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A GRAMMAR OF IN DIALECTIC CHANGES THE KISWAHILI LANGUAGE .

. THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA All rights reserutd . F. E. Bontbag anto Calcutta: ^Toronto: J. LTD. PUTNAM'S SONS MACMILLAN AND CO.C. : $efo larft: G. 100 PRINCES STREET OFfctnimrfit) C. P. LTD DENT AND SONS. Eokgo: M. MANAGER Hon&on: FETTER LANE.CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS CLAY.

W. with an Introduction and a Recension and Poetical Translation of the Poem INKISHAFI^ a Swahili Speculum Mundi^ by the Rev.A. etc. TAYLOR. Interpreter in Swahili and H. imbridge at the : University Press 1915 . M. E.. etc. STIGAND Author of The Land of Zinj To Abyssinia through an unknown Land.A GRAMMAR OF DIALECTIC CHANGES THE IN KISWAHILI LANGUAGE by CAPTAIN C.

M. ' AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS .A.Cambtttoge : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY.

1915 H. C. Although the records this.PREFACE LANGUAGE A **- character . presumed to be familiar with the dialect of Zanzi- and others are compared with bar. . KAJOKAJI. made communities and sultanates in a situation favourable to the growth of numerous Modem transport facilities and the sinking of old feuds have caused a reversal of these conditions and now the newer dialect of Zanzibar The reader is is rapidly supplanting the older ones. are in most cases very imperfect. they have the value of bringing to notice many words and forms which have not yet been elucidated and which might otherwise have passed into I am much indebted to Mr Taylor for oblivion. undertaking some revision Appendix and also for the addition of another version of the same in the Mombasa dialect. as well as for of the old poetry in the the translation of the piece. so little written Swahili as is unstable in and forms rapidly pass as changes occur old words out of use. SUDAN. S. The isolation of different Swahili the past dialects.

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CONTENTS .

and will even be found to require a certain amount of modification. This "give and take" however is essential to progress.). and I have gladly acceded to his request. though notes on these matters may be found in the extant handbooks and dictionaries.. It is therefore important to note that the point of view of the present work is taken as from the more Northern centre (Laniu). To style this work the most elaborate on the Swahili Dialects which has yet appeared is not to give it more than its due. which involve certain new conclusions.INTRODUCTION who Author.C. Traveller is and Hunter of Big Game.K. and again in a tabulated form in a contribution to the (Mombasa) Swahili Grammar of Mrs Burt (S. as for instance in the Preface to Steere's Tales. by reference to which works and to Krapf s Dictionary made here about Mombasa may be adjusted. for which the statements the Author speaks authoritatively. that of the original and enterprising Student of Language.K. so far as I am aware. whether in English or in any other language. And no doubt the methods. departures.). in my own African Aphorisms (S. and in the appearance of for the new generation . of the book. THE the Africa in already well known from his works on East capacities of Soldier and Administrator. etc. for the Lamu class of Dialects indeed we have no other English guide. has kindly asked me to preface this Treatise with a few remarks of my own. and detail. will be subjected to the critical tests of examination in the field at the hands of those capable of judging in such and use matters.C.P. to whom the Essay will be most precious . Explorer and Ethnologist. but is no less worthy of attention. Indeed it comes as the first Monograph published upon the subject. this Manual a delightful task is provided of East African scholars.P. because here he throws himself into a branch of research in which he is not perhaps quite so well known.

" with the root TA " It signifies. I dialect one finds " what may be classed as the truly Central Swahili. either civil or external. tion.INTRODUCTION IX of my own view of the language considered as a would say that the conclusion which much careful consideration has brought me to is. How easy then is it to see that while " " on the one hand the advantages of its sunken position would give it a speech which is both insular for purity and continental for and while its geographical situation. I. for one." As for the Gunyas of the extreme North. Languages the sterner stuff of the Mombasians of old. genius of the Mombasa dialect eschews the blemishes and excrescences which are to be found in Central. is itself I doubt not derived from " the root vi (otherwise zi). " which stands in contrast to the T above) and means thrust forth. born and . and warlike . The Curtained Headpoint. land." has become the subject of a sad play !" "war" as we are told say the natives. and corruptions of the careless South. then. is Vita "It upon words. and the needless complications and ironbound archaisms of the too conservative Islanders of the North the the others Mombasa all their speech." (otherwise CHA). that in the Mvita or Mombasa may speak If I whole. expeditions. and wide. its native name. Now Vita is manifestly derived from the root TA ("cerebral" T restless history of the place. It will be interesting to note the reason for the facts I have Mombasa a little philology will be useful in illustra- alleged about Mvita." because while the the too patent crudities. at least under Arab rule. lying in the midst between the South and the North sections of the Swahili coasts. least as far off as is say while the Ngazija of the Comoro Islands is. meaning a sinking in. in its purity. The Mombasa is accordingly a dialect which proved in a moderately long." as of a warlike expedition and in war. experience. say Barawa. from the feature of this "hidden Isle. displays and cultivates to the full respective excellences. I know that their uncouth jargon is so different a tongue as to be further or at Giryama or Pokomo from the Swahili . thus depicting with a single touch the outstanding geographical Now this name Mvita. ambiguities. experto crede. you have in a nutshell all the olden history of the turbulent little territory as far back as it can be traced. would secure a balance between the respective branches of the catholicity. though running on similar lines yet also a different language." " throw out. to be " have valable " throughout the length and breadth of all that is really "Swahili.

as well as from the existence to some extent in the Mrima of the same disposing causes." the Isle Accordingly KO. And "just Judges who judgment could shew Law all concur in their view. However. such as Mwana Kambaya. or Milton's " the less maritime kings. are affected by the Swahilis at large as affording a mine and a mould for the forms and expressions of most Swahili Poetry. to of lore school of the Islam. And a fact remarked by the Natives themselves that while the Dialect of Lamu and its congeners. as well as a eloquence malifu wa akili. and while the Zanzibar group to the South has furnished a lingua the Mombasian or Kimvita is franca and a terminology for Trade. whether in MS. from the far-off days of Shehe Mvita. par excellence. the City's along boasted hero and founder of its Mohammedan fame. in a more or less unbroken succession the centuries. must have reacted favourably to produce the virile. such as one finds in native stories and tales." then the Mazru'is. " not surprising to find that Kisiwani. no doubt. the Dialect considered of all others the best fitted for accurate statement and grave discussion the Swahili for Prose. and Melind. quote the old Lament a memory of great Authorities. and so on to the present day." genius of their Dialect. or spoken.INTRODUCTION X bred as they were amid the clang of arms. and Quiloa. Also it must be admitted that good Mrima shares with the Mombasian somewhat in this excellence. as well as in One uses the somewhat rare MS.T it is efrxnv. for there are a few scattered representatives extant even now of these pristine . dealing with moot points aye settled them true the learn'd in the Who Ne'er lay appeal from what they pronounced fair " 1 all this. the And vestiges of whose in palace Bishop Tucker sketched 1906. treatises of different kinds. which are so interestingly discussed in it is this Book. Mombaza. "puritanic. retains men possessed of usemi na utakaand of profound intellect. doubtless from the fact that formerly there was frequent intermarriage between the two strains. " " prose to signify all sustained speech. and onwards under its once famous Queens. though no doubt there is good and bad literature or speech in every dialect here examined and some of the Mombasian examples are not of the former yet the above may be relied upon as a candid Native appreciation of their respective merits.

in the proper place.INTRODUCTION XI Worthies. is the stimulus which its proclamation has given. W. to add my own Recension of the same Poem. KYRK. T. religious Classic of But with these matters I have dealt more at length the race. to the study of languages. of which the ruins laid low by the Portuguese remain to Thankful am I that this Dialect happily once more restored to its ancient glory as a vehicle for the Praises of God. Certainly. E. Africa and throughout the wide world (its Field). The Translation and I believe that it presents the first poetical version published in our tongue of anything African ever written south of the Equator is will enable original also offered as an attempt to convey accurately the general sense. but for the Gospel message and attest the truth of the tradition. if not the greatest. 1915. many important scholars better to judge as to what was probably the form of this important Classic. and mutatis mutandis the form also of a piece of literature which has been certainly held in reverence for centuries past as a great. and spirit. made many years ago. the present work would never have been written. since it was version. to say nothing of the happier days that were before them. when the Christians of St Thomas worshipped in numerous Churches. at the instance of Captain Stigand. differing in so felt that the possession of this more Southern details from the Northern. In conclusion : To the Ancient Poem selected by the Author to serve as a specimen of the Kingozi I have been permitted through the hospitality of the University Press. and bearing. . here in E.

= Kitikuu. = English. Kimg. Eng. Kip. Ar. derived from. Kit. = Kirngao. = Kimrima. Der. PL = singular. 80. Lit. = Kipate. = literally. Kiam. = Kimvita. Kimr. Sing. Kiunguja.) = Arabic. = Kiuug. .ABBREVIATIONS (Also see p. = plural. = derivation. Kimv. = Kiarau.

practical uses liowever extend This language is to Africa Europe. Nyasaland.. greater proportion of the language is of Bantu origin. these dialects have naturally a tendency to merge together.. so to speak.mtk .Bantu The among Kiswahilj (or Kisawaheli in the Archipelago) is^j .. Such is the state of things between Mombasa. Mrima. Zanzibar. as far as the This widely spoken language and is divided into numerous dialects sub-dialects.. laces. but ) the more educated the proportion of words derived from S Arabic would perhaps amount to a quarter of the language..as jt&.. German language of the coast on the Swahili really only indigenous to the towns coast. to be to the court language. refcrrpd to purer dialects of the as. .gp.the much farther than this. Lamu lJLcabs. Uganda and far info the Congo. and as such is whole of the East African sea-board.A SHORT TREATISE ON DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES OF KISWAHILI THE langiifl. and Portuguese East Africa. In addition to this there is a good sprinkling of Portuguese. understood on the coasts of Somaliland and Arabia and It also penetrates It is holds sway as a trading and nautical language to a certain extent Malay Peninsula. Hindustani and Somali or Gala words. now much what French used JjtSL. at the present a language which is neither pure Mombasa nor pure talk day. Africa. practically the It is -is . The | J great bulk of the inhabitants of Mombasa. of British East East Africa. r Js iswftbilj. viz.-indicates.name. Zanzibar and the dialects. Where considerable intercourse exists between members of two owing to modern improvements in communications.

In course of time this present language of the vulgar will very possibly become the so-called pure language. The 1. as in the Lamu Archipelago. intelligible. For convenience in reference group. very easy to recognise the new word when a change has taken place. Thereit is assume that the reader is acquainted with one of and endeavour to lead up to the less known out the chief dialectic differences. once the rules are known. and pointing by simple steps A knowledge of these dialectic differences will permit of many words being easily converted from one dialect into another by simple changes of letters and forms. It is. that are the better known and it is these which have been chiefly expounded and supplied with a certain amount of literature. dialects not only remain purer but tend to differentiate still further. the language of Zanzibar and that of the Mrima However. 3. each very conservative in its dialect and very punctilious in the observation of little dialectic differences. strange at easy to foretell first sight. So it is here that pure dialects can be found and moreover it is here that the birth of the Swahili language is said to have taken It would be more fitting therefore to commence with these place. J have bracketed together into one group as they possess considerable similarity. fore it is best to these latter dialects On account of many apparent exceptions to rules it is not so when a certain change will take place. often become at once chief Swahili Dialects spoken on this coast are Kiunguja Kimrima Kimgao These three I } V : Zanzibar group.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 2 It would appear from old accounts. that the language of the former city used to be a very pure dialect. dialects and then proceed to the less pure. 2. I shall call this group the Zanzibar . In places where there is little intercourse held with the outside world or between members of different dialects. Here we have many little islands and towns. The great influx of natives from the interior cannot its mark on the language fail to leave of the vulgar. however. however. and so words.

still referred to as the This dialects : dialects of the Banadir coast. J Distinguished from the Zanzibar group by slight differences in some grammatical formations is : Kimvita. Kingazija. at Rasini. list of all the lesser In addition to the true dialects there are several fanciful and useless forms A made up by few words on two changing. however. Kitikuu. dropping or adding syllables. 6. both in grammar and vocabu- : 12. This with a number of local dialects. an exhaustive which occur on this coast. : Kinyume. of Amu. group has several - local variations of which two will be Kishela. related to Swahili are all these dialects : Kingovi. is } : from all the above. Kiunga and other places on the coast N. 5. such as those spoken Tundwa. 7. Very different lary Amugroup : 11. Kisiu. will suffice.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 3 There are a number of small sub-dialects and local variations of the above the chief of these are . Kiamu 9. The 14. 12 . The next two dialects might be grouped together into one group them as the differences are but slight between 8. viz. Kipate} The Amu enumerated 10. Lastly comes the parent of 15. j Sub-dialects of Zanzibar group. might be Farther afield but 13. with a sub-dialect : Kiviunba. : Kihadimu and Kitumbatu Kipemba 4. Kialabi. is by no means. Bajun group.

However. An exact understanding of some of these will facilitate the transposition of certain words into other dialects. A multiplication of different letters is not approved of by most authorities on the language who aim at the simplification of writing. distinguished by the . I have. O called tay. = necessary KhaTamu = bridle SharuTi When N. for dialectic reasons. The reader will of course get their correct sounds best from a native. a clear dental t and putting the upper will it above. J : Tamarufa. Certain Swahili Letters appears that there are no less than five different t's in use in pure Swahili and clearly distinguishable from each T. in a book which has in view a comparison of dialects one has thought it necessary to make distinctions not usually needed. or te safi in Swahili.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 4 Before dealing with the differences existing between these touch on certain letters as it would be as well to dialects pronounced by the Swahili. The Arabic (ii) = Koran a t occurs in an Arabic word which also contains (kh) tamamf. To get the correct pronunciation picion of a w make a swahili-educated Swahili from the coast say these words close to your ear : KhaTari = danger KaraTasi = paper KhaTi = sultan = allegiance = letter KhuTubu = reading KhaTua = KhaTibu = a SulTan Taa' pace step. It common other to the educated Swahili ear. tip of made by nearly closing the teeth the tongue against the edges of the teeth. shown Ku-Tii of the t t.B. The different t's in pure Swahili are (i) The Arabic (tamaruf) called in Swahili. This symbol preacher to obey. This letter has a sound like a strong T followed by a susor sometimes rw. the letter T This is nearly always be found that the t and not the other Arabic t is O.

come towards Ku-fuata = to follow Mto = a river to make a guest one. take Tutatunga = we will herd (cattle) = toddle Tatetate = to rub Ku-tua = lamp Taa = pillow. Shown here by = a louse T'awa (iv) T'embe T'ewa in = to cut . Examples. This and the next two are called (iii) by the Swahilis te pindu or the overturned t. and Aspirated dental t. The Bantu cerebral t. fault T'akwambia=: I will tell you (abb. Mto = Mombasa Ku-fita = to hide Mtanga = sand Tarikhi = date Wakati = time. . Ku-pata Ku-pita Ku-kata Tumeteta Tumbiri Ku-tua Ku-vuta = = to get to pass. = leavings after sifting rice = a certain spotted fish = a small perch-like fish = a mistake. to lose one's bearings in a house at night on suddenly rising out of bed.we have quarrelled = the red bud of a banana tree = to put down (a load). period Patapata = twins Mvita = to leave Ku-pata = to weave Ku-ata This t It is is shown by Taylor in italics. let down so.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS who does not and make him say close To obtain the pronunciation get a pure speak one of the Zanzibar group of dialects. in distinction to the pure t. . hence or stranger to invite t'. : Ku-tawala = to reign = to want Ku-taka Ku-tukua = to carry. form) T'aa T'ua Nt'i = country Nt'a = point. important in the transposition of Kimvita words into Kiunguja. . end = to snap the Ku-t'etea fingers. to your ear 5 Swahili. to pass (or come) = to (sail) draw (towards one from a distance occasionally) .

As i. grain Ku-t'enda = to do = dates T'ende T'umbiri = a monkey Mat'ongo = eye matter = a person Mt'u Kit' and a = a bed = a strap. dal. however. or pure Arabic 3 (dal) called by the Swahilis the clean. The effect of combination with the letter influence on the pure d. D. n has a disturbing . Examples. this is by far the most common d I have shown as it Taylor shows it in italics. etc. T'embe Shown here by =a t'.e.) thus pound it thoroughly Hadimu =a servant Hadithi =a story. dental t. or pure.to tap gently Ku-dongoa = to pound a little (mtama. To pronounce this letter the must be placed in the same position as in pronouncing the tongue simple d.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 6 Aspirated cerebral (v) t. (i) The dental dali safi. as in English. T'eo There are all kinds of graduations of the t's above when pronounced in different words and with different vowels and these can only be learnt by ear. In pure Swahili there appear to be three d's in use. is In the Zanzibar group. at a time and and every other word in which a d occurs unless that d immediately preceded by the letter n. sling. Dimia = the world Ku-dirika = to meet Ku-dodosi . there is practically no such thing as a pure dental d so in those dialects this d must be pronounced more as a cerebral d.

The Kim vita words above N.) = belonging to Nda (Kiam. This is As an Example. This sound is made by raising the tongue a little higher than for the dental d and opening the mouth a little wider. The is supposed to represent the Arabic j and thus convey to the mind that in transliteration an r is to be used. The (iii) pindu or re slurred d called by ya pindu.) = to begin = a workman Fundi (Kimv. As this letter is important for dialectic reasons I have marked (ii) dali it 4 Examples. Swahilis not d but r. > = ndugu.) = to taste Konda (Kiam. aid to those studying Swahili in Arabic characters I have shown it as d.) = a road. re pronounced exactly half way between d and r. the Kiamu words are all only used in occur also in Kimvita Kiamu but after undergoing dialectic changes.) = to kill Ku-anda (Kiam.B.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 7 In pure Swahili on all occasions that the combination nd d must be pronounced in one of the two following occurs the ways : The semi-dental d called by the Swahilis dali pindu or ya pindu.)= to Ku-penda (Kimv. Ndia (Kimv.) = outside Nde (Kimv. path = a kanzu (garment) Ku-kunda (Kiam.) = a loop.e. Ndani Ndoo Kanda = inside = a bucket = a matting bag .) Kandu (Kiam.) Kitandi (Kiam. Examples.) = to fold love Ku-tinda (Kimv.) Mwando (Kiam.) = hunger Ndaa (Kimv. i.) = beginning = come Ndoo (Kimv. viz. the overturned d.

Certain other letters The Arabic . . L c letter shown by an apostrophe be touched on briefly. congeal Ku-ganda = to teach. has been vowel which bears its sound. In pure Swahili no other d is used but these three.) and sometimes so an 1 or r inserted to help out the sound. deep water Kilindi Ku-piga dondo = to iron (clothes) = to curdle.). the pure d is not used and a slurred. In reality the thicker and less pure pronunciation of the southern dialects does not permit of certain vowels being position and nyee (Kiam. These two kinds when it and d have been touched on at length so letters t to distinguish between the different may comes to the transposition of one kind of t or d learn that the reader in a dialectic change.. In some dialects there appears to be no clear distinction made letters and either may be used in the same word. The and R. In the Zanzibar group however.) appears nyere (Kimr. to insert one of these letters between two consecutive vowels.) but in the Ingira. as mentioned above. As we are beginning at the newer dialects and working back to the older and purer it will appear as if these letters have been cut out. between these There is also a tendency. as is However Ingia (Kiam. and Kiung. letters 1 = where pronounced. and r are interchangeable in different dialects. more cerebral d takes the place dental of and (i) (ii). may (a' in) after the a'skari Example. still pronounced in juxta- Thus nyele (Kiinv. soldier. Ku-fundisha Ku-kanda Hando Gando . freeze. is pronounceable in Kimv.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 8 = to massage = a vessel for water = a lobster's claw = Adam's apple also. in less pure dialects. and Kiung. it appears as Ingila and thicker speech of Kimg.

cray fish. Examples. K. Examples. hold (ku)-kaba Kahawa = coffee = a caravan Kafila = truth. = near = lamp. and Kisa (iii) The aspirated form of the last. = paddle Kafi = oar Kasia = large jar Kasiki Ku-kataa = to refuse Kaa = ember Kwake Kwenda = at his (home) = to go = and afterwards. This strong guttural k. Examples. K'aa K'asa =a =a crab turtle K'ajek'aje = ropes for fastening K'amba lobster. J called in Swahili kafu nyangwe. viz. Of (i) The Arabic k's there are three kinds. sail to prawn * foromali ' is a . k'.B. (ii) All words possessing this letter are of Arabic origin.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS Other letters which are another dialect are 9 when passing interchangeable into : ch and t f s n m v and v g J s sh z d g k sh ch ch z th and y 1 t J f z and a few others more seldom. then. The simple k or Arabic J (kaf ). Hakika Karibu Kandili N. lantern (ku)-kafini = to cover up = a tribe Kabila = to seize.

The letters ch and p may be aspirated or not as is the case with 6. over a consonant have for long been spelt in Swahili with the double consonant. is confusing and also leads them often to appropriate sign written. Kaa ni kaa kitako utuze wako mtima. komba. popoo. " Kaa is sit on your hunkers that you may quiet your heart. have distinguished the sound of aw as in Eng. thus impossible to speak correctly unless attention has It is been paid to them. as usually shown by simple o. They are certainly unintelligible to a native pronounced in the latter way. Kaa again is (the stalk) of the coconut which sways to and fro. very different sounds. I by the sign No k (ii) and (iii). Kaa tena nda mnazi lendalo mbele na nyuma." or the sign of duplication. komba. Kaa is just wait you will see what I will do to you. Certain words derived from Arabic words with " teshdid.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 10 = the Indian drill = K'elele a shout K'ering'ende = a partridge = a kernel. The following little verse. enumerating the four meanings of the word kaa. K'oko K'ek'e In case anyone may think these distinctions in different letters unworthy of attention. Translation." Ch and P. to the native ear. Other words which even in Arabic are never spelt with teshdid have been introduced with Roman characters into Swahili with a reduplication of some consonant. it being pass for another word. Kaa ungoja utaona mimi takapo kupata. Kaa ni kaa la moto liwakalo na kuzima. may bring home to the reader how clear these differences in the pronunciation of a letter appear to the native. is used for this sound in Swahili. I may mention that all the distinctions I have made represent. etc. as kolokolo. " law " 6. Kaa is an ember of the fire which brightens and dies out. To pronounce such words as Kolokolo. popoo. . For in that this verse k'aa (a crab) does not sound to it him is not mentioned from the fact in the least like kaa.

with few exceptions. There Ku-pata is and no confusion in the native mind between : .. This is more in accord with Swahili pronunciation and the inability of Bantu natives. followed Taylor's mode of spelling. or most Bantu speaking natives. sitta. viz.*. . are usually spelt with the double consonant. J%elafAa Thikiri .CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS To quote the commonest.. for facility of reference to Arabic dictionaries if required. used the following signs.. in regard to such words. ilia. letters. Th. tissa. in strange words which do not occur in the dictionary I have. which do not count for much in Swahili. the other differences in letters serve the purpose of distinguishing many words which to the unaccustomed ear sound alike. Thalimu Ramadhani. There are a variety of th and dh sounds in Arabic which Where such are pronounced or are seldom pronounced in Swahili.3 Example. although this consonant is hardly pronounced in Arabic. to pronounce a closed syllable. with a single consonant. Bassi. marra. Such spelling is not according to the pronunciation of these words by Swahili. Th Th Th in italics = Arabic = Dh = Putting aside these last letter > . 11 billa. I have therefore.

Changes of Grammar." are understood. of the words above. omissions or additions of letters will serve to turn a word from one dialect into another. Thus one hears the word ku-keti in Zanzibar." viz. A few examples of different words used in two different dialects conveying the same sense. Showing what simple transpositions. Yet if one heard a man use ku-limatia several times during a conversation one would probably be correct in assuming that he came from the Lamu Archipelago. III. Again a word may be used sense in one dialect Thus when it is in a different sense or in some special not used in others. In Mombasa it is used almost to the exclusion of ku-kaa in the sense of "to live. In other cases there may be several words bearing the same of which are understood in several dialects." "to remain. all down the meaning coast. ku-chelewa.DIALECTIC CHANGES 12 Headings for Dialectic Changes I. So not if mean one says that certain words are typical of a dialect it does necessarily that they will not be heard or known in another means that they are the favourite and most used of the words of their meanings. II. more or less. Changes of Letters. all all Thus the three words. Showing forms used in the dialect referred to differing from those of the preceding. he would probably use all three. but one meaning. If he was showing off. it a Mombasa and Amu group word. Changes of Vocabulary. or the two most foreign to him. although not in use in in the sense of "to delay" is in general use Mombasa and Amu meaning "to have delayed until overtaken by something. Many words are foui>d absolutely distinct in two separate dialects. but it is distinctly dialect. ku-kawia to the exclusion of the other two he was of Mombasa and if he used ku-chelewa Similarly if he used one might guess that he was of the Zanzibar group and possibly an Mgao. ku-kawia and ku-limatia." In Zanzibar ku-kaa is used almost to the exclusion of ku-keti. " to delay. ku-chelewa. as natives love to do. dialect prefers one of these and some other dialect another. sun .

sailor-man Chinese or Cingalese." left latter places is always used with kitako. but it is hoped that at any rate they the reader a few ideas as to what to look out for. for the picking up of idioms is a matter which requires long residence in a country. I fear that all these headings will be treated all too In fact and roughly. Ku-kaa kitako but not ku-keti kitako. drowned. dialects big tract of country they cover.g. " E. " the tide or Ku-kaa is used for 13 " " being caught by stranded by the tide. in spite of the more resemblance to each other than any other group of dialects. Another difficulty is that if a native talks to a white man who imperfectly knows his language he will put in as many foreign words as he can. native returning A from a safari in his travels using any words he may have picked up and may pronounce them wrongly or assign to them will delight in wrong meanings. Indian or African. in addition to the above meanings (which are seldom used) "to be saturated commonly used. the same word means. be dealt with in anything but a meagre way. will mystifying his nor will his comrades attempt to ask him their meanings. Again a word in some dialect may have a wider meaning. talking to using their each other in very broken Swahili in preference to own language. Changes of Idiom. briefly may give Zanzibar Group. Ku-tota (Kiamu)= to be sunk. It is with exactly the same motive in view as that of the British " who says " Savey? to any native. He thinks that that a foreigner should understand. He not attempt to explain their meanings but will revel in comrades and showing what a travelled fellow he is. it is " "foreign and therefore Neither this nor the last heading can IV. be he. The grouped together under this name.ZANZIBAR GROUP and thus or tide." " " " to " live or remain in the although not used for " having oyerslept. I have often heard two of our Nyasaland askari.g. " in which sense it is For two reasons especially great care must be exercised in determining whether a word does or does not belong to a certain dialect." In Kimv. The first is the native's love of display. hoping to make himself more intelligible. both of the same tribe. possess almost . lost at sea. E.

This in the purer dialects would be pendani. The whole of this group is also ch which changes to t in Kimvita.). Namfuatani = The the root sometimes changes to final -a of follow I Nimemwambieni = Example. the -e. have told you I In this group there (pi. its place being taken : Mombasa Example. (iii) of the (iv) The distinguished by the use farther one goes from Zanzibar in this group the more ch in place of k especially before certain vowels. in this group as a cerebral. love ye. in certain tenses. The corresponding construction in Kimvita.). This I will tell you (sing. Amefanyani P = what has he done ? not heard in Kimv.ZANZIBAR GROUP 14 The whole of this group The formation (i) distinguished by is of the pronoun in the second -m. would mto and d must be pronounced d be difficult to distinguish into. is final -a of a change of the is : root in the second person plural of the Imperative into Pendeni = Example. where the form is Amefanya nini P and sometimes Amefanyaje? which latter also means " how has is he done?" . In the Zanzibar group there is no clipping of the (vi) personal pronouns prefixed to the verb but they are always used in their full form. and not ntakwambia as in purer Swahili.). Nitakwambia = or t'akwambia (vii) The Example.(or -mw-) -ni. you -e. interrogative suffix -ni occurs in all this group. Nawafuata and nimewambia. Amu (pi. This construction does not occur in the group. Exceptions however occur in poetry and in a few proverbs. objective person plural being. Example. (ii) or the by -wa-. etc. does one meet with (v) One trained ear Thus is in of the most striking differences that the dental t and these dialects between such words as it in this group to the are almost absent.

dali safi. . accessible to the student. so The habitats of the other dialects have been left. Zanzibar therefore practically confines itself to three t's and d's. for Zanzibar was the hub of their universe. especially the latter. This is to be attributed probably to the slave and ivory caravans which started from Zanzibar and pushed into these districts. except a few and d are slurred over and do not occur as pure dentals. comparatively speaking. These are tamarufa and the cerebral t aspirated and unaspirated. Swahilis from such caravans settled Mrima and Mgao the down in various places in the original stock of Swahilis there and bringing with them the dialect of Zanzibar. It has therefore been taken as the standard for comparison with other dialects. The only English -Swahili and Swahili-English dictionaries avail- able (Madan's) are in that dialect. and a kind of dali pindu and the re pindu for d's. not Kiswahili or districts. to the labours of the Universities' known and other missions moreover provided with a considerable amount of way this of all the dialects. alone and so have avoided the influence of the Zanzibar tongue. is the language of Zanzibar and more especially of the town of Zanzibar Owing is the best It is in the itself. dali pindu and re pindu.KIUNGUJA There is wonderfully little 15 difference in the vocabulary of the three dialects of this group. for t's. The dental t it then. literature. Kiunguja 1. The Swahilis of Lake Nyasa call their language. replenishing Kimgao but Kiunguja. of grammars. It is unnecessary to make any comment on words on the pronunciation of certain letters. d's two The d used more approaches our English d than do any of the touched on above. vocabularies. viz. During the last century there has been a tremendous amount of trade passing between Zanzibar and every part of the Mgao Mrima and coasts. It is thus easy to see why both these dialects should have been stamped with the impress of the Zanzibar tongue. etc. stories.

R frequently changes to Examples (in certain sub-dialects). or circumcision ceremony = gratis. strengthen. = a frog = silk. kwisha = to be finished ! . for barua =a Kalama karama = a Halusi harusi Bule Chula bure chura Halili hariri often changes to letter feast = a wedding. Kiunguja has two sub-dialects. unyielding to urge. inlocal variations. conquer Kwisa . and so the and not be confused. which will be mentioned later. Changes of Letters I. there should be order. Examples. Ku-saliTi Ku-saliti (fr. The dialect has been copiously dealt with by the Germans and possesses a considerable amount of German-Swahili literature. with from Vanga nearly to Kilwa. (fr. egg on. 2. " " should there be confusion between Taa' = allegiance prosper. counsel Sauri for shauri Ku-siba ku-shiba = to become replete (with food) Ku-sinda ku-shinda = to overcome. for nothing s. Kimrima. is in use. or the dialect of the Mrima coast." The Arabic tamaruf with both J and ()*) is generally well marked following two words should be pronounced differently and $. JaJLw) Ar. Balua Sh 1.KIMRIMA 16 The Arabic c however is marked strongly in all its changes of pronunciation with different vowels. = = cJlo) Ar. to be hard. Thus ku-amrisha = to ku-a'mrisha = to and Nor no confusion between in Kiung. one of the interior of the island and one of Pemba. for the first is spelt taa="lamp. cluding a Swahili paper edited at Tanga. make to flourish. = a plan.

into ch. or e. Causative verbs sometimes have a different causative termination from the one used in Kiung. knock down to make. nyushi Ku-sitaki Nyusi G ku-shika shindo 17 sometimes changes to k.KIMRIMA Ku-sika Sindo for = to seize = a noise ku-shitaki = to accuse = eyebrows. however. the greater appears to be the dislike This is probably due to the two successive vowels. u after a nasal m muje for mje = "you such (pi. Examples. Ku-cheti This too more marked is for ku-keti = to stay. when followed sit. is not a nasal immediately precedes a conin to prevent a closed syllable. of a native with thicker lips to pronounce such vowels . in the next dialect." or to bathe. Ku-vunza Ku-anguza Ku-fanyisha The less inability ku-vunjisha= to cause ku-angusha = to cause ku-fanyiza = to cause pure a dialect to pronounce clearly. When an m which sonant a u may be put Sanmli Examples. There by i is occasionally a tendency to change k.) must come. Example. Kiza ku-sogea = to come near ku-koroga = to stir = what sort of? gani ? = darkness giza Koka koga Ku-sokea Ku-koroka for KaniP There as a tendency to is mutu for mtu = "a = a insert person. for Amuri samli = ghee amri = an order. for is. to break to fall. Examples. more marked in the next dialect." This is.

This is etc.) will tell you (pi. 1 Examples. pakwe. oneself down.. closet (locative) chooko =peas kitambaa = handkerchief. or nimekwambieni = I have told you Past Future Alimpendani = he loved you (pi.B. Kitowero = foot. IL Changes of Grammar The objective pronoun of the second person plural same construction as in Kiung.).) Atamwambieni. be cut out. i is often used for Kuiketilia ji.) Nampendani = I love you (pi. in dialect of the Example. viz. leg = hunger ku-pakua = to dish up kitoweo = something Jara jaa Mguru for guu njaa Njara Ku-pakuru (food) to flavour or eat with rice.) Nimemwambieni. . yakwe mchirika = the Buku rat. an old Swahili form which seems to have died but a few corners. In some of the local variations of Kimr. Puku (i. or atakwambieni = he (pi. for may taabu = rag. the possessive pronoun -ake changes to -akwe. Choroko Kitambara More seldom one of the vowels Tabu Example. out in all : Bondei (of Pangani). follows the : Infinitive Present Perfect Kumpendeni = to love you (pi. for kujiketilia This = to is sit like Kiamu. chooni . his fellow is the mchirika rat. Choroni = dust = bathroom. trouble.e. he saiba is like) Similarly N. Chakwe. etc. kwakwe. vyakwe. In reflexive verbs Example.KIMRIMA 18 The usual method of an is to slur over the vowels by the introduction or r sound.

Jina ya fulani) ..class and their possessive pronouns take concords as for the n. though not in the verbal concord. ile ndugu but yule ndugu amefika imefika." is also heard. The demonstratives and verbal animate Ndugu yangu Example. Jma ja . In certain dialects of Kimr.B. nouns of the ya ma- 19 or ja are used in place of la to agree class. of this class.class analogy being carried The still farther. On the coast immediately opposite Zanzibar. so \ . Ile = that is the brother ng'ombe = those are the cattle. In Kiung.KIMRIMA Possessive pronouns with sing. certain animate beings are in the form of the n. however. Examples. Examples.class analogy is maintained in the demonstrative. Ile the chief. concords as in Kiung. Watokeapi Nitapitapi where do you come from ? P Utampatapi ? = where shall I pass ? = how (lit. pronoun wapi P is often shortened to a suffix -pi ? Examples. Singo yangu = my neck = his kitchen Gongo yako = your staff Tango yetu = our pumpkin Jiko yake Neno ingine (or nyingine) = another word.class. baba. Also yake for lake and similarly for other concords in the sing. and not concords. interrog. though In the next dialect we get cases of the n. ndugu Zile mfaume = " that is mfaume is of the first class. Examples. fulani and so s name J = an axe Soka ya kuni Jicho ja babiye = for firewood his father's eye. mama. however. Ndugu. are of the class. where) will you ? find him ? 22 . . appear to hold good. N. the n.. ng'ombe.

and we-. = while I was as yet in the way Ningali njiani = he was as yet only a youngster Angali mtoto Angaliko mujini = while he was yet in the village. Wemekwenda = they In place of -vyo-." occasionally used for humo meaning Kati and kati ya are used instead of katika in such phrases as Mnamo is : Kati ya nchi ile for katika nchi ile = in that country. -vofor Alivopata Nimevokwambia III. .. A common expression in Kimr. wa- have not had any opportunity to collect any of these except the three following.conditional tense.tense the pronominal prefixes a.and times represented by e.KIMKIMA 20 For the -kali (as yet) tense -ngali may be used. alivyopata a few instances are given under. Aina Babiye is are some- = he has come Emekuja Examples. = behind place. In the -me. . Examples. babake = his father kind Ku-gwia ku-fikicha = to crumble ku-kamata = to seize Kinyumenyume nyuma (in certain senses) Kiribiti kibiriti = a match Kitumba Machufuko kanda = a fisherman's basket = disorders = his mother = a chief Ku-fikinya fitina mamake Mamiye Mfaume mfalme Pahara) > Pahala j . for namna = sort. =a panali . Nitafanya namna gani P for is : nifanyeji ? = what shall I do ? " there inside. which must not be confounded with the -ngali. Changes of Idiom IV. I have gone. . Changes of Vocabulary slight. These are very used in phrases such as follow : = how he got = nimevyokwambia as I have told you.

Changes of Letters I. in Kimrima there is a great aversion to pronounce two As vowels successively and the sound is carried over by means of 1 or r.) = hunger Tajili tajiri Kadili kadiri Ku-ludi ku-rudi Ku-luka ku-ruka Leale Haluzi harusi Kwa heli kwa reale = a rich man = value. it would appear that the natives do not properly distinguish between the two letters. and a word may equally well be pronounced with either. Thus we have exactly half : for Njala njara (Kimr. There is also a settlement of Mgao Swahilis on Lake Nyasa. The vowels that are especially objected to in juxtaposition are : ee eo oo aa ia ea. The language of these latter has borrowed a certain amount of words from the languages of the surrounding tribes.KIMGAO 3. as has been shown already. As will be shown later sounds in ee. Many of the sounds in eo. such as the Kiamu nyee and mbee. In this dialect. As in Kirnrima r and 1 are interchanged but to a still greater extent. heri There does not appear to be a tendency to substitute s for sh. amount = to return = to fly = a dollar Bira bila Ku-pereka ku-peleka Asari asali = a wedding = goodbye = without = to send = honey Mari mail = property. The following remarks will refer more especially to this latter dialect. however. oo. Kimgao is the language of the 21 Mgao coast from Kilwa (or Kirwa) southwards. have already been provided with an 1 before reaching Zanzibar or the Mrima. . received r or 1 in Kimrima before reaching this dialect. or with a letter which is way between the two. and aa have.

K before = and you (pi. to be no aversion to the use of two u's is in juxtaposition. Mu Auwali for awali = before Ku-amuka ku-amka = to awake Muti mti =a tree. as in goes. Examples. are pronounced or r. general use instead of m.) must beat him = I will give him. viz. nitampa mkataka i for fanya hivyo = do like that. There appears. as the pronominal prefix of second person plural. and as the objective infix of the third person is in sing. especially after nasal ms.) want mwampige = you (pi. Examples." a second added. however. Examples. Fanya hivo Example.. frequently added.KIMGAO 22 The remaining two sounds on the list. often changes to eh. in Kimr.) = to = to ku-lia = to ku-mea ku-ingia the Zanzibar group the -ae of Mombasa aendae = he who aliae he who or enter seize cry grow. Chingine for Chikaanguka Hichi Chichwa Ku-chimbia . but here they usually take the 1 ia and ea. cries. is if followed certain consonants. Ku-ingira (or ingila) for Ku-gwira Ku-lira Ku-mera In all = to ku-gwia (Kimr. Examples. Mukataka for Miunupige Nitamupa Hivo is used instead of hivyo. kingine = another (thing) kikaanguka = and (the thing) = this (thing) hiki kichwa =head ku-kimbia = to run away. fell . avoided by the use of y. aendaye and aliraye but this is more a grammatical than phonological change. In fact in the u is U by Muungu word for Mungu = " God.

) Past Tulimwambiani = We Future _ Nitamupendam| Nitakupendam j Present -Ear tense The junctive. This is Examples.) Namwambiani = Tumemwambiani We have told you (pi. no doubt from contact with the surrounding inland languages many of which make no distinction. = he loved. mu takes m However.tense after a subjunctive. they have loved they loved they did not love they have not yet loved. Amwambieni Akakwambieni = and The pronominal prefix of second person is hau. and also. Grammar Changes of The construction of the objective pronoun of the second person plural resembles that of Kiung. = he must tell you (pi.) Perfect = I tell you (pi.instead of hu- tenses sing. and the the animate class. = you do Haupendi Haukupenda = you not love did not love Haujapenda = you have not yet loved. Examples.23 KIMGAO II. yet loved. (pi. and Kimr. the last -a of the verb does not appear ever to change to -e as in the last dialect.) = final -a of the and loved you verb of course changes to -e in the sub- in the -ka. Examples.) he must tell you (pi. There appears to be a tendency to use the same pronominal third person plural of prefix for both the third person sing.) Tumemupendani = We have loved you (pi.). Examples. Amependa = he has loved. . Alipenda = Hakupenda he did not Hajapenda = he has not love. Kukupendani Infinitive or kumupendani = to love you (pi. except that the place of before a consonant. in the negative .

Very often. draws a number of local words from the surrounding languages. of the possessive pronoun appears not to be in use. hit Changes of Vocabulary The vocabulary of this dialect is very like that of Kimr.and the verb. the n." Examples. it comes between the ku. Examples. Such are pindi for uta = " a bow. Nalizisaka mbunju risasi but III.or kw. kwenda = where he (or they) went = he who wants Anao kutaka Tuliwo kuwapa = we who gave them Unapo kufika = when you come. used with a relative the word is is broken up into two parts. The first part ends with the relative while the next part consists of the verb root with a ku. Alike Occasionally locative forms.prefixed to it. = I hunted elands = Zimepata they (the elands) have been Ng'bmbe zinakwenda = the cattle go Ndugu yangu anapita = my brother is passing. Examples. In this dialect the agreement of concords of animate beings in is occasionally carried as far as the verb. with an objective prefix the ku- is dropped. borrowed from the surrounding languages. Mnyumba mwake = in = at Pa muji pake Ku (or kwa) muji kwake = to The form -akwe his house his village his village. are used in place of the locative in -ni. however. However the sub-dialect (Nyasaland) we are chiefly talking about." and ku-saka for kuwinda = " to hunt." .K1MGAO 24 The result of this When a verb is considerable ambiguity. " " " are with They chiefly used such words as house or village.class This however is not done with human beings. If there is an objective prefix.

Examples.or -ki. is Changes of Idiom IV. they hit me) went to beat him and he himself was \ beaten (lit. Alikwenda kule. I Amekwenda kumpiga ) _~ akampiga mwenyewej The f he Infinitive of the verb is used more frequently than in other dialects. There seems to be a general aversion to the use of the Passive. older words or forms being retained in a newer dialect. The Wahadimu is known.B. ku-ima. Kihadimu and Kitumbatu are the names by which the dialect of the isle of Zanzibar. kufika akaona Mazuri is j _ fHe went there and when he arrived ~~ fulanij he saw so and \ so. stand. = Amenipiga was hit (lit. This latter word. in well)." . agreeing with mambo.KIHADIMU KIMGAO. The Active form of the verb is preferred in this dialect and is often used instead of the Passive at the expense of perspicuity. viz. the old Swahili word in use before is ku-simama \ Its causative ku-imiza also used. It is place of used on every conceivable occasion and often takes the what in other dialects would be the -ka. 4.tenses. Example. Example. Si maziiri = it is not good (proper or The above remarks can N. be descendants of the original inhabitants of Zanzibar before the coming of the Arabs. no way be taken as applying to a pure dialect. are said to 1 A similar state of things. Mahali for Kabila Ku-ima = a place pahali kabla or kabula = before = to ku-simama . used in place of vizuri. can be noticed in some so-called "Americanisms. . and he beat him himself). understood. outside the town. This is a dialect much corrupted by intercourse with inland tribes. 25 Examples of other words.

it must be remembered that we are probably going backwards. would involve the changing of t into t and the addition of m. being often altered in transit. that we first It is also probable that Amu and northwards. the Mombasa people. In converting Kiung.26 KIMVITA KIPEMBA. This dialect is more Bantu and less Arabic than the dialect of the town of Zanzibar. 6. Kihadimu the dialect of the east and south of the island. Ku-fita ku-ficha Matezo machezo mchanga Mtanga = unripe = to hide = games =sand . for it is a The former explanation simple transition to change f into v. There is more difference between this dialect and Kiunguja than between any of the dialects yet touched on. This latter derivation would appear more likely. words into Kimv. 5. is said to be is said by the people of Mombas derived from mfita="one who when the Pate people swept down the coast. said to be the same dialect called by another name is and Kitumbatu is at the north of the island." to be derived from vita = By others it hides." because. hid in the bush. changes to t Kimv. Many of Steere's Swahili Stories are much in the style of this dialect. That is to say that words probably came from Pate or Mombasa to the newer civilisation of Zanzibar. It might be said to extend from Malindi (north of Mombasa) to Gasi (south). then only savages. Mombasa drew its Swahili largely from It is in Kimv. It is very contains words drawn from isle isles. I. Kipemba is the dialect of the akin to the former dialect and like the old inhabitants of the it of Pemba. meet the true dental letters t and d which have not occurred in any of the dialects yet enumerated. Ch Changes of Letters Kiung. Kimvita is the dialect of Mombasa. -biti for -bichi . The origin of the name Mvita " war.

27 KIM VITA mchawi = wizard Mtele mchele =rice Mtunga = a herdsman = gravy mchuzi pachapacha = a pair. I have not tried to distinguish these sounds as they Those (i) (ii) (iii) differ letters almost with every vowel used. alike ku-chagua = to choose = to laugh ku-cheka = lime chokaa = a leopard chui ku-chukua = to take. marked t nearly all occur in : Words derived from Arabic words spelt with O. These pronouns should really be kia. chetu. : and pronouns agreeing with ki. or that the eh in Kiung. (a) Particles (6) Words reason as (a).class beginning with eh. The exceptions (i) to the rule that In words in which the eh Kiung. Nt'a causes. There are all grades of sound ranging between the pure dental t and the aspirated cerebral t'. etc. but have undergone a euphonistic change to eh. etc. of the ki. Words which do not occur in Kiung. kiako. as the Swahilis say. chako. There are however several exceptions such as wot'e. with eh. carry. changes eh to t are stands in place of ki. for =a ncha point T'awa T'ewa = a country chawa = a louse chewa = a certain fish T'ini chini nchi Nt'i = below.class such as cha. : viz. mto. kietu. Such influences may be the letter n. for the same . Mtawi for mchunga Mtuzi Patapata Ku-tagua Ku-teka Tokaa Tui Ku-tukua it In other cases where a disturbing influence has acted on the t has been. turned over a little and becomes t'. changu. or some other Examples. kiangu. Words which are spelt in Kiung. is aspirated. and others.

Ndaa Nde Ndia Ndiwa Ndoo for . ku-pambauka and other Kuchwa in the purer dialects (Kiam. chuni (=a kind of water bird). Kiung. -chache. chura. heard as both tupa and chupa in Kimv. change. chambo. In Kiamu it belongs only to the n. Ku-cha (to dawn) does not change in Kimv. chumvi. chaza (ma. Ku-choka. choyo. expressions being used in Nj in its place. there : Examples. and Kip. In Kimv.or in the ma. chungu. changes to nd in Kimv. ku-chelewa. any = Examples. chaki. Chai.. chooko. chungwa.class in Kimv.).KIM VITA 28 Examples. A few other words might be remarked on containing ch. chumba. chokora. used indiscriminately in the n. Taking are first those occurring at the beginning of a word. chuo. mchikichi.). (ii) many of the words of the ma- class Examples. chombo. A (iii) few other exceptions which do not appear to follow rule. choo.class so it Chupa but it is (Kiung. Chakula.) is follows the rules above. ehenza.class and is always called tupa.. njaa = hunger nje = outside njia = road. . ku-cha ( to fear). cheo. this d is not quite the pure dental owing to the disturbing effect of the letter n. the d being the semi- dental explained above. Foreign words and beginning with ch-. chapa. Possibly however the word is borrowed in its entirety from Zanzibar as this word is never heard in the purer dialects. ku-chota. mchekeche. uchafu. All of these are the same in Kimv. chuma. -changa. path njiwa = a dove njoo = come (imperative). ku-chafuka..) they appear as kuTa and but kiTa pronounced with tamaruf (1). and kichwa change to kutwa and kitwa (Kimv. chandarua.

however. Chuo chakwe This however With is = his house book. njugu and njema.).) Nawapenda = I love you (pi.and -ka.) Past Tuliwapenda = we Future Watawapenda = they =that Niwapende Infinitive Present Subjunctive In each case this is loved you will love I may identical with the (pi.as the pronominal prefix for the third person plural of the present. II.) love you (pi. The possessive Yuaja is Yualia is crying is laughing. Ku-vunda for ku-vunja = to break ku-chrnja = to Ku-tinda kill. Yua. construction for the objective pronoun of the third person plural. this dialect begin the clipped forms of pronominal prefix.) Amewambia = he has told you (pi. three of these.29 KIMVITA Exceptions. in the Zanzibar group.) you (pi. but change according to rule in Kiam. . -akwe is in coming some sub-dialects used in place of -ake. Of those occurring not at the beginning of a word we have first : Examples. Kiam. are probably not of pure Swahili origin while the last is sometimes pronounced ngema. not often heard. Nyumba yakwe = his Examples.tenses. The construction Changes of Grammar of the objective pronoun in the second person plural with the verb differs in Kimv. The construction is as follows etc. However there are many exceptions such as mbinja.to n-. njuga.. ku-onja and ku-kunja which remain the same in Kimv. = he = he Yuateka = he Examples.. These are only heard with the future -ki. The most usual is the ordinary colloquial Mombasa changing ni.is used in place of a. The Njama. from that employed : Perfect Kuwapenda = to love you (pi.

which was. Upendacho = (the thing) you wish you are going Wendako = where Mti utakao = the but However there is tree you want. Examples. nt'akwambia nitakwambia = I for will tell you.in the verbal infix. The tendency. In the purer Mombasa and in the Lamu Archipelago this becomes t'akwambia. the old form of the relative irrespective of classes. of the narrative tense.to ha- is in the first person sing. Hapita Relatives of all classes for nikapita = and I passed. Examples. alikokwenda = where he went = when he came. -mo-. n In this case the proximity of the has the disturbing effect of aspirating the t of the tense particle.KIMVITA 30 Thus. from -ye. -zo- and -vyo-. the relative occurs as a suffix the occasionally the simple -o- Examples. neno ulilonambia = the word which you vitu nilivyonunua = the things which I said to me bought. an abbreviation of nika. = he who went = the tree which fell ilioanguka = the house which fell. -lo. however. is full form is used except used for -wo. alipofika and occasionally -cho-. always used. an abbreviation of the relative of the third person sing. Aliokwenda Mti ulioanguka Nyumba Exceptions are the locatives. Examples. -po-. . tend to become simple -o.and -yo-. Examples.to -e-. it is said. is distinctly to simplify even these to the simple -o. Kaa t'akulipa Kamwambia There (for = just wait I'll pay you out = akamwambia) and he said to him. and -ko-. However in adverbial phrases as : atakavyotenda = as he the full form -vyo- When is will do (behave). Example.

Many Changes of Vocabulary of the words given below will be understood and occasion- both Kiung. used ally in Other of the words will practically never be heard in the opposite dialect. each bearing an accent on the penultimate. The Atakapo kwe*nda = when he shall go = where we arrived. Kimv. They are none the less characteristic of the dialect they are assigned to. toe = to sneeze = a book = suddenly = pitcher (Arab decanter) = cob of maize (stripped grains) Hasa haswa Ku-keti ku-kaa Kitunguli sungura ku-panda ku-panda kanga Ku-kwea ku-panda Leso (but = exactly = to sit. = woman's robe. Kimvita English = hippo = sjambok) = finger. The Swahilis themselves. Mtu aendae = the man who The goes. III. and Kimv. being in more common use in that dialect.) of . although this is not the usual custom in English Swahili writings. etc.KIMVITA 31 This serves to distinguish other dialects from the Zanzibar group. Tuliko ffka denotes the accent. however. recognize them as two words. For the convenience of the reader in pronouncing these I have often written them as two separate words. remain = a hare = to climb = to mount (a horse. relative in Examples. and in all the dialects enumerated above causes the verb and its particles to be broken into two parts. = he who wants Atakae Examples.

Changes of Idiom Below are a few idiomatic expressions. for cooking-pot after extrac- tion of tui Ku-teta = pumpkin = syphilis = to descend ku-gombana = to quarrel Tomoko stafele Tango Tego Ku-teremka boga sekeneko ku-shuka ) topetopej Ku-tunda ku-chuma Uoga (and woga) kiyoga Usitu ukili Ku-vyaa ku-zaa IV. = custard apple = to pluck. health is best. the devil ! ! (a frequent occurrence) Mwenyi paliti = an unclean person. buck) Bora azima = never mind (lit.32 KIMVITA Kimvita Kiunguja Maboga English = vegetables miboga mafya for Mafiga = three stones = breasts maziwa tembo Matiti Ndovu Ku-nena = elephant = to say = to drink = peas = grated coconut ku-sema ku-nywa chooko Ku-nwa Pojo Taki chicha . don't worry me also. the majority are more or but a few may be met with in others. gather = mushroom = strips for sewing mats = to bear (children. less confined to this dialect Utampata wapi P (for utampataje P) = how will you find him 1 Utaka nini ? (for utakani ?) = what do you want ? Ana matata = he is difficult to deal with Hebu or. foremost) Heri apendalo Mungu = what God wishes is best (often Mwenda pweke = one an excuse for doing some shady trick to get out of a difficulty) . lone (buffalo. one who has not performed the necessary ablutions (ku-tamba) Usingizi unaniuma = I feel sleepy (lit. hebu = come let us. fruit). sleep is hurting me) that goes alone. please. let me (pass) Kula njama .to take counsel Ku-kumbwa na sheitani = to be possessed. hebu mi = leave me alone. or smitten by.

Nilete kijiti kibiriti P = am I to ya kumba kumba = a big Mkono kwa mkono = from hand Safari bring a toothpick or a match ? safari to hand Akili ni mali = (your) wits are (your) fortune (sarcastically) Haina maana wala haina tamu = it has no rhyme or reason Ku-kata nguo = (i) to buy clothes. more than one other and yourself) Sijui anaketije = I don't know what is the matter with him (or. the fist a load) Ku-oga kabisa = to wash all over Mamako ndiye mungu wa pili = your mother is (your) second God (therefore obey her) = Have you not treated me badly ? P neno Hukunifanya Sasa haina neno = Now there is no more fear. There are also other sub-dialects on the coast between and Vanga consisting of Kirnvita with a greater or less Mombasa admixture of Kinyika. 3 . 7. This might be considered as a sub-dialect of Kimvita.KIMVITA Kujilalia = to lie 33 oneself down. rest oneself Mangaribi inatangamana = twilight is falling Konde mzigo = a very stalwart person (lit. Ao is often omitted between two alternatives. Gazette ? Example. (ii) to take (a leso) into wear Ku-patisha moto = to heat up Ku-nyosha mkono = to make a long arm Twende zetuni (also twendeni) = let us go (only if more than two go. Kidigo. viz.e. what he is thinking of) Nini hii = this what's -its-name Nani hii = that what's-his-name. with apologies) Amekucheza = he has made evil medicine against you. Kivumba is the dialect of Vanga and Wasini island. A. The process of time however has so altered many of these that they are scarcely to be recognized. you lie (der. from the E. s. now it will give no more trouble (when the brunt of a piece of work has been successfully performed) Ku-kata roho = to die Gazeti! (exclamation) = lie falsehood. i. It must be remembered that Kimvita has drawn largely on Kinyika and Kigiryama for its Bantu words.

Two Changes of Letters successive e's in Kiam. the dialect of the town of is Amu. is mzee (not mzele) tele = old person = much.cords = slave fastening sail to yard girl . into Examples. Mzee for Tele (not tee) J Kimv. have when passing had an 1 placed between them Kimv. Examples. who came from the Persian Gulf. K'ayek'aye Kiyakazi Kiyamanda for k'ajek'aje kijakazi .KIAMU 34 Kiamu 8. or Lamu. The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo. softened into y. I. or the island of Ndeo. kiwa being old Swahili for kisiwa = "island. Exceptions. Kiamu Kimvita Makee English makalele = shouts mawele = millet for Mawee Mbee mbele = before Mtee mtele =rice Muwee mwele =a Nyee Ku-tea (teea) =hair nyele ku-peleka = to send ku-telea = to add to Upee upele Ku-peka (peeka) =a sick person pimple." an Arab As this dialect is not well known hope to go into I it more fully than any of the preceding.. on the island of that name. the Banu Lami. The word Lamu is said to have been derived from the name of tribe. .

KIAMU Yambo 35 .

leo .K1AMU 36 Occasionally Examples. Baghaa 1 in Kimv. Kiyemba Yeo is for changed to y. kilemba = a turban = to-day.

vyote. between two vowels is sometimes dropped. ku-vua. mvuvi mwivi concords connected with the plural of the ki- words which make this change. = a fisherman = a thief = to give birth ku-vyaa ku-vumbua = to explore. zenu. . vyenu. Exceptions.. Kimv. place of vya. Ku-anda Ku-funda for Indi Kandu Kitandi Rwanda Mpendi ku-anza .a loved one Mwandi mwanzi ^bamboo Mwando mwanzo = beginning Nyende Tandu Ku-tunda Utendi Exception. utenzi Ku-kanza (Kimv. mavi. Examples. ndevu. = a cricket nyenzi = a bough tanzu ku-tunza to take care of = a story in verse. Ku-awanya for ku-gawanya Mbeu Nduu mbegu ndugu Tendeo tendego ku-tegua Ku-teua Nz in (or = to divide = seeds = brother = a leg of the kitanda = tagua) to choose. used in to z. zile.) . and many others. hivi. .or vyto z-. -vi-. hizi. are -vyo-. -zi-. Examples of other words changing v Mvuzi Mwizi for Ku-zaa Ku-zrnnbua Apart from all class there are few G -ovii. -zo. mvua. nguvu. zote.to begin ku-funza = to teach = a fly inzi = a kanzu kanzn = a loop kitanzi kwanza = first mpenzi . mwavuli. etc. becomes nd. zake. etc. -kavu. nguva. vile. ku-vaa.) = ku-kanga (Kiam. Thus za.class change v. Examples.KIAMU 37 All concords agreeing with plural of ki. vyake..

ku-piga uzi " nyuzi) being used for to whistle.to sneeze chungwa = orange.). see 35. page Examplest Mui (xmiyi) Muinga (muyinga) Muwee Muyue Muyukuu Muynmbe 1 for = a town. Examples^ Ku-sikilia for ku-fikilia = Simbo fimbo =a Ku-sita ku-fita stick -to hide ku-fyonda = to suck. arrive at occasionally occurs in place of sh in Kimv. at the . wanja The word mbinja does not occur in Kiam. on the left side. changes now. village mji mjinga = a simpleton mwele = a sick person = you (pi. *). Ku-kunda Ku-onda for Wanda ku-kunja = to fold ku-onja = to taste = antimony.. occasionally changes to s at the beginning of a word.) must know mjue mjukuu = grandchild mjumbe = a sultan's crier. ku-ehenma . Examples^ Kwisa Mwiso Ku-pisa Ku-soto Sh for = to finish mwisho = the end ku-pisha = to make way for ku-shoto = left. Examples. Ku-sonda S to reach to." P (pi. at the same time. M has a tendency to become mu Some = oyster chaza of the examples below (as in elide a y Kimr. Shaza Ku-shumua Shungwa for . Examples.. kwisha occasionally takes place of ch Kimv. Very possibly northern words and forms were brought down to the Mrima time Jumbes from Pate were put in some of the towns on that coast. (as is also the case in Kimr.KIAMU 38 Nj if it has not already become nd in Kimv.

changes to like ^ (tamarufa) and is pronounced Tw.) = silent kimya ku-zimisha = to extinguish. = a bundle of clothes for bahasha = box of leather or miaa) Kiam. Disimali Kasidi for dusumali = = kusudi viz dissent).. : a scarf intention. Ku-dudumia for ku-didhnia = to sink down Bulmsha Kula Ku-kurubia Nahutha Ku-shumua Ku-shundua = kila all. kama of Kiung. Below are given about fifty words which suffer slight changes of but which do not come under the rules above.KIAMU U -39 occasionally occurs in place of the other vowels a. Examples. i and o. ahira) Ku-bokea Kimvita for ahera ku-bopea Chenjele kengele Ende mende Ku-fana Ku-fana ku-fanana Foromani foromali Garide gwaridi ku-fanikia English = the next world . Kimr. = captain. a snuff (Bahasha.. as (cp. letters Kiamu Akhira (or. N occurs rarely in place of m. skipper nahotha ku-chemua = to sneeze ku-shindua = to set ajar (a door) = we all sote = to shake the head (in ku-tikisa Sute Ku-tukusa There are exceptions which change reversely. Examples.to feel soft (of fruit) = a bell = a cockroach = to be alike = to prosper = a ship's yard = drill. Examples^ KiTa for kichwa = head KuTa kuchwa = the MTa mchwa = whole day termites (in wingless stage). = like. every ku-karibia = to draw nigh . purpose. e. band . Kana for Kinya Ku-zinya Chw something .

KlAMtJ 40 Kimvita Kiamu English = a clay decanter Guu (ma) (mguu not used) for mguu (mi) = a leg = to hunt Ku-inda for ku-winda = violence Jauri jeuri = ku-kanza Ku-kanga (moto) (moto) to apply fomentations. a ball = a line = a servant - a fable = skin. hide. crab = a sore = cashew-nut = to wash. Guduwia for guduria hot rags Kijibao = waistcoat = small insect. = a hammer = who? = a hyaena pelt .a giraffe = a chief = a smith c.) = to swallow = an insect = rubber. bathe = potash to mix with snuff = a place = scents = a weed with crow's foot thorns .

Nali- a } Uli- you he Ali- Tuli Muli-* ata= we got (to-day or yesterday). (dust in house ripen. freely used in Kiamu. which either do not occur or are not in frequent use in Kimvita. there are two past tenses and two negative past tenses. Distant Past. be well done = jaa) ing II. The second Near applies to the past or distant past. etc. < ye Wali- they Uli- it etc. J got (long ago) or. ku-vua (samaki) = to annoyance fish ku-iva to Vumbivumbi kivumbi (in cooking) dust (out of doors) Ku-waka Wisha ku-aka ushwa to build (stone buildings) bran. Past. Naliki-^ I Uliki- you Aliki- he Tuliki- we Muliki. In Kiam.KIAMU Kiamu 41 Kimvita Uwingu Uwongo for English ubingu udongo = uthia Uzia Ku-va Ku-viva the heavens : clay = trouble. used to get. * v^etc.pata Waliki- ye they Uliki- it etc. The first or ordinary past applies only to the immediate or present past. Changes of Grammar There are a certain number of tenses. husks after pound- Ku-ziwia ku-zuia to resist. .

) S1KU- HukuHakue did not get (to-day or yesterday). . of the Near Past Negative. as uli uki-. and stories so is For an example of -nga. its use see below in a sentence under the Krapf gives naliki. it is probable that he means nali (n)ki " " penda = I was loving and not this tense.tense (page 44). etc. (The usual form. As in the other persons he gives the alternatives past. ali aki.KIAMU 42 The distant past tense chiefly occurs in historical narrations more used in the third person than otherwise.as an alternative for the first person sing.

43 .KIAMU Negative -ki- tense.

Mtende hunu zamani walikitenda sana na-u-nga-wa sasa hautendi tena = this date now it no longer tree formerly bore well although bears." Examples. of the ki. in place of vi-. to be in the act of doing something. as she was sitting).KIAMU 44 The only exception is the pi.class which." though occasionally occurs with a few others.although I am hungry I do not eat. These the reader can transpose to suit any case or concord by following the usual rules. as before etc." generally used with the verb ku-wa="to be. etc. Ulipotoka alimekuya = he had already come when you went The "although" The tense tense. Formed by the addition If the otherwise of -zii to the verb. -i. hazi-. . stated.= although. verb ends in -a following a vowel the -a it may change The meaning is " to is elided. Nalimdirika utukuzii mzigo = I met him in the act of carrying a load Uketizii = he (she) was in the act of sitting (or. particles are na " nga. is Examples. -zii tense. There a past perfect tense which to a certain extent takes the is place of the rather cumbersome alikuwa amekwisha ku . Nangafa u hai kwa-ni ameata kij ana = although he is dead (yet) is he alive for he has The left a son (who bears his name)." Example. Past Perfect. Alikuwa na mali nangawa masikini sasa = he was rich although now poor. havi-. takes concords zi-. The tenses which remain I hope to explain by a few examples only. The tense particle is -lime- = " had already. It it out. Niangawa na ndaa sili .

This tense is formed by changing the vowels of the and adding the pronominal syllables of the verb to e ene for ona." "still. supposed by the poet to be Kimv. The tense particle is -kali generally used only with a copula but occasionally with a verb. viz. Upende farasi = he is riding a horse (viz. nikali ndiani = and he recognized as yet in the way Akanitambua Akali mtoto amu yake me while akashika ufaume = as he was I was still a child his uncle governed. The usual construction is "while yet so and so something is." "yet. ibid. kee for kaa. for Moyo. "as yet. For examples containing no contingent condition and with a verb see appendix to Taylor's African ApJiorisms. It is however in everyday use at the present in Kiamu.KIAMU The " while yet This tense is 45 " tense. Examples. Verbs having their two prefix." Examples. Also see the first line of verse on page 116. The meaning is "while as yet." The Yana usiku nilele Kasikia makalele 1 Mojo nampenda Chele 1 Mojo is Last night as I slept I heard a noise My heart loves Chele. last to be preferred for present last two day syllables bearing the vowel a seem use. It appears to have the meaning of a completed action still in continuation. . Taylor mentions this also as being an old poetic preterite." "while yet. happened." It generally requires another verb following before the sense rendered complete." or. he has still mounted and is mounted). mentioned by Taylor. " he has mounted a perfect amepanda farasi would mean horse (but at the time of speaking he may have dismounted again). Another tense is the perfect in -e-e. etc.

becomes -i-.and not na. u. occurs only much the same as if sana had been placed after In a few expressions Kiam. is is befallen him.of place well. has grown Akamtoma Limpeteo = that which has There -to. Kimv. Pronouns. but otherwise Its meaning is it is it the verb. Akailalia Kuisifu Kuiketilia = and he laid himself down = to boast (praise oneself ) kujiketilia = to sit oneself down. ni. for akajilalia kujisifu The imperative second person plural is always pendani and the Zanzibar group pendeni is never heard.KIAMU 46 For first person sing. Mtu huyu Mtu hoyo Mtu u!6 Watu hawa Watu hao Watu wale Mti huu (or for . so some are given full. The demonstratives in differ slightly from Kimv. as it occasionally is in incorrect Kimvita.e. in common use at the present day in in poetry. hunu) mtu huyu mtu huyo mtu yule watu hawa watu hawo watu wale mti huu = this person = that person = that (far) person = these persons = those persons = those (far) persons = this tree . Examples. Examples. mentioned by Steere in his handbook as occurring in is poetry. an intensive form of the verb A final This up but has not yet been harvested) ulele = and he stabbed him while aaleep -a made by the addition of sometimes changed to -e. Fungato (or fungeto) = bind tightly = Weketo The reflexive -ji. Sultani wa Manda ulele = the Sultan of Manda sleeps Mtama usimeme = the mtama is standing (i..must be used with this tense and for third person sing.and not a-.

these faces have etc. : Wakati hunu = at Wakati hono = at N. The clipping of the pronominal prefix occurs in the future and the -ka. zile. plain u.KIAMU Miti hii (or for him) 47 = these trees miti hii = this house hizi . hiyo. in the first and third persons sing. ule. have been omitted also which comes on the last syllable. wa!6e.this eye Mato haya Uso huu (or hunu) Nyuso hizi Hoko mato haya = these eyes uso huu = this face = there. i!6e. period. as they are the hii huwo. of the objective pronoun of the second person in Kimv. T'akwambia = I Kasikia Kipata Where yua- or yu- is will tell you and he hears (heard) = and when he had got. Examples.is used in Kiam. There is also a form used with wakati = time. Hono is this time. period. The farther demonstratives ule. for the accent. Examples. il. and in several . There is also a demonstrative for a very distant object made by adding -e to the farther demonstrative. The arrangement plural is the same as Example.. Nawapenda = I love you (pi). used in Kimv. only. viz. occasionally used in Kipate with other nouns of this class.these houses Nyumba hii (or him) Nyumba hizi nyumba nyumba Chuo hiki Zuo hizi chuo hiki vyuo hivi Ito hili jito hili this book = these books . the -zii tense other instances. period that time. hizi of the demonstratives same except = huko been omitted as they are the same. The remainder nyuso . It is also used in the -e-e tense. B. etc.tenses.and the -ki. etc. as a pronominal prefix for third person sing.

used in place of -je the interrogative forms a separate word unlike the . for Ufaume upia Except when the adjective commences with a vowel. agreement with nouns in the with the verb but with the also used as the concord for of the sixth class not only sing. Examples. kwa nini P for ?) and the conjunction kwani. lye It is Hamtopata = you (pi. Example. Example. is full = he sleeps = what is his state ? = he has = he has seen = he is in the act of Ulele adjective.KIAMU 48 Examples. by cutting out the first -i-. latter. Ufunguo umoya ufunguo mmoya = one key ufalme mpya . there is no difference between the interrogative kwani (der. nini the for iye P ? is converted into Kiam.) did not get (pi. Tutapata iye Takwenda Interrogative ? tutapataje ? nt'akwendaje ? = how = how shall we shall I get go ? ? nni ? The Kimv.) shall not get.) went (pi. Wataka nni wataka nini = what do you want ? In Kimv. Mulikwenda = you but before t Hamulipata = you it is m. of the second person plural often mu. Hoyo una hila sana = he Ukaa hali Una Uwene gani ? Utukuzii U- is of guile taking. Uknta mwingine = another Example. suffix. Examples. P .a new kingdom. The pronominal changes to prefix m wall. Example. fr.

-mo. Kwani P is suffix -ni ? takes the place of of Kiung. in which dialect the nini P In Kiam.in -wo and -yo. -po-. Examples.and Example. the two words differ Kwa nni ? or 49 viz.and the infix -zo. Examples. Tulipokwenda = when we went Tulikokwenda = where we went Tulimokwenda = in where we went.(agreeing with zitu understood) when used in an adverbial sense. 8. distinction is infix for all made between the different classes. Note the use of relative with perfect.B.as he has done (or. kwanni Kwani ? : = what = for. Tumezotaya Amezotenda for tulivyotaja = as we have related alivyotenda .in Kimv. Examples (of locative relative).KIAMU The interrog. Even with these however there -y. form. an unusual con- struction in Kimvita. N. locative particles alone have their own relative forms -ko-. how he has done) Kama nimezokwambia for kama nalivyokwambia = as I told you. Mikate atakao = the loaves he wants. Apendalo Mwana apendae = the (matter) he desires = the child he loves = the things he wants Zitu atakazo Chakula atakacho = the food he wants. The The relative -o. 4 . In all When other cases the simple -othe relative occurs as a is used as an suffix.is used as an infix for all classes of nouns. for ? why ? Relatives. is a tendency to suppress the w. The latter takes the place of -vyo.

plurals of certain nouns of the second class commencing or mo. or anything pertaining to trees or plants. as in the cases elision takes place. when I do not want). treated as if belonging to the sixth mw- class. nyoto for nyoyo nyaka nyako nyamba nyambao nyandiko nyango . Nalopata = he who brought = which I got naliopata Walonipa walionipa = which they gave me. Asopata for Asopenda asio pata = he who did not get asio penda = he who did not love. they remain as of the second class. Examples. When the full form of the relative mentioned above. Examples.are in Kiam. of the tense particle Examples. If Examples.as they shall get Alipo Nisipo taka The with = if I do not want (or..KIAMU 50 When the relative used with the past tense is (-11-) the -i- of the tense particle is elided. Aloeta When for alioleta the relative is used with the future (-taka-) the final -a- is elided. (-si-) the -i- of the is elided. a flame miako miamba = a rock miambao = a coast miandiko = a manuscript miango = an echo mioto . Watakopata Tutakokupa When for the relative tense particle watakao pata = they who tutakao kupa = which we is used with the negative shall get shall give you. however they are the names of trees or plants. no is used. Moto Moyo Mwaka Mwako Mwamba Mwambao Mwandiko Mwango pi. kwenda = when he went Watakazo pata . Exceptions. Examples. = a fire = a heart mioyo = a year miaka = heat.

1 Mweleko nyeleko Mwendo nyendo Mwezi nyezi A tree. Mwembe miavuli = an umbrella miembe = a mango tree Mwiko miko Mwiwa miwa Mwavuli Mwewe with pi. ndao) 1 = whose is this thing ? = it belongs to so and so = it is mine (thine. treated. his) = it is ours (yours. Examples. Nyezi nyingine = other months Nyeleko nyeupe = white slings. 42 ." The agreement of adjectives with the as of the sixth class is If it second nouns above with plurals as follows. consonant it takes a concord as class. wewe = is pi. in Kiam. = two years = big fires. If the adjective begins with a for pi. miezi = a gap in the teeth = a sling = a going = a month. Also nyawanyo. are used as genitives and sometimes take the place of the mwenyi and mwenyewe. anything to do with a tree or plant. but There are two particles but not in the They words less pure mbwa and nda which occur in Kiam. commences with a vowel it takes a concord as for pi. of = a wooden spoon = a thorn. his) = it is ours (yours. Nyaka miwili Nyoto mikuu Examples.KIAMU Mwanya nyanya pi. Examples. ndake) Ndetu (ndenu. as of the first class "kites.. or for 51 mianya mieleko miendo .. quite correctly. theirs). mbwao) Nyumba hini nda fulani Ndangu (ndako. theirs) = this house is so and so's = it is mine (thine. dialects. Kitu hiki Mbwa mbwa nyani P fulani Mbwangu (mbwako. moon. of sixth class. takes plural as of the second class although beginning with mw- or mo-. mbwake) Mbwetu (mbwenu.

word has several distinct meanings it does not follow that the word is not also used in Kiam. sea slug Ku-cha ku-ogopa mshale ku-yeyuka ku-kuta ndui Abawa Ku-amkua for . jongoo -jigger. in a meaning not given. Chembe Ku-dauka Ku-dirika Dudu Ku-egema .. Kiam.B. Ku-toa is never heard in this sense but it its other sense of "to turn out. " to give out (rupees) " ku-tunda (rupia) and not ku-toa (rupia). There is considerable difference in vocabulary between Kiam. About one hundred words are appended as examples. Kimvita English Ku-andika (chakula) ku-ita ku-teleka = elder brother = to call. take out. mkubwa ku-karibia Pahali Ku-fuma (nyama) ku-winda Pungwa ndiwa Puzi bega Ku-gura ku-hama Hirijiiri alfajiri sana Ifu Ku-iza Janibu = to fear = an arrow = to melt to meet.KIAMU 52 Changes of Vocabulary III. invite = to put (food) on Ku-angalia Bibi ku-tazama nana = to look = grandmother Bombwe funza. Example." is frequently heard in viz. akamtoa muini = and he put him out Kiamu you say of the town. N. Ku-tunda in i. and Kimv." "put out. if ku-toa = for you want to say to give out.e. Where the Kimv. jirani come across = smallpox = to come near to = a cock = to hunt (lit. to aim) = a pigeon = shoulder to = change residence early a ku-kataa the fire dawn growth coconut inside = to refuse = neighbourhood a .

KIAMU Kiamu 53 Kimvita Ku-jepa Jura Kata for Katiti kwiba }> mjinga 3> pishi )5 kidogo Kidundu Kifuvu mayonde kitoma kobe Kiharahara paka wa mwitu Kiliwia mjeledi Kipitu Ku-kiri msetu ku-kubali Kisha paruru] Kisindi guguta J Kitangu Kitikuu kiunga kigunya Kiunga nyumba ya \ kutilia nazi I = shambani Kiwe ) .

-a small out. = to get ku-pata ku-taka shauri = to consult = to uproot ku-ng'oa = to cry. male = a traveller. on the ground nyumba za watun _ (labourers' huts on a tini. goer = a demon.KIAMU 54 Kiamu Muyungu Kimvita for bugu la mtoma Mvnle mume Mwendao Mzuka Nana Ndwe msafiri Nina mama Nsi samaki kucha zimwi bibi ugonjwa Nyaa = mistress = sickness = mother =fish Nyai mwayo Nyangwa jangwa manyasi Nyika Nyota Nyuni Ku-ova English = the pumpkin plant = a man. arthi wa shamba ) shamba ( -dogo - Tototo matope =mud Ku-tunda ku-toa Twene jeneza tone = to give = a bier toto taki little.the ground. or. without anyone on board Ku-poa for Ku-shawiri Ku-sumuka Ku-takata Taufiki Tiati Tineni . take out drop = scraped coconut after ex- traction of tui Ufuto Ulingo u P aa urambe dungu utosi = white flesh of a dafu coconut = a look-out platform = crown of head (roof of house) . sound out ku-lia = luck. devil kiu ndege ku-tota -ovu -baya Ku-pambauka ku-cha Ku-pea ku-fagia Fepe umeme (Jahazi inaenda p'epe = the = a claw.. ring. nail = a yawn = mangrove swamp = grass = thirst = bird = to be drenched = bad = to dawn = to sweep = lightning vessel is drifting by itself. fortune bahati .

Ule mbwa kupoa rupia mbili = he is due two rupees (or. Ni mbwake. word. Taylor mentions the use of a negative perfect in the case of simekwenda ? . ' Siyo mbwangu.' It is related.chain = length = road. urefu ndia Utunda . IV. English = silver neck. A man rushed in after it saying. scabbard = to stir up mud mkufu -just like that = baboon = a shout kalele ku-tafuta. A few instances only will be given here. Kuku mbwangu. angalia = to see after. Sometimes the word given Kimv. and Kiam. in of the used be to seem ordinary possessive when place They emphasis is required. look out for Zijaya vigae Ku-zimba ku-ezeka = potsherds = to roof (a N. The Changes of is hut).. will get two rupees). path = a string of beads = sheath. For instance one might say to one's boy.B. are con- differences in idiom siderable. useja Uwo ala Ku-vurundua Yau yau ku-tibua vivi hivi Yonda nyani Yowe Ku-zengea .. Mbwa kupoa is an expression meaning.' ' Ni mbwako..' till strife calling at last all the male in- habitants were engaged and a civil war ensued. used in addition to the Idiom between Kimv. The use of mbwa and nda have already been touched on." probably untruthfully.' The worshippers were streaming up to the mosque and joined in the ' out.KIAMU Kiamu 55 Kimvita Upeto Ure for Usita . ' and another seized it saying. that the breaking up of the town of Kitao was due to a fowl entering the congregational mosque on a Friday." but if anybody else's boy was about to take it one would say Tumbako ndangu (or tumbako nda mimi mwenyewe) = " the tobacco is mine (not yours or his). Eta tumbako yangu = " bring my tobacco. mwenyi ku-pata.

with hata. taking the accent on the first. . and has not) purposely . viz. The word -pya Kimv. The accent remains as shown. Have I person sing. Hatasa from hata sasa Chakula tayari hatasa Hatakafa P = till now (or. wa!6. in place of Stress is laid on this accentuation because by its ytile. all this while Kitu hiki hufa iye P = how is this thing sold ? (how much?) Ndio za nini P = what do you say yes for ? (when someone Kasidi yake = Ndoo says. if that word is one of these far demonstratives. on purpose. and as an first " not 1 " or. viz. ule." The following abbreviations are used : = his aunt Shangalize for shangazi yake = = moja wapo (Kimv.. either in point of place or time. ilee. It has the meanimg " of. one o. mkate mpya = a new loaf. etc. ? There is a difference in pronunciation of the far demonstratives. an e is added to the far demon. ziatu zipia = "new sandals. not wane) Abb. Kimv. as he says.) one of them Moyali = that matter Yambole for yambo lile mwanawe Mwane =his child (the waane but is pi." In Kiam. You say I did ?" not Example. is one syllable and takes the accent on " the syllable before. and must thus be spelt -pia to bring the accent right.) (= come). his intention (was) . Simekuya P = You Why did you not come ? say that I did not come (but I did come). (Takes the place of makusudi. ? when not used by itself loses Ndo wewe = come you. yes he has done something. Example.KIAMU 56 This. viz. Mbona hukufika P = Answer. etc. is only used in the interrogative reply. means one can detect a native from the Amu group if one hears him say but one word. viz. not yet). which has already been mentioned. = is food not ready after = until he died. however -pya is pronounced as two syllables. ulee. Talking of anything distant. wale. walee.

in Kiam. look out for . Its meaning quite different. To such " is I "Were you able to read my letter?" me ? " Kwanni ? " used as an affirmative reply meaning.57 KIAMIT Wametuteza shere = they have played a trick on fun of us us. Mwana adamu is used in place of the usual bin adamu = " son of Adam. all three. Unaweza kuzengea mashairi ninunue P = Will you some poetry for me to buy 1 Answer. Katu means much the same as kabisa but is more forcible. viz. human Mwida is being. coming and going (and thus want of privacy. Si-isi =" I do not know " . Kwanni ? = Why not ? Of course I will." etc. Why not ? Of course Can you do can (or. questions as: this work 1 " " Will you come with will). Kwa lina is used for the usual palikuwa = " once upon a time. you do not know. in anything but the negative present. Zitu fulifuli Watu fulifuli There is an abbreviation meaning "both. fudifudi = to lie face downwards. is = things in plenty (and therefore cheap) = people in crowds.. he does not know (recognize) me. beings." occasionally used in place of muda for a space of time." Ku-yua Kulala used ordinarily for all other tenses. s& = the town has been utterly and com- Mui umeharibika k&bi pletely ruined. is kwa kuama = kulala Pulifuli has been confounded with fudifudi by several writers. are making Hapana katu = there is none whatever (in any shape or form)." Kwa lina mtu = alikuwako (or alikuwapo) mtu. When great emphasis is laid on kabisa the accent is placed the last syllable which is jerked out by on itself. of animate Wowawili = both. " huisi." Example. from a verb ku-isa which is seldom heard. all two (persons) Wowatatu = all three (persons). ghasia). haniisi = he does not know. haisi.

generally used of a male child much as in Kimv. just like that. took fifty dollars Kwanni kupenda ukowa usipende na_ kilichomo ukowani P = why do you like the lamp chimney and do not like chimney too? (The light inside is the reason for having a lamp and the chimney is only an adjunct) Hitieri yako is used in Kiam. or (it) hivyo. I leave mwenyewe. (Proverb) what it to you. and does not mean Amepata kijana = he has got a son (and heir).KIAMU 58 Ni mtu mzima sana = he is a very old man.) Mtu mrepana = a Bora ana care (lit. it is it is for you to say. well built. as you please. used is best. hivyo. generally used as a reply to some taunt. for Palikuwa mtu jina lake man called so aliitwa fulani = once upon a time there was a and Na so. i. Hamkuliwa and hitwa are used in place of the Kimv. . Mtu hiyau = a man like that (of that sort) Sitaki kazi hiyau = I do not want this soft of behaviour Mtu mvivu hiyau Sasa hiyau Kijana "a youth" is so for a man as lazy as he is sasa hivi = just now. and this dialect in the sense of "also (or) too. Kupa tambuu = to to the Eng. is largely used in both Kimv.e. Example. for the Kimv. where shauri lako. " give (a piece of) tambuu. would be used in Kimv. Nipa chai eta na mkate = give me some tea and bring bread Akatukua nguo akatunda na reale khamsini = and he clothes and took out also also. Yau yau is used in place of vivi hivi or vivyo Ufanye yau yau = do Hiyau for hivi. This is health is big. Kwa lina mtu hamkuliwa fulani. now at once. or upendavyo " it is as you wish." Examples. I don't first consideration). akaitwa (jina lake). to tip (equivalent to give the price of a drink "). person. bora azima = never mind. is inside the your business." (Hitieri -hitiari.

Also. Examples. (i. (i) as th in "this The " and letter j does is letters in this dialect. with regard to changes of letters. uzia This last word by pure coincidence returns to (N.) The rule is the same for every word. how hand its Kimv. town of Pate in the darkness) beat. This th is pronounced written in Swahili characters with the letter >. Kipate is called by us Patta Changes of Letters I. Ku-pija Ku-rejea Shemeji for in the ku-piga ku-regea -to -to shemegi -brother-in-law. Practically all that has been said of Kiam. of in multiplying examples.. suffix or particle. The following words. Some words are pronounced sometimes with g and sometimes with j. Examples. and whether the z is prefix. There are only two important changes of Z in Kiam. not occur. strike return . vocabulary and idiom stands good for Kipate. is occasionally softened to hard and fast rule like the last and appears j but this is not a to differ with individuals.B. appear to be always pronounced with j.KIPATE 5 the dialect of the town of Pate in the island and by the Arabs Bata. There (ii) is no use then G in Kiam. with a few further changes and a few exceptions. infix. always changes to th. rejeza. however. Jithani (from jitha for giza) = a quarter (lit. Kiamu baraza = verandah. grammar.e. guessing articles are held in the = youths zijana ziondowe = riddles = war. whether of Bantu or Arab origin. pijana. of kibafti many Thijana Thiondowe Thita Thitete Thiwe Uthia . audience Mathu mazu = bananas Thibafti zibafti = games Kipate Baratha for . strife zita = mongooses zitete = grindstones ziwe = annoyance. form.. 9.

There appears to be a slight difference in the neg. although the latter is understood in Pate. Changes of Grammar The grammar is practically the same as in Kiam.in place of -to-. shall not get. cylinder. future which takes the particle -te. etc.an egg I (pi. a chief Mfalurae = to toddle (of a child) tatetate Tatatata ku-tawali = to reign. and very frequently When is w occurs in poetry. form. these (trees) hini Hinu . Ku-tawala (N. mai) yai = above Iu yuu = dead of night makungi Makungu = horn of mgambo mbiu Mbia mfaume = sultan. chimney.B.) = white flesh of a dafu = unripe. Examples. a tendency to place y or This is occasionally also done in Kiam. Site- HuteHateHatute- HamteHawate- ri you he pata = we - ye they Haute- it etc. Negative Future. . green = to ripen.KIPATE 60 letters occur in the Other changes of words below : Binamu for binami = cousin = this (house). This last word returns to Ufito for ufuto -witi -biti Ku-wiva ku-viva its Kiung. Aingiye for aingie = he must enter ukoa = Ukowa II. two vowels occur together of which the first is i or o there between them.

IV. south of Amu. many of the people took refuge in On viz. . " . Amu. Most KISHELA 61 Changes of Vocabulary Kiamu hold good of the words under this heading in in Kipate. is blocked at low tide Ku-usha ku-aua (nathiri) = (nathiri) to bring a vow conclusion. roping for Utuku . . . Two = soko Changes of Idiom idiomatic expressions follow : Kitovu cha mui = the hub (centre) of the town Kutanga konda = to be about to marry (lit.KIPATE. Manda. is stir up strife). strife = departed. III. . the breaking up of the various old towns on Manda island. to 10. the dialect of the town of Shela. bustle = empty coconut shell = a bier = a mash = inside wall screening choo = war. drying Fathaa Kifuvu for haraka kifuu tusi Kilili Kimboe kipitu Kistahali kisitiri Kondo zita Mahua Mwiko wa kifuvu marehemu Ndia imethiwanai imethiwa J\ . .. A few local words are also used in Pate such as : Kiamu Kipate kata = haste. Kishela kitanda bazaar. to a con- or summation = usutu Ushitu (of strips miaa) for sewing mats. Taka and Kitao. lamented = ladle (of half coconut) ndia imezibwa = the way Ngumi nyangumi Pwayi into = a whale = a creek.

The j of Pate in place of g is not used. This has died out in most places presumably the town Manda. made use of this form. The Manda people would have cherished little dialectic differences of this sort as distinguishing them from the Amu people and stamping them as being more aristocratic. This was the origin of the town of Shela. . differ of Kiam. the town of geographical position of most of its original stock. of The Manda people. The dialect. Changes of Letters and Vocabulary The vocabulary is practically the same as that The th of Pate is often used in place of z. is just half way between that of Amu and that of Pate. . after all the variations in this met with. chiefly Examples. This is exactly as one might have expected from the old viz." word we have we have now come back to the same word as that used in the southernmost and farthest dialect touched on. as they were in the large town of Amu. with a few small exceptions. the oldest in the neighbourhood. The word mahali is used for "place. Iu and mfalume are used in place of yuu and mfaume. Kimgao. must have kept very much to themselves for. Another interesting feature -akwe is This is that the possessive termination used. There are a few words however which differ slightly from both. Probably the Amu people either did not use this form or had already dropped it.KISHELA 62 After a while they were allowed to found a town of their own. so that they might all live together instead of being scattered. and I III. Manda. however follow Kipate. is easily accounted for as it would appear that this was the old form of the possessive for the third person sing. It is curious that. When They Pate words from Amu. although remaining many years in Ainu. they moved out in a body to Shela. directly they received permission. Kishela may follow either.

) like. = his stick Simbo lakwe Nyumba ndakwe = the house is his Pa mahali pakwe = in his (or its) place. In addition to these the Bajun cerebral t's are changed to ch. differing Amu.) = we all hoyo (Kiam. 11. It bears a strong resemblance to the Bajun group but to the Amu group. Both town and dialect stand half way between Pate and Faza. Any is changes in ki. last three it will be observed return to the Kimv. no use in giving more examples of these changes of as what has been said for Pate can be referred to. hold good save only when which of course becomes they clash with what all Amu thus has the Pate th and There letters Changes of Letters is said for Pate. for kwamba kana for Sote These : used for Changes of Grammar There appears to be no marked changes of grammar. Kiam. ch is used.for the concord of the plural of the thi-. These are similar to It and Pate.class. from the latter it Those given Changes of Idiom There are no doubt a few intercourse with : two. its idioms and grammar belong more I. hold good. Of other little distinctions Chamba is Kama Huyu Nyi = if. form. though = (Kiam. as snte (Kiam. is local idioms in use but.) = this (person). IV. Kisiu is the dialect of the town of Siu. Examples. used as an abbreviation for nyinyi in address as is Ndo nyi wawili = come you II. That is to say that .63 KISIU KISHELA. from its unlikely that Shela possesses daily many dialect. Amu except the zi. j observed above.

KISIU 64 N. which the called for mats. local words of which Examples.) kistahali Marahanm Mwendio mahua mwen^o Ku-oa Pakuwathini . . etc. as in Kitikuu. Changes of Vocabulary There appear to be a considerable amount of I have only been able to collect two or three. Jy) . Words like nyumba follow Kipate and not Kitikuu.. Examples. III.class follow the usual rules and not those for Kitikuu to be described hereafter. Changes of II. in such words as kitambaa. R is not Grammar The grammar is the same as in Kipate. = muezzin ku-oza = grass = interior wall of choo = late lamented = a distance = to rot =minara from muezzin Ku-pija tumata ku-toma Toma nt'a Usichu ushitu ku-oa Ku-wowa is = to stab = a point = strips of miaa = to marry. The tenses to be described in Kitikuu are not used. Kisiu Kipate Athani Foko (fr. t's Do not confuse with Kiung. brought in. athana thayidi ya = more than Gubu nyika Kisitiri (like Kiam.B.. person = a canoe = people. For this change however see the next dialect. Nouns of the ma. for Ar. Ku-ehambua Ku-chukana Ku-chuma Chutakwenda for Mchu Mchumbwi Wachu ku-tambua ku-tukana ku-tuma tutakwenda mtu mtumbwi watu = to recognize = to abuse = to send = we will go = a man. in which it is only the dental which turn to eh.

class Kimgao in concords. Kitikuu 12. The KITIKUU following are two Siu proverbs with their Kiamu equi- valents. Chachu Ku-chafuna Ku-chambua Ku-chandika s. The meaning is men or strong tribes who fall out with that neither will get the better. Notice the agreement of the concords with be some small ndovu which follows treated as the n. that ndovu that of is pronominal prefix of the verb. Examples. viz. Ndovu mbili thikipambana liumiao ni gubu. in place of -ake. Changes of Letters whether aspirated or not.. Kiam. is that when two great The meaning men quarrel. Kiam. of is the language of Rasini and the mainland north Amu.KISIU. as in Kishela. When two elephants jostle against one another that English. The cerebral t.) This is said of two strong each other. not only with the adjective but also with the its exactly. I. it is wont to man or dependent who suffers. changes to ch. As mentioned before there are several local The remarks below apply more especially to or the variations. they only slip past one another. town of Faza or Paza. Nt'a kwa nt'a hazitomani. Kisiu. -akwe is used in Kisiu. cannot prick the point of one needle with that of another. for . (You English. the dialect of Rasini. Toma kwa toma hathitomani. Two sharp points cannot stab one another. Kisiu. 65 Changes of Idiom IV. for the possessive. which is hurt is the grass. Ndovu wawili wakisongana ziumiazo ni nyika. = three ku-tafuna = to chew ku-tambua = to recognize ku-tandika = to spread out tatu .

KITIKUU 66 Changa .

of the n. Perfect. the latter not being used. In place of the -kito. used as in Siu in place of -ake.class change n.they have died.KITIKUU II. madau) Ishikio Idowe Ifuthi Ithiva Examples. magim) = rump Ichako (pi. ehutapaeha The for tutapata = we possessive termination twende zechu shall get.tense of Kiam. -echu takes the place of -etu twende zetu = let for ma- The singular of the other dialects. leg Iguu (pi. machumbo) = stomach Idau (pi. mashikio) = foot. Example. Kitowakupacha The kitopata = for possessive termination -akwe is if I do not get. machako) Ichiunbo (pi. Chu- takes the place of tu.to : us (two) be going. (pi. 52 . nail = shoulder = milk. madowe) mafuthi) mathiva) = claw. -kitowaku- is used. class has. (pi. Examples. like in the plural. (pi. Iti for nti = country Isi nsi-fish. = a dhow = a rudder (pi. The -ndo- Changes of 67 Grammar This takes the place of the perfect in -me- tense. instead of ma- which changes to no prefix. - 'Ndokufa I have died Undokufa = thou hast died = he has died Andokufa Chundokufa = we have died Mundokufa = you have died Wandokufa . Some nouns first : i-.as the pronominal prefix for person plural viz. the prefix i- viz.

KITIKUU 68 Or i- if or u- the noun does not commence with n.but may be prefixed. Examples. Imbwa Ipaa Usimbo for .class . mbwa = a dog paa =a roof is of the n..

The changes of idiom are very great.. pole = a spoon = an eyebrow = strips of for kijiko Usichu Usuni = to fish = a stick. mbavu) Uvueha na chembe . rather the lowest day of the neap tide) to eat (grain) out of a fold in the clothes. On the day for the fishermen to go out and cast their nets so no use cure their fish. but want of time has compelled one to abandon this dialect before having fairly started. Examples. The expressions are quite different from those in any of the dialects given before. ushi nyusi) usutu (pi.69 KITIKUU Thipepeo for = miaafestoons on bow- zipepo mtepe sprit of Ku-toma Uchi ku-va mti (isi) Mchi (N.neap tides (or. (pi. (Kit.) only means a growing tree. ku-oa ku-oza yua Changes of Idiom IV. 1 Moke ndeza means of lowest tide they stop at it is of home and the cooking over the fire of the n^eza fish.B.tense are : = the (thing) has gone bad 'ndovaka fulani = I have married so and so Yuva lindokutwa = the sun has set Yuva lindotoka = the sun has risen Yuva lindopaa = the sun is climbing up (the Kindovowa Hiyao and yau yau of Amu are not used.) Ukombe Usi (nsi) matting ready to sew = sand fly usubi suni) Uvavu (pi. A heavens). . Ku-vaka = rib ubavu uta na chembe = bow and Ku-vowa Yuva arrow = to marry = to rot = the sun. Examples of the -ndo. Mkmditha j^^ > Kwekuyu kaokuya = ya kimbuya . The people were unable to explain the derivation or parts of these two words. few old expres- sions survive in Kitikuu which are almost Kingovi.

BANADIR DIALECTS.

70

All boats coming from Rasini,
called

viz.

KINGOVI
string-tied,

are elsewhere

mtepe.

itself however it is only those with the camel-necked
which
are called mtepe, while the others are called idau.
prows
Parts of these boats not already referred to are

In Rasini

:

Mchwana = the block just
Mtindikani

in front of the

mast to which the lower

part of the latter is lashed.
= cross beam passing between the

mchwana

mast and resting on the bulwarks either
13.

and the
side.

the Banadir Coast.
These bear a rebut apparently possess a very different
Words in Kitikuu which are entirely different from

The Dialects

of

semblance to Kitikuu

vocabulary.
those of Kiam. are likely to occur also in similar forms in these
dialects.

Example,

Shembee

Some words however

(Kit.)

= kishembere (Banadir) -a

knife.

pass almost unchanged through a series of

dialects.

Example, Magadi

= potash
(Banadir)
14.

for

is

Kingazija

(Kiung.) = magathi
mixing with snuff.

(Kiam.) =

magatho

the language of the Comoros.
It is alleged
Bajun Kiswahili and is generally

to bear a great resemblance to
included in the Swahili group.

15.
Kingovi (or Kingozi as it is called in Kiung. and Kimv.) is
the ancient language of this coast.
Natives talk of words in old Swahili as "Kikae" or "the old

language."

Such words are

:

Ku-ima
Ku-uza

Uwao
Ng'andu
-akwe
Ku-soto

for

ku-simama
ku-uliza

ubao
thahabu
-ake
ku-shoto.

Kingovi is a language much older than Kikae.
Words, phrases and constructions occur in old poetry, but the
language itself is practically lost.

KINYUME

KINGOVI.
It contains

71

an almost entirely different vocabulary and different

grammatical forms.
There are said to be a few people who are still able to talk this
language, it having been carefully handed down, however I have
been unable to find anyone.

am

I

told that so different

the language to ordinary Swahili,
is unable to under-

is

that a well-educated and well-read Swahili

stand

it.

Appended is a piece of poetry (p. 73), of which the MS. from
which the writer's own copy was made was he thinks dated about one
hundred years ago I underline the words I believe to be Kingovi.
This is quite easy and simple as compared with poetry of several
;

hundred years old.
Lastly, a word on the

Kinyume is
and prefixing

fanciful languages.
attained by cutting off the last syllable of every word

it.

Example, Nataka kiti niketi would be

in

Kinyume kanata

tiki tinike.

a purely fanciful or code language.
Occasionally single words of Kinyume are thrown into a piece of
poetry to fulfil the exigences of metre or rhyme, or to make it less
It is

easy of comprehension.
This latter, it would appear,

is

the chief feature of Swahili

poetry.

For there are such multitudes of rhyming words that there
would be nothing in the poet's art if he were not able to mystify his
public.

So any old or

difficult

word he can discover he

careful to

is

string in.

Here

is

an example of a Kinyume word,

viz.

pani

(for

nipa)

being thrown into a verse.
"

Pani

kiti nikelete

kusimama kalikwenda.

Na

farasi kupijuati si kuwelekwa na punda.
Tandiko la mjakazi si la ungwana kanda.

Na mkate wa kimanda

si

kitumbua cha Mafia."

Translation,

"Give me a chair

to sit on, standing

is

as

if

I

was

still

walking.

And

falling

from a horse

by a donkey.

is

not (so good as) being carried

KIALABI

72

The soft couch of a
mat of a freeman.

slave

And manda

not (so good as) Mafia chupaties."

bread

is

is

not (so good as) the rough

There are a number of code languages made by
some particular sound to each syllable.

Kialabi.
suffixing

Each of these possesses a name of

its

The explanation of one will suffice
Kialabi is made by suffixing -kiri

to explain

own.

them

all.

to each syllable.

Example,
Kikiri takiri bukiri ehakiri ngukiri kikiri mekiri kwikiri
shakiri,

which means

:

Kitabu changu kimekwisha.
Translation,

My

book

is

finished.

Praise be to Allah.

APPENDIX
EXAMPLE OF KINGOVI WORDS
THE INKISHAFI, A Northern
N.B.

Words

OLD POETRY

IN

Version

(Lamu

?)

believed to be of Kingovi are underlined.

N.B. A. translation, or a synonym, is given in the footnotes of every
word which is not to be found in the usual Swahili Dictionaries.
N.B.
8.

are usually divided

ina nikite Inkishafi

by a semicolon.

1
nikapange lulu kula tarafi
4
3
kiza cha thunubi kinipukiye

Tatunga kifungo kwa kukisafi

Na
9.

The strophes

2

;

.

;

nuru na mianga itathalali 7
8
Nambao kwamba ataamali iwe toba yak we aitubiye.
Kim a ake 9 kwisa dibaji yangu penda kuonya na moyo wangu
Kitamsi 5 kiza cha ujuhali 6

;

;

10.

;

Utwetwe na hawa ya ulimwengu
11.

Moyo wangu

nini

huzundukani

Hunelezi nami kalibaini
12.

Moyo wangu nini

13

14.

Raj ami

10

11

zimughuriye

likughuriyelo ni yambo gani
liwapo na sura nisikataye.

;

hu'itabiri

15
Huyui dunia ina ghururi

13.

hila za

;

12

14

?

;

;

twambe, u mwelevu wakukhitari

ndia za tatasi 16 huzandamaye

.

?

:

?

Hunu ulimwengu bahari tesi 17 una matumbawe na mangi masi, 18
;

mwasi 20

Aurakibuo 19 jua

ni

Ni kama kisima

kisicho

;

kwa kula hasara

ombe 21

;

chenyi

uhasiriye.

mta 22 paa 23 mwana wa

ng'ombe,
15.

1

2

Endao kwegema humta 22 pembe ;
Au wenga 25 vumbi la mwangaza

Thunubi =thambi.

4

Kinipukiye

(?),

fr.

kw-epuka
fr.

16

Tatasi = matata.

17

Tesi = -kali.

18

Masi=mashaza.

19

Aurakibuo,

20

M wasi = adui.

21

Ombe = wall round mouth

(?).

Kitamsi=kiovu.

UjuhaU = uwinga,

JL^..

7

Ku-tathalali

8

Ku-taamali=ku-zingatia.

9

Kimaake = kisa.

23

Rajami = the devil Iblis.
Ku-ghuri=ku-hadaa.

24

Ku-zunqlukani = to awake.
Nini ? = una nni ?

26

11

12

18

.

^&

3

10

;

wakati

Mwenda kulegema akilisoza; asione kitu ukishishiye 26
Tarafi = nta.
u Kwi'tabiri=ku-taamali.
= revealed, dis- is Ghururi = deceit?
Inkishafi =
closed.

3

24
kunwa maiye.
wa yua likitumbuza

asipate katu

to shine, brighten up.

22

25

fr.

^^s>j

= he

rode.

of a well.

Ku-ta=kutonga.
Paa=utosi.
Katu=kabisa.
Ku-enga=ku-angalia.
Kushisha = causative of shika.

misfortune. Wakazisalimu 30 'umri zao hadimu 31 lathati 82 akenda nao . 25 si fr. Au 2 1 enga metu limetukapo . 12 11 23 Jifa=jumbi. mtu nambwa 13 mbovu mno kuta kiwavu 15 kilabu 9 . Ngea=chele = epuka. 32 Lathati =raha=laza. Mutendele = old Swahili fr. 23. for mume- tenda. . . ku-atama=to gape. . ^ . . . Ku-wania=ku-telea. 18 Yasimsiye = yasimwishUie. 12 hutukiza[i]ye. shida na shakawa likupeteo Ni dunia ii 6 uipendao yenyi thila na makataye 7 17. fr. 22. Hadimu = a breaker. wakatalathathi kwa shani lao Ikawa sumbuko kwa mazingao [wajkaanguka zanda waziumiye. ! kiburi = pride. Ndeo = swollen headedness. ikaribu. 8 14 . Ikalifu 21. 28 Kutubwikia=to sink into. 17 Ku-fidi=ku-pata. Ar. * Mvi-chembe. au mwenyi kwenda Metu = a mirage. Mwa-tami = fr. 7 Makataye = evil happenings.H VERSION N. Dunia 19. Nambwa=na mbwa. of haya Ku-'usiri=to delay by the way. Ku-etuka= to shine. ^JL^ = a dog. X&*' 15 1 Ikalifu. 13 Ku-kithiri=to be much. was 22 8il=uii. fr> k^-euka. fr. de- . ^^J = intelligent. wakauma zanda wakiiyuta Na dunia yao ikawasuta 19 ichamba safari muniukiye 20 Ichamba hayani 21 ndio safari yakomele tena ya kuu'siri 22 28 na takaburi 24 mutendele 25 kwangu nishuBithaa' ya ndeo . . Chenda akaona mwako wa yua mai alotaka akayatoa 4 3 yambo ila shakawa. . hudiye. sweet. ^- Ar. ikawa mayuto yasimsiye Khasaisi 5 zote na matakwao . find in. Mvi 26 wa manaya 27 ukiwafuma na kutubwikiya 28 katika nyama Pasiwe mwatami 29 mwenyi kwatama au muya nena yalikuwaye. 10 Kilabu. the mouth P Ku salimu=ku koma 29 ' fr. Tandi 18 la mauti likiwakuta. 24 Ar. . fr. spoiler. Ku-suta = ku-fukuza. 8 asirithiye. Takaburi. Kiwavu =mbavu. ungi welevu ulikithiriye . 30 kali. . haupendi si ewe labibu ina ila ilio 10 11 kuwania . to Hayani = pi. 24. 17 Wangapi dunia waipeteo. 25. . twaye. . vastator. . Asifidi 18. glfted ' 11 20 21 6 9 Ku-talathatM = to take pleasure characteristic of. Ar. wakati wa yua lilinganapo kayakimbilia akayaMwenyi nyota kamba ni mai yapo 16. ni jifa Ihali gani Kima 20. 27 Manaya = mauti. 19 Khasaisi. ila 16 hupa watu ngea ikithiriye. Pasi mkohozi akohowao 1 2 3 4 6 . Labibu. Tandi = tanzi.

Ar. . Uwene 24 wangapi watu wakwasi walowakiwaa kama shamsi 25 Wamuluku 26 zana 27 za adhurusi 28 thahabu na fetha wahi. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo Haiziwiliki izimikapo. 19 20 ikiwa mgine wamtendaye. 16 Hudumu. 21 Nusuha = entreaties. yake hela tafathali unabihike Sheitani rajimi asikuteke kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye 13 Hunu ulimwengu utakao yemale 14 nilipe upendeyao . 31. 8 ulio weuni katika tuka 9 enga moto kuroromeka 9 Pakashuka wingu katika shaka . . . Hauna dawamu 15 hudumu 16 nao umilikishwapo wautendaye. 32. K u-oka = ku-sitawi. Huza akhirayo kwa ulimwengu 28. na dunia yao iwaokele 31 mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye. Uwaweneo = umezoona.26. 33. 2 4 Hukengeukii = hukunigeukii. 23 Luhudi =ufuko = the narrow trench dug to receive the body after the 24 Uwene = -e-e :> G 7 8 9 10 11 Ku-viva=ku-iva. . . 76 VERSION N. lini ewe Hiki safihi yao 2 ? nambia ukomo 4 kievu 3 moyo changu hukengeukii . Safihi. is 4 15 rest of the grave 25 foliage. fr. 12 11 sijida . . Ruhu=roho. ikawa kuzima usiviviye 10 . j 3 Kievu =kidevu. Ulimfutuye ukamukhini Watoto wangapi uwaweneo 21 ikawa yakini kupona kwao . Praver Hela = haya 20 prostration in 27 haya 29 28 - 12 (enda) not so (shame). . fr. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika 1 hukunabihi 1 Utaata 27.pta0^=jua. is Ajinani =majini (jins). luhudi 23 katika iwafun- diye. Kamaye = kama yeye. 34. Kuliwa bangu =ku-hadaa. Hakuwa mtume Suleimani maliki wa isi 17 na ajinani 18 ? . niusikiye. ku-ona. 29 ziniye 35. Sasa nyumba zati 22 ziwatwetweo . moya hwona izimishiye. ku -lala (-e-e tense). wamuluku = those who possessed. Ku-futu = ku-kosa. milele. Ku-hizini = to store up. . . Ku-roromeka=ku-waka. tense is finished. ruhu 7 enga taa katika pepo. fr. ku- ignor- . Zana=akiba. si lile. . = ku-amsha and 4^. 1 2 ? 30 Malimwengu yote yawatii'le Wachenenda zita thao thilele 32 Ku-nabihi amka. Tuka =mashaka(yamti)= branches. . Yawatii'le = yawatii'ye. fr. 17 isi=viumbe. Yemale = yambo lema Dawamu = dayima. Adhurusi = pembe za ndovu Shamsi. Sijida = prayer. Ewe moyo enda 6 ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. = foolishness. 19 ance. nusuha 5 yangu. Au 30. . . saa 29. 32 f r . 22 Zati = za tiati. Ku-khini=ku-hini=ku-iza.

= rows. shiye. 16 ill za waja 19 na za masituru 17 zikiterema kuvuma na za hudama 20 furaha na nyemi 21 . Kaa=sandaU. 41. Kumbi 40. Hudama = watumwa. siye. (pi. 31 32 wakanakiliwa ili safari 44. crowd. understood). 8 9 10 fr. . ku-tia 23 . 19 Waja = watu. 76 Wakimia 1 mbinu na 36. pi. . fr. a group. 4 Jamil =wengi. Ukwasi ungapo na tafaburi 33 Washukiye nyumba za makaburi mtanga na fusi ziwafu43. Ku-taanusi= to be comfortable. 4 7 Masiku 8 ya kele kama nahari 9 haiba na jaha iwazingiye. . 18 Kele = kelele. 1 2 Ku-mia=to wave=ku-punga. 15 Msana = ic Ku-vtuna (with voices. Tafahuri = f r. Misutu 26 mipindi wakipindiwa yuu la farasha kufunikiwa 27 28 29 Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa . 7 Sufuri = shaba. 39. sufuri na nyurna na mbele ill jamu wawatandiye. tense) (?). 22 zishitadiye . | 12 14 Zali~= zango zile. 25 Akliadhari Masiku. Na wake wapambe 23 24 kukhitari mema maao Kwa yuu la zitanda na majodori ya 25 kwa kazi za pote wanakiNa mito kuwili ya akhadhari waturnbuizi 42. Sufufu of safu) indoors. . . kwa taa za kowa na za 2 miyongo 3 zitengo . 32 & fr lU-paka. Abunusi = mpingo = ebony. Kwa msana za kele 18 15 naapa kwa Mungu Mola 14 zisitawiye. = incense. of 3 of fr. . mwongo). Miyongo (pi. Nahari = mtana. Ar 26 Misutu = visutu vikuu 27 Ku-kukiwa = ku-inikiwa. Kitengo = baraza of people other than the sultan. VERSION zao shingo. 20 21 22 Ku-shitadi=ku-zidi. 5 Mbake = mpia. G Ku-nawiri=ku-ng'ara. . a'sikari 6 zikinawiri ill mbake 5 . 11 Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi mkwasi 13 12 zi za msaji na abunusi Zali 38. Wapambiye sini ya kuteua na kula kikombe kinakishiwa Kati watizii 10 kuzi za kowa katika mapambo yanawiriye 8 . Nyemi = furaha kuu. tele sufufu . . 'itiri na kaa waipashiye *. Wakaapo pote zao Nyumba 37. 28 (-zii 9 w 'Itiri Ar. wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye. . ^ \^ . 24 Majodori =magodoro. . Fusi=kivumbi.N. fr. 1 to 10 persons. . - ^9 Ku-nakila=ku-gura = ku-hama. !1 ranks. 17 Situru= cloister. of usiku. = green. Mao = malalo. . Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi walina wakande nawa pepezi .

. 33 Jisadi=ziwiliwili. fr. Shubiri = the span of the fingers (the measurement of the ufuko). 16 17 makinda 18 ya popo iu Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame . 31 Yande = yande. matter. Ku-siri=ku-wa. shingo Ukita h[w]itikwi fr. 27 Kiku = adove. ila ni mwango 39 22 ku-kaa. Sasa walikee 1 45. 23 24 25 Dhiki = u tungu.VERSION N. 49. pasipo zulia wala jodori dhiki 4 za zionda 5 ziwakusiye. > . 52. ku-waka= to Ku-itika=ku-yeyuka. Ziwele = zimekuwa. 38 Ku-zinda=to 39 Mwango = echo. . 2(5 Zion<Ja=zidon<Ja. 30 Ng'ende = nyenzi. See note 10 above. 30 ng'ende . ku-angama. . 28 Kitati = a very small bird. Wasakha = pus. dung. Makinda =zij ana. makumbi yande 31 kuwa mazibala 32 yalisiriye 33 Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele 34 mwitu. 10 12 11 na kuwatafuna zao jisadi 18 Wasiriye kuwa kula kwa dudi Na mta 14 na tungu huwafisidi majoka na pili 15 wawatatiye. moya shubiri Ikawa miwili kutaathari 3 huwatulika 6 46. . 35 = piri = puff-adder. enga matuka na matukutu 35 36 Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye 37 Kwamba usadiki kamba mbuwongo enda nyumba zao uzinde Yalingie vumbi 53. Bombwe = maggot. . sauti . Hisi = sauti. Ku-taathari = ku-oza.webs. 47. Zitefute zao . . ::8 54. ya waja 40 41 itindishiye . Mta=mchwa. Matandu = cob. maziwio. bird green which eats dates. 32 Dudi=mayongoo. See note 16 above. . 41 = to turn. Tame = -gofu. . Kula'= chakula. Kisiji =a Koti = a small bird. wengeme 19 Husikii hisi 20 wala ukeme 21 zitanda matandu 22 walitandiye. 40 Waja^watu. . 77 2 . be cut short. nawanawa ndiwahumia shingo 27 28 29 mbawa ziku na zitati Wakipija matungo tungo waliwashiye kati zao huvuma mende kumbi za msana zalia Nyumba 51. . 34 Mazibala =yaa= dust. Pili wingu yamefungana). . 26 Wanawazipungu wapendezango. Bumu=owl. Ukeme = matayo and mawizilio. Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni Buum 23 hukoroma kati nyumbani zisiji 24 na koti 25 waikaliye. 29 fr. Matukutu = tuka kuu. 50. Ku-funda = to shut in (as in ma- build. Ku-mia=to nod. . . Ku-tulika=ku-tiririka. . wasakha 7 na damu huwaitika 8 Pua na makanwa bomb we 9 hutoka haiba na sura zigeushiye. or. . 36 37 Mbuwongo = mbwa uongo.

. . 8 Wapi wakiungu waviza kumbi "Walaliye 61.78 N. Ku-wa'igiika=ku-zingatia=ku-faMasikizi =masiMo. fr. Ar. 10 Ziuli = maua. VERSION . Moyo nakwambia ya watu sao 24 kuwa ao una yako uyashishiye ? kamao Nawe wayakini ata taadabu sipeketeke ya jauri haki ushike. 2 ? 4 3 naona kwa haya yafuatiye. Ukimbiliepi 1 2 28 pa kukushika = awakened. wenyi nyuso . Jahimu. 26 . Aimi=mimi. .^fr. muanga na muangaza kisararnbi 59. . Mashukio = place of 21 22 descent. Mahuwa =: marehemu. 19 fr. usikutwae. ku-amua. ^ Wesiwe = wameamkuliwa 13 27 fr. 55. Ku-viza=ku-ongeza. ku-atama. Moyo Wendo wachokoka 25 nawe [hjwokoki moto wa jahimu 26 . . 1 zituko zingapo huya'ithika . wangiziye nyumba za jizajiza ndio mashukiyo 7 walishukiye.). 17 19 20 18 16 zituzo za mato masiza ngowa ? Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa Kwa lina . Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka 67. mahuwa 21 . za tanga tanga 12 mabwana na mawaziri Watamiwe 13 na-ti za makaburi lina . mtanga. 4 Ku-pulika=ku-sikia. 5 . " 'Ali=bigh 12 (Ar. . 16 liamu. Sao-hao. nyamba Wa wapi ziuli Kwa na mashekhi . Mimi nakvvambia Zisizo 60. Wasiriye wote kuwa 64. Moyo huyatasa kimabihika 58. 28 fr. mema ya ? 10 za vumbi vumbi za Pate Yungwa Wangiziye nyumba 62. wenda na makundi ya 'askari pingu za mauti ziwafundiye. . . nipulikiza ziunda 9 za miti ziwaaliye. Ku-uza=ku-uliza. 68. ku-isa (i8ha). 'ali 11 daula na zenyi mianga? 'ezi iwaushiye. 22 sasa ni waushi waliushiye.Jlrif^ P aa = utosi. 83 kalamu ya Mngu iwapeteo. makadhi wamua 14 haki. 14 fr. nambia walipo kawamkiye. Ku-tagamia = ku-egema. Kituzo = arresting. 57. . zidiwa = kama ndiwa. Kamao = kama wao. . Hbonya=nionya. 20 29 malijaa . 7 8 9 mbonya 17 18 3 6 ? na paa 27 za watu kupapatuka. U wapi Ali bin Nasiri na muamu wake Abu Bakari 6 Mwenyi 'Idarusi na Mohodhari wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye. ya kupulika 5 Sasa moyo pako tauza nawe nelezato sana nami nelewe Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe. fr. Hata masikizi 56. okoka. . 20 30 30 nitagamiye . 65. . 63. wahakiki zuo wakihakiki 15 Waongoza watu njema tarikhi wesiwe kwa wote waitishiye. . ukimtoiliepi=utakimbia wapi? Malijaa = matagamiwa. Waushi = people who have flown away (uka=ruka). Ngowa =matakwa. Kiunda Aboard with which body 23 is 2* covered in grave.

Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu Akatwekwa thambi thamaghusubu 11 akambiwaHaya mtukuliye. 19 Kiyali = spark. .] Fahamia tena siyo . . .] Kuna na hawia 22 'Asi angiapo hula kitana huona pumuzi zimsiziye. fr. 6 . Moyo tafakari ya jahanamu wenyi silisiya na azimaniu 15 14 akiukimu unene labeka niitishiye. 23 ufahameto ni moto mkali katika nyoto 24 [76. 23 Kitaya = bit (bridle). 7 . 14 15 of the seven 26 Silisiya = chains. VERSION 79 Tafakari siku ya kwima 1 kondo. Na malipwa yao wathilimua si thahabu timbi si 3^akufua. (iv) Sai'ri. 31 Hutama = one of the hells. Ny umu = -kali. 27 Latha = one of the 28 Manofu = joints of meat. ni moto mkali hau makina [75. 27 nao pulika ukitiwa mara huwa kuwaka [77. 18 a Ku-aridhiwa = ku-arifu. . Fedba hawatwai na wangapoa. Rikabu = a riding animal. nae. 9 10 72. [74] to [78] the note at the end of the Translation. Sai'ri = one of the hells just men(i) tioned. 2(3 PL of moto.)). Mgi=mwingi.] Moto wa sai'ri Ni mngi 25 wa moshi na mitokoto 26 majoka na pili waikaliye. ila hasanati 8 ni malipwaye. (v) Latha. . ku-shitaki. 3 Mathulumu = tyrants. (ii) Jahimu. Makina =makini. 71. Pindi ya Daiyani 16 ukivuma na kuta ukita sauti kama ya punda panda [74. of ulimi. 13 12 73. (vi) Hamimu. Azimamu=ugwe. Jahanamu. 1 Kwima = ku-simama.] Na moto wa latha 28 Huona manofu yakikwambuka waona ziungo ziungushiye 29 . 24 Maghusubu = oppressor. . Eu-kimu=ku-amkua. . (vii) Hutama. . 20 Hawia=one 4 Ku-ta = ku-piga on<3lo magote = viz. Namuwa = hukumu.N. cut joints apart. ku-tokota. . ndimi yonda Mjani akupe 21 20 pulika sana. 29 hells. (Kiam. Jabari = bila kifano. : 30 hutama 31 . Kitana = sumbuko.]* Uye 17 18 sura za na ziyali 19 zimtatiye. . yaku'aridhiwa 2 kula kitendo 3 4 achamba Ya Rabi namuwa 5 Pindi mathulumu atapo ondo . N^imi = pl. 17 Mjani = a wrong doer (distinguish from mjane (Kimv. menithilimu kwa hukumu yako ilio ny umu Mngu jabari akahukumu amtendeleo amlipiye. 69. motowe muashi na kuguruma Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama. shiye. Namuwa na huyu.)=mtumbwa 30 Siyo = hiyo. (iii) Hawia. Ku-ungua = to disjoint. 21 22 Hasanati = thawabu. bongo na wasakha limshu- [78. Mitokoto. 70. Daiyani = a name for God. See on these hells. .

= perhaps. Northern. 1. Kimvita. =from. E. mod. "li-Mambasii. Archipelago. (N. =word Ngoz. usu. =Ki-ngozi (Ki-ngovi.) or Authorities. A. cf. Ar. The original transcription was made by the help of the learned in such matters among my friends. Mombasa language or = usual. sc. or would. = version obtained at Mombasa. who This revision spread over . alternative reading.) pf. = with. = perfect.. = South. perh. (S. prob.V. VL. alt. = Captain Stigand's.MOMBASA RECENSION OF THE INKISHAFI BY REV. = at the place referred to. wd. obtained in the AL. = meaning. or cfr. Southern. or Auth. = Authority = Arabic. S. = probably. ad loc. = alternative. N. w. = modern. V. W." meaning Descendant of the ancient royal family spoken of under the name of "the Kings of Mombaza" by the poet Milton (see Introduction). alt. lit. = Mombasa. -ly. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE MOMBASA RECENSION Mombasa Text is the outcome of a careful and deliberate many years of the original Arabic-character copy obtained for me in 1885 by the celebrated Mwalimu Sikujua II. usually. = literal. native scholars and authorities like the Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmad. Mv. = compare. = various authority or reading. fr. TAYLOR ABBREVIATIONS = another reading.) = North.

MS. by the fact that the ancient poetry of this stamp was written on rolls.and others too numerous to mention. the note on 12. Eliminating these last. the the five eight [16]-[18]. a defect which seems at first sight to be atoned for by the presence of on the Mirage. It is seldom that a MS. The I have ventured to include and revise on I am still doubtful if stanzas on the Mirage my own they formed part of the authority. if I remember rightly. Poem totals The loss of the introductory stanzas is explicable seventy stanzas. Bwana Husein bin Khamis el Mandhiri. Poetry. of which the outer layers became the first to perish. now Museum. who me Another special revision was made. general were authorities the latter's able Kadhi of Zanzibar before him. and the Mwalimu now Kadhi al-Ghazzali. of any age is found in such good condition as is that of the Utenzi of Liongo. is the authority Introduction between the three leading Dialects of the different zones of Swahili and Zanzibar. country. . All the names given are those of acknowledged authorities in their own father. (See also for a superfluous stanza in S. and Ayubu bin Salim el Mazru'i. [74]-[78] and of the three stanzas in all. Then his almost equally able son Bwana Hemedi.S. Mombasa. and the Kadhi (then Sheikh) Buruhani bin 'Abd-il-'Aziz ibn 'Abd-il-Ghani.) . RECENSION 81 were dispossessed by the Portuguese after their conquest of the coast at the end of the fifteenth century. now I think of The Mrima. the poet. . by Bwana Sa'id bin Khamis. Lamu. as media for Prose. which I secured in 1884. since the complete number of stanzas in the perfect Poem would hardly " " is a number that would appeal 70 be an odd number. The first-mentioned. and to the oriental and the native mind alike. though original. also Bwana Majidi bin 'Ali el Mandhiri besides Bwana Rashid bin Su'ud. looked drawn for the distinction in the up to by all. Text lacks the first seven stanzas of the complete Poem preserved in this Mombasa Recension. el-Amawi (Omeyad of The procured a text for Other Kureish). of T'akaungu. with Mwalimu Sikujua. It will be noted that the N. and Trade jargon respectively. but its outer part has of course suffered at the British more than the rest of the long roll.

when the words in which Their they occur are pronounced as is usual in the Arabic style. The effect of pronounced with the dentals. both dh and s modify the a following to become in sound nearly as o. involves a guttural effort. " " in the same pose as for the gutturals kh and gh. thahiri between (distinct) dh and th and tahiri (circumcise). partly that dh. e. It in prayer in the effort not Billahi.g. 'Athman. said my teacher. like s. But Billahi. e. the dh is a composite sound. tongue on the teeth these are pronounced exactly the same to the North. especially of the a's which succeed them. . d and t. The gh. cerebrals." in them than at Lamu. N. including the used at all as in proper names l ain (c) like 'All. at Lamu. nearly and dhamini is nearly dhamini so the palatal Arabic sounds th and t (J and Jb) make . namely on the d and t." If the dh and th has a broadening influence upon the vowel it is. exactly the same as at Mombasa. in 1 precedes is Allah. fore palate with the upper edge of the blade of the tongue letters in all . words in which they figure are pronounced in the South. not dhati *. . the q or k (J>) and the r and s have a similar broadening effect. related consonants exhibit the (jo and u) same peculiarity. for the Kim vita but with The Swahili Spelling appropriate " Mombasa.g. Bismillahi. do not broaden their succeeding vowel sounds thus dhati.. etc. Persians and Hindis neglect this in their own speech.. as if the tongue made a prostration to pronounce a Name so holy. dh and th. because of the i in the preceding syllable. partly that. and is with the side laid along the upper jaw teeth on the left. tip of the : these is easily heard in the modifying of their following vowel sounds. 1. which have a difference is similar effect on the vowels they introduce .PRELIMINARY NOTES TO THE MOMBASA TEXT Phonetics and Prosody. the Arabic dhad and tha. etc. like "awe.. dh (3) when it and is all the remaining consonants. while th a palatal sound consonant pure and simple.. at Zanzibar etc. etc. produced with the upper blade upon the palate. these Dialect as used at "r" less of the or trill . thus sala (prayer*) is sala.B. the chords of the glottis being made vibrant to yield a chest resonance at the moment of voice production. : and the former make 1 The only word all long a's which a. as at Mombasa. a broad a The also.

RECENSION 83 are reduced as often etc. Apart from the Arabic words in which at Mombasa the dental d and cultured those which exhibit j and ch respectively at From the above considerations the " Centrality " claimed Mombasa Dialect in the Introduction may be further occur include Zanzibar. lengthened at the accented syllable than stressed. this is to Also and note: The marks d and introduced t t for ng without the "cerebral" the d the Lamu. but as si-nging Nghad . which from the chest . not they always represent a suppressed n before the a matter of grammatical importance in the case of of the breath. Here note The Accent. e. e. t'. respectively. is merely pronounced in the exaggerated Lamu way. and singing. are not necessary when the Mombasa system above noted is for Dialects. voice as contrasted with breath being kept ' usually heard in Swahili. The explosive consonants p'.e. when the latter word (still pronounced in the ordinary way) is divided. The vowels are rather 6. and and kh and gh.. i. the emission of up in an even "pressure" Ain (e). "blends" made with the corresponding voice consonants by the letter n to form respectively mb.. This d and t is the Bantu consonant proper the dental d and t of Mombasa while found in the roots of is admittedly cerebral. h (*. the other t " in whatever zone. . then (= the th in English there is no modification of the pure vowel system a. differ from the smooth or non-explosive type of the same letters in the increased force is supplied from out of the mouth cavity.] ng' is the sound in the words Gottm^en. not as sing-ing. Jomvu (Jo-mvu). k'. being breath consonants. be contrasted carefully with the blend apostrophe above mentioned. [Note There is also a blend mv as in Mvita. I. (Welsh). a. Therein every used. s. for the 62 . nd. i. a dissyllable and in to the : . o. t'. pure native origin are the true Arabic sounds. by Captain Stigand while they draw attention to the exaggerated "trill" which in those Dialects accompanies them both. nd. and when it occurs in Lamu. ch'. etc.). far as I . letter aspirated initials and they correspond . ng... d and t not marked as dental (d and t) pronounced as above explained.S. and are always heard in the more modern words derived from the Arabic when spoken by the " loans. u in the Swahili of Mombasa (or even of the South as am aware). u to . by the "illiterate" " dh then ") and s and h (or g). etc. etc. and' (*) are the Arab sounds least throughout. but especially the d. nj.

m' and syllables as in . (') except seldom separated thus I'l. (Mombasa) and Southern groups Prosody of the Poem. is necessarily sometimes distinct from the modulation of the rhythm. It is very important to note that the changes have been naturally very much slower and always inconsiderable in those Dialects where the literary and poetic genius . In the Translation the letter -r has been chosen for the last letter of and the unusual metre and accentuation is an endeavour to render the effect of the Poem mutatis mutandis the final syllable .P. etc. wasiza-ngowa kiiwa mahiiwa. Wasiriye wot'6 L6o ni waiishl waliiishfye\ ! || || || The last syllable of rhyme though each stanza is invariably of the same strict -ye (which in most cases has to be transliterated as -e written -ye in the Arabic script) throughout the Poem. Zituzo za mato. In Swahili prosody every (See the Mombasa Text. nd. where the first of the 1's is dwelt on to make the fourth syllable of the six of which the word is composed. as above. There are no diphthongs vowel is given its separate in the Central 2.] " pronunciation of both the r and 1 at Zanzibar South (with the fore-edge of the tongue slightly raised the fore front palate. falling on the penultimate syllable of each word. yet in some words it is so separated. [See Grammar Mrs " The of Cerebral also RECENSION Preface my to the Mombasa Swahili Burt.) full value.84 S. moment you poetry as in ordinary speech make separate it is not necessary to write the m'vi. easily explains the confusion so often arising between and in the those sounds in the Southern Dialects. generally. Stanza 1. and so bearing a relation to the Bantu against d and t). n' in thus . 11 is to distinguish from the blends mb. established. n'de.C. Permanency of Dialect.K. 3. S. where at one seem to hear r anc( at another 1. This rhythm with the rhyming Aimi wa wapi || may be thus tabulated : wakazfndfwa. The metre and rhyme-system of the appended Translation are intended to convey to the English ear of what is (to the Swahilis !) the cast of the original archaic . some idea somewhat but in the Swahili (what answers to) the tonic accent. Bisumiriahi.

popular. of the with the ever. have had the steadying effect of a sheet anchor for grammar. in all the important languages of the world where a regular. RECENSION 85 and the pure taste of the people have had such play as certainly has been the case in the Mombasa (Central). genius will out and we may now hope for a revival in Swahili of efficient as . and Lamu. . vocabulary and style amidst the ever-changing currents of the fashions of speech. where genius exists. Euphrates" of the native gradual "drying up is element a conservational new becoming operative in the classics. howsegregation of dialects becomes out of date. with the growing influence " of the often too unsympathetic Resident Alien. while with the introduction of modern conditions the merely pedantic element once so assertive in its tendency to all that is Simultaneously. and the mass of " Ushuhuda " (Native Authority which in Swahili is or was the standard poetry) has in consequence become thinner and so less a conservative factor. use of Scripture has obtained. strong. which. increasing eifect of the Bible Translations. lately and some other Northern Dialects. However.S. The War of Extermination till " waged against the Arab squirearchy and their leisured entourage by the colonising European Powers. have introduced as a necessary sequel an alteration in this respect.

Text wd. 8 kineukie. in which such 1's are found. not from ku-euka. from ku-euka . 1 Here the original Kingozi reading demanded by the metre must have been noe arahimu which accordingly I have restored for nandike (^j^Jpl) rafcimu. ku-awaza.) 2 In 8. || niidiriji || i| || || || . because ni with following e may elide its i. || || 6. || na iwe toba yakwe aitubie. (N. as presenting an older and not a more modern form of speech. while nandike leaves no room for it in the metre. arahamani niirasimu Noe na him'di nitangulize alo mdasisi asiongeze akamba Bisumil'lahi || || || 2. I have used no diacritical points in the text for Arabic loan words. himdi. of 1 from Ar. etc.) (kuoa= write. Kwimakwe kuisa kuzikamili him'di na sala hiziratili kuisa kutabalaji na salamu 4. kiniukiye therefore as in N. neravoLo. Hence. if correct be from ku-uka. manukuu. Nitunge kitungo kwa kukisafi nikipange lulu kulla tarifi na ina nikite IN'KISHAFI kiza cha dhunubi kineukie || || .INKISHAFI. namba wazi^siflti. the reading is nandike (=niandike) but here also from similar considerations I have restored noe na the conjunction na is evidently required. tfcalali= mists. MS. 1. kania ilivyopokewa Mvita huku katika manukuu ya kale na huku kwa ya wenyeji wat'u wa maana. with stress on every syllable. |j 7. without the h. This from MS. and verbal information. Mohamadi. Important as indicating that an 1 is primitive in Bantu roots. Gr. Kitamishwe kiza cha ujuhuli. but the consonants are all pronounced single in Swahili with short vowels. . Ngozi. 5 This and the following word are so spelt in the MS. where the letters are not carefully pronounced. ambao kwamba hutaamali The || || nuru na mianga ite thalali . from =ziwaenee. ite laili = cast out the night. wazoevu wa mambo ya ushairi wa kale. n. niyathihirishe || || || || 8. Makusudi yangu nda kudhamiri ya kutunga koja kulidawiri mivazi miwili ya kukhitari makinda ya lulu nyuma nitie. etc. AL. AL. arahamani above with the article. || 9. and its presence bespeaks the Dialect. toba = /ieTa/*Ae<r0at . || yangu makali ambayo moyoni nikusudie. but the first word is exceptionally accented.B. || 5. 9 =kuzingatia. Kwimakwe || asiondoe.. majuto (mayuto = [17]) Title. 'ila katangaza ikatoza anga kama siraji sala t'umwa Mohamadi nim'salie Nalize thamma banu Kinana na sahaba wane wenyi ma'ana sala na mbawazi ziwaalie nisaliye wot'e ajuma'ina Allahumma Rabba mkidhi-haja nisaliye t'umwa aliyekuja|| nitawabidi Maula wa waja ukitusomesha tafusirie. but may never become ni. by elision . 4 =niweneze. Cp. || him'di niitushize 3. = exactly. . midomo Na niikadimu hali ya kupenda kuinathimu noe arahimu nyuma ikae. nakala xnankulun.

chenyi mtambaa kati asipate endao kwegema humta p'embe wa ng'ombe ni mwasi. same words. kuwania situkuzie. though yu. 16 in the Translation. likukuliyeo hela n nini liwapo na sura nisikatae? ni-ni? huzundukani? Moyo wangu ? hu'itabiri ? twambe. akishishiye. u. : endure. See Prelim. Note. || 19. etc.. [16]-[18] have* been amended conjecturally from the N. || || haipendi mt'u kuwania na mbwa ila kilabu. MS. || ni-ni Moyo wangu kukhitari. stanza 31 occurs twice. hakioni k'itu akishishie || . makatae = word is supplied for the hiatus in the rhythm here. "I have not tolerated = do not . halibaini. Suu ulimwengu.] mwenyi [17. be matakwayo however as This indicated the"se three stanzas may not be of the original poem. ni dunia sii uipendao yenyi nyingi dhila na makatae || || || [18." . || mwelevu u || huzandamae? Suu ulimwengu. MS. makata-yakwe. p'enda kuonyana na || za malimwengu .] nyota 'kamba || wakati wa yua likitumbuza.'s. An linga maie. || moyo hila za rajimi ziughurie. MS. "cuts. 14 I have left mtambaa according to the S.has often to do duty in both 3rd and second persons singular. asifidi yambo ilia shakawa shida na shakawa likupeteo. Through corruption this may be the philology of the word mtamba. though ukhasirie in these in 13 (for yukhasirie"?). || kwa kulla khasara ukhasirie. ? 11 =lina ndia. 12 and in its In a S. soS. ikawa mayuto yasimsie. and A. 13. Hunambii kwani. to embrace. : dialects. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua. zitukuzie i || hali gani. 11. and on 16 18 matakwao. siikaribu ewelaibu.10. second paragraph. Hujui dunia ina khatari ? || t'esi.. Unga ja kisima kisicho ombe. Dunia ni jifa. V. has here. || || wakati mai ni wa yua yapo || lilinganapo || kiyakimbilia akayanwae ? mai alotaka akayatoa. or. "with its [unfolding] leaves" (vicissitudes): These three stanzas or (-kat'a) lit. 19 explains namba ati! ("I say!").of course is the original form of the prefix in all Swah. MS. Khasaisi zot'e za matakwao. which Auth. shrewd turns. namba situkuzie S. but prefer " mta-paa from ku-ta paa~(Intensive form of upaa) as if thrusting out the shaggy " mane (tossing it). vumbi la muangaza akilisoza mwenyi kulegema Au linga metu limetukapo [16. and Auth. form correctly wd. the S. to contend for (it). aurakibuo huyo mwana 14." = bargains. Note In Lamu. both here after 12 13 begin with the Note that and place there in precisely the same form. Kwimakwe wangu : || kiiisa yangu diibaji utwetwe hawa ni 87 RECENSION S. and may mean. bahari ! || || ndia || wa za t'atasi una matumbawe na mangi masi. 12. || || || || kunwa 15. or is it 2nd person by a sudden change to the personal appeal. ~ 15.] || || . kuwania S.

: izimikapo. kievu changu hukengeukii nusuha yangu huza akherayo kwa malimwengu ? Ya kulewa bongo ! ! 1| || || ukhitarie ? 28.. zalikuwae || ! || 23. 23 This wd. to smite under the ribs. form \ jjtf . of S. The text here is corresponding line in put conjecturally by the help of the N.e. pasiwe mwatami mwenyi kwatama. Auth. MSS. Auth. but the text is as S. MS. " and Authorities. AL. i. except as a trisyllable. Auth. and so to deal a " knock-out " blow. 24 =kuzama kabisa.kupiga kikumbo. hi S." Swa. ghaitha. Hiki lini ya usafihi ? || || nambia ukomo niusikie. || || || || mtenzile kwangu. etc. 28 S. but is inserted from good S. haiziwiliki. MS. MS. || ! || || || au mwamba Nini ! ! Wakazisalimu 'umri Hadimu-ladhati akenda nao. aula mwambiwa asiridhie." Ar. MS. || huiona izimishie. || hata 27. sihadaike hela tafadhali unabihike . which reads Shetani Bills! [Ibilisi] akughurie. 29 uwakao sana kwa mshindo. S 31 . ikamba " Safari. synonym of Death. riishahadie !" na kutopekea katika nyama " Mvi wa Manaya ukawafuma. nave treacheries bestowed for their reward. || || || 20 kuta kiwavu . " and not die down merely slowly. wala: but mwambiwa is never read wakenda. S. MS. Au Roho inga || || sa'a taa katika p'epo. ! || [| ! || 31. wingu katika kwaka. or there may be conjectured for hupa wat'u ghaitha. tena S. S. Ewe moyo wangu. Caught. || || 22. AL. 25. 21. MS. Version. pasi zao. Ya kulewa bongo ukhitarie? 27 Here substituted for S.V. " na dunia yao ikawasuta. Shetani rajimi asikuteke aoriapo kesho k'uwa kamae Suu ulimwengu uupendao emale ni lipi ulitakao? hauna hela upwewepo wautendae? dawamu. Wangapi dunia waipeteo ikawasumbika kama zioo wakafa na zanda waziumie Tanzi la mauti likawakota na kuuma zanda na kuik'ata. 25 OtJJJ! ^i>li = "Smasher of Delights. omits by error. haina muanga tena." now rather as in a trap or snare. ulio weuni katika shaka. 21 N. by slip. See on other emendations [18]. || ! ! Bidha'a ya ndeo na takaburi 24. and by S. kuzima taratibu moto. 22 "Strangled. wala mwambiwa asiridfcie. walotaladhudhi from Ar. S. as the 13.88 S. The last eleven syllables read in S. k' = ni k." In MS. 20. pakausha inga moto kuroromoka ikawa kuzima usififie". Ma 'a una 'ila iliyo mbovu : ulikithiriye ungi || welevu II . ewe moyo. hudumu nao! || || || 30. this identical stanza here and also after 12. k'uta kiwavu hupa wat'u ghaitha ikithiriye * walotadhaludhi kwa shani lao. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika bikunabihi ? wamba || || || 26. Auth. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo haimulikani 29. ni k'avu mno. . . RECENSION . mkohozi akohoao. muiukie Ikamba " Hayani ndiyo safari Ikomile tena yenu 'usiri. hupa mat'ongea.

RECENSION

S.

32.

Hakuwa mtumwi

na ajinani,
wamrushae
awapo mngine

Sulaiinani

maliki

||

ukamkhini
wangapi uwaweneo

ulimfutue

89
ya

insi

ikawa yakini kumbona kwao,
sasa nyuinba za-t'i ziwatweteo
katika lihadi
iwafusie.
34. Uwene wangapi wat'u wakwasi
walowakiwaa kama shamsi,
33.

Watoto

||

!

||

||

||

||

||

35.

||

dhahabu na fedha wahuzinie.
na dunia yao ili akali
wakenenda
Ulimwengu wao uli taili
vitwa vya ufidhuli
mato mafumbi walifumbie.
na nyuma na mbele* ili
Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo,
wamiliki zana

za adhirasi

,

||

!

|j

||

||

36.

||

wakaapo
misongo
wawatandie

ili

pot'e

||

vitengo

||

asikari

wema,

.

37.

zikinawiri

zao nibak'e

Nyumba

kwa

||

taa za k'oa na za sifuri;

||

masiku yakele kama nahari
haiba na jaha iwazingie.
38. Zango za mapambo na faanusi
naapa kwa Mngu Mola
zali za msaji na abunusi
mkwasi
zetee sufufu zisitawie.
;

||

||

||

||

39.

sini

"Wapambie

za kuteua

kati watizie kuzi za k'oa

na kula kikombe kinakishiwa"

||

katika

|j

k'elele za

yanawirie.
masituri, zikiterema

na za
na
za
furaha na nyemi
khudama;
waja

misana zilikivuma

40. K'uinbi za

||

mapambo

||

||

||

zishi-

tadie.

32 Ordinary pronunciation to-day Selemani.
S. MS. miliki.
ns as a
= walimpotea,
blend w. only slight trace of the n Hebrew enosh = frail man.
S. Auth.
uli- corrected from S. MS. being an evident error.
The subject is
ulimwengu, "the world," not insi na ajinani.
"
"
33
child = prince, and the original
mtoto, cp. Old Engl. sigmf. of
"
"
or " child," i.e.,
signification of the now so common Swah. wd. mtoto,
boy
"
"
from ku-ta (Ngoz.) cp. Engl.
offshoot
lihadi, either the
scion,"
imp."
lateral niche made in the graves of Moslems, or the bier-frame laid therein.
See
note on Trans, ad loc.
34 AL. S. zina ( = hazina, S. Auth.), another, 2ani in same sense.
AL. S.
;

;

;

idharusi.

35
AL. Malimwengu yot'e yawati'ile Na dunia yao iwaokele, where
oka=kusitawi, "All's well with" them."" Prob. an ingenious reading of good
Swah. sense into the Arabic of the original script But so it would not so well fit in
with the next line. The S. Auth. comment on line 1 is, mambo makubwa, umri
mchache = ars longa, vita brevis.
zitwa zao zilele. Both these readings are
" Wewe
recognised by S. Auths. One S. Auth. explains the alt.l. by saying
wenda na kitwa kimelala kwa sakara, jamali na afia " = they march along in
a stupor of self-satisfaction.
See Trans, note ad loc.
36
"1 " retained in S. instead of N. mbee.
AL. S. wawatatie,
37
S. MS. p'weke (sic) or pweke
text as two S. Auths. and also N. MS.
= well-built, mbak'e = fr. kuwaka.
38
-TA
zetee, S. Auth. = zimekuta (stem -TA="put forth") safu-safu.
with prosthetic I- or E- see
69 etapo ondo = aitapo ondo
here zetee then
!

;

;

;

prob. for zietee (or -tele) old pf.
I find a variant, apparently thus Wapambe ni siti za kuteua, of
39
which the authority is doubtful.
ki-= participle-adjective, supplying ni from
:

previous clause.

40

AL.

S.

and N. MS. here nana= "ladyes," Eng.

90

RECENSION

S.

41. P'indi walalapo

kwa

masindizi

||

wall na wakandi na wabembezi

1|

na wake wapambe watumbuizi wakitumbuiza wasinyamae.
maao mema ya kukhitari juu la vit'auda na magodori
Kwa
42.
na mito kuwili ya akhidhari kwa kazi ya p'ote wanakishie.
43. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa
juu ya firasha kufunikiwa
'itiri nakawa
mai ya marashi wakikokewa
waipashie.
wakanakiliwa ill safari,
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari,
fusi na fusizi liwafusie
washukie nyumba za makaburi
ikawa
shubiri
45. Sasa walalie mji
pasipo zulia wala guduri
||

||

||

||

||

||

||

||

||

.

||

;

||

mi will

kutaathari,

||

usaha na damu zatuuzika,
p'ua
haiba na sura zigeushie.
hushuka
Wasirie wot'e kula kwa dudi na mtwa na t'ungu huwafisidi
na nyoka na ng'ge wawana kuwatafuna zao jasidi

46. Zitukuta

zao hutuulika,

||

||

na makanvva bombwe

47.

||

dhiki ya kaburi iwakusie.

;

||

||

||

,

||

tatie.

launi ya dubi au kiradi;
mifupa na nyama ikukutie.
makinda ya nyuni juu
49. Nyumba zao mbek'e ziwele t'ame,
zitende matandu
husikii hasi wala ukeme,
yengeme

48.

Nyuso memetufu

ziambatishie zao

zikasawidi
jilidi

||

||

||

||

;

||

||

yalitandie.
50.

k'umbi za msana hulia
Nyumba-kati zao huvuma nyende ;
kuwa mazibaa
mende,
yangilie vumi makurnbi ya-nde
||

;

||

yamesirie
51.

Madaka ya nyumba na
nyuni;

||

||

.

zisahani

bumu hukoroma

||

sasa, walalia

kati nyumbani,

||

zichigi

wana wa
na k'uyu

wailalie.

41 c N. Auth. wapepezi, people fanning with fans.
MS. has wakik'okewa = wakimwaiwa, or
43
So S. Auth.;
S.
wakik'akiwa.
"precious," N. Auth. has na kaa with an explanation of

kaa

as "sandal wood."

Fusi and fusizi verbals from fuka, the latter form from ku-fusiza.
" a
heap of made-earth," as the
expression fusizi is used to signify,
mound of a castle-keep. AL. N. mtanga na fusi ziliwafusie.

44

The

N. MS. walikee mui.
N. MS.
N. Auth. huwatulika two Sw. Auth. and MS.
S. Auth. mbwe-mbwe
S. MS.
expfain^zabomoka, zamonyoka.
mbombe the usu. wd. is bombwe as here.
N. MS. Jisadi. S. MS. order of lines in this is a, c, b, d.
47
49
mbek'e or mbeke (from weka) S. MS. also, mbak'e (from waka or
aka); or p'eke, S. MS. and S. Auth. (from paka). Respectively, "pukkah"
whited. It is hard to decide the original reading.
stone-built
50
nyende = mod. ch'enene, cricket.
mazibaa, another case of the 1
the Ar. mazbalah=Swah. jaa. See note on
dropped from the primitive form
So S. MS.; last line recited by S. A. as leo yamazie yalisirie, S. Auth.
Title.
=yamekwislia; yamekuwa. N. MS. eo mazibaa yalisirie.
51
za, N. A.
45

46
Zitefute,
^
as here and

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

S.

52.

Wana wa

RECENSION

91

na wana wa ndiwa humia
zipungu wabembe zango
ziki na zitwitwi
mbawa na t'ongo-t'ongo
||

shingo nakupiga
waliweshiwie
||

;

||

.

53.

Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, ungi wa matuka na k'utuk'utu
kwa kicho
milango ya nyumba hutisha wat'u
na kiza kilifunzie.
enda nyumba zao
Kwamba husadiki, wauiba mbuwongo
||

;

54.

||

||

;

ukete

shingo

||

ukita k'witikwi

ela

||

ni

mwengo

;

||

sauti

za wat'u zitindishie.
55.

Moyowa hutasa kunabihika?
mashikizi

56.

ukipulika

zituko zingapo huya'athika

||

k'wambie

||

la'ala yakutulie

?

||

tuza

!

Sasa moyo p'ako, nauza, nawe neleza-t'o sana nami niyue
Wa wapi wazazi wakuzazie ? nambia waliko hawam'kue...
||

:

||

||

57.

Mimi t'akwambia,
zisizo

58.

Yu

'Alii

wapi

Mwinyi
ndiae
59.

binu Nasiri?

||

:

||

||

na

za kiza-kiza

nyumba

wangizie

:

ndiyo mashukio walishukie

muamu wakwe

na Muhudhari

'Idarusi

?

||

||

!

Abu-Bakari?

wanzilepi kue?

||

mbonya

!

Wa wapi ziuli za Pate-Yunga
wangizie

60.

nipulikiza

mianga na miangaza

nyumba

||

wenyi nyuso k'ali kama zipanga 1
daula na 'enzi iwaushie

za t'anga-t'anga,

Wa

\\

!

||

na mashaha mema ya
wapi wenzangu ? wawende, kumbe
kisarambe ? wangizie nyumba za fumbe-fumbe, viunza vya
!

||

||

||

miti viwaalie.
61.

Kwali na mabwaiia na mawaziri, wenda na makundi ya 'asikari,
watamie nyumba za makaburi, p'ingu za mauti ziwafunzie
||

||

"

||

.

"

said Mwalimu Sikujua (the usual form
S. MS. zitwetwe.
52
Ch'igi
of dim. kichigi) " is a bird's name ; and the k'uyu, in Kim vita called kipure, is in
*
appearance like a dove or wood -pigeon ; bumu, the babe-watoto or screechowl. Ziki is the name of a bird still; kifrwitwi, a shore-bird."
="wame'

wekewa

[t'undu]," S. Auth.

The first growth of bush on an abandoned field matuka being
said of old and young growth equally.
clumps or copses of young trees
ni uwongo.
uka-i-te = ukete ku-ta, to thrust forth, der. of vita,
54
Not "nrwango," as N. Auth.
war; not of Mvita, Mombasa.
= hutasa fuata.
55
=tega masikio, S. Auth.
and
57
miangaza - t'undu-t'undu in modern
mianga^madirisha,
language =" windows," and "lancets" respectively.
53

:

;

;

" The
of Pate (S. Auth.)
way there."
"
"
yu-nga = she-is-like
(words fail to
'
=
CL
what
Hence
Misr-el-Kahira
Pa,te-Sanspareil."
say
!).
(Cairo), etc., for an
adjective which becomes linked with its proper name so as sometimes to become
its substitute.
The metre of the Inkishafu ; = " ubora," "most excellent." So S. Auth.
60

58
59

'Ali bin Nasir,

Pate-Yunga

a great

(not

man

Yungwa).

'

The Author was one Seiyidi Ahamadi a suehe-ngome. By mashaha I understand
S. Auth.
poets of a high order.
poetical sheikhs or bards
;

61

zimewafunga.

" The modern survival is only as "yoke. 68 69 =aitapo ondo = apigapo got'i. Auth. taadabu. wapi makadhi wamua haki. waliushie. Amba || || || || || siku ya-t'i kupinduliwa ukatelelezwa mwezi na jua 67. but 73 " probably = stocks" or "pillory. Authorities. together with the involved and strained constructions. Siku ya maini ndani kokeka na p'ingu sabaa kugeuliwa na harara zisikwishie. fedha hawatwai na wangapowa ilia hasanati ni malipoe. " here am I The tedious. wajua yakini kuwa kamao? Moyo ! || kuwa mahuwa || || . are moreover sufficient in themselves to proclaim the clumsy fraud. mtukulie na tafakari p'indi Moyo juhanama yenyi silisili na azimama Mola Rabi akiuk'ema. I dutifully respond. Auth. wakimbia kupi pa kukushika? mbonya mahalipe nitegeinee. while the spirit of these stanzas in especial is sensibly foreign to that animating the rest of the Poem. wasirie wot'e 64. Muungu 71. Haya. kuk'akatika=(S. || leo ni waushi." Mod. wasiza-ngoa || . kukwaka. Labeka niitishiye || || : 73. || . = to VL. both students and MSS. Auth. S. ! . wenzo moto wa jahimu usikutwae. Lebeka. Auth.) kuudMka. lisizime. || || hari || na p'aa za wat'u kuk'watanika yuu la viumbe lisififie Siku ya mabongo kupukutika na mboni za mato kuwakodoka. mean =sifanye upuzi. wherein gloom when it approaches the revolting does not bore in addition The poverty and coarseness of the ! language employed. Moyowa warnbae ya wat'u sao. sipeketeke . || || || || 69. wasiwe kwa wot'e waliushie. S. || || ! || 70. 66. wakionya wat'u njema tariki Aimi wa wapi wakazindiwa zituzo-za-mato. || kalamu ya Mola iwapeteo ? an una yako. ukamba. 72 S. be dried up. VL. Again note that the real total number of stanzas seems to be seventy. manhttb = the one despoiled. 67S. || wokokapo nawe wokoke. unnecessarily long-drawn out agony of the " hells " is also an offence against the native taste which on the whole distinguishes poetry dutiful ! of the classical age . "cangue". kongo. ! || || || 63 65 Mod. all conclude and that at its seventieth stanza (see Preliminary Note) the Poem itself would come to a natural and artistic con elusion of the whole matter in the Moslem Ritual word Labeka (pronounced commonly Lebeka) the humble expression by a "Slave" of his submission ( = Islam) to the Almighty 'Allah " Lo. || || || 72. 65. 63. . || " be found out" Auth. S. "Here am I. 2nd sing. where in fact the S. derivative wakazunduliwa wd. || kwa umu wa jua kuk'ukutika 68.92 62. RECENSION Wa wasomao zuo wakihakiki. Chinese. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu katukuzwa dhambi za manuhubu akambiwa." At this point. . Tafakari siku ya kwima k'ondo na ku'aridhiwa kulla kitendo anibapo. S. S.=mandak'ozi=kongwa. Ar. uyashishie? ata ya jeuri haki ushike. . kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu atahukumu amtozelee amlipie Niamua nae huyu thalimu Jabari ! || || ! || Na malipo yakwe rnthilimiwa si dhahabu t'imbi si ya kufua . Ya Rabi niamua nae p'indi mathulumu etapo ondo .

religion. two forms at the least that now published in and exists this work by Captain Stigand." However. had they not been such missionaries. or even of English poetry .OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEXTS AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE INKISHAFI This attempt to reproduce in English what to the Swahilis of by must indeed have been the solemn stanzas of the centuries gone Inkishafi (also and much diffidence. what have was been expected from the candour of say. of the spirit. indifferently called the Inkishafu) appears with been submitted for examination to two critics It has dear East African friend and Bishop. without offence against the canons of European taste. would have been equally well known in other spheres. and the Venerable Archdeacon Moule men who. that the form. but with nothing to recommend it and make it popular for the European unless indeed he be Christian enough to feel and not Christian " merely say what the Roman said. considering the material submitted to them small natural talent I had dared to attempt the impossible to make acceptable English poetry of a fairly literal translation of : Poem. of Mid-China . Homo sum. so far as I have been able to effect it. The Poem as I have said is one of the old time Zingian Classics. which in : in . with this proviso. form. and in form suited to the taste and use of the Bantu Moslem of old. the Northern Form. I need hardly as an artist. while strange no doubt to the works of our poets. might with such men. and the result of that (for which I am entirely responsible) is here set before the and in spirit so far reader as being a presentment. of the religious classic of a people removed from our own language. the other as a poet. as is the Equator from the Temperate Zone. and substance of the original. nihil humani k me alienum puto. is still that into which the cadences of the original seemed to my ear most easily to fall. the one Their opinion. one suggestion made to me was that I should submit the Translation to a drastic revision. this that is to say. of such competence as my the late Bishop Tucker.

have been constantly in in the Zanzibar zone. and from the material I supplied to him for the purpose. a valuable and perfect MS. for instance. in which it may be seen. from the exemplars kept in the mosques and read therein on nights when special extra prayers are recited 1 I had the honour to convey to the British Museum.OBSERVATIONS ON 94 many respects was new to me. and the Mombasa Text from Neither this Southern which the present Recension is made. obtained in the year 1884. and friend Canon made has a translation from a recension my Eawnsley poetical I had made of this with Bishop Steere's valuable original Edition in his Swahili Tales. . and the grammatical forms of which are herein everywhere in use. least. the son. Poems like those of the Utenzi of Liongo Fumo \ and this Inkishafi. of the Poem. handed on many exceedingly ancient Bantu features in the matter see of it. founded upon the the great native authorities I have been privileged and consult on these matters. from the very alterations and corruptions to appears which have crept into it. original poem is indeed of some considerable age be manifest. form nor the first-named appears however to be really the original that form must remain for the present a matter of surmise. And truly. while in also been all The Mrima. Swahili. may well have been entirely in the Kingozi a dialect of the Augustan age of Swahili literature which has ever since supplied the vocabulary of poetry as from a mine. and popularity than is Zulu till recently of a line of bards whose vigorous strains are comparable to those of the old Greek minor poets. that its age may be anterior testimony of all The original to the Portuguese discovery of E. is at least of the it Noun Classes. yet fix it has been my opinion. The Recension printed above has been made from a truly excellent text procured by my Arabic copyist Mwalimu Sikujua. Africa in 1493. in the the succession two zones in which Swahili has altered use. That the be idle to to know a date. and English Rather Swahili has itself let alone Swahili has not been exempt. the more I not per se in my view a very rapidly changing language was not till there set in the present great Epoch of Flux in which all things in heaven and earth are being shaken. at its worst it is better preserved and what perhaps has been the greatest bulwark the changes incidental to the lapse of time is the continuous against of the olden literature in the mouths of the people. the corruptions have the less in the language from the fact that even there this literature has been conservatively operative. . and second poet of that name. as is evidenced Jpy the differences While it would between the two Texts published in this volume.

ia^^jj). about) Liongo is very much harder than the simple gnomic poetry which is attributed to the hero himself. It was from this circumstance that these latter have the name of Ki-ngozi.e. I have several volumes of excellent for poetry in this useful script. The Utenzi of (i. while not interfering with the purity of the native use of the Arabic character. yet enables one to read into that character by dint of a simple system of additional marks all those sounds which it is so unfitted. Ramadban. Ngozi or Ngovi is the name properly speaking of the dialect which obtained on the strip of territory known by that name. That copy was made in a script as in which. Also. One remark in conclusion I may make as to the idea of the difficulty of Swahili poetry being any true indication of its age. 95 ETC. where indeed the older forms of speech seem to have lingered longest without corruption. these prayers constituting a function called kuterewehe (probably = Ar. .THE TEXTS..

here ! fie. Sc. Praising The Compassionate. The Sultan of Turkey is therefore not such. (Copyright by the fame} In Allah's name.THE INKISHAFP Or Swahili SPECULUM MUNDI Translated by 1. 'All). the Islam are agreed. Khallfah. set duly at the fore. To pray to Thee concerning the Apostle of Thy behests. And shining like some silver lamp it sheds its limpid ray. This word. note. four unique Companions. stands the Preface of my lay (Omitting that. supplications their hallowed names combine Recognizing heartily each Islamite Ameer my shall . pristine Cinana right offspring of thy line. Great Allah we 2. Then Allah. the Ascription. Amir ul mu'minln= " Commander-of-the-Faithful. < ' . Title see and 8 = Apocalypse." the title of a true Caliph. And then write I for . The four Unique Caliphs "Qinana. Abu Mohammed.) aye adore. 5 Mohammed. And boldly name the Unity each pious Slave attests. 5. Lest come some carping And 3. ancestor the Quraish . Benedictions holy. So Thou cause us read Thee the Interpretation clear. fie. The Merciful. laud. 'twere a real fault) go publish flout and fleer. Caliphs by right divine . tbe Caliph privileges of Apostolic Succession " Successor " of Mohammed. no Moslem true his rhyming would essay With Arrahman. 'Omar. since on this " Fathers " of qualification all the great Mohammedan Authorities. 32. like as the dawn of day. the interpretation of the above doctrine. But ere my Poem upriseth. 3 4 See note on 11. ! (Mind ye. . God. But the theme is more like that of Ecclesiastes. link Arrahim. Bakr. at fault-finding evermore. those forms to Islam 4. W.") (namely. The Act of Tauhld ( = attesting the unity of Moslem. . critic." of signifies the possessor of the or Moslem Pope. to slur that o'er I chant aloud my orisons in ritual array. E. Taylor. were all of the same tribe the Quraish the only tribe indeed from which a lawful Caliph can be chosen. as . Bismillak. however. No Alhamdu crying. And The So dear. Thou Grant er of Requests. Despot Mighty. see next note. 'Othman. is not in the Swahili text.

What. gloom convicted shall appear. of seed-pearls secure it. 7 . Islam. I fear 11. From this Poem penitence may reap in godly fear. 10. for though he trade his best Loss of all his venture. Nay then. behold the Theme begin With stern self. front and rear. dazed ! once be wise ! Or Islam dost thou reckon too huge a sacrifice? for plain enough it thou nothing answerest What. Mammon. . 13. 11 S. And twine it as in chaplets magnifically wrought. ! 12. ! Woe worth the day man trusts to it. Shamefastly 9. and thus became the official name of the system of Mohammedanism. etc. 'Twixt or Mammon! these the choice else Islam. personified as such in the Gospels. what mean'st thou ? couldst thou but For.ad monition. To Benisons and solemn Lauds the Faithful have invited. The world Chock-full of rocks and weedy rack that churn it into yeast. Thus finishing the Foreword. my *heart. by its false glamour with Mammon it doth sin Fooled by the Fiend's fraud. All my heart's fond purpose to men shall I make clear. hath he to fear. See the closing note. what ails thee right counsel to refuse? to speak thou knowest and art of age to choose. Till fastened in a carcanet of workmanship outsought Twin ropes 8. seest thou not this vain world 'tis perilous e'en to Or tell Speak out use \ of tempting them beware. So broidering my Poem until daintily it trips All threaded as with pearly grains up to the very The INKISHAF I name it. as I school my heart within. a tossing billowy waste. lies : is clear. And now that I my 97 Preface have in order meet recited. by which Apocalypse. my heart. sin's tips. The World. lit. 7. though thick the shadows lay So each wretch who to conscience' upbraidings is a prey 10. That purpose fond to follow will I weave and weave the thought. Labyrinth-like mazes it is a troubled Sea. theoretically and literally means surrender to God. me.THE INKISHAFI 6. that pagan gloom must pale and pass Where Light has shone away In yielding to its radiance. no less. heart. for thee. Discovering my Theme as here it is indited.

its development. though food for dogs most fit. Faugh.] E'en thus Mirages That pouring down see. what find they? ah. but thou must taste thy bit. rushing on. . the anguish of despair. curious trifler. This and the two following 16 are not in the Southern Text. suit. faugh this world is Carrion Mammon's from it store ! then keep thee far ! ! A man may Will nought never fancy. with the failure and the smart That hence befall thee.] Thy fancies and thy follies. Or 'tis as one who passeth near a Well Where some mane-tossing bull goeth of broken rim.THE INKISHAFI 98 14. for one fault indeed it hath and it is this ! : . But. The reason for this I think might readily appear in the absence of the mirage as a in the Mombasa where the physical conditions do not favour phenomenon zone. feet! All they shall draw thence.] thinking there is water where water there is none Hasten thither trusting to slake a thirst so sore. Who [17. So did he haply 'scape the first the other would gore Never man the water from thence to sip shall fare. 'tice its nought but air ! us as they shimmer neath the sun makes blazing rays thirsty men to run. there's . mortal. Vie in vain concupiscence. 'Tis these sum up the vain world on which thou setst thy heart. deal one ne'er so prudently in all his business. Consider. Causing mortals misery without or end or peer. in by the circles brim. and wherein thou hast a part. and have with curs thy share 20. As through the narrow casement the sun begins to gleam To reach thy hand and grasp it a light thing would seem it ? Open now thy fingers [16. nought but raging The water they had fancied it. Heart-breaks and vanity of such is 19. [18. This shameless world and thankless will turn on him and Though hiss. a sorrow and a cheat Then is their drink vexation poor reward for weary . him Or like unto the Mote thou seest a-dancing in the beam. 15. but that on other grounds their genuineness is doubtful.

Vain. me that thou weariest of such impertinences. your pride and insolence All ye occupied in whilst here with me. swift mouth can open ere man's " ! falls full or ask it upon the breast. finished. and forthwith leads them off. Full a fool many flattereth to it In sucking sweet successes of the Then like remorseless Fish-hooks 99 have attained its meed End he took no heed it hath snared him for his greed Fools they die in gnawing their fingers in despair. Hold thy my by beard peace. and I cannot myself remember to have seen the gesture made in Central Africa earnest at any time. 27. Thus suddenly the dart of Death And Or " 25. take your journey hence. it. span of life. and without or tongue may make arrest. but rekindled ne'er . . I swear ! 24. But. no space for penitence all's little ! Nor leave behind your stock-in-trade. protest. my schooling still despise. depart ye 23. ! 26. 28. Come. vain. 22. ! heart with such experiences wilt thou be not yet wise. come." The wrist is held to the chin. and accordingly a thing very rarely witnessed under the British regime in E. ! the foul Fiend bewrayeth thee here Nay. Kievu (mod. ! 21 To gnaw the fingers is a way of expressing a man's utter despair. We should express it as "gnashing the teeth. with the nails of the bent fingers brought down upon the teeth of the lower jaw. a sacred oath 27 is ! with Moslems. not so much as of a coughing one to cough No protest Never mortal summoned thus thereat may make demur. protest I am purposed thou shalt in no wise quash What barterest thou that world for this world's paltry trash My .THE INKISHAFI 21. Then listen and 111 tell thee. though brightly it had shined ah. though Crying. I man swear the end . if so thou be inclined it is Man's life is ! ! but a Candle that In vain wouldst thou relight Puffed out in a moment. vain to gnaw their fingers and their dear flesh to hack For now the World they canvassed hath played on them its ! trick. I fain would hear ! heart of mine so rash. what business brings him here Then forthwith must my masters ? their sorry persons doff! For enter Kill-joy on the scene. 'Tis past. quotha. swearing by the beard. : flickers in the wind. deep into the What this is vitals sinks. I school thee often. the noose of Death once fast about their neck ! Vain. kidevu) changu . Up. your ! no longer linger here. Saying. it. tell Yea. And. yea.

32. accordingly the Moslem pilgrims stone a certain This custom has pillar outside Mecca. The Pelted. what couldst from out it bear ? Or readest not how Solomon the Prophet. eyes Mammon's closed. Sulaiman. For each in his wide world had sought out his affairs. go no more astray Seek diligently wisdom.B. withhold Yet he by 33. Shaitani rajimi in Swahili. N. Yea. Heaps of gold and silver had piled them up with care. 32 Selemanl is the native pronunciation of Ar. heart. the stocks Doom and shares. Full many are the gay sparks this world hath seen around. prithee oh. which the devil is thought to haunt. Ash shaitanur rajlm). our Ars longa." Explained by the proverbial expression. 30 BO called because the good angels are thought to be hurling the 'meteors seen at night upon Satan and his angels as they come playing the eavesdropper at the gates of paradise . and the pillar shares with the Evil One in this epithet. quenched. Both mighty King and Magus. Or truly like the fierce Flare the cottar's brushwood makes When midst the forest clearing he has fired the bushy brakes Now plumy clouds up-piling it showers the sooty flakes 'tis Suddenly 30. " Their world was [too] long and their earth [too] slight. seek their habitations down deep beneath the ground. this world's witchery was cozened and befooled Came there then another. mambo makubwa. I ! . . for to dare. Nor give place to " The Pelted One " to mock at thee for aye. vita brevis. it would toss him high in air. was. of old. (In Ar. to heed well what I say Then heed me. Recension ad loc.THE INKISHAFI 100 29. And I myself have seen them where now may they be found ? Go. How the Book of Ecclesiastes and the Jewish many interesting parallelisms with Wisdom Literature ! 33 35 See note in S. mighty men of wealth full many hath it seen . whose word none might . And each in his curt course would moil amidst his cares In busying his brains with Onward moving. Who storing hoards of ivory and treasuring unseen 35. its place left black and drear. The limitations presented by the immensity of Literally. Reapedst thou its choicest. All sparkling and glistering like the noonday in its sheen. umrl mchache . . When he sees that thou too wilt be as Tie is there And then in thy dear world what shouldst thou find of gain ? And what advantage suck thence that thou art for it fain ? No single thing of lasting 'twould bring thee in its train ! 31. . Each upon the shelf of his sepulchre so drear 34. become part of the ritual of pilgrimage.

With garnishing that choice is. The lampstands too are massy. and the narrow confined crib of circumstances are expressed in Ulimwengu wao uli taili (for tawili) na dunia yao ill akali (S. And everywhere they sit them. 43. 40. 37. 42. And what time.) Or the line might be freely emended by altering sini to siti as follows : 39 The serving maids be damozels both young and passing fair. . Where silvery lamps of crystal or of metal all Make night as bright as day in that refulgent y'dight light . Brilliance 38.THE INKISHAFI 36. All goodly are their couches. How To toss they their chins all front of 101 contemptuously on high them and back of them their clients ! company. Sparkling in splendour midst all that bright gear. whose bounty is divine With pedestals of rare woods. their beds are exquisite. home -born. And soft and silky pillows for the head and the feet Broidered are and braided with richness most rare. Auth.. and the candelabra fine 'Tis true. 39. The folds of high curtains do screen them from With canopies airy to o'ershadow them too view. And their's the high halls with their arabesques so white. their guards in ranks thereby Line up. see under " word pamba in Krapf the rich might have costly unguents and ottoes" or . . 73 . and beauty are wreathed about them there. beyond compare. in every part complete. the wide world. their lights trimmed with care. Those halls of arabesques The long-galleried Here voices of the then reecho with the rout. : there servitor's prompt shout Gleesomeness and gladness aye gayer and gayer 41. in and out harem doth whisper.. Unguents and attars sweet do drip adown their hair". attars in addition. The vases that they range And all the sconces there are China's choicest ware filigree. the universe. Gleaming in long rows. in art . Stand forth well-trained handmaidens to fan and to shampoo With odalisques that singing skill to croon and to coo ! Softly lulling lullabies o'er and o'er. Sweet waters and perfumes distil fragrant dew. I swear by Allah. good soldiers their errands for to bear. a-weary. Encircling crystal goblets which they daintily upbear. 43 This passage is taken by one Mombasa authority (Mwalimu Sikujua) to refer to the beginning of the last long sleep of death in the case of a rich man the corpses even of the poor are "medicated" with at least camphor. soft slumbers they would woo. both teak and ebenine.

crib 46. The City that has lodged them. not a tone ! it o'er. here gathereth most or Red-dove. . as of bear. 47 sombre gruesomeness of the original. 45. to mate and to pair. In each inner courtyard the beetle it doth boom cricket's chirp rings round the well-corniced room ." So. it yield a luscious food. The Home they had dwelt in. " 50 makumbi ya-nde= the outer chambers. were still extant in the last century. But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away. inlaid with lovely old Persian and tiling crockery. Wireworms and centipedes coiling have a share. "Where corpses be invaded by putrefaction wan Their's the Tomb's straitness. for the Summons forth hath passed Down. Thus far. the sense of which is however sufficiently faithfully given. Their cheeks are breaking down meagre and drear in a cankering ! dew While ghastly corruption doth penetrate through Their mouths and their nostrils make thoroughfares new Each once bright countenance becomes a thing of fear . Here snoreth the brown owl. These stanzas have had to be considerably toned down from the 46. selamlik or salamlic is the Turkish or Egyptian reception room for the male guests. To crawling uncleanness they Carousing on their corpses 48. Down. green-dove. findeth them right good With termite and emmet. 47 The termite or white ant in Africa plays actually the r61e which the earthworm is supposed to fill in popular imagination at home. 51 Elaborate pieces of such architecture. . Now black is each face which had beamed like the Or buff. . that bourne long and last. now empty and lone. the natural history here is correct. ! . Upshrivelled their skin and their beauty all gone. The niches in their rows still with porcelain incrust Do furnish each feathered fowl with a roost : . midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier. down to the Tomb. sun. not a voice.THE INKISHAFI 102 44. . The Full strange shrills the sound neath the salamlic's dome Laid in dust the glory midst desolation drear. 47. or of filthy coarse baboon . making ravages rude. Flesh from bone withered like rotten wood is sere. Undisturbed cobweb festooneth 50. 51. 49. no higher than a span ! There nevermore on rug nor on carpet lieth man. Finds shelter for fledglings of doves that make moan But of those who had built it.

Thou know'st not? I'll tell thee. lend me thine ear: Each mother's son is gone to that bourne dark and drear. 54. 103 Young kestrels go poise on the pegs in the wall The turtles bill and coo. Nay./aicora strangely either is admissible in the translation. strain both neck and ! eye. 57. And undergrowth rank ruder increase will make The darkling doors yawning do cause men to quake. speak out in thy turn. though no doubt the latter was meant. to those homes neath the sod have gone in Power and pomp they display nevermore. . a name still remembered in Pate tradition 58 If possible that there have been two distinguished persons of the same name. Where princely Idarus. Or else have thou thy say. 55. come. mark me well and give heed Haply shall the issue be made unto thee clear. And where his great kinsman the Sheikh Abu-Bakr. I ween. . O'ergrown are the forecourts with bush and with brake. Voice of fellow mortals thou shalt hear nevermore. . wilt not believe me ? dost think it is a lie ? See. zip-) of the Text may be the specialised form of upangu = sword. if near? And famed Pate-Yunga's grim warriors. My heart. . pi. Shadowing dimly shapes frightful with fear. . man go. Where never opes window nor 58. of instruction e'en now thou hast a need. moaning soft in the hall Or preening their feathers the down make to fall Jays and tomtits to their nests make repair. two contemporary Winston Churchills. all. Ah. ! . how much more two 'Ali bin Nasirs : not contemporaries 59 kipanga (n. Then tell where is Aly the son of old Nasir. it is quite 'Ali bin Nasir.THE INKTSHAFI 52. 59. falchion or the bird. 53. for the truth would I learn . and the knight Muhuthar? Whither so far went they? else shew me. there is the place. Then bend low thine ear. tell it forth plain. But urgent I warn thee and safely I would lead. 56. Say where are the forbears of whom thou wast born ? Gladly would I greet them and ask how they fare. Each one with a face like a falcon so keen ? All. And loud upon them call only echo makes reply . lattice men to cheerSuch be the lodgings they are fain to use there.

nor burn Evermore fuel for Jehannam's fierce fire. And each eyeball bulge from its socket right away To what port or roadstead wouldst thou steer then. And the learn'd in the Law all concur in your view. Lo. went ye too thither ye Poets of mark and prowess sunk to the same cells of straitness and Ye Bards and Gone ! ? yes. ! . me whither I I pray? too there would steer. ! . ! stress. ! Tomb on your biers Bands of dread death do encompass you there And ye too. ! 62. up Ne'er o'er their heads to assuage its fell glare. heart's balm to the mercies of the Man can but Ah me. And And the seven Heavens o'erturned in chaos horribly . And And skulls be battered in. to the right ways return If saved be thy friends. could I but find you ! now all out of sight ! 65. Who dealing with moot points aye settled them true Ne'er lay appeal from what ye pronounced fair ! 63. Oh. plunging upon it Sun and Moon thou shalt see. hastens the Day when sub versed Earth shall be. Made progress forth faring with guards of soldiers. Bethink thee. 67.THE INKISHAFI 104 60. who once. and that sore. 1 ? . Ye too. On that day men's midriffs shall burn them in pain. What sayest thou. just Judges. who judgment would shew All hence be removed to the . "Whealed your poor backs by the boards of the bier 61. Brother. on the day of the Onset thou shalt see Each several wrong action looming forth horribly While each so injured mortal to the Judge bends the knee Crying out for Vengeance on his tyrant who art there ! . 66. Depart from the evil. Potentates and mighty Viziers. crusht down upon the brain a potsherd beneath that Sun's bane. Thou seest how the Lord hath lit on them with His Pen But know now thyself art as they were found then Or in man's lot hast thou only not a share Oh. be thou schooled. heart? tell thy thoughts of these men. Yea. be thyself saved. ye 64. dried like 68. you ! my old comrades. What. and delight Lord you commit are not ye are missed. nor think still to scorn . skulls like the dead leaves shall spin in that day. salve for sore eyes. Scorching with a heat to be tempered nevermore. shew 69. heart.

All bitted he and bridled like a horse or an ass whom his did harass. Merit's stamp alone findeth currency there. 72. nor given free. nor bought . oh beware that hell of pain Is saddled with their sins Bidden. Text is accordingly a bathos. in the S. Wherein are stored the stocks and the And fetters ! and the chain . were it nugget or artfully inwrought Of silver they will none. Piecension. 73. make Submission with: Lebeka I am here! Promptly sith that . ! 71. Up and carry what they had else to bear Then lastly. my heart. so that here we see that which it is the aim of the whole Poem to induce but alas. He now but to threaten them doth deign. In judgment that harder than any iron is !" Then straightway to avenge them th' O'erpowering One* will rise. on all his tyrannies. Not of gold. 105 "Grant vengeance at length. Lord. Wreaking on thee vengeance and judgment austere And Recompense also for each victim shall be sought. it is just here that Moslem doctrine stops (There is no possible assurance of forgiveness The elaboration of the various Mohammedan of sin consistent with Justice. . In the word Labeka (now pronounced commonly Lebeka) the Poem comes to the conclusion of the whole matter. Labeka Here am I " is the " " or " submissive one can make of the best sign that a Moslem a "yielded Submission he professes to the claims of God on his conscience. ) hells which follows in the present N.THE INKISHAFI 70. The man who nor merit nor deserts can make to pass. See the note ad loc. 70 73 ' ' ! ! TAMATI. One of the 99 Moslem names of God on the Rosary or tasbih.

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