. mbwa = a dog paa =a roof is of the n. Imbwa Ipaa Usimbo for .

neap tides (or. few old expres- sions survive in Kitikuu which are almost Kingovi. The expressions are quite different from those in any of the dialects given before. The changes of idiom are very great. A heavens). Ku-vaka = rib ubavu uta na chembe = bow and Ku-vowa Yuva arrow = to marry = to rot = the sun.69 KITIKUU Thipepeo for = miaafestoons on bow- zipepo mtepe sprit of Ku-toma Uchi ku-va mti (isi) Mchi (N. but want of time has compelled one to abandon this dialect before having fairly started. rather the lowest day of the neap tide) to eat (grain) out of a fold in the clothes.. pole = a spoon = an eyebrow = strips of for kijiko Usichu Usuni = to fish = a stick.tense are : = the (thing) has gone bad 'ndovaka fulani = I have married so and so Yuva lindokutwa = the sun has set Yuva lindotoka = the sun has risen Yuva lindopaa = the sun is climbing up (the Kindovowa Hiyao and yau yau of Amu are not used.) Ukombe Usi (nsi) matting ready to sew = sand fly usubi suni) Uvavu (pi. On the day for the fishermen to go out and cast their nets so no use cure their fish. mbavu) Uvueha na chembe . (pi.) only means a growing tree. . Mkmditha j^^ > Kwekuyu kaokuya = ya kimbuya . (Kit. The people were unable to explain the derivation or parts of these two words. Examples of the -ndo. ushi nyusi) usutu (pi. 1 Moke ndeza means of lowest tide they stop at it is of home and the cooking over the fire of the n^eza fish.B. ku-oa ku-oza yua Changes of Idiom IV. Examples.

BANADIR DIALECTS.

70

All boats coming from Rasini,
called

viz.

KINGOVI
string-tied,

are elsewhere

mtepe.

itself however it is only those with the camel-necked
which
are called mtepe, while the others are called idau.
prows
Parts of these boats not already referred to are

In Rasini

:

Mchwana = the block just
Mtindikani

in front of the

mast to which the lower

part of the latter is lashed.
= cross beam passing between the

mchwana

mast and resting on the bulwarks either
13.

and the
side.

the Banadir Coast.
These bear a rebut apparently possess a very different
Words in Kitikuu which are entirely different from

The Dialects

of

semblance to Kitikuu

vocabulary.
those of Kiam. are likely to occur also in similar forms in these
dialects.

Example,

Shembee

Some words however

(Kit.)

= kishembere (Banadir) -a

knife.

pass almost unchanged through a series of

dialects.

Example, Magadi

= potash
(Banadir)
14.

for

is

Kingazija

(Kiung.) = magathi
mixing with snuff.

(Kiam.) =

magatho

the language of the Comoros.
It is alleged
Bajun Kiswahili and is generally

to bear a great resemblance to
included in the Swahili group.

15.
Kingovi (or Kingozi as it is called in Kiung. and Kimv.) is
the ancient language of this coast.
Natives talk of words in old Swahili as "Kikae" or "the old

language."

Such words are

:

Ku-ima
Ku-uza

Uwao
Ng'andu
-akwe
Ku-soto

for

ku-simama
ku-uliza

ubao
thahabu
-ake
ku-shoto.

Kingovi is a language much older than Kikae.
Words, phrases and constructions occur in old poetry, but the
language itself is practically lost.

KINYUME

KINGOVI.
It contains

71

an almost entirely different vocabulary and different

grammatical forms.
There are said to be a few people who are still able to talk this
language, it having been carefully handed down, however I have
been unable to find anyone.

am

I

told that so different

the language to ordinary Swahili,
is unable to under-

is

that a well-educated and well-read Swahili

stand

it.

Appended is a piece of poetry (p. 73), of which the MS. from
which the writer's own copy was made was he thinks dated about one
hundred years ago I underline the words I believe to be Kingovi.
This is quite easy and simple as compared with poetry of several
;

hundred years old.
Lastly, a word on the

Kinyume is
and prefixing

fanciful languages.
attained by cutting off the last syllable of every word

it.

Example, Nataka kiti niketi would be

in

Kinyume kanata

tiki tinike.

a purely fanciful or code language.
Occasionally single words of Kinyume are thrown into a piece of
poetry to fulfil the exigences of metre or rhyme, or to make it less
It is

easy of comprehension.
This latter, it would appear,

is

the chief feature of Swahili

poetry.

For there are such multitudes of rhyming words that there
would be nothing in the poet's art if he were not able to mystify his
public.

So any old or

difficult

word he can discover he

careful to

is

string in.

Here

is

an example of a Kinyume word,

viz.

pani

(for

nipa)

being thrown into a verse.
"

Pani

kiti nikelete

kusimama kalikwenda.

Na

farasi kupijuati si kuwelekwa na punda.
Tandiko la mjakazi si la ungwana kanda.

Na mkate wa kimanda

si

kitumbua cha Mafia."

Translation,

"Give me a chair

to sit on, standing

is

as

if

I

was

still

walking.

And

falling

from a horse

by a donkey.

is

not (so good as) being carried

KIALABI

72

The soft couch of a
mat of a freeman.

slave

And manda

not (so good as) Mafia chupaties."

bread

is

is

not (so good as) the rough

There are a number of code languages made by
some particular sound to each syllable.

Kialabi.
suffixing

Each of these possesses a name of

its

The explanation of one will suffice
Kialabi is made by suffixing -kiri

to explain

own.

them

all.

to each syllable.

Example,
Kikiri takiri bukiri ehakiri ngukiri kikiri mekiri kwikiri
shakiri,

which means

:

Kitabu changu kimekwisha.
Translation,

My

book

is

finished.

Praise be to Allah.

APPENDIX
EXAMPLE OF KINGOVI WORDS
THE INKISHAFI, A Northern
N.B.

Words

OLD POETRY

IN

Version

(Lamu

?)

believed to be of Kingovi are underlined.

N.B. A. translation, or a synonym, is given in the footnotes of every
word which is not to be found in the usual Swahili Dictionaries.
N.B.
8.

are usually divided

ina nikite Inkishafi

by a semicolon.

1
nikapange lulu kula tarafi
4
3
kiza cha thunubi kinipukiye

Tatunga kifungo kwa kukisafi

Na
9.

The strophes

2

;

.

;

nuru na mianga itathalali 7
8
Nambao kwamba ataamali iwe toba yak we aitubiye.
Kim a ake 9 kwisa dibaji yangu penda kuonya na moyo wangu
Kitamsi 5 kiza cha ujuhali 6

;

;

10.

;

Utwetwe na hawa ya ulimwengu
11.

Moyo wangu

nini

huzundukani

Hunelezi nami kalibaini
12.

Moyo wangu nini

13

14.

Raj ami

10

11

zimughuriye

likughuriyelo ni yambo gani
liwapo na sura nisikataye.

;

hu'itabiri

15
Huyui dunia ina ghururi

13.

hila za

;

12

14

?

;

;

twambe, u mwelevu wakukhitari

ndia za tatasi 16 huzandamaye

.

?

:

?

Hunu ulimwengu bahari tesi 17 una matumbawe na mangi masi, 18
;

mwasi 20

Aurakibuo 19 jua

ni

Ni kama kisima

kisicho

;

kwa kula hasara

ombe 21

;

chenyi

uhasiriye.

mta 22 paa 23 mwana wa

ng'ombe,
15.

1

2

Endao kwegema humta 22 pembe ;
Au wenga 25 vumbi la mwangaza

Thunubi =thambi.

4

Kinipukiye

(?),

fr.

kw-epuka
fr.

16

Tatasi = matata.

17

Tesi = -kali.

18

Masi=mashaza.

19

Aurakibuo,

20

M wasi = adui.

21

Ombe = wall round mouth

(?).

Kitamsi=kiovu.

UjuhaU = uwinga,

JL^..

7

Ku-tathalali

8

Ku-taamali=ku-zingatia.

9

Kimaake = kisa.

23

Rajami = the devil Iblis.
Ku-ghuri=ku-hadaa.

24

Ku-zunqlukani = to awake.
Nini ? = una nni ?

26

11

12

18

.

^&

3

10

;

wakati

Mwenda kulegema akilisoza; asione kitu ukishishiye 26
Tarafi = nta.
u Kwi'tabiri=ku-taamali.
= revealed, dis- is Ghururi = deceit?
Inkishafi =
closed.

3

24
kunwa maiye.
wa yua likitumbuza

asipate katu

to shine, brighten up.

22

25

fr.

^^s>j

= he

rode.

of a well.

Ku-ta=kutonga.
Paa=utosi.
Katu=kabisa.
Ku-enga=ku-angalia.
Kushisha = causative of shika.

vastator. haupendi si ewe labibu ina ila ilio 10 11 kuwania . wakauma zanda wakiiyuta Na dunia yao ikawasuta 19 ichamba safari muniukiye 20 Ichamba hayani 21 ndio safari yakomele tena ya kuu'siri 22 28 na takaburi 24 mutendele 25 kwangu nishuBithaa' ya ndeo . Chenda akaona mwako wa yua mai alotaka akayatoa 4 3 yambo ila shakawa. Mutendele = old Swahili fr. . 27 Manaya = mauti. 25 si fr. Kiwavu =mbavu.H VERSION N. ^- Ar. 23. Ku-etuka= to shine. shida na shakawa likupeteo Ni dunia ii 6 uipendao yenyi thila na makataye 7 17. Dunia 19. ikaribu. misfortune. of haya Ku-'usiri=to delay by the way. 17 Wangapi dunia waipeteo. 19 Khasaisi. . glfted ' 11 20 21 6 9 Ku-talathatM = to take pleasure characteristic of. Tandi 18 la mauti likiwakuta. 12 11 23 Jifa=jumbi. . Ku-wania=ku-telea. Labibu. fr. 18 Yasimsiye = yasimwishUie. ni jifa Ihali gani Kima 20. Mwa-tami = fr. 24 Ar. ila 16 hupa watu ngea ikithiriye. sweet. Ar. 8 asirithiye. 10 Kilabu. 7 Makataye = evil happenings. 28 Kutubwikia=to sink into. Ngea=chele = epuka. ^JL^ = a dog. mtu nambwa 13 mbovu mno kuta kiwavu 15 kilabu 9 . ! kiburi = pride. 12 hutukiza[i]ye. fr> k^-euka. 32 Lathati =raha=laza. . Asifidi 18. 24. to Hayani = pi. find in. Mvi 26 wa manaya 27 ukiwafuma na kutubwikiya 28 katika nyama Pasiwe mwatami 29 mwenyi kwatama au muya nena yalikuwaye. . . . fr. Takaburi. 8 14 . ku-atama=to gape. 17 Ku-fidi=ku-pata. de- . Ikalifu 21. ungi welevu ulikithiriye . ikawa mayuto yasimsiye Khasaisi 5 zote na matakwao . . Au 2 1 enga metu limetukapo . 30 kali. Ndeo = swollen headedness. Hadimu = a breaker. twaye. au mwenyi kwenda Metu = a mirage. . 22. ^^J = intelligent. X&*' 15 1 Ikalifu. 25. the mouth P Ku salimu=ku koma 29 ' fr. Ku-suta = ku-fukuza. . Wakazisalimu 30 'umri zao hadimu 31 lathati 82 akenda nao . Tandi = tanzi. . 13 Ku-kithiri=to be much. . spoiler. * Mvi-chembe. was 22 8il=uii. fr. Pasi mkohozi akohowao 1 2 3 4 6 . wakatalathathi kwa shani lao Ikawa sumbuko kwa mazingao [wajkaanguka zanda waziumiye. Nambwa=na mbwa. Ar. for mume- tenda. wakati wa yua lilinganapo kayakimbilia akayaMwenyi nyota kamba ni mai yapo 16. ^ . hudiye.

si lile. Kuliwa bangu =ku-hadaa. . . . . Safihi. j 3 Kievu =kidevu. = ku-amsha and 4^. ku- ignor- . = foolishness. 32. Adhurusi = pembe za ndovu Shamsi. ku -lala (-e-e tense). Ku-khini=ku-hini=ku-iza.pta0^=jua. 22 Zati = za tiati. 33. 2 4 Hukengeukii = hukunigeukii. . . 19 20 ikiwa mgine wamtendaye. 16 Hudumu. 19 ance. . 17 isi=viumbe. . Yawatii'le = yawatii'ye. Ewe moyo enda 6 ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. Hakuwa mtume Suleimani maliki wa isi 17 na ajinani 18 ? . lini ewe Hiki safihi yao 2 ? nambia ukomo 4 kievu 3 moyo changu hukengeukii . Au 30. ikawa kuzima usiviviye 10 . Tuka =mashaka(yamti)= branches. 21 Nusuha = entreaties. nusuha 5 yangu. moya hwona izimishiye. saa 29. na dunia yao iwaokele 31 mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye. Zana=akiba. Huza akhirayo kwa ulimwengu 28. Yemale = yambo lema Dawamu = dayima. Praver Hela = haya 20 prostration in 27 haya 29 28 - 12 (enda) not so (shame). ku-ona. 12 11 sijida . fr. yake hela tafathali unabihike Sheitani rajimi asikuteke kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye 13 Hunu ulimwengu utakao yemale 14 nilipe upendeyao . . fr. . 76 VERSION N. . 29 ziniye 35. fr. Ku-roromeka=ku-waka. Kamaye = kama yeye. Uwene 24 wangapi watu wakwasi walowakiwaa kama shamsi 25 Wamuluku 26 zana 27 za adhurusi 28 thahabu na fetha wahi. . 32 f r . ruhu 7 enga taa katika pepo. Sijida = prayer. niusikiye. Ku-futu = ku-kosa. Ruhu=roho. 23 Luhudi =ufuko = the narrow trench dug to receive the body after the 24 Uwene = -e-e :> G 7 8 9 10 11 Ku-viva=ku-iva. milele. 1 2 ? 30 Malimwengu yote yawatii'le Wachenenda zita thao thilele 32 Ku-nabihi amka. is Ajinani =majini (jins). . wamuluku = those who possessed. fr. is 4 15 rest of the grave 25 foliage. Hauna dawamu 15 hudumu 16 nao umilikishwapo wautendaye. Sasa nyumba zati 22 ziwatwetweo . Uwaweneo = umezoona. 31. Ku-hizini = to store up. luhudi 23 katika iwafun- diye. Ulimfutuye ukamukhini Watoto wangapi uwaweneo 21 ikawa yakini kupona kwao . Nisikia sana nikwambiapo Haiziwiliki izimikapo. Ar. tense is finished. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika 1 hukunabihi 1 Utaata 27. 34.26. 8 ulio weuni katika tuka 9 enga moto kuroromeka 9 Pakashuka wingu katika shaka . K u-oka = ku-sitawi.

N. wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye. = incense. 'itiri na kaa waipashiye *. 4 Jamil =wengi. . ku-tia 23 . 31 32 wakanakiliwa ili safari 44. 28 (-zii 9 w 'Itiri Ar. Tafahuri = f r. Kwa msana za kele 18 15 naapa kwa Mungu Mola 14 zisitawiye. = rows. Ar 26 Misutu = visutu vikuu 27 Ku-kukiwa = ku-inikiwa. . of usiku. 18 Kele = kelele. 20 21 22 Ku-shitadi=ku-zidi. kwa taa za kowa na za 2 miyongo 3 zitengo . . . 11 Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi mkwasi 13 12 zi za msaji na abunusi Zali 38. 17 Situru= cloister. pi. Wapambiye sini ya kuteua na kula kikombe kinakishiwa Kati watizii 10 kuzi za kowa katika mapambo yanawiriye 8 . . 5 Mbake = mpia. sufuri na nyurna na mbele ill jamu wawatandiye. Wakaapo pote zao Nyumba 37. VERSION zao shingo. 15 Msana = ic Ku-vtuna (with voices. Abunusi = mpingo = ebony. fr. ^ \^ . a group. 22 zishitadiye . !1 ranks. mwongo). 41. . 19 Waja = watu. 8 9 10 fr. Ku-taanusi= to be comfortable. (pi. 32 & fr lU-paka. Sufufu of safu) indoors. Hudama = watumwa. Nyemi = furaha kuu. Misutu 26 mipindi wakipindiwa yuu la farasha kufunikiwa 27 28 29 Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa . . shiye. a'sikari 6 zikinawiri ill mbake 5 . 4 7 Masiku 8 ya kele kama nahari 9 haiba na jaha iwazingiye. fr. . 1 to 10 persons. 24 Majodori =magodoro. of 3 of fr. siye. Kitengo = baraza of people other than the sultan. 1 2 Ku-mia=to wave=ku-punga. Mao = malalo. Fusi=kivumbi. 16 ill za waja 19 na za masituru 17 zikiterema kuvuma na za hudama 20 furaha na nyemi 21 . G Ku-nawiri=ku-ng'ara. Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi walina wakande nawa pepezi . . . . - ^9 Ku-nakila=ku-gura = ku-hama. 7 Sufuri = shaba. Miyongo (pi. Ukwasi ungapo na tafaburi 33 Washukiye nyumba za makaburi mtanga na fusi ziwafu43. Nahari = mtana. Na wake wapambe 23 24 kukhitari mema maao Kwa yuu la zitanda na majodori ya 25 kwa kazi za pote wanakiNa mito kuwili ya akhadhari waturnbuizi 42. 25 Akliadhari Masiku. . Kaa=sandaU. Kumbi 40. crowd. 76 Wakimia 1 mbinu na 36. tele sufufu . | 12 14 Zali~= zango zile. 39. tense) (?). understood). = green.

29 fr. sauti . Ku-funda = to shut in (as in ma- build. shingo Ukita h[w]itikwi fr. 35 = piri = puff-adder. Ku-siri=ku-wa. . . 41 = to turn. Ku-taathari = ku-oza. ila ni mwango 39 22 ku-kaa. ya waja 40 41 itindishiye . . Bumu=owl. . be cut short. enga matuka na matukutu 35 36 Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye 37 Kwamba usadiki kamba mbuwongo enda nyumba zao uzinde Yalingie vumbi 53. Matandu = cob.webs. See note 16 above. Zitefute zao . 10 12 11 na kuwatafuna zao jisadi 18 Wasiriye kuwa kula kwa dudi Na mta 14 na tungu huwafisidi majoka na pili 15 wawatatiye. 30 ng'ende . wasakha 7 na damu huwaitika 8 Pua na makanwa bomb we 9 hutoka haiba na sura zigeushiye. . 16 17 makinda 18 ya popo iu Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame . 40 Waja^watu. nawanawa ndiwahumia shingo 27 28 29 mbawa ziku na zitati Wakipija matungo tungo waliwashiye kati zao huvuma mende kumbi za msana zalia Nyumba 51. 30 Ng'ende = nyenzi. 49. . 23 24 25 Dhiki = u tungu. bird green which eats dates. . 28 Kitati = a very small bird. Ukeme = matayo and mawizilio. Kisiji =a Koti = a small bird. ku-angama. ku-waka= to Ku-itika=ku-yeyuka. wengeme 19 Husikii hisi 20 wala ukeme 21 zitanda matandu 22 walitandiye. Pili wingu yamefungana). . Hisi = sauti. 52. Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni Buum 23 hukoroma kati nyumbani zisiji 24 na koti 25 waikaliye. moya shubiri Ikawa miwili kutaathari 3 huwatulika 6 46. Ziwele = zimekuwa. ::8 54. 31 Yande = yande. 34 Mazibala =yaa= dust. . 27 Kiku = adove. or. .VERSION N. 33 Jisadi=ziwiliwili. Wasakha = pus. 77 2 . Shubiri = the span of the fingers (the measurement of the ufuko). Ku-mia=to nod. 50. . Matukutu = tuka kuu. 2(5 Zion<Ja=zidon<Ja. 26 Wanawazipungu wapendezango. Mta=mchwa. maziwio. pasipo zulia wala jodori dhiki 4 za zionda 5 ziwakusiye. . Kula'= chakula. matter. 38 Ku-zinda=to 39 Mwango = echo. Tame = -gofu. > . Ku-tulika=ku-tiririka. See note 10 above. 32 Dudi=mayongoo. Makinda =zij ana. . . Sasa walikee 1 45. 47. dung. fr. Bombwe = maggot. . makumbi yande 31 kuwa mazibala 32 yalisiriye 33 Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele 34 mwitu. 36 37 Mbuwongo = mbwa uongo.

. 17 19 20 18 16 zituzo za mato masiza ngowa ? Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa Kwa lina . 63. " 'Ali=bigh 12 (Ar. . wenyi nyuso . 19 fr. ya kupulika 5 Sasa moyo pako tauza nawe nelezato sana nami nelewe Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe. 16 liamu. 1 zituko zingapo huya'ithika . Kituzo = arresting. Aimi=mimi. . Hbonya=nionya. nyamba Wa wapi ziuli Kwa na mashekhi . 2 ? 4 3 naona kwa haya yafuatiye. 'ali 11 daula na zenyi mianga? 'ezi iwaushiye. ^ Wesiwe = wameamkuliwa 13 27 fr. 20 30 30 nitagamiye . . 14 fr. . zidiwa = kama ndiwa. Ku-wa'igiika=ku-zingatia=ku-faMasikizi =masiMo. . Mimi nakvvambia Zisizo 60. 28 fr. Waushi = people who have flown away (uka=ruka). 10 Ziuli = maua. fr. Moyo Wendo wachokoka 25 nawe [hjwokoki moto wa jahimu 26 . Wasiriye wote kuwa 64.Jlrif^ P aa = utosi. wangiziye nyumba za jizajiza ndio mashukiyo 7 walishukiye. mema ya ? 10 za vumbi vumbi za Pate Yungwa Wangiziye nyumba 62. . 68. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka 67. usikutwae. . Hata masikizi 56. 20 29 malijaa . 57. Jahimu. okoka. Mashukio = place of 21 22 descent. Ku-viza=ku-ongeza. 8 Wapi wakiungu waviza kumbi "Walaliye 61. Ukimbiliepi 1 2 28 pa kukushika = awakened. wahakiki zuo wakihakiki 15 Waongoza watu njema tarikhi wesiwe kwa wote waitishiye. . mahuwa 21 . Ku-uza=ku-uliza.78 N. makadhi wamua 14 haki. Kamao = kama wao. nambia walipo kawamkiye. . Kiunda Aboard with which body 23 is 2* covered in grave. mtanga.). Moyo nakwambia ya watu sao 24 kuwa ao una yako uyashishiye ? kamao Nawe wayakini ata taadabu sipeketeke ya jauri haki ushike. . za tanga tanga 12 mabwana na mawaziri Watamiwe 13 na-ti za makaburi lina . Moyo huyatasa kimabihika 58. Mahuwa =: marehemu.^fr. U wapi Ali bin Nasiri na muamu wake Abu Bakari 6 Mwenyi 'Idarusi na Mohodhari wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye. 83 kalamu ya Mngu iwapeteo. VERSION . ukimtoiliepi=utakimbia wapi? Malijaa = matagamiwa. ku-isa (i8ha). ku-amua. 4 Ku-pulika=ku-sikia. wenda na makundi ya 'askari pingu za mauti ziwafundiye. ku-atama. 26 . 7 8 9 mbonya 17 18 3 6 ? na paa 27 za watu kupapatuka. . muanga na muangaza kisararnbi 59. Ku-tagamia = ku-egema. 55. Ngowa =matakwa. nipulikiza ziunda 9 za miti ziwaaliye. 22 sasa ni waushi waliushiye. 65. fr. . 5 . Ar. Sao-hao.

ndimi yonda Mjani akupe 21 20 pulika sana. (ii) Jahimu.] Na moto wa latha 28 Huona manofu yakikwambuka waona ziungo ziungushiye 29 . . 21 22 Hasanati = thawabu. (Kiam. 20 Hawia=one 4 Ku-ta = ku-piga on<3lo magote = viz. . 29 hells. 7 . Ku-ungua = to disjoint. : 30 hutama 31 . . . Mitokoto. Rikabu = a riding animal. Kitana = sumbuko. ku-shitaki. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu Akatwekwa thambi thamaghusubu 11 akambiwaHaya mtukuliye. 24 Maghusubu = oppressor. . 27 nao pulika ukitiwa mara huwa kuwaka [77. of ulimi. 1 Kwima = ku-simama. Ny umu = -kali.]* Uye 17 18 sura za na ziyali 19 zimtatiye. VERSION 79 Tafakari siku ya kwima 1 kondo. . 14 15 of the seven 26 Silisiya = chains. See on these hells. Sai'ri = one of the hells just men(i) tioned. motowe muashi na kuguruma Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama. nae.] Kuna na hawia 22 'Asi angiapo hula kitana huona pumuzi zimsiziye. Pindi ya Daiyani 16 ukivuma na kuta ukita sauti kama ya punda panda [74. menithilimu kwa hukumu yako ilio ny umu Mngu jabari akahukumu amtendeleo amlipiye. 13 12 73. 19 Kiyali = spark. (vii) Hutama. 23 ufahameto ni moto mkali katika nyoto 24 [76. cut joints apart. . Azimamu=ugwe. 71. 23 Kitaya = bit (bridle). 70.N. shiye. Na malipwa yao wathilimua si thahabu timbi si 3^akufua. . (v) Latha. ku-tokota. Moyo tafakari ya jahanamu wenyi silisiya na azimaniu 15 14 akiukimu unene labeka niitishiye. Jabari = bila kifano. (iii) Hawia. 69. (vi) Hamimu. Jahanamu. ila hasanati 8 ni malipwaye. Fedba hawatwai na wangapoa. .)). 9 10 72. Mgi=mwingi. 31 Hutama = one of the hells. Eu-kimu=ku-amkua.)=mtumbwa 30 Siyo = hiyo. 2(3 PL of moto.] Moto wa sai'ri Ni mngi 25 wa moshi na mitokoto 26 majoka na pili waikaliye. bongo na wasakha limshu- [78. (iv) Sai'ri. Makina =makini. Namuwa = hukumu. Daiyani = a name for God. 27 Latha = one of the 28 Manofu = joints of meat. N^imi = pl. yaku'aridhiwa 2 kula kitendo 3 4 achamba Ya Rabi namuwa 5 Pindi mathulumu atapo ondo . . 3 Mathulumu = tyrants. ni moto mkali hau makina [75. [74] to [78] the note at the end of the Translation. fr. 6 . 17 Mjani = a wrong doer (distinguish from mjane (Kimv. Namuwa na huyu. 18 a Ku-aridhiwa = ku-arifu. .] Fahamia tena siyo .

prob. = various authority or reading. or Auth. Archipelago. or cfr. Mv. Mombasa language or = usual. = probably. E. = meaning. "li-Mambasii. The original transcription was made by the help of the learned in such matters among my friends. or would. A. = Captain Stigand's. = version obtained at Mombasa. = modern. -ly. = perhaps. sc.. perh. Southern. = at the place referred to.V. = literal. w. VL. Ar.) = North. = Mombasa. obtained in the AL. = alternative.MOMBASA RECENSION OF THE INKISHAFI BY REV. (N. fr. = with. alternative reading. N. alt. =Ki-ngozi (Ki-ngovi. usually. wd. (S. cf. S. =word Ngoz. = South. 1. = perfect. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE MOMBASA RECENSION Mombasa Text is the outcome of a careful and deliberate many years of the original Arabic-character copy obtained for me in 1885 by the celebrated Mwalimu Sikujua II.) pf.) or Authorities. who This revision spread over . native scholars and authorities like the Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmad." meaning Descendant of the ancient royal family spoken of under the name of "the Kings of Mombaza" by the poet Milton (see Introduction). W. mod. =from. = Authority = Arabic. Northern. TAYLOR ABBREVIATIONS = another reading. lit. usu. V. Kimvita. = compare. alt. ad loc.

Bwana Husein bin Khamis el Mandhiri. It is seldom that a MS. Text lacks the first seven stanzas of the complete Poem preserved in this Mombasa Recension. Mombasa. Poetry. and Trade jargon respectively. the note on 12. MS. All the names given are those of acknowledged authorities in their own father. [74]-[78] and of the three stanzas in all. but its outer part has of course suffered at the British more than the rest of the long roll. . of T'akaungu. though original. .S. if I remember rightly. and Ayubu bin Salim el Mazru'i. now I think of The Mrima. looked drawn for the distinction in the up to by all.) . of any age is found in such good condition as is that of the Utenzi of Liongo.and others too numerous to mention. of which the outer layers became the first to perish. is the authority Introduction between the three leading Dialects of the different zones of Swahili and Zanzibar. now Museum. since the complete number of stanzas in the perfect Poem would hardly " " is a number that would appeal 70 be an odd number. a defect which seems at first sight to be atoned for by the presence of on the Mirage. and to the oriental and the native mind alike. RECENSION 81 were dispossessed by the Portuguese after their conquest of the coast at the end of the fifteenth century. the poet. It will be noted that the N. by the fact that the ancient poetry of this stamp was written on rolls. Then his almost equally able son Bwana Hemedi. The first-mentioned. the the five eight [16]-[18]. The I have ventured to include and revise on I am still doubtful if stanzas on the Mirage my own they formed part of the authority. el-Amawi (Omeyad of The procured a text for Other Kureish). and the Kadhi (then Sheikh) Buruhani bin 'Abd-il-'Aziz ibn 'Abd-il-Ghani. Eliminating these last. by Bwana Sa'id bin Khamis. general were authorities the latter's able Kadhi of Zanzibar before him. also Bwana Majidi bin 'Ali el Mandhiri besides Bwana Rashid bin Su'ud. Lamu. as media for Prose. and the Mwalimu now Kadhi al-Ghazzali. which I secured in 1884. (See also for a superfluous stanza in S. country. Poem totals The loss of the introductory stanzas is explicable seventy stanzas. with Mwalimu Sikujua. who me Another special revision was made.

produced with the upper blade upon the palate. But Billahi. etc. especially of the a's which succeed them. at Zanzibar etc. It in prayer in the effort not Billahi. . tip of the : these is easily heard in the modifying of their following vowel sounds. e. when the words in which Their they occur are pronounced as is usual in the Arabic style." If the dh and th has a broadening influence upon the vowel it is.. as at Mombasa. partly that dh. nearly and dhamini is nearly dhamini so the palatal Arabic sounds th and t (J and Jb) make . for the Kim vita but with The Swahili Spelling appropriate " Mombasa. like s. at Lamu. tongue on the teeth these are pronounced exactly the same to the North. cerebrals. : and the former make 1 The only word all long a's which a. thahiri between (distinct) dh and th and tahiri (circumcise). because of the i in the preceding syllable. and is with the side laid along the upper jaw teeth on the left. the dh is a composite sound.B. 'Athman. words in which they figure are pronounced in the South. Bismillahi." in them than at Lamu. The gh. The effect of pronounced with the dentals..g. involves a guttural effort. as if the tongue made a prostration to pronounce a Name so holy. a broad a The also. . partly that. thus sala (prayer*) is sala. the Arabic dhad and tha.. the chords of the glottis being made vibrant to yield a chest resonance at the moment of voice production. while th a palatal sound consonant pure and simple.PRELIMINARY NOTES TO THE MOMBASA TEXT Phonetics and Prosody. do not broaden their succeeding vowel sounds thus dhati. " " in the same pose as for the gutturals kh and gh. said my teacher. dh (3) when it and is all the remaining consonants. including the used at all as in proper names l ain (c) like 'All. N. both dh and s modify the a following to become in sound nearly as o. not dhati *.g. d and t. related consonants exhibit the (jo and u) same peculiarity. etc. namely on the d and t. etc. in 1 precedes is Allah. the q or k (J>) and the r and s have a similar broadening effect.. 1. e. these Dialect as used at "r" less of the or trill . which have a difference is similar effect on the vowels they introduce . exactly the same as at Mombasa. fore palate with the upper edge of the blade of the tongue letters in all . dh and th. like "awe. Persians and Hindis neglect this in their own speech.

and singing. a. far as I . (Welsh). for the 62 . a dissyllable and in to the : . i. and and kh and gh. ch'. when the latter word (still pronounced in the ordinary way) is divided. nd. letter aspirated initials and they correspond . etc. RECENSION 83 are reduced as often etc.. k'.S.. then (= the th in English there is no modification of the pure vowel system a. t'.). "blends" made with the corresponding voice consonants by the letter n to form respectively mb. ng. Therein every used. etc.e. nj. is merely pronounced in the exaggerated Lamu way. which from the chest . The vowels are rather 6. differ from the smooth or non-explosive type of the same letters in the increased force is supplied from out of the mouth cavity. . not they always represent a suppressed n before the a matter of grammatical importance in the case of of the breath. Here note The Accent.. voice as contrasted with breath being kept ' usually heard in Swahili. The explosive consonants p'. I. this is to Also and note: The marks d and introduced t t for ng without the "cerebral" the d the Lamu. e. by Captain Stigand while they draw attention to the exaggerated "trill" which in those Dialects accompanies them both. h (*. being breath consonants. the emission of up in an even "pressure" Ain (e). not as sing-ing. respectively. [Note There is also a blend mv as in Mvita. lengthened at the accented syllable than stressed. Jomvu (Jo-mvu). d and t not marked as dental (d and t) pronounced as above explained. and' (*) are the Arab sounds least throughout. the other t " in whatever zone. nd. This d and t is the Bantu consonant proper the dental d and t of Mombasa while found in the roots of is admittedly cerebral. i. e.. o. and are always heard in the more modern words derived from the Arabic when spoken by the " loans. but especially the d.] ng' is the sound in the words Gottm^en. and when it occurs in Lamu. t'. u in the Swahili of Mombasa (or even of the South as am aware). Apart from the Arabic words in which at Mombasa the dental d and cultured those which exhibit j and ch respectively at From the above considerations the " Centrality " claimed Mombasa Dialect in the Introduction may be further occur include Zanzibar. u to . pure native origin are the true Arabic sounds. are not necessary when the Mombasa system above noted is for Dialects. but as si-nging Nghad . be contrasted carefully with the blend apostrophe above mentioned. etc. by the "illiterate" " dh then ") and s and h (or g). s.

It is very important to note that the changes have been naturally very much slower and always inconsiderable in those Dialects where the literary and poetic genius . nd. In the Translation the letter -r has been chosen for the last letter of and the unusual metre and accentuation is an endeavour to render the effect of the Poem mutatis mutandis the final syllable . [See Grammar Mrs " The of Cerebral also RECENSION Preface my to the Mombasa Swahili Burt.K.] " pronunciation of both the r and 1 at Zanzibar South (with the fore-edge of the tongue slightly raised the fore front palate. This rhythm with the rhyming Aimi wa wapi || may be thus tabulated : wakazfndfwa. moment you poetry as in ordinary speech make separate it is not necessary to write the m'vi.C. easily explains the confusion so often arising between and in the those sounds in the Southern Dialects. (Mombasa) and Southern groups Prosody of the Poem. and so bearing a relation to the Bantu against d and t). generally.P. In Swahili prosody every (See the Mombasa Text. yet in some words it is so separated. is necessarily sometimes distinct from the modulation of the rhythm. falling on the penultimate syllable of each word. The metre and rhyme-system of the appended Translation are intended to convey to the English ear of what is (to the Swahilis !) the cast of the original archaic . Permanency of Dialect. wasiza-ngowa kiiwa mahiiwa. etc. (') except seldom separated thus I'l.) full value. S. where the first of the 1's is dwelt on to make the fourth syllable of the six of which the word is composed. n' in thus . 3. some idea somewhat but in the Swahili (what answers to) the tonic accent. Wasiriye wot'6 L6o ni waiishl waliiishfye\ ! || || || The last syllable of rhyme though each stanza is invariably of the same strict -ye (which in most cases has to be transliterated as -e written -ye in the Arabic script) throughout the Poem. There are no diphthongs vowel is given its separate in the Central 2. 11 is to distinguish from the blends mb. Bisumiriahi. established.84 S. as above. n'de. m' and syllables as in . Zituzo za mato. Stanza 1. where at one seem to hear r anc( at another 1.

S. RECENSION 85 and the pure taste of the people have had such play as certainly has been the case in the Mombasa (Central). . have had the steadying effect of a sheet anchor for grammar. However. popular. strong. howsegregation of dialects becomes out of date. of the with the ever. and the mass of " Ushuhuda " (Native Authority which in Swahili is or was the standard poetry) has in consequence become thinner and so less a conservative factor. while with the introduction of modern conditions the merely pedantic element once so assertive in its tendency to all that is Simultaneously. genius will out and we may now hope for a revival in Swahili of efficient as . in all the important languages of the world where a regular. The War of Extermination till " waged against the Arab squirearchy and their leisured entourage by the colonising European Powers. with the growing influence " of the often too unsympathetic Resident Alien. which. and Lamu. Euphrates" of the native gradual "drying up is element a conservational new becoming operative in the classics. increasing eifect of the Bible Translations. have introduced as a necessary sequel an alteration in this respect. where genius exists. vocabulary and style amidst the ever-changing currents of the fashions of speech. lately and some other Northern Dialects. use of Scripture has obtained.

) (kuoa= write. without the h. Kitamishwe kiza cha ujuhuli. where the letters are not carefully pronounced. Nitunge kitungo kwa kukisafi nikipange lulu kulla tarifi na ina nikite IN'KISHAFI kiza cha dhunubi kineukie || || . with stress on every syllable. niyathihirishe || || || || 8. I have used no diacritical points in the text for Arabic loan words. || 5. Mohamadi. tfcalali= mists. (N. 5 This and the following word are so spelt in the MS. etc. ku-awaza. Makusudi yangu nda kudhamiri ya kutunga koja kulidawiri mivazi miwili ya kukhitari makinda ya lulu nyuma nitie. neravoLo. manukuu. nakala xnankulun.) 2 In 8. = exactly. Text wd. AL. Important as indicating that an 1 is primitive in Bantu roots. || him'di niitushize 3. 8 kineukie. Cp. || 9. Gr. || na iwe toba yakwe aitubie. not from ku-euka. || || 6.. arahamani niirasimu Noe na him'di nitangulize alo mdasisi asiongeze akamba Bisumil'lahi || || || 2. in which such 1's are found. n. himdi. Kwimakwe kuisa kuzikamili him'di na sala hiziratili kuisa kutabalaji na salamu 4. namba wazi^siflti. of 1 from Ar. Ngozi. MS. AL. toba = /ieTa/*Ae<r0at . 4 =niweneze. because ni with following e may elide its i. wazoevu wa mambo ya ushairi wa kale. majuto (mayuto = [17]) Title. but may never become ni. Kwimakwe || asiondoe.B. ite laili = cast out the night. as presenting an older and not a more modern form of speech. Hence. from ku-euka . 9 =kuzingatia. from =ziwaenee. . || yangu makali ambayo moyoni nikusudie. midomo Na niikadimu hali ya kupenda kuinathimu noe arahimu nyuma ikae. kiniukiye therefore as in N. the reading is nandike (=niandike) but here also from similar considerations I have restored noe na the conjunction na is evidently required. kania ilivyopokewa Mvita huku katika manukuu ya kale na huku kwa ya wenyeji wat'u wa maana. and its presence bespeaks the Dialect. 1. |j 7. 1 Here the original Kingozi reading demanded by the metre must have been noe arahimu which accordingly I have restored for nandike (^j^Jpl) rafcimu. while nandike leaves no room for it in the metre. by elision .INKISHAFI. This from MS. etc. if correct be from ku-uka. but the consonants are all pronounced single in Swahili with short vowels. . arahamani above with the article. ambao kwamba hutaamali The || || nuru na mianga ite thalali . but the first word is exceptionally accented. and verbal information. || niidiriji || i| || || || . 'ila katangaza ikatoza anga kama siraji sala t'umwa Mohamadi nim'salie Nalize thamma banu Kinana na sahaba wane wenyi ma'ana sala na mbawazi ziwaalie nisaliye wot'e ajuma'ina Allahumma Rabba mkidhi-haja nisaliye t'umwa aliyekuja|| nitawabidi Maula wa waja ukitusomesha tafusirie.

10. 16 in the Translation. ? 11 =lina ndia. Note. though ukhasirie in these in 13 (for yukhasirie"?). 19 explains namba ati! ("I say!"). || ni-ni Moyo wangu kukhitari. likukuliyeo hela n nini liwapo na sura nisikatae? ni-ni? huzundukani? Moyo wangu ? hu'itabiri ? twambe. ni dunia sii uipendao yenyi nyingi dhila na makatae || || || [18.has often to do duty in both 3rd and second persons singular. MS. and on 16 18 matakwao. makatae = word is supplied for the hiatus in the rhythm here. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua. aurakibuo huyo mwana 14.] mwenyi [17. 12 and in its In a S. second paragraph. See Prelim. but prefer " mta-paa from ku-ta paa~(Intensive form of upaa) as if thrusting out the shaggy " mane (tossing it). p'enda kuonyana na || za malimwengu . "with its [unfolding] leaves" (vicissitudes): These three stanzas or (-kat'a) lit. be matakwayo however as This indicated the"se three stanzas may not be of the original poem. "cuts. namba situkuzie S. 11. form correctly wd. which Auth. || || || || kunwa 15. to contend for (it). kuwania situkuzie. siikaribu ewelaibu. and A. [16]-[18] have* been amended conjecturally from the N. though yu. the S.'s. 13. hakioni k'itu akishishie || . has here. ~ 15.] || || . kuwania S. to embrace. || 19. or is it 2nd person by a sudden change to the personal appeal. or. || || haipendi mt'u kuwania na mbwa ila kilabu. stanza 31 occurs twice. MS. An linga maie. || moyo hila za rajimi ziughurie. ikawa mayuto yasimsie.. V. soS.] nyota 'kamba || wakati wa yua likitumbuza. vumbi la muangaza akilisoza mwenyi kulegema Au linga metu limetukapo [16." = bargains." . bahari ! || || ndia || wa za t'atasi una matumbawe na mangi masi. u. : endure. Khasaisi zot'e za matakwao. same words. MS. || || wakati mai ni wa yua yapo || lilinganapo || kiyakimbilia akayanwae ? mai alotaka akayatoa. MS. halibaini. chenyi mtambaa kati asipate endao kwegema humta p'embe wa ng'ombe ni mwasi. Kwimakwe wangu : || kiiisa yangu diibaji utwetwe hawa ni 87 RECENSION S. || kwa kulla khasara ukhasirie. zitukuzie i || hali gani.of course is the original form of the prefix in all Swah. and may mean. 12.. : dialects. both here after 12 13 begin with the Note that and place there in precisely the same form. akishishiye. Hujui dunia ina khatari ? || t'esi. Suu ulimwengu. "I have not tolerated = do not . shrewd turns. Hunambii kwani. Through corruption this may be the philology of the word mtamba. Dunia ni jifa. Unga ja kisima kisicho ombe. || mwelevu u || huzandamae? Suu ulimwengu. Note In Lamu. and Auth. makata-yakwe. etc. 14 I have left mtambaa according to the S. asifidi yambo ilia shakawa shida na shakawa likupeteo.

Ya kulewa bongo ukhitarie? 27 Here substituted for S. haiziwiliki. Ewe moyo wangu. S. and so to deal a " knock-out " blow. k' = ni k. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika bikunabihi ? wamba || || || 26. which reads Shetani Bills! [Ibilisi] akughurie." In MS. i. || ! || || || au mwamba Nini ! ! Wakazisalimu 'umri Hadimu-ladhati akenda nao. || || || || mtenzile kwangu. The last eleven syllables read in S. . zalikuwae || ! || 23. wingu katika kwaka. ghaitha. ! || [| ! || 31. pasiwe mwatami mwenyi kwatama. k'uta kiwavu hupa wat'u ghaitha ikithiriye * walotadhaludhi kwa shani lao.kupiga kikumbo. Auth. MS. Wangapi dunia waipeteo ikawasumbika kama zioo wakafa na zanda waziumie Tanzi la mauti likawakota na kuuma zanda na kuik'ata. haina muanga tena. MS. Auth. of S. 25. 22 "Strangled. tena S. || huiona izimishie. 25 OtJJJ! ^i>li = "Smasher of Delights. aula mwambiwa asiridhie. ikamba " Safari. this identical stanza here and also after 12. synonym of Death. .e. ewe moyo.88 S." Ar. S. Shetani rajimi asikuteke aoriapo kesho k'uwa kamae Suu ulimwengu uupendao emale ni lipi ulitakao? hauna hela upwewepo wautendae? dawamu. but is inserted from good S. riishahadie !" na kutopekea katika nyama " Mvi wa Manaya ukawafuma. ulio weuni katika shaka. 24 =kuzama kabisa. 29 uwakao sana kwa mshindo. pasi zao. RECENSION . except as a trisyllable. mkohozi akohoao. " na dunia yao ikawasuta. Ma 'a una 'ila iliyo mbovu : ulikithiriye ungi || welevu II . : izimikapo. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo haimulikani 29. muiukie Ikamba " Hayani ndiyo safari Ikomile tena yenu 'usiri. to smite under the ribs. " and not die down merely slowly. walotaladhudhi from Ar. MSS.. || hata 27. MS. Au Roho inga || || sa'a taa katika p'epo. wala mwambiwa asiridfcie. hupa mat'ongea. MS. by slip. Version. 21 N. Caught. wala: but mwambiwa is never read wakenda. " and Authorities. 28 S. but the text is as S. Auth. kuzima taratibu moto. pakausha inga moto kuroromoka ikawa kuzima usififie". || || || 20 kuta kiwavu . and by S." Swa." now rather as in a trap or snare. AL. || ! ! Bidha'a ya ndeo na takaburi 24. Hiki lini ya usafihi ? || || nambia ukomo niusikie. or there may be conjectured for hupa wat'u ghaitha. etc. S 31 . MS. 21. sihadaike hela tafadhali unabihike . form \ jjtf . as the 13. MS. hi S. nave treacheries bestowed for their reward.V. 23 This wd. hudumu nao! || || || 30. S. 20. omits by error. || || 22. AL. See on other emendations [18]. The text here is corresponding line in put conjecturally by the help of the N. kievu changu hukengeukii nusuha yangu huza akherayo kwa malimwengu ? Ya kulewa bongo ! ! 1| || || ukhitarie ? 28. ni k'avu mno. Auth.

RECENSION

S.

32.

Hakuwa mtumwi

na ajinani,
wamrushae
awapo mngine

Sulaiinani

maliki

||

ukamkhini
wangapi uwaweneo

ulimfutue

89
ya

insi

ikawa yakini kumbona kwao,
sasa nyuinba za-t'i ziwatweteo
katika lihadi
iwafusie.
34. Uwene wangapi wat'u wakwasi
walowakiwaa kama shamsi,
33.

Watoto

||

!

||

||

||

||

||

35.

||

dhahabu na fedha wahuzinie.
na dunia yao ili akali
wakenenda
Ulimwengu wao uli taili
vitwa vya ufidhuli
mato mafumbi walifumbie.
na nyuma na mbele* ili
Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo,
wamiliki zana

za adhirasi

,

||

!

|j

||

||

36.

||

wakaapo
misongo
wawatandie

ili

pot'e

||

vitengo

||

asikari

wema,

.

37.

zikinawiri

zao nibak'e

Nyumba

kwa

||

taa za k'oa na za sifuri;

||

masiku yakele kama nahari
haiba na jaha iwazingie.
38. Zango za mapambo na faanusi
naapa kwa Mngu Mola
zali za msaji na abunusi
mkwasi
zetee sufufu zisitawie.
;

||

||

||

||

39.

sini

"Wapambie

za kuteua

kati watizie kuzi za k'oa

na kula kikombe kinakishiwa"

||

katika

|j

k'elele za

yanawirie.
masituri, zikiterema

na za
na
za
furaha na nyemi
khudama;
waja

misana zilikivuma

40. K'uinbi za

||

mapambo

||

||

||

zishi-

tadie.

32 Ordinary pronunciation to-day Selemani.
S. MS. miliki.
ns as a
= walimpotea,
blend w. only slight trace of the n Hebrew enosh = frail man.
S. Auth.
uli- corrected from S. MS. being an evident error.
The subject is
ulimwengu, "the world," not insi na ajinani.
"
"
33
child = prince, and the original
mtoto, cp. Old Engl. sigmf. of
"
"
or " child," i.e.,
signification of the now so common Swah. wd. mtoto,
boy
"
"
from ku-ta (Ngoz.) cp. Engl.
offshoot
lihadi, either the
scion,"
imp."
lateral niche made in the graves of Moslems, or the bier-frame laid therein.
See
note on Trans, ad loc.
34 AL. S. zina ( = hazina, S. Auth.), another, 2ani in same sense.
AL. S.
;

;

;

idharusi.

35
AL. Malimwengu yot'e yawati'ile Na dunia yao iwaokele, where
oka=kusitawi, "All's well with" them."" Prob. an ingenious reading of good
Swah. sense into the Arabic of the original script But so it would not so well fit in
with the next line. The S. Auth. comment on line 1 is, mambo makubwa, umri
mchache = ars longa, vita brevis.
zitwa zao zilele. Both these readings are
" Wewe
recognised by S. Auths. One S. Auth. explains the alt.l. by saying
wenda na kitwa kimelala kwa sakara, jamali na afia " = they march along in
a stupor of self-satisfaction.
See Trans, note ad loc.
36
"1 " retained in S. instead of N. mbee.
AL. S. wawatatie,
37
S. MS. p'weke (sic) or pweke
text as two S. Auths. and also N. MS.
= well-built, mbak'e = fr. kuwaka.
38
-TA
zetee, S. Auth. = zimekuta (stem -TA="put forth") safu-safu.
with prosthetic I- or E- see
69 etapo ondo = aitapo ondo
here zetee then
!

;

;

;

prob. for zietee (or -tele) old pf.
I find a variant, apparently thus Wapambe ni siti za kuteua, of
39
which the authority is doubtful.
ki-= participle-adjective, supplying ni from
:

previous clause.

40

AL.

S.

and N. MS. here nana= "ladyes," Eng.

90

RECENSION

S.

41. P'indi walalapo

kwa

masindizi

||

wall na wakandi na wabembezi

1|

na wake wapambe watumbuizi wakitumbuiza wasinyamae.
maao mema ya kukhitari juu la vit'auda na magodori
Kwa
42.
na mito kuwili ya akhidhari kwa kazi ya p'ote wanakishie.
43. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa
juu ya firasha kufunikiwa
'itiri nakawa
mai ya marashi wakikokewa
waipashie.
wakanakiliwa ill safari,
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari,
fusi na fusizi liwafusie
washukie nyumba za makaburi
ikawa
shubiri
45. Sasa walalie mji
pasipo zulia wala guduri
||

||

||

||

||

||

||

||

||

.

||

;

||

mi will

kutaathari,

||

usaha na damu zatuuzika,
p'ua
haiba na sura zigeushie.
hushuka
Wasirie wot'e kula kwa dudi na mtwa na t'ungu huwafisidi
na nyoka na ng'ge wawana kuwatafuna zao jasidi

46. Zitukuta

zao hutuulika,

||

||

na makanvva bombwe

47.

||

dhiki ya kaburi iwakusie.

;

||

||

||

,

||

tatie.

launi ya dubi au kiradi;
mifupa na nyama ikukutie.
makinda ya nyuni juu
49. Nyumba zao mbek'e ziwele t'ame,
zitende matandu
husikii hasi wala ukeme,
yengeme

48.

Nyuso memetufu

ziambatishie zao

zikasawidi
jilidi

||

||

||

||

;

||

||

yalitandie.
50.

k'umbi za msana hulia
Nyumba-kati zao huvuma nyende ;
kuwa mazibaa
mende,
yangilie vumi makurnbi ya-nde
||

;

||

yamesirie
51.

Madaka ya nyumba na
nyuni;

||

||

.

zisahani

bumu hukoroma

||

sasa, walalia

kati nyumbani,

||

zichigi

wana wa
na k'uyu

wailalie.

41 c N. Auth. wapepezi, people fanning with fans.
MS. has wakik'okewa = wakimwaiwa, or
43
So S. Auth.;
S.
wakik'akiwa.
"precious," N. Auth. has na kaa with an explanation of

kaa

as "sandal wood."

Fusi and fusizi verbals from fuka, the latter form from ku-fusiza.
" a
heap of made-earth," as the
expression fusizi is used to signify,
mound of a castle-keep. AL. N. mtanga na fusi ziliwafusie.

44

The

N. MS. walikee mui.
N. MS.
N. Auth. huwatulika two Sw. Auth. and MS.
S. Auth. mbwe-mbwe
S. MS.
expfain^zabomoka, zamonyoka.
mbombe the usu. wd. is bombwe as here.
N. MS. Jisadi. S. MS. order of lines in this is a, c, b, d.
47
49
mbek'e or mbeke (from weka) S. MS. also, mbak'e (from waka or
aka); or p'eke, S. MS. and S. Auth. (from paka). Respectively, "pukkah"
whited. It is hard to decide the original reading.
stone-built
50
nyende = mod. ch'enene, cricket.
mazibaa, another case of the 1
the Ar. mazbalah=Swah. jaa. See note on
dropped from the primitive form
So S. MS.; last line recited by S. A. as leo yamazie yalisirie, S. Auth.
Title.
=yamekwislia; yamekuwa. N. MS. eo mazibaa yalisirie.
51
za, N. A.
45

46
Zitefute,
^
as here and

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

S.

52.

Wana wa

RECENSION

91

na wana wa ndiwa humia
zipungu wabembe zango
ziki na zitwitwi
mbawa na t'ongo-t'ongo
||

shingo nakupiga
waliweshiwie
||

;

||

.

53.

Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, ungi wa matuka na k'utuk'utu
kwa kicho
milango ya nyumba hutisha wat'u
na kiza kilifunzie.
enda nyumba zao
Kwamba husadiki, wauiba mbuwongo
||

;

54.

||

||

;

ukete

shingo

||

ukita k'witikwi

ela

||

ni

mwengo

;

||

sauti

za wat'u zitindishie.
55.

Moyowa hutasa kunabihika?
mashikizi

56.

ukipulika

zituko zingapo huya'athika

||

k'wambie

||

la'ala yakutulie

?

||

tuza

!

Sasa moyo p'ako, nauza, nawe neleza-t'o sana nami niyue
Wa wapi wazazi wakuzazie ? nambia waliko hawam'kue...
||

:

||

||

57.

Mimi t'akwambia,
zisizo

58.

Yu

'Alii

wapi

Mwinyi
ndiae
59.

binu Nasiri?

||

:

||

||

na

za kiza-kiza

nyumba

wangizie

:

ndiyo mashukio walishukie

muamu wakwe

na Muhudhari

'Idarusi

?

||

||

!

Abu-Bakari?

wanzilepi kue?

||

mbonya

!

Wa wapi ziuli za Pate-Yunga
wangizie

60.

nipulikiza

mianga na miangaza

nyumba

||

wenyi nyuso k'ali kama zipanga 1
daula na 'enzi iwaushie

za t'anga-t'anga,

Wa

\

!

||

na mashaha mema ya
wapi wenzangu ? wawende, kumbe
kisarambe ? wangizie nyumba za fumbe-fumbe, viunza vya
!

||

||

||

miti viwaalie.
61.

Kwali na mabwaiia na mawaziri, wenda na makundi ya 'asikari,
watamie nyumba za makaburi, p'ingu za mauti ziwafunzie
||

||

"

||

.

"

said Mwalimu Sikujua (the usual form
S. MS. zitwetwe.
52
Ch'igi
of dim. kichigi) " is a bird's name ; and the k'uyu, in Kim vita called kipure, is in
*
appearance like a dove or wood -pigeon ; bumu, the babe-watoto or screechowl. Ziki is the name of a bird still; kifrwitwi, a shore-bird."
="wame'

wekewa

[t'undu]," S. Auth.

The first growth of bush on an abandoned field matuka being
said of old and young growth equally.
clumps or copses of young trees
ni uwongo.
uka-i-te = ukete ku-ta, to thrust forth, der. of vita,
54
Not "nrwango," as N. Auth.
war; not of Mvita, Mombasa.
= hutasa fuata.
55
=tega masikio, S. Auth.
and
57
miangaza - t'undu-t'undu in modern
mianga^madirisha,
language =" windows," and "lancets" respectively.
53

:

;

;

" The
of Pate (S. Auth.)
way there."
"
"
yu-nga = she-is-like
(words fail to
'
=
CL
what
Hence
Misr-el-Kahira
Pa,te-Sanspareil."
say
!).
(Cairo), etc., for an
adjective which becomes linked with its proper name so as sometimes to become
its substitute.
The metre of the Inkishafu ; = " ubora," "most excellent." So S. Auth.
60

58
59

'Ali bin Nasir,

Pate-Yunga

a great

(not

man

Yungwa).

'

The Author was one Seiyidi Ahamadi a suehe-ngome. By mashaha I understand
S. Auth.
poets of a high order.
poetical sheikhs or bards
;

61

zimewafunga.

wasiwe kwa wot'e waliushie. I dutifully respond. while the spirit of these stanzas in especial is sensibly foreign to that animating the rest of the Poem." At this point. 67S. Muungu 71. Lebeka. wenzo moto wa jahimu usikutwae. uyashishie? ata ya jeuri haki ushike. RECENSION Wa wasomao zuo wakihakiki. Haya. lisizime. Chinese. both students and MSS. S. together with the involved and strained constructions.) kuudMka. 63. || || ! || 70. S. manhttb = the one despoiled. where in fact the S. 66." Mod. wasirie wot'e 64. kukwaka. fedha hawatwai na wangapowa ilia hasanati ni malipoe. Siku ya maini ndani kokeka na p'ingu sabaa kugeuliwa na harara zisikwishie. kongo. derivative wakazunduliwa wd. S. ! || || || 63 65 Mod. mtukulie na tafakari p'indi Moyo juhanama yenyi silisili na azimama Mola Rabi akiuk'ema. waliushie. . Ar. kuk'akatika=(S. Tafakari siku ya kwima k'ondo na ku'aridhiwa kulla kitendo anibapo. ukamba. mean =sifanye upuzi. 68 69 =aitapo ondo = apigapo got'i. Auth. VL. taadabu. wakionya wat'u njema tariki Aimi wa wapi wakazindiwa zituzo-za-mato. wherein gloom when it approaches the revolting does not bore in addition The poverty and coarseness of the ! language employed. are moreover sufficient in themselves to proclaim the clumsy fraud. Moyowa warnbae ya wat'u sao. S. wapi makadhi wamua haki. || || || 72. sipeketeke . Auth. wakimbia kupi pa kukushika? mbonya mahalipe nitegeinee.92 62. S. || || hari || na p'aa za wat'u kuk'watanika yuu la viumbe lisififie Siku ya mabongo kupukutika na mboni za mato kuwakodoka. ! . || wokokapo nawe wokoke. "Here am I. kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu atahukumu amtozelee amlipie Niamua nae huyu thalimu Jabari ! || || ! || Na malipo yakwe rnthilimiwa si dhahabu t'imbi si ya kufua . || " be found out" Auth. "cangue".=mandak'ozi=kongwa. but 73 " probably = stocks" or "pillory. all conclude and that at its seventieth stanza (see Preliminary Note) the Poem itself would come to a natural and artistic con elusion of the whole matter in the Moslem Ritual word Labeka (pronounced commonly Lebeka) the humble expression by a "Slave" of his submission ( = Islam) to the Almighty 'Allah " Lo. 72 S. Auth. 2nd sing." The modern survival is only as "yoke. unnecessarily long-drawn out agony of the " hells " is also an offence against the native taste which on the whole distinguishes poetry dutiful ! of the classical age . Auth. wasiza-ngoa || . " here am I The tedious. . Ya Rabi niamua nae p'indi mathulumu etapo ondo . 65. = to VL. Amba || || || || || siku ya-t'i kupinduliwa ukatelelezwa mwezi na jua 67. || leo ni waushi. Again note that the real total number of stanzas seems to be seventy. Labeka niitishiye || || : 73. || kwa umu wa jua kuk'ukutika 68. Authorities. be dried up. || kalamu ya Mola iwapeteo ? an una yako. wajua yakini kuwa kamao? Moyo ! || kuwa mahuwa || || . . || . Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu katukuzwa dhambi za manuhubu akambiwa. || || || || 69.

and the Venerable Archdeacon Moule men who. without offence against the canons of European taste. and in form suited to the taste and use of the Bantu Moslem of old. two forms at the least that now published in and exists this work by Captain Stigand. would have been equally well known in other spheres. nihil humani k me alienum puto. of the spirit. of such competence as my the late Bishop Tucker. while strange no doubt to the works of our poets. this that is to say.OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEXTS AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE INKISHAFI This attempt to reproduce in English what to the Swahilis of by must indeed have been the solemn stanzas of the centuries gone Inkishafi (also and much diffidence. is still that into which the cadences of the original seemed to my ear most easily to fall. what have was been expected from the candour of say. one suggestion made to me was that I should submit the Translation to a drastic revision. form. with this proviso. considering the material submitted to them small natural talent I had dared to attempt the impossible to make acceptable English poetry of a fairly literal translation of : Poem. and the result of that (for which I am entirely responsible) is here set before the and in spirit so far reader as being a presentment. Homo sum. the other as a poet. that the form." However. might with such men. but with nothing to recommend it and make it popular for the European unless indeed he be Christian enough to feel and not Christian " merely say what the Roman said. I need hardly as an artist. The Poem as I have said is one of the old time Zingian Classics. the Northern Form. which in : in . the one Their opinion. and substance of the original. indifferently called the Inkishafu) appears with been submitted for examination to two critics It has dear East African friend and Bishop. of Mid-China . of the religious classic of a people removed from our own language. or even of English poetry . had they not been such missionaries. so far as I have been able to effect it. religion. as is the Equator from the Temperate Zone.

in the the succession two zones in which Swahili has altered use. and from the material I supplied to him for the purpose. and second poet of that name. founded upon the the great native authorities I have been privileged and consult on these matters. least. The Recension printed above has been made from a truly excellent text procured by my Arabic copyist Mwalimu Sikujua. a valuable and perfect MS. the more I not per se in my view a very rapidly changing language was not till there set in the present great Epoch of Flux in which all things in heaven and earth are being shaken. That the be idle to to know a date. from the very alterations and corruptions to appears which have crept into it. Africa in 1493. and the grammatical forms of which are herein everywhere in use. from the exemplars kept in the mosques and read therein on nights when special extra prayers are recited 1 I had the honour to convey to the British Museum. obtained in the year 1884. and friend Canon made has a translation from a recension my Eawnsley poetical I had made of this with Bishop Steere's valuable original Edition in his Swahili Tales. handed on many exceedingly ancient Bantu features in the matter see of it. Poems like those of the Utenzi of Liongo Fumo \ and this Inkishafi. and English Rather Swahili has itself let alone Swahili has not been exempt. while in also been all The Mrima. in which it may be seen. may well have been entirely in the Kingozi a dialect of the Augustan age of Swahili literature which has ever since supplied the vocabulary of poetry as from a mine. And truly. of the Poem. yet fix it has been my opinion. form nor the first-named appears however to be really the original that form must remain for the present a matter of surmise. for instance. and popularity than is Zulu till recently of a line of bards whose vigorous strains are comparable to those of the old Greek minor poets. as is evidenced Jpy the differences While it would between the two Texts published in this volume. Swahili. have been constantly in in the Zanzibar zone. and the Mombasa Text from Neither this Southern which the present Recension is made. the son. . the corruptions have the less in the language from the fact that even there this literature has been conservatively operative. original poem is indeed of some considerable age be manifest.OBSERVATIONS ON 94 many respects was new to me. that its age may be anterior testimony of all The original to the Portuguese discovery of E. is at least of the it Noun Classes. . at its worst it is better preserved and what perhaps has been the greatest bulwark the changes incidental to the lapse of time is the continuous against of the olden literature in the mouths of the people.

these prayers constituting a function called kuterewehe (probably = Ar. Also. ia^^jj).. where indeed the older forms of speech seem to have lingered longest without corruption. about) Liongo is very much harder than the simple gnomic poetry which is attributed to the hero himself. 95 ETC. That copy was made in a script as in which. Ramadban. yet enables one to read into that character by dint of a simple system of additional marks all those sounds which it is so unfitted. One remark in conclusion I may make as to the idea of the difficulty of Swahili poetry being any true indication of its age. It was from this circumstance that these latter have the name of Ki-ngozi. Ngozi or Ngovi is the name properly speaking of the dialect which obtained on the strip of territory known by that name.THE TEXTS. The Utenzi of (i. .e. while not interfering with the purity of the native use of the Arabic character. I have several volumes of excellent for poetry in this useful script.

link Arrahim. 'twere a real fault) go publish flout and fleer. as . Abu Mohammed. Taylor. Despot Mighty. those forms to Islam 4. The four Unique Caliphs "Qinana. The Merciful. And The So dear. fie. Lest come some carping And 3. 'All). But the theme is more like that of Ecclesiastes. Amir ul mu'minln= " Commander-of-the-Faithful. < ' . Praising The Compassionate. 3 4 See note on 11. And shining like some silver lamp it sheds its limpid ray. no Moslem true his rhyming would essay With Arrahman. to slur that o'er I chant aloud my orisons in ritual array. since on this " Fathers " of qualification all the great Mohammedan Authorities. four unique Companions. E. at fault-finding evermore. Thou Grant er of Requests. And then write I for . note. were all of the same tribe the Quraish the only tribe indeed from which a lawful Caliph can be chosen. W. The Sultan of Turkey is therefore not such. Title see and 8 = Apocalypse. here ! fie.THE INKISHAFP Or Swahili SPECULUM MUNDI Translated by 1. like as the dawn of day. is not in the Swahili text. set duly at the fore. the interpretation of the above doctrine. 'Othman. the Islam are agreed. Caliphs by right divine . tbe Caliph privileges of Apostolic Succession " Successor " of Mohammed." of signifies the possessor of the or Moslem Pope. Sc. 'Omar. ! (Mind ye. laud. Bismillak. But ere my Poem upriseth. stands the Preface of my lay (Omitting that. God. ancestor the Quraish . . pristine Cinana right offspring of thy line.) aye adore. 5. The Act of Tauhld ( = attesting the unity of Moslem. This word. And boldly name the Unity each pious Slave attests. No Alhamdu crying. the Ascription. critic. Benedictions holy. Then Allah. 5 Mohammed. So Thou cause us read Thee the Interpretation clear. To pray to Thee concerning the Apostle of Thy behests. however. Khallfah. (Copyright by the fame} In Allah's name. supplications their hallowed names combine Recognizing heartily each Islamite Ameer my shall . see next note." the title of a true Caliph. Bakr. Great Allah we 2.") (namely. . 32.

lit. Mammon. The world Chock-full of rocks and weedy rack that churn it into yeast. as I school my heart within. that pagan gloom must pale and pass Where Light has shone away In yielding to its radiance. though thick the shadows lay So each wretch who to conscience' upbraidings is a prey 10. . 13. hath he to fear. heart. Thus finishing the Foreword. sin's tips. 10. Shamefastly 9. 11 S. That purpose fond to follow will I weave and weave the thought. The World. gloom convicted shall appear. dazed ! once be wise ! Or Islam dost thou reckon too huge a sacrifice? for plain enough it thou nothing answerest What. ! 12. of seed-pearls secure it. personified as such in the Gospels.ad monition. ! Woe worth the day man trusts to it. no less. behold the Theme begin With stern self. 7. Discovering my Theme as here it is indited. what mean'st thou ? couldst thou but For. for though he trade his best Loss of all his venture. my *heart. And twine it as in chaplets magnifically wrought. And now that I my 97 Preface have in order meet recited. what ails thee right counsel to refuse? to speak thou knowest and art of age to choose. and thus became the official name of the system of Mohammedanism. for thee. Till fastened in a carcanet of workmanship outsought Twin ropes 8. a tossing billowy waste.THE INKISHAFI 6. So broidering my Poem until daintily it trips All threaded as with pearly grains up to the very The INKISHAF I name it. Islam. From this Poem penitence may reap in godly fear. me. by which Apocalypse. lies : is clear. What. front and rear. seest thou not this vain world 'tis perilous e'en to Or tell Speak out use \ of tempting them beware. Nay then. Labyrinth-like mazes it is a troubled Sea. theoretically and literally means surrender to God. by its false glamour with Mammon it doth sin Fooled by the Fiend's fraud. To Benisons and solemn Lauds the Faithful have invited. I fear 11. my heart. 'Twixt or Mammon! these the choice else Islam. All my heart's fond purpose to men shall I make clear. See the closing note. etc. 7 .

15. the anguish of despair. a sorrow and a cheat Then is their drink vexation poor reward for weary . Causing mortals misery without or end or peer. there's . and wherein thou hast a part. 'Tis these sum up the vain world on which thou setst thy heart. Heart-breaks and vanity of such is 19. As through the narrow casement the sun begins to gleam To reach thy hand and grasp it a light thing would seem it ? Open now thy fingers [16. Consider. Who [17. Or 'tis as one who passeth near a Well Where some mane-tossing bull goeth of broken rim.THE INKISHAFI 98 14. curious trifler. for one fault indeed it hath and it is this ! : . Vie in vain concupiscence. him Or like unto the Mote thou seest a-dancing in the beam. 'tice its nought but air ! us as they shimmer neath the sun makes blazing rays thirsty men to run. with the failure and the smart That hence befall thee. So did he haply 'scape the first the other would gore Never man the water from thence to sip shall fare. This and the two following 16 are not in the Southern Text. and have with curs thy share 20. The reason for this I think might readily appear in the absence of the mirage as a in the Mombasa where the physical conditions do not favour phenomenon zone. faugh this world is Carrion Mammon's from it store ! then keep thee far ! ! A man may Will nought never fancy. but thou must taste thy bit. its development. feet! All they shall draw thence. what find they? ah. . [18. deal one ne'er so prudently in all his business. rushing on. nought but raging The water they had fancied it.] thinking there is water where water there is none Hasten thither trusting to slake a thirst so sore.] Thy fancies and thy follies. in by the circles brim. but that on other grounds their genuineness is doubtful. Faugh. suit. though food for dogs most fit. But. This shameless world and thankless will turn on him and Though hiss. mortal.] E'en thus Mirages That pouring down see.

no space for penitence all's little ! Nor leave behind your stock-in-trade. me that thou weariest of such impertinences. swift mouth can open ere man's " ! falls full or ask it upon the breast. But. Saying. Then listen and 111 tell thee. ! heart with such experiences wilt thou be not yet wise. your pride and insolence All ye occupied in whilst here with me. though brightly it had shined ah. I swear ! 24. And. Kievu (mod. protest. protest I am purposed thou shalt in no wise quash What barterest thou that world for this world's paltry trash My . 27." The wrist is held to the chin. kidevu) changu . Hold thy my by beard peace. and accordingly a thing very rarely witnessed under the British regime in E. deep into the What this is vitals sinks. finished. if so thou be inclined it is Man's life is ! ! but a Candle that In vain wouldst thou relight Puffed out in a moment. span of life. : flickers in the wind.THE INKISHAFI 21. swearing by the beard. I man swear the end . a sacred oath 27 is ! with Moslems. . depart ye 23. Thus suddenly the dart of Death And Or " 25. it. with the nails of the bent fingers brought down upon the teeth of the lower jaw. my schooling still despise. and forthwith leads them off. yea. what business brings him here Then forthwith must my masters ? their sorry persons doff! For enter Kill-joy on the scene. We should express it as "gnashing the teeth. quotha. I fain would hear ! heart of mine so rash. not so much as of a coughing one to cough No protest Never mortal summoned thus thereat may make demur. Vain. vain. Full a fool many flattereth to it In sucking sweet successes of the Then like remorseless Fish-hooks 99 have attained its meed End he took no heed it hath snared him for his greed Fools they die in gnawing their fingers in despair. though Crying. 28. come. but rekindled ne'er . I school thee often. ! the foul Fiend bewrayeth thee here Nay. vain to gnaw their fingers and their dear flesh to hack For now the World they canvassed hath played on them its ! trick. tell Yea. it. your ! no longer linger here. and I cannot myself remember to have seen the gesture made in Central Africa earnest at any time. take your journey hence. ! 26. Up. 22. and without or tongue may make arrest. the noose of Death once fast about their neck ! Vain. 'Tis past. Come. ! 21 To gnaw the fingers is a way of expressing a man's utter despair.

(In Ar. N. and the pillar shares with the Evil One in this epithet. heart. The limitations presented by the immensity of Literally. All sparkling and glistering like the noonday in its sheen. Full many are the gay sparks this world hath seen around. Yea. . " Their world was [too] long and their earth [too] slight. I ! . mighty men of wealth full many hath it seen . for to dare. Reapedst thou its choicest. go no more astray Seek diligently wisdom. Heaps of gold and silver had piled them up with care. seek their habitations down deep beneath the ground. it would toss him high in air. The Pelted. whose word none might . When he sees that thou too wilt be as Tie is there And then in thy dear world what shouldst thou find of gain ? And what advantage suck thence that thou art for it fain ? No single thing of lasting 'twould bring thee in its train ! 31. And each in his curt course would moil amidst his cares In busying his brains with Onward moving. what couldst from out it bear ? Or readest not how Solomon the Prophet. Both mighty King and Magus. become part of the ritual of pilgrimage. 32 Selemanl is the native pronunciation of Ar. of old. Ash shaitanur rajlm). this world's witchery was cozened and befooled Came there then another. And I myself have seen them where now may they be found ? Go. vita brevis. Nor give place to " The Pelted One " to mock at thee for aye. 32. 30 BO called because the good angels are thought to be hurling the 'meteors seen at night upon Satan and his angels as they come playing the eavesdropper at the gates of paradise . withhold Yet he by 33. . Or truly like the fierce Flare the cottar's brushwood makes When midst the forest clearing he has fired the bushy brakes Now plumy clouds up-piling it showers the sooty flakes 'tis Suddenly 30. Each upon the shelf of his sepulchre so drear 34.THE INKISHAFI 100 29. the stocks Doom and shares. was. mambo makubwa. How the Book of Ecclesiastes and the Jewish many interesting parallelisms with Wisdom Literature ! 33 35 See note in S. prithee oh. Shaitani rajimi in Swahili. umrl mchache . For each in his wide world had sought out his affairs. its place left black and drear. ." Explained by the proverbial expression. to heed well what I say Then heed me. eyes Mammon's closed.B. Recension ad loc. quenched. our Ars longa. Sulaiman. accordingly the Moslem pilgrims stone a certain This custom has pillar outside Mecca. Who storing hoards of ivory and treasuring unseen 35. which the devil is thought to haunt.

And everywhere they sit them. The lampstands too are massy. Stand forth well-trained handmaidens to fan and to shampoo With odalisques that singing skill to croon and to coo ! Softly lulling lullabies o'er and o'er. in every part complete.. Encircling crystal goblets which they daintily upbear. And what time. their lights trimmed with care. in art . The folds of high curtains do screen them from With canopies airy to o'ershadow them too view. Sparkling in splendour midst all that bright gear. 39. Auth. in and out harem doth whisper. Sweet waters and perfumes distil fragrant dew. the wide world. a-weary. And soft and silky pillows for the head and the feet Broidered are and braided with richness most rare. The vases that they range And all the sconces there are China's choicest ware filigree. whose bounty is divine With pedestals of rare woods. 37. 40. 73 . And their's the high halls with their arabesques so white. Where silvery lamps of crystal or of metal all Make night as bright as day in that refulgent y'dight light . their guards in ranks thereby Line up. the universe. Unguents and attars sweet do drip adown their hair". . How To toss they their chins all front of 101 contemptuously on high them and back of them their clients ! company. attars in addition. I swear by Allah. and the narrow confined crib of circumstances are expressed in Ulimwengu wao uli taili (for tawili) na dunia yao ill akali (S. 42. good soldiers their errands for to bear.) Or the line might be freely emended by altering sini to siti as follows : 39 The serving maids be damozels both young and passing fair. Gleaming in long rows. All goodly are their couches. 43. . soft slumbers they would woo. home -born. 43 This passage is taken by one Mombasa authority (Mwalimu Sikujua) to refer to the beginning of the last long sleep of death in the case of a rich man the corpses even of the poor are "medicated" with at least camphor.. Those halls of arabesques The long-galleried Here voices of the then reecho with the rout. With garnishing that choice is. their beds are exquisite. see under " word pamba in Krapf the rich might have costly unguents and ottoes" or . both teak and ebenine. and the candelabra fine 'Tis true. Brilliance 38. beyond compare. and beauty are wreathed about them there.THE INKISHAFI 36. : there servitor's prompt shout Gleesomeness and gladness aye gayer and gayer 41.

down to the Tomb. 47 The termite or white ant in Africa plays actually the r61e which the earthworm is supposed to fill in popular imagination at home. Now black is each face which had beamed like the Or buff. that bourne long and last. crib 46. ! . "Where corpses be invaded by putrefaction wan Their's the Tomb's straitness. Flesh from bone withered like rotten wood is sere. sun. But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away. The Full strange shrills the sound neath the salamlic's dome Laid in dust the glory midst desolation drear. . selamlik or salamlic is the Turkish or Egyptian reception room for the male guests." So. These stanzas have had to be considerably toned down from the 46. The niches in their rows still with porcelain incrust Do furnish each feathered fowl with a roost : . green-dove. 51 Elaborate pieces of such architecture. 47. inlaid with lovely old Persian and tiling crockery. here gathereth most or Red-dove. now empty and lone. . Wireworms and centipedes coiling have a share. Here snoreth the brown owl. to mate and to pair. Down. . not a voice. not a tone ! it o'er. In each inner courtyard the beetle it doth boom cricket's chirp rings round the well-corniced room . making ravages rude. . midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier. The Home they had dwelt in. Thus far. as of bear. " 50 makumbi ya-nde= the outer chambers. Upshrivelled their skin and their beauty all gone. 45. the natural history here is correct. no higher than a span ! There nevermore on rug nor on carpet lieth man. findeth them right good With termite and emmet. for the Summons forth hath passed Down. 49. The City that has lodged them. To crawling uncleanness they Carousing on their corpses 48. were still extant in the last century. the sense of which is however sufficiently faithfully given. or of filthy coarse baboon . it yield a luscious food.THE INKISHAFI 102 44. 51. Undisturbed cobweb festooneth 50. 47 sombre gruesomeness of the original. Their cheeks are breaking down meagre and drear in a cankering ! dew While ghastly corruption doth penetrate through Their mouths and their nostrils make thoroughfares new Each once bright countenance becomes a thing of fear . Finds shelter for fledglings of doves that make moan But of those who had built it.

zip-) of the Text may be the specialised form of upangu = sword./aicora strangely either is admissible in the translation. come. 53. all. it is quite 'Ali bin Nasir. And undergrowth rank ruder increase will make The darkling doors yawning do cause men to quake. Each one with a face like a falcon so keen ? All. But urgent I warn thee and safely I would lead. lattice men to cheerSuch be the lodgings they are fain to use there. ! . 57. . My heart. how much more two 'Ali bin Nasirs : not contemporaries 59 kipanga (n. speak out in thy turn. I ween. 54. . And where his great kinsman the Sheikh Abu-Bakr. . man go. and the knight Muhuthar? Whither so far went they? else shew me. for the truth would I learn . Where never opes window nor 58. Then bend low thine ear. And loud upon them call only echo makes reply . though no doubt the latter was meant. Voice of fellow mortals thou shalt hear nevermore. 59. Ah. moaning soft in the hall Or preening their feathers the down make to fall Jays and tomtits to their nests make repair. Or else have thou thy say. Where princely Idarus.THE INKTSHAFI 52. O'ergrown are the forecourts with bush and with brake. mark me well and give heed Haply shall the issue be made unto thee clear. 103 Young kestrels go poise on the pegs in the wall The turtles bill and coo. 56. there is the place. if near? And famed Pate-Yunga's grim warriors. Then tell where is Aly the son of old Nasir. Shadowing dimly shapes frightful with fear. Say where are the forbears of whom thou wast born ? Gladly would I greet them and ask how they fare. Nay. falchion or the bird. of instruction e'en now thou hast a need. . Thou know'st not? I'll tell thee. tell it forth plain. strain both neck and ! eye. a name still remembered in Pate tradition 58 If possible that there have been two distinguished persons of the same name. 55. pi. to those homes neath the sod have gone in Power and pomp they display nevermore. two contemporary Winston Churchills. wilt not believe me ? dost think it is a lie ? See. . lend me thine ear: Each mother's son is gone to that bourne dark and drear.

shew 69. ! . be thyself saved. Ye too. Yea. ye 64. heart? tell thy thoughts of these men. hastens the Day when sub versed Earth shall be. Brother. "Whealed your poor backs by the boards of the bier 61. Who dealing with moot points aye settled them true Ne'er lay appeal from what ye pronounced fair ! 63. And And the seven Heavens o'erturned in chaos horribly . nor think still to scorn . heart's balm to the mercies of the Man can but Ah me. ! 62. Depart from the evil. crusht down upon the brain a potsherd beneath that Sun's bane. heart. ! Tomb on your biers Bands of dread death do encompass you there And ye too. salve for sore eyes. Bethink thee. could I but find you ! now all out of sight ! 65. 67. What. you ! my old comrades. be thou schooled. Oh. went ye too thither ye Poets of mark and prowess sunk to the same cells of straitness and Ye Bards and Gone ! ? yes. plunging upon it Sun and Moon thou shalt see. And And skulls be battered in. And the learn'd in the Law all concur in your view. And each eyeball bulge from its socket right away To what port or roadstead wouldst thou steer then. who judgment would shew All hence be removed to the . just Judges. 66. and delight Lord you commit are not ye are missed. who once. on the day of the Onset thou shalt see Each several wrong action looming forth horribly While each so injured mortal to the Judge bends the knee Crying out for Vengeance on his tyrant who art there ! . and that sore. Lo. What sayest thou.THE INKISHAFI 104 60. On that day men's midriffs shall burn them in pain. up Ne'er o'er their heads to assuage its fell glare. nor burn Evermore fuel for Jehannam's fierce fire. Potentates and mighty Viziers. ! . Scorching with a heat to be tempered nevermore. me whither I I pray? too there would steer. Thou seest how the Lord hath lit on them with His Pen But know now thyself art as they were found then Or in man's lot hast thou only not a share Oh. dried like 68. ! stress. to the right ways return If saved be thy friends. 1 ? . skulls like the dead leaves shall spin in that day. Made progress forth faring with guards of soldiers.

70 73 ' ' ! ! TAMATI. Not of gold. Labeka Here am I " is the " " or " submissive one can make of the best sign that a Moslem a "yielded Submission he professes to the claims of God on his conscience. 105 "Grant vengeance at length. my heart. See the note ad loc. ) hells which follows in the present N. . All bitted he and bridled like a horse or an ass whom his did harass. 72. Piecension. Up and carry what they had else to bear Then lastly. Lord. in the S. In the word Labeka (now pronounced commonly Lebeka) the Poem comes to the conclusion of the whole matter. so that here we see that which it is the aim of the whole Poem to induce but alas. Text is accordingly a bathos. Wherein are stored the stocks and the And fetters ! and the chain . nor given free. it is just here that Moslem doctrine stops (There is no possible assurance of forgiveness The elaboration of the various Mohammedan of sin consistent with Justice. oh beware that hell of pain Is saddled with their sins Bidden. Merit's stamp alone findeth currency there. He now but to threaten them doth deign. nor bought . 73. In judgment that harder than any iron is !" Then straightway to avenge them th' O'erpowering One* will rise.THE INKISHAFI 70. One of the 99 Moslem names of God on the Rosary or tasbih. on all his tyrannies. The man who nor merit nor deserts can make to pass. Wreaking on thee vengeance and judgment austere And Recompense also for each victim shall be sought. ! 71. were it nugget or artfully inwrought Of silver they will none. make Submission with: Lebeka I am here! Promptly sith that .

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