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Interpreter in Swahili and H.. W. E. TAYLOR. with an Introduction and a Recension and Poetical Translation of the Poem INKISHAFI^ a Swahili Speculum Mundi^ by the Rev. M.A. etc. etc.A GRAMMAR OF DIALECTIC CHANGES THE IN KISWAHILI LANGUAGE by CAPTAIN C. STIGAND Author of The Land of Zinj To Abyssinia through an unknown Land. imbridge at the : University Press 1915 .


presumed to be familiar with the dialect of Zanzi- and others are compared with bar. S. Although the records this. made communities and sultanates in a situation favourable to the growth of numerous Modem transport facilities and the sinking of old feuds have caused a reversal of these conditions and now the newer dialect of Zanzibar The reader is is rapidly supplanting the older ones. The isolation of different Swahili the past dialects. are in most cases very imperfect. so little written Swahili as is unstable in and forms rapidly pass as changes occur old words out of use.PREFACE LANGUAGE A **- character . they have the value of bringing to notice many words and forms which have not yet been elucidated and which might otherwise have passed into I am much indebted to Mr Taylor for oblivion. SUDAN. . as well as for of the old poetry in the the translation of the piece. KAJOKAJI. 1915 H. undertaking some revision Appendix and also for the addition of another version of the same in the Mombasa dialect. C.



and I have gladly acceded to his request. has kindly asked me to preface this Treatise with a few remarks of my own. for the Lamu class of Dialects indeed we have no other English guide. This "give and take" however is essential to progress.C.P. that of the original and enterprising Student of Language.. THE the Africa in already well known from his works on East capacities of Soldier and Administrator. for which the statements the Author speaks authoritatively.C. but is no less worthy of attention. as for instance in the Preface to Steere's Tales. so far as I am aware.K. etc. To style this work the most elaborate on the Swahili Dialects which has yet appeared is not to give it more than its due. Explorer and Ethnologist. Traveller is and Hunter of Big Game. and in the appearance of for the new generation .P. and detail. which involve certain new conclusions. because here he throws himself into a branch of research in which he is not perhaps quite so well known. to whom the Essay will be most precious . by reference to which works and to Krapf s Dictionary made here about Mombasa may be adjusted.K. whether in English or in any other language. Indeed it comes as the first Monograph published upon the subject. and will even be found to require a certain amount of modification. departures. though notes on these matters may be found in the extant handbooks and dictionaries. will be subjected to the critical tests of examination in the field at the hands of those capable of judging in such and use matters. and again in a tabulated form in a contribution to the (Mombasa) Swahili Grammar of Mrs Burt (S. this Manual a delightful task is provided of East African scholars.). It is therefore important to note that the point of view of the present work is taken as from the more Northern centre (Laniu). And no doubt the methods. of the book. in my own African Aphorisms (S.).INTRODUCTION who Author.

that in the Mvita or Mombasa may speak If I whole." with the root TA " It signifies. The Curtained Headpoint.INTRODUCTION IX of my own view of the language considered as a would say that the conclusion which much careful consideration has brought me to is. " which stands in contrast to the T above) and means thrust forth. thus depicting with a single touch the outstanding geographical Now this name Mvita. and warlike . though running on similar lines yet also a different language. genius of the Mombasa dialect eschews the blemishes and excrescences which are to be found in Central. expeditions." As for the Gunyas of the extreme North. and the needless complications and ironbound archaisms of the too conservative Islanders of the North the the others Mombasa all their speech. Now Vita is manifestly derived from the root TA ("cerebral" T restless history of the place. is itself I doubt not derived from " the root vi (otherwise zi). and corruptions of the careless South. experto crede. How easy then is it to see that while " " on the one hand the advantages of its sunken position would give it a speech which is both insular for purity and continental for and while its geographical situation. I dialect one finds " what may be classed as the truly Central Swahili. say Barawa. ambiguities. you have in a nutshell all the olden history of the turbulent little territory as far back as it can be traced. least as far off as is say while the Ngazija of the Comoro Islands is. is Vita "It upon words. The Mombasa is accordingly a dialect which proved in a moderately long. I." because while the the too patent crudities. displays and cultivates to the full respective excellences." (otherwise CHA). to be " have valable " throughout the length and breadth of all that is really "Swahili." has become the subject of a sad play !" "war" as we are told say the natives. land. its native name. Languages the sterner stuff of the Mombasians of old. for one. would secure a balance between the respective branches of the catholicity." " throw out. either civil or external. born and . meaning a sinking in. I know that their uncouth jargon is so different a tongue as to be further or at Giryama or Pokomo from the Swahili . then. experience. and wide. lying in the midst between the South and the North sections of the Swahili coasts. tion." as of a warlike expedition and in war. in its purity. It will be interesting to note the reason for the facts I have Mombasa a little philology will be useful in illustra- alleged about Mvita. at least under Arab rule. from the feature of this "hidden Isle.

are affected by the Swahilis at large as affording a mine and a mould for the forms and expressions of most Swahili Poetry. such as Mwana Kambaya. for there are a few scattered representatives extant even now of these pristine . dealing with moot points aye settled them true the learn'd in the Who Ne'er lay appeal from what they pronounced fair " 1 all this. must have reacted favourably to produce the virile. no doubt. the Dialect considered of all others the best fitted for accurate statement and grave discussion the Swahili for Prose." then the Mazru'is. Also it must be admitted that good Mrima shares with the Mombasian somewhat in this excellence. and Melind. such as one finds in native stories and tales. " " prose to signify all sustained speech. and while the Zanzibar group to the South has furnished a lingua the Mombasian or Kimvita is franca and a terminology for Trade. and onwards under its once famous Queens. to of lore school of the Islam. as well as from the existence to some extent in the Mrima of the same disposing causes. in a more or less unbroken succession the centuries. or spoken. par excellence. And "just Judges who judgment could shew Law all concur in their view. the And vestiges of whose in palace Bishop Tucker sketched 1906. " not surprising to find that Kisiwani. from the far-off days of Shehe Mvita. though no doubt there is good and bad literature or speech in every dialect here examined and some of the Mombasian examples are not of the former yet the above may be relied upon as a candid Native appreciation of their respective merits." the Isle Accordingly KO. as well as in One uses the somewhat rare MS. and so on to the present day." genius of their Dialect. whether in MS. doubtless from the fact that formerly there was frequent intermarriage between the two strains.INTRODUCTION X bred as they were amid the clang of arms. quote the old Lament a memory of great Authorities. and Quiloa. "puritanic. retains men possessed of usemi na utakaand of profound intellect. And a fact remarked by the Natives themselves that while the Dialect of Lamu and its congeners. treatises of different kinds. which are so interestingly discussed in it is this Book. as well as a eloquence malifu wa akili.T it is efrxnv. or Milton's " the less maritime kings. the City's along boasted hero and founder of its Mohammedan fame. Mombaza. However.

and bearing. made many years ago. and spirit. T. many important scholars better to judge as to what was probably the form of this important Classic. but for the Gospel message and attest the truth of the tradition. Africa and throughout the wide world (its Field). In conclusion : To the Ancient Poem selected by the Author to serve as a specimen of the Kingozi I have been permitted through the hospitality of the University Press. E. . at the instance of Captain Stigand. W. KYRK. to say nothing of the happier days that were before them. The Translation and I believe that it presents the first poetical version published in our tongue of anything African ever written south of the Equator is will enable original also offered as an attempt to convey accurately the general sense. Certainly. differing in so felt that the possession of this more Southern details from the Northern. religious Classic of But with these matters I have dealt more at length the race. of which the ruins laid low by the Portuguese remain to Thankful am I that this Dialect happily once more restored to its ancient glory as a vehicle for the Praises of God. is the stimulus which its proclamation has given.INTRODUCTION XI Worthies. if not the greatest. to the study of languages. since it was version. and mutatis mutandis the form also of a piece of literature which has been certainly held in reverence for centuries past as a great. to add my own Recension of the same Poem. the present work would never have been written. when the Christians of St Thomas worshipped in numerous Churches. 1915. here in E. in the proper place.

Kiunguja. = derivation. = plural. Der. 80. Ar. Kiam.ABBREVIATIONS (Also see p. = Kipate. Kimv. Kip. . derived from. = literally. = Kiarau.) = Arabic. = Kimrima. Lit. Kimr. Eng. = Kiuug. PL = singular. Sing. Kimg. = English. = Kitikuu. = Kirngao. = Kimvita. Kit.

. The | J great bulk of the inhabitants of Nyasaland. practically the It is -is .. of British East East Africa...Bantu The among Kiswahilj (or Kisawaheli in the Archipelago) is^j . viz. Hindustani and Somali or Gala words. and Portuguese East Africa.A SHORT TREATISE ON DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES OF KISWAHILI THE langiifl. German language of the coast on the Swahili really only indigenous to the towns coast. and as such is whole of the East African sea-board. but ) the more educated the proportion of words derived from S Arabic would perhaps amount to a quarter of the language. In addition to this there is a good sprinkling of Portuguese.mtk . laces. r Js iswftbilj. Zanzibar and the dialects. Lamu jt&. so to speak. Africa. Zanzibar. greater proportion of the language is of Bantu origin.-indicates. Where considerable intercourse exists between members of two owing to modern improvements in communications. Uganda and far info the Congo. at the present a language which is neither pure Mombasa nor pure talk day.. understood on the coasts of Somaliland and Arabia and It also penetrates It is holds sway as a trading and nautical language to a certain extent Malay Peninsula. as far as the This widely spoken language and is divided into numerous dialects sub-dialects. these dialects have naturally a tendency to merge together.the much farther than this. to be to the court language. now much what French used JjtSL. practical uses liowever extend This language is to Africa Such is the state of things between Mombasa.. . refcrrpd to purer dialects of the as. Mrima.

So it is here that pure dialects can be found and moreover it is here that the birth of the Swahili language is said to have taken It would be more fitting therefore to commence with these place. fore it is best to these latter dialects On account of many apparent exceptions to rules it is not so when a certain change will take place. dialects not only remain purer but tend to differentiate still further. that the language of the former city used to be a very pure dialect. once the rules are known. The great influx of natives from the interior cannot its mark on the language fail to leave of the vulgar. very easy to recognise the new word when a change has taken place. intelligible. 2. For convenience in reference group. J have bracketed together into one group as they possess considerable similarity. dialects and then proceed to the less pure. and so words. I shall call this group the Zanzibar . however. It is. Here we have many little islands and towns. 3. each very conservative in its dialect and very punctilious in the observation of little dialectic differences. strange at easy to foretell first sight. In course of time this present language of the vulgar will very possibly become the so-called pure language. as in the Lamu Archipelago. The 1. however. the language of Zanzibar and that of the Mrima However. and pointing by simple steps A knowledge of these dialectic differences will permit of many words being easily converted from one dialect into another by simple changes of letters and forms. often become at once chief Swahili Dialects spoken on this coast are Kiunguja Kimrima Kimgao These three I } V : Zanzibar group. In places where there is little intercourse held with the outside world or between members of different dialects.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 2 It would appear from old accounts. that are the better known and it is these which have been chiefly expounded and supplied with a certain amount of literature. Thereit is assume that the reader is acquainted with one of and endeavour to lead up to the less known out the chief dialectic differences.

7.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 3 There are a number of small sub-dialects and local variations of the above the chief of these are . group has several - local variations of which two will be Kishela. list of all the lesser In addition to the true dialects there are several fanciful and useless forms A made up by few words on two changing. 5. an exhaustive which occur on this coast. J Distinguished from the Zanzibar group by slight differences in some grammatical formations is : Kimvita. at Rasini. Kipate} The Amu enumerated 10. Kitikuu. Bajun group. with a sub-dialect : Kiviunba. 6. still referred to as the This dialects : dialects of the Banadir coast. Very different lary Amugroup : 11. is } : from all the above. both in grammar and vocabu- : 12. Kiunga and other places on the coast N. Kiamu 9. : Kihadimu and Kitumbatu Kipemba 4. viz. This with a number of local dialects. related to Swahili are all these dialects : Kingovi. however. of Amu. 12 . dropping or adding syllables. Kingazija. is by no means. Kisiu. The 14. The next two dialects might be grouped together into one group them as the differences are but slight between 8. will suffice. : Kinyume. such as those spoken Tundwa. Lastly comes the parent of 15. j Sub-dialects of Zanzibar group. Kialabi. might be Farther afield but 13.

Certain Swahili Letters appears that there are no less than five different t's in use in pure Swahili and clearly distinguishable from each T. tip of made by nearly closing the teeth the tongue against the edges of the teeth. = necessary KhaTamu = bridle SharuTi When N. An exact understanding of some of these will facilitate the transposition of certain words into other dialects.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 4 Before dealing with the differences existing between these touch on certain letters as it would be as well to dialects pronounced by the Swahili. a clear dental t and putting the upper will it above. The reader will of course get their correct sounds best from a native. To get the correct pronunciation picion of a w make a swahili-educated Swahili from the coast say these words close to your ear : KhaTari = danger KaraTasi = paper KhaTi = sultan = allegiance = letter KhuTubu = reading KhaTua = KhaTibu = a SulTan Taa' pace step. The different t's in pure Swahili are (i) The Arabic (tamaruf) called in Swahili. the letter T This is nearly always be found that the t and not the other Arabic t is O. for dialectic reasons. distinguished by the . The Arabic (ii) = Koran a t occurs in an Arabic word which also contains (kh) tamamf. shown Ku-Tii of the t t. O called tay. A multiplication of different letters is not approved of by most authorities on the language who aim at the simplification of writing. I have. This letter has a sound like a strong T followed by a susor sometimes rw. or te safi in Swahili. in a book which has in view a comparison of dialects one has thought it necessary to make distinctions not usually needed. It common other to the educated Swahili ear. However.B. This symbol preacher to obey. J : Tamarufa.

Examples. to pass (or come) = to (sail) draw (towards one from a distance occasionally) .CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS who does not and make him say close To obtain the pronunciation get a pure speak one of the Zanzibar group of dialects. : Ku-tawala = to reign = to want Ku-taka Ku-tukua = to carry. important in the transposition of Kimvita words into Kiunguja. .we have quarrelled = the red bud of a banana tree = to put down (a load). Ku-pata Ku-pita Ku-kata Tumeteta Tumbiri Ku-tua Ku-vuta = = to get to pass. and Aspirated dental t. in distinction to the pure t. to your ear 5 Swahili. period Patapata = twins Mvita = to leave Ku-pata = to weave Ku-ata This t It is is shown by Taylor in italics. This and the next two are called (iii) by the Swahilis te pindu or the overturned t. Mto = Mombasa Ku-fita = to hide Mtanga = sand Tarikhi = date Wakati = time. . to lose one's bearings in a house at night on suddenly rising out of bed. come towards Ku-fuata = to follow Mto = a river to make a guest one. fault T'akwambia=: I will tell you (abb. end = to snap the Ku-t'etea fingers. form) T'aa T'ua Nt'i = country Nt'a = point. let down so. Shown here by = a louse T'awa (iv) T'embe T'ewa in = to cut . take Tutatunga = we will herd (cattle) = toddle Tatetate = to rub Ku-tua = lamp Taa = pillow. . hence or stranger to invite t'. = leavings after sifting rice = a certain spotted fish = a small perch-like fish = a mistake. The Bantu cerebral t.

etc. or pure. (i) The dental dali safi. there is practically no such thing as a pure dental d so in those dialects this d must be pronounced more as a cerebral d. T'embe Shown here by =a t'. In pure Swahili there appear to be three d's in use. is In the Zanzibar group. To pronounce this letter the must be placed in the same position as in pronouncing the tongue simple d. tap gently Ku-dongoa = to pound a little (mtama. sling. The effect of combination with the letter influence on the pure d. grain Ku-t'enda = to do = dates T'ende T'umbiri = a monkey Mat'ongo = eye matter = a person Mt'u Kit' and a = a bed = a strap. at a time and and every other word in which a d occurs unless that d immediately preceded by the letter n. n has a disturbing . As i. this is by far the most common d I have shown as it Taylor shows it in italics.) thus pound it thoroughly Hadimu =a servant Hadithi =a story. Dimia = the world Ku-dirika = to meet Ku-dodosi . T'eo There are all kinds of graduations of the t's above when pronounced in different words and with different vowels and these can only be learnt by ear. dal. dental t.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 6 Aspirated cerebral (v) t. Examples. however. as in English. or pure Arabic 3 (dal) called by the Swahilis the clean.e.

Ndia (Kimv.B.) = to taste Konda (Kiam. This is As an Example.) = hunger Ndaa (Kimv. The (iii) pindu or re slurred d called by ya pindu. Swahilis not d but r. i. path = a kanzu (garment) Ku-kunda (Kiam. The Kim vita words above N. the Kiamu words are all only used in occur also in Kimvita Kiamu but after undergoing dialectic changes. the overturned d. As this letter is important for dialectic reasons I have marked (ii) dali it 4 Examples.) = outside Nde (Kimv. viz.) = a road. re pronounced exactly half way between d and r.) Mwando (Kiam.) = to kill Ku-anda (Kiam.) Kandu (Kiam.) = a loop.) = beginning = come Ndoo (Kimv. > = ndugu.) Kitandi (Kiam. Examples.)= to Ku-penda (Kimv.) = to begin = a workman Fundi (Kimv.e. Ndani Ndoo Kanda = inside = a bucket = a matting bag .) = to fold love Ku-tinda (Kimv.) = belonging to Nda (Kiam. This sound is made by raising the tongue a little higher than for the dental d and opening the mouth a little wider.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 7 In pure Swahili on all occasions that the combination nd d must be pronounced in one of the two following occurs the ways : The semi-dental d called by the Swahilis dali pindu or ya pindu. aid to those studying Swahili in Arabic characters I have shown it as d. The is supposed to represent the Arabic j and thus convey to the mind that in transliteration an r is to be used.

it appears as Ingila and thicker speech of Kimg. in less pure dialects.) but in the Ingira. more cerebral d takes the place dental of and (i) (ii). In the Zanzibar group however. L c letter shown by an apostrophe be touched on briefly. letters 1 = where pronounced. These two kinds when it and d have been touched on at length so letters t to distinguish between the different may comes to the transposition of one kind of t or d learn that the reader in a dialectic change. congeal Ku-ganda = to teach.) appears nyere (Kimr. and Kiung. In pure Swahili no other d is used but these three.) and sometimes so an 1 or r inserted to help out the sound. and Kiung. to insert one of these letters between two consecutive vowels. is pronounceable in Kimv. As we are beginning at the newer dialects and working back to the older and purer it will appear as if these letters have been cut out. as is However Ingia (Kiam. In reality the thicker and less pure pronunciation of the southern dialects does not permit of certain vowels being position and nyee (Kiam. between these There is also a tendency. deep water Kilindi Ku-piga dondo = to iron (clothes) = to curdle. and r are interchangeable in different dialects. as mentioned above. has been vowel which bears its sound. the pure d is not used and a slurred.). Certain other letters The Arabic . freeze. may (a' in) after the a'skari Example. still pronounced in juxta- Thus nyele (Kiinv. . soldier. The and R. In some dialects there appears to be no clear distinction made letters and either may be used in the same word.. Ku-fundisha Ku-kanda Hando Gando .CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 8 = to massage = a vessel for water = a lobster's claw = Adam's apple also.

The simple k or Arabic J (kaf ). Examples. viz.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS Other letters which are another dialect are 9 when passing interchangeable into : ch and t f s n m v and v g J s sh z d g k sh ch ch z th and y 1 t J f z and a few others more seldom. k'. Examples. This strong guttural k. and Kisa (iii) The aspirated form of the last.B. cray fish. K'aa K'asa =a =a crab turtle K'ajek'aje = ropes for fastening K'amba lobster. = paddle Kafi = oar Kasia = large jar Kasiki Ku-kataa = to refuse Kaa = ember Kwake Kwenda = at his (home) = to go = and afterwards. Hakika Karibu Kandili N. Examples. K. hold (ku)-kaba Kahawa = coffee = a caravan Kafila = truth. = near = lamp. sail to prawn * foromali ' is a . (ii) All words possessing this letter are of Arabic origin. lantern (ku)-kafini = to cover up = a tribe Kabila = to seize. then. J called in Swahili kafu nyangwe. Of (i) The Arabic k's there are three kinds.

as usually shown by simple o. Certain words derived from Arabic words with " teshdid. . Kaa ungoja utaona mimi takapo kupata. To pronounce such words as Kolokolo. komba. komba. have distinguished the sound of aw as in Eng. enumerating the four meanings of the word kaa." or the sign of duplication. " Kaa is sit on your hunkers that you may quiet your heart. is used for this sound in Swahili. may bring home to the reader how clear these differences in the pronunciation of a letter appear to the native. I may mention that all the distinctions I have made represent. is confusing and also leads them often to appropriate sign written. popoo. Kaa tena nda mnazi lendalo mbele na nyuma. Kaa again is (the stalk) of the coconut which sways to and fro. over a consonant have for long been spelt in Swahili with the double consonant." Ch and P. They are certainly unintelligible to a native pronounced in the latter way. Kaa is an ember of the fire which brightens and dies out. Kaa ni kaa kitako utuze wako mtima. " law " 6. The letters ch and p may be aspirated or not as is the case with 6. Kaa ni kaa la moto liwakalo na kuzima. very different sounds. popoo. Kaa is just wait you will see what I will do to you.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 10 = the Indian drill = K'elele a shout K'ering'ende = a partridge = a kernel. to the native ear. as kolokolo. For in that this verse k'aa (a crab) does not sound to it him is not mentioned from the fact in the least like kaa. etc. K'oko K'ek'e In case anyone may think these distinctions in different letters unworthy of attention. thus impossible to speak correctly unless attention has It is been paid to them. Other words which even in Arabic are never spelt with teshdid have been introduced with Roman characters into Swahili with a reduplication of some consonant. The following little verse. I by the sign No k (ii) and (iii). Translation. it being pass for another word.

CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS To quote the commonest. letters. in strange words which do not occur in the dictionary I have. . Th. or most Bantu speaking natives. This is more in accord with Swahili pronunciation and the inability of Bantu natives. Thalimu Ramadhani. followed Taylor's mode of spelling. There Ku-pata is and no confusion in the native mind between : . which do not count for much in Swahili. Such spelling is not according to the pronunciation of these words by Swahili. are usually spelt with the double consonant. to pronounce a closed syllable.*. with few exceptions. I have therefore. in regard to such words. J%elafAa Thikiri . ilia. There are a variety of th and dh sounds in Arabic which Where such are pronounced or are seldom pronounced in Swahili. although this consonant is hardly pronounced in Arabic. Th Th Th in italics = Arabic = Dh = Putting aside these last letter > . for facility of reference to Arabic dictionaries if required. the other differences in letters serve the purpose of distinguishing many words which to the unaccustomed ear sound alike. with a single consonant. tissa..3 Example. 11 billa. viz. Bassi. sitta. marra... used the following signs.

Yet if one heard a man use ku-limatia several times during a conversation one would probably be correct in assuming that he came from the Lamu Archipelago. all all Thus the three words. ku-chelewa. So not if mean one says that certain words are typical of a dialect it does necessarily that they will not be heard or known in another means that they are the favourite and most used of the words of their meanings. Changes of Grammar. ku-kawia to the exclusion of the other two he was of Mombasa and if he used ku-chelewa Similarly if he used one might guess that he was of the Zanzibar group and possibly an Mgao. or the two most foreign to him. ku-kawia and ku-limatia. Showing forms used in the dialect referred to differing from those of the preceding." viz. In other cases there may be several words bearing the same of which are understood in several dialects. all down the meaning coast." "to remain. he would probably use all three. Showing what simple transpositions. Changes of Vocabulary. III.DIALECTIC CHANGES 12 Headings for Dialectic Changes I. Changes of Letters. ku-chelewa. omissions or additions of letters will serve to turn a word from one dialect into another. Many words are foui>d absolutely distinct in two separate dialects. of the words above. " to delay. If he was showing off. Again a word may be used sense in one dialect Thus when it is in a different sense or in some special not used in others. it a Mombasa and Amu group word. In Mombasa it is used almost to the exclusion of ku-kaa in the sense of "to live. II. as natives love to do." In Zanzibar ku-kaa is used almost to the exclusion of ku-keti. Thus one hears the word ku-keti in Zanzibar. but one meaning. although not in use in in the sense of "to delay" is in general use Mombasa and Amu meaning "to have delayed until overtaken by something. more or less. sun . but it is distinctly dialect. dialect prefers one of these and some other dialect another. A few examples of different words used in two different dialects conveying the same sense." are understood.

the same word means. Ku-kaa kitako but not ku-keti kitako. Ku-tota (Kiamu)= to be sunk. be dealt with in anything but a meagre way. both of the same tribe. The grouped together under this name. It is with exactly the same motive in view as that of the British " who says " Savey? to any native. He not attempt to explain their meanings but will revel in comrades and showing what a travelled fellow he is. in addition to the above meanings (which are seldom used) "to be saturated commonly used. " in which sense it is For two reasons especially great care must be exercised in determining whether a word does or does not belong to a certain dialect. Again a word in some dialect may have a wider meaning. possess almost . I have often heard two of our Nyasaland askari. I fear that all these headings will be treated all too In fact and roughly. be he. will mystifying his nor will his comrades attempt to ask him their meanings. briefly may give Zanzibar Group.g. " E. dialects big tract of country they cover. He thinks that that a foreigner should understand. drowned. Another difficulty is that if a native talks to a white man who imperfectly knows his language he will put in as many foreign words as he can. hoping to make himself more intelligible. but it is hoped that at any rate they the reader a few ideas as to what to look out for. " the tide or Ku-kaa is used for 13 " " being caught by stranded by the tide." " " " to " live or remain in the although not used for " having oyerslept. talking to using their each other in very broken Swahili in preference to own language.ZANZIBAR GROUP and thus or tide. Changes of Idiom. native returning A from a safari in his travels using any words he may have picked up and may pronounce them wrongly or assign to them will delight in wrong meanings. in spite of the more resemblance to each other than any other group of dialects. lost at sea. E. Indian or African." left latter places is always used with kitako. sailor-man Chinese or Cingalese. it is " "foreign and therefore Neither this nor the last heading can IV. The first is the native's love of display." In Kimv.g. for the picking up of idioms is a matter which requires long residence in a country.

is final -a of a change of the is : root in the second person plural of the Imperative into Pendeni = Example. (iii) of the (iv) The distinguished by the use farther one goes from Zanzibar in this group the more ch in place of k especially before certain vowels. the -e. you -e. in certain tenses. Nitakwambia = or t'akwambia (vii) The Example. have told you I In this group there (pi. Namfuatani = The the root sometimes changes to final -a of follow I Nimemwambieni = Example. love ye. interrogative suffix -ni occurs in all this group.). Exceptions however occur in poetry and in a few proverbs. would mto and d must be pronounced d be difficult to distinguish into. This in the purer dialects would be pendani. The corresponding construction in Kimvita.(or -mw-) -ni. This construction does not occur in the group. In the Zanzibar group there is no clipping of the (vi) personal pronouns prefixed to the verb but they are always used in their full form.). Example. Nawafuata and nimewambia. where the form is Amefanya nini P and sometimes Amefanyaje? which latter also means " how has is he done?" . (ii) or the by -wa-. its place being taken : Mombasa Example. This I will tell you (sing. The whole of this group is also ch which changes to t in Kimvita. Amefanyani P = what has he done ? not heard in Kimv. objective person plural being. does one meet with (v) One trained ear Thus is in of the most striking differences that the dental t and these dialects between such words as it in this group to the are almost absent. in this group as a cerebral. and not ntakwambia as in purer Swahili. Amu (pi. etc.ZANZIBAR GROUP 14 The whole of this group The formation (i) distinguished by is of the pronoun in the second -m.).

to the labours of the Universities' known and other missions moreover provided with a considerable amount of way this of all the dialects. viz. of grammars. replenishing Kimgao but Kiunguja. The only English -Swahili and Swahili-English dictionaries avail- able (Madan's) are in that dialect. During the last century there has been a tremendous amount of trade passing between Zanzibar and every part of the Mgao Mrima and coasts. It is unnecessary to make any comment on words on the pronunciation of certain letters. It is thus easy to see why both these dialects should have been stamped with the impress of the Zanzibar tongue. The dental t it then. accessible to the student. dali safi. for Zanzibar was the hub of their universe. except a few and d are slurred over and do not occur as pure dentals. Kiunguja 1. stories. and a kind of dali pindu and the re pindu for d's. d's two The d used more approaches our English d than do any of the touched on above.KIUNGUJA There is wonderfully little 15 difference in the vocabulary of the three dialects of this group. especially the latter. is the language of Zanzibar and more especially of the town of Zanzibar Owing is the best It is in the itself. etc. vocabularies. Swahilis from such caravans settled Mrima and Mgao the down in various places in the original stock of Swahilis there and bringing with them the dialect of Zanzibar. for t's. literature. This is to be attributed probably to the slave and ivory caravans which started from Zanzibar and pushed into these districts. comparatively speaking. alone and so have avoided the influence of the Zanzibar tongue. dali pindu and re pindu. . so The habitats of the other dialects have been left. Zanzibar therefore practically confines itself to three t's and d's. The Swahilis of Lake Nyasa call their language. not Kiswahili or districts. It has therefore been taken as the standard for comparison with other dialects. These are tamarufa and the cerebral t aspirated and unaspirated.

for nothing s. there should be order. one of the interior of the island and one of Pemba. Balua Sh 1. Examples. or circumcision ceremony = gratis. Kiunguja has two sub-dialects. = = cJlo) Ar. = a frog = silk. Thus ku-amrisha = to ku-a'mrisha = to and Nor no confusion between in Kiung. with from Vanga nearly to Kilwa. cluding a Swahili paper edited at Tanga.KIMRIMA 16 The Arabic c however is marked strongly in all its changes of pronunciation with different vowels. Ku-saliTi Ku-saliti (fr. egg on. Changes of Letters I. which will be mentioned later. strengthen. inlocal variations. 2. R frequently changes to Examples (in certain sub-dialects). is in use. for the first is spelt taa="lamp. and so the and not be confused. = a plan. conquer Kwisa . or the dialect of the Mrima coast. kwisha = to be finished ! . " " should there be confusion between Taa' = allegiance prosper. (fr." The Arabic tamaruf with both J and ()*) is generally well marked following two words should be pronounced differently and $. JaJLw) Ar. make to flourish. The dialect has been copiously dealt with by the Germans and possesses a considerable amount of German-Swahili literature. unyielding to urge. for barua =a Kalama karama = a Halusi harusi Bule Chula bure chura Halili hariri often changes to letter feast = a wedding. to be hard. Kimrima. counsel Sauri for shauri Ku-siba ku-shiba = to become replete (with food) Ku-sinda ku-shinda = to overcome.

however. for Amuri samli = ghee amri = an order. knock down to make. Kiza ku-sogea = to come near ku-koroga = to stir = what sort of? gani ? = darkness giza Koka koga Ku-sokea Ku-koroka for KaniP There as a tendency to is mutu for mtu = "a = a insert person. Example. Ku-cheti This too more marked is for ku-keti = to stay. nyushi Ku-sitaki Nyusi G ku-shika shindo 17 sometimes changes to k. or e. Causative verbs sometimes have a different causative termination from the one used in Kiung. more marked in the next dialect. Examples. into ch.KIMRIMA Ku-sika Sindo for = to seize = a noise ku-shitaki = to accuse = eyebrows." This is. the greater appears to be the dislike This is probably due to the two successive vowels. of a native with thicker lips to pronounce such vowels ." or to bathe.) must come. Examples. to break to fall. for is. When an m which sonant a u may be put Sanmli Examples. in the next dialect. is not a nasal immediately precedes a conin to prevent a closed syllable. There by i is occasionally a tendency to change k. Ku-vunza Ku-anguza Ku-fanyisha The less inability ku-vunjisha= to cause ku-angusha = to cause ku-fanyiza = to cause pure a dialect to pronounce clearly. u after a nasal m muje for mje = "you such (pi. when followed sit.

viz. In some of the local variations of Kimr. yakwe mchirika = the Buku rat. be cut out. oneself down. or atakwambieni = he (pi. 1 Examples. Puku (i. This is etc. . Choroko Kitambara More seldom one of the vowels Tabu Example. trouble. IL Changes of Grammar The objective pronoun of the second person plural same construction as in Kiung.KIMRIMA 18 The usual method of an is to slur over the vowels by the introduction or r sound.) Nampendani = I love you (pi.e. i is often used for Kuiketilia ji. Choroni = dust = bathroom. an old Swahili form which seems to have died but a few corners. vyakwe. Chakwe. the possessive pronoun -ake changes to -akwe.B.. etc. his fellow is the mchirika rat. Kitowero = foot.) will tell you (pi. follows the : Infinitive Present Perfect Kumpendeni = to love you (pi.) Atamwambieni. leg = hunger ku-pakua = to dish up kitoweo = something Jara jaa Mguru for guu njaa Njara Ku-pakuru (food) to flavour or eat with rice. in dialect of the Example.). out in all : Bondei (of Pangani). he saiba is like) Similarly N. closet (locative) chooko =peas kitambaa = handkerchief. chooni . In reflexive verbs Example.) Nimemwambieni. for kujiketilia This = to is sit like Kiamu. kwakwe. or nimekwambieni = I have told you Past Future Alimpendani = he loved you (pi. pakwe. for may taabu = rag.

class.KIMRIMA Possessive pronouns with sing. of this class. where) will you ? find him ? 22 . mama. and not concords. concords as in Kiung. Ndugu. appear to hold good. Examples. Examples..B. interrog.class and their possessive pronouns take concords as for the n. though In the next dialect we get cases of the n. . ndugu Zile mfaume = " that is mfaume is of the first class." is also heard. nouns of the ya ma- 19 or ja are used in place of la to agree class. pronoun wapi P is often shortened to a suffix -pi ? Examples. On the coast immediately opposite Zanzibar.class analogy is maintained in the demonstrative. Jina ya fulani) . Watokeapi Nitapitapi where do you come from ? P Utampatapi ? = where shall I pass ? = how (lit. Jma ja . ile ndugu but yule ndugu amefika imefika. baba. however. Ile the chief. Singo yangu = my neck = his kitchen Gongo yako = your staff Tango yetu = our pumpkin Jiko yake Neno ingine (or nyingine) = another word. Examples. ng'ombe. N. The demonstratives and verbal animate Ndugu yangu Example. so \ . Ile = that is the brother ng'ombe = those are the cattle. In certain dialects of Kimr. In Kiung.. Also yake for lake and similarly for other concords in the sing. however. the n. certain animate beings are in the form of the n. though not in the verbal concord. are of the class. fulani and so s name J = an axe Soka ya kuni Jicho ja babiye = for firewood his father's eye.class analogy being carried The still farther.

Changes of Vocabulary slight. Aina Babiye is are some- = he has come Emekuja Examples.and times represented by e. Wemekwenda = they In place of -vyo-.and we-. Nitafanya namna gani P for is : nifanyeji ? = what shall I do ? " there inside. Changes of Idiom IV." occasionally used for humo meaning Kati and kati ya are used instead of katika in such phrases as Mnamo is : Kati ya nchi ile for katika nchi ile = in that country. = behind place. wa- have not had any opportunity to collect any of these except the three following. =a panali . A common expression in Kimr. for namna = sort. . Examples. = while I was as yet in the way Ningali njiani = he was as yet only a youngster Angali mtoto Angaliko mujini = while he was yet in the village.conditional tense. These are very used in phrases such as follow : = how he got = nimevyokwambia as I have told you. -vofor Alivopata Nimevokwambia III. babake = his father kind Ku-gwia ku-fikicha = to crumble ku-kamata = to seize Kinyumenyume nyuma (in certain senses) Kiribiti kibiriti = a match Kitumba Machufuko kanda = a fisherman's basket = disorders = his mother = a chief Ku-fikinya fitina mamake Mamiye Mfaume mfalme Pahara) > Pahala j .. . In the -me.KIMKIMA 20 For the -kali (as yet) tense -ngali may be used. . alivyopata a few instances are given under. I have gone.tense the pronominal prefixes a. which must not be confounded with the -ngali.

As in Kirnrima r and 1 are interchanged but to a still greater extent. Kimgao is the language of the 21 Mgao coast from Kilwa (or Kirwa) southwards. or with a letter which is way between the two. There is also a settlement of Mgao Swahilis on Lake Nyasa. amount = to return = to fly = a dollar Bira bila Ku-pereka ku-peleka Asari asali = a wedding = goodbye = without = to send = honey Mari mail = property. however. Changes of Letters I.KIMGAO 3. it would appear that the natives do not properly distinguish between the two letters. The language of these latter has borrowed a certain amount of words from the languages of the surrounding tribes. Many of the sounds in eo. heri There does not appear to be a tendency to substitute s for sh. received r or 1 in Kimrima before reaching this dialect. such as the Kiamu nyee and mbee. In this dialect. have already been provided with an 1 before reaching Zanzibar or the Mrima. and a word may equally well be pronounced with either. As will be shown later sounds in ee. and aa have. in Kimrima there is a great aversion to pronounce two As vowels successively and the sound is carried over by means of 1 or r.) = hunger Tajili tajiri Kadili kadiri Ku-ludi ku-rudi Ku-luka ku-ruka Leale Haluzi harusi Kwa heli kwa reale = a rich man = value. The vowels that are especially objected to in juxtaposition are : ee eo oo aa ia ea. The following remarks will refer more especially to this latter dialect. . Thus we have exactly half : for Njala njara (Kimr. oo. as has been shown already.

Examples. however. viz. K before = and you (pi." a second added. Mukataka for Miunupige Nitamupa Hivo is used instead of hivyo. is if followed certain consonants.KIMGAO 22 The remaining two sounds on the list. kingine = another (thing) kikaanguka = and (the thing) = this (thing) hiki kichwa =head ku-kimbia = to run away. often changes to eh. but here they usually take the 1 ia and ea. to be no aversion to the use of two u's is in juxtaposition. frequently added. are pronounced or r. Examples.) must beat him = I will give him. Ku-ingira (or ingila) for Ku-gwira Ku-lira Ku-mera In all = to ku-gwia (Kimr. In fact in the u is U by Muungu word for Mungu = " God. in Kimr..) want mwampige = you (pi. avoided by the use of y. fell . nitampa mkataka i for fanya hivyo = do like that. aendaye and aliraye but this is more a grammatical than phonological change. and as the objective infix of the third person is in sing. Examples. Examples. Chingine for Chikaanguka Hichi Chichwa Ku-chimbia . There appears. general use instead of m. cries. Mu Auwali for awali = before Ku-amuka ku-amka = to awake Muti mti =a tree. as in goes.) = to = to ku-lia = to ku-mea ku-ingia the Zanzibar group the -ae of Mombasa aendae = he who aliae he who or enter seize cry grow. especially after nasal ms. Fanya hivo Example. as the pronominal prefix of second person plural.

). = he loved. Amependa = he has loved.) he must tell you (pi. and Kimr.) = final -a of the and loved you verb of course changes to -e in the sub- in the -ka. mu takes m However. Examples.tense after a subjunctive.) Past Tulimwambiani = We Future _ Nitamupendam| Nitakupendam j Present -Ear tense The junctive. except that the place of before a consonant. and also. and the the animate class. (pi. Examples. Amwambieni Akakwambieni = and The pronominal prefix of second person is hau.) Tumemupendani = We have loved you (pi. . yet loved. = you do Haupendi Haukupenda = you not love did not love Haujapenda = you have not yet loved. they have loved they loved they did not love they have not yet loved.) Perfect = I tell you (pi.instead of hu- tenses sing. There appears to be a tendency to use the same pronominal third person plural of prefix for both the third person sing. the last -a of the verb does not appear ever to change to -e as in the last dialect. Alipenda = Hakupenda he did not Hajapenda = he has not love. = he must tell you (pi. Examples. Kukupendani Infinitive or kumupendani = to love you (pi. no doubt from contact with the surrounding inland languages many of which make no distinction. This is Examples. Grammar Changes of The construction of the objective pronoun of the second person plural resembles that of Kiung.) Namwambiani = Tumemwambiani We have told you (pi. in the negative .23 KIMGAO II.

hit Changes of Vocabulary The vocabulary of this dialect is very like that of Kimr. however.or kw.K1MGAO 24 The result of this When a verb is considerable ambiguity. the n. " " " are with They chiefly used such words as house or village. are used in place of the locative in -ni. Mnyumba mwake = in = at Pa muji pake Ku (or kwa) muji kwake = to The form -akwe his house his village his village." and ku-saka for kuwinda = " to hunt. Examples. borrowed from the surrounding languages. = I hunted elands = Zimepata they (the elands) have been Ng'bmbe zinakwenda = the cattle go Ndugu yangu anapita = my brother is passing. Such are pindi for uta = " a bow. Nalizisaka mbunju risasi but III. kwenda = where he (or they) went = he who wants Anao kutaka Tuliwo kuwapa = we who gave them Unapo kufika = when you come. In this dialect the agreement of concords of animate beings in is occasionally carried as far as the verb. Examples.prefixed to it. draws a number of local words from the surrounding languages. The first part ends with the relative while the next part consists of the verb root with a ku. of the possessive pronoun appears not to be in use. it comes between the ku.and the verb. If there is an objective prefix.class This however is not done with human beings." Examples. used with a relative the word is is broken up into two parts. Alike Occasionally locative forms. Very often." . However the sub-dialect (Nyasaland) we are chiefly talking about. with an objective prefix the ku- is dropped.

can be noticed in some so-called "Americanisms. Examples.or -ki.tenses. Kihadimu and Kitumbatu are the names by which the dialect of the isle of Zanzibar. the old Swahili word in use before is ku-simama \ Its causative ku-imiza also used. in well). kufika akaona Mazuri is j _ fHe went there and when he arrived ~~ fulanij he saw so and \ so. 4." . It is place of used on every conceivable occasion and often takes the what in other dialects would be the -ka. older words or forms being retained in a newer dialect. I Amekwenda kumpiga ) _~ akampiga mwenyewej The f he Infinitive of the verb is used more frequently than in other dialects. be descendants of the original inhabitants of Zanzibar before the coming of the Arabs. Example. ku-ima. The Wahadimu is known. and he beat him himself). Alikwenda kule.B. they hit me) went to beat him and he himself was \ beaten (lit. are said to 1 A similar state of things. Example.KIHADIMU KIMGAO. viz. stand. used in place of vizuri. = Amenipiga was hit (lit. Mahali for Kabila Ku-ima = a place pahali kabla or kabula = before = to ku-simama . is Changes of Idiom IV. outside the town. This is a dialect much corrupted by intercourse with inland tribes. There seems to be a general aversion to the use of the Passive. . This latter word. understood. no way be taken as applying to a pure dialect. Si maziiri = it is not good (proper or The above remarks can N. The Active form of the verb is preferred in this dialect and is often used instead of the Passive at the expense of perspicuity. 25 Examples of other words. agreeing with mambo.

for it is a The former explanation simple transition to change f into v. This dialect is more Bantu and less Arabic than the dialect of the town of Zanzibar.26 KIMVITA KIPEMBA." to be derived from vita = By others it hides. This latter derivation would appear more likely. Ku-fita ku-ficha Matezo machezo mchanga Mtanga = unripe = to hide = games =sand . It might be said to extend from Malindi (north of Mombasa) to Gasi (south). being often altered in transit. Many of Steere's Swahili Stories are much in the style of this dialect. That is to say that words probably came from Pate or Mombasa to the newer civilisation of Zanzibar. hid in the bush. 5. would involve the changing of t into t and the addition of m. Kihadimu the dialect of the east and south of the island. The origin of the name Mvita " war. then only savages. It is very contains words drawn from isle isles. words into Kimv." because. There is more difference between this dialect and Kiunguja than between any of the dialects yet touched on. Kipemba is the dialect of the akin to the former dialect and like the old inhabitants of the it of Pemba. In converting Kiung. it must be remembered that we are probably going backwards. is said to be is said by the people of Mombas derived from mfita="one who when the Pate people swept down the coast. Mombasa drew its Swahili largely from It is in Kimv. that we first It is also probable that Amu and northwards. Kimvita is the dialect of Mombasa. changes to t Kimv. said to be the same dialect called by another name is and Kitumbatu is at the north of the island. meet the true dental letters t and d which have not occurred in any of the dialects yet enumerated. I. Ch Changes of Letters Kiung. the Mombasa people. 6. -biti for -bichi .

kietu. changu. Mtawi for mchunga Mtuzi Patapata Ku-tagua Ku-teka Tokaa Tui Ku-tukua it In other cases where a disturbing influence has acted on the t has been. : viz.27 KIM VITA mchawi = wizard Mtele mchele =rice Mtunga = a herdsman = gravy mchuzi pachapacha = a pair. Words which do not occur in Kiung. Nt'a causes. chetu.class beginning with eh. as the Swahilis say. etc. kiangu. marked t nearly all occur in : Words derived from Arabic words spelt with O. for the same . These pronouns should really be kia. carry. Such influences may be the letter n. of the ki. or some other Examples. chako. I have not tried to distinguish these sounds as they Those (i) (ii) (iii) differ letters almost with every vowel used. but have undergone a euphonistic change to eh. alike ku-chagua = to choose = to laugh ku-cheka = lime chokaa = a leopard chui ku-chukua = to take. Words which are spelt in Kiung. turned over a little and becomes t'. : and pronouns agreeing with ki. mto. There are all grades of sound ranging between the pure dental t and the aspirated cerebral t'. with eh. The exceptions (i) to the rule that In words in which the eh Kiung. or that the eh in Kiung.class such as cha. There are however several exceptions such as wot'e. is aspirated. kiako. for =a ncha point T'awa T'ewa = a country chawa = a louse chewa = a certain fish T'ini chini nchi Nt'i = below. etc. (a) Particles (6) Words reason as (a). changes eh to t are stands in place of ki. and others.

. chura. chaki. chombo.). Ndaa Nde Ndia Ndiwa Ndoo for .or in the ma. any = Examples. Chai. . chaza (ma.) is follows the rules above.class so it Chupa but it is (Kiung. heard as both tupa and chupa in Kimv.. njaa = hunger nje = outside njia = road. ehenza. chumba. used indiscriminately in the n. -changa. cheo. chapa. -chache. this d is not quite the pure dental owing to the disturbing effect of the letter n. chandarua. and Kip. All of these are the same in Kimv. ku-pambauka and other Kuchwa in the purer dialects (Kiam.KIM VITA 28 Examples. choo.class and is always called tupa. In Kiamu it belongs only to the n. choyo. Taking are first those occurring at the beginning of a word. chambo. ku-chafuka. Kiung. In Kimv. ku-cha ( to fear).. and kichwa change to kutwa and kitwa (Kimv. uchafu. change. Foreign words and beginning with ch-. mchekeche. Ku-choka. A few other words might be remarked on containing ch. Chakula. the d being the semi- dental explained above. Possibly however the word is borrowed in its entirety from Zanzibar as this word is never heard in the purer dialects. chokora. mchikichi. (ii) many of the words of the ma- class Examples. chungu. chuma.class in Kimv. A (iii) few other exceptions which do not appear to follow rule. path njiwa = a dove njoo = come (imperative). chuo. there : Examples. ku-chota. changes to nd in Kimv.) they appear as kuTa and but kiTa pronounced with tamaruf (1). chumvi. chooko.). chuni (=a kind of water bird). chungwa. ku-chelewa. expressions being used in Nj in its place. Ku-cha (to dawn) does not change in Kimv.

II.). Nyumba yakwe = his Examples. However there are many exceptions such as mbinja. ku-onja and ku-kunja which remain the same in Kimv. but change according to rule in Kiam.) Past Tuliwapenda = we Future Watawapenda = they =that Niwapende Infinitive Present Subjunctive In each case this is loved you will love I may identical with the ( n-. are probably not of pure Swahili origin while the last is sometimes pronounced ngema.) Nawapenda = I love you (pi. . Kiam. Of those occurring not at the beginning of a word we have first : Examples. used in place of a. These are only heard with the future -ki.and -ka. Chuo chakwe This however With is = his house book. construction for the objective pronoun of the third person plural. The the pronominal prefix for the third person plural of the present. in the Zanzibar group. The construction Changes of Grammar of the objective pronoun in the second person plural with the verb differs in Kimv.) you (pi.) Amewambia = he has told you (pi. -akwe is in coming some sub-dialects used in place of -ake.) love you (pi. The most usual is the ordinary colloquial Mombasa changing ni.. The construction is as follows etc. from that employed : Perfect Kuwapenda = to love you (pi.tenses. three of these. this dialect begin the clipped forms of pronominal prefix. not often heard. njugu and njema. The possessive Yuaja is Yualia is crying is laughing. njuga. Yua. Ku-vunda for ku-vunja = to break ku-chrnja = to Ku-tinda kill.29 KIMVITA Exceptions. = he = he Yuateka = he Examples.

Examples. In the purer Mombasa and in the Lamu Archipelago this becomes t'akwambia. an abbreviation of the relative of the third person sing. tend to become simple -o. Kaa t'akulipa Kamwambia There (for = just wait I'll pay you out = akamwambia) and he said to him. the relative occurs as a suffix the occasionally the simple -o- Examples. the old form of the relative irrespective of classes. from -ye. Aliokwenda Mti ulioanguka Nyumba Exceptions are the locatives. neno ulilonambia = the word which you vitu nilivyonunua = the things which I said to me ha- is in the first person sing. an abbreviation of nika. However in adverbial phrases as : atakavyotenda = as he the full form -vyo- When is will do (behave). Examples. n In this case the proximity of the has the disturbing effect of aspirating the t of the tense particle. Examples.which was. alipofika and occasionally -cho-. of the narrative tense.and -yo-. = he who went = the tree which fell ilioanguka = the house which fell. -zo- and -vyo-. . The tendency. alikokwenda = where he went = when he came. is full form is used except used for -wo. is distinctly to simplify even these to the simple the verbal infix. and -ko-. Example. -lo. Hapita Relatives of all classes for nikapita = and I passed. always used. Upendacho = (the thing) you wish you are going Wendako = where Mti utakao = the but However there is tree you want. -mo-. however. nt'akwambia nitakwambia = I for will tell you. it is said. -po-. Examples.KIMVITA 30 -e-.

being in more common use in that dialect. III. remain = a hare = to climb = to mount (a horse. each bearing an accent on the penultimate. Tuliko ffka denotes the accent. and Kimv. and in all the dialects enumerated above causes the verb and its particles to be broken into two parts. however. Kimv.) of . Mtu aendae = the man who The goes. The Atakapo kwe*nda = when he shall go = where we arrived. etc. They are none the less characteristic of the dialect they are assigned to. although this is not the usual custom in English Swahili writings. For the convenience of the reader in pronouncing these I have often written them as two separate words. relative in Examples. Kimvita English = hippo = sjambok) = finger. toe = to sneeze = a book = suddenly = pitcher (Arab decanter) = cob of maize (stripped grains) Hasa haswa Ku-keti ku-kaa Kitunguli sungura ku-panda ku-panda kanga Ku-kwea ku-panda Leso (but = exactly = to sit. recognize them as two words.KIMVITA 31 This serves to distinguish other dialects from the Zanzibar group. Many Changes of Vocabulary of the words given below will be understood and occasion- both Kiung. = he who wants Atakae Examples. The Swahilis themselves. used ally in Other of the words will practically never be heard in the opposite dialect. = woman's robe.

hebu mi = leave me alone.32 KIMVITA Kimvita Kiunguja Maboga English = vegetables miboga mafya for Mafiga = three stones = breasts maziwa tembo Matiti Ndovu Ku-nena = elephant = to say = to drink = peas = grated coconut ku-sema ku-nywa chooko Ku-nwa Pojo Taki chicha . don't worry me take counsel Ku-kumbwa na sheitani = to be possessed. gather = mushroom = strips for sewing mats = to bear (children. lone (buffalo. buck) Bora azima = never mind (lit. the devil ! ! (a frequent occurrence) Mwenyi paliti = an unclean person. the majority are more or but a few may be met with in others. foremost) Heri apendalo Mungu = what God wishes is best (often Mwenda pweke = one an excuse for doing some shady trick to get out of a difficulty) . hebu = come let us. less confined to this dialect Utampata wapi P (for utampataje P) = how will you find him 1 Utaka nini ? (for utakani ?) = what do you want ? Ana matata = he is difficult to deal with Hebu or. or smitten by. let me (pass) Kula njama . = custard apple = to pluck. for cooking-pot after extrac- tion of tui Ku-teta = pumpkin = syphilis = to descend ku-gombana = to quarrel Tomoko stafele Tango Tego Ku-teremka boga sekeneko ku-shuka ) topetopej Ku-tunda ku-chuma Uoga (and woga) kiyoga Usitu ukili Ku-vyaa ku-zaa IV. fruit). sleep is hurting me) that goes alone. Changes of Idiom Below are a few idiomatic expressions. health is best. one who has not performed the necessary ablutions (ku-tamba) Usingizi unaniuma = I feel sleepy (lit. please.

rest oneself Mangaribi inatangamana = twilight is falling Konde mzigo = a very stalwart person (lit. what he is thinking of) Nini hii = this what's -its-name Nani hii = that what's-his-name. This might be considered as a sub-dialect of Kimvita. now it will give no more trouble (when the brunt of a piece of work has been successfully performed) Ku-kata roho = to die Gazeti! (exclamation) = lie falsehood. with apologies) Amekucheza = he has made evil medicine against you.e. There are also other sub-dialects on the coast between and Vanga consisting of Kirnvita with a greater or less Mombasa admixture of Kinyika. Kivumba is the dialect of Vanga and Wasini island. Nilete kijiti kibiriti P = am I to ya kumba kumba = a big Mkono kwa mkono = from hand Safari bring a toothpick or a match ? safari to hand Akili ni mali = (your) wits are (your) fortune (sarcastically) Haina maana wala haina tamu = it has no rhyme or reason Ku-kata nguo = (i) to buy clothes. i. (ii) to take (a leso) into wear Ku-patisha moto = to heat up Ku-nyosha mkono = to make a long arm Twende zetuni (also twendeni) = let us go (only if more than two go. from the E. 3 . A. Gazette ? Example. 7. viz. you lie (der.KIMVITA Kujilalia = to lie 33 oneself down. The process of time however has so altered many of these that they are scarcely to be recognized. the fist a load) Ku-oga kabisa = to wash all over Mamako ndiye mungu wa pili = your mother is (your) second God (therefore obey her) = Have you not treated me badly ? P neno Hukunifanya Sasa haina neno = Now there is no more fear. Kidigo. s. more than one other and yourself) Sijui anaketije = I don't know what is the matter with him (or. Ao is often omitted between two alternatives. It must be remembered that Kimvita has drawn largely on Kinyika and Kigiryama for its Bantu words.

is mzee (not mzele) tele = old person = much. The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo. or Lamu. have when passing had an 1 placed between them Kimv." an Arab As this dialect is not well known hope to go into I it more fully than any of the preceding. into Examples. . or the island of Ndeo. softened into y.KIAMU 34 Kiamu 8. Kiamu Kimvita Makee English makalele = shouts mawele = millet for Mawee Mbee mbele = before Mtee mtele =rice Muwee mwele =a Nyee Ku-tea (teea) =hair nyele ku-peleka = to send ku-telea = to add to Upee upele Ku-peka (peeka) =a sick person pimple. the dialect of the town of is Amu.cords = slave fastening sail to yard girl . K'ayek'aye Kiyakazi Kiyamanda for k'ajek'aje kijakazi . Mzee for Tele (not tee) J Kimv. Examples. kiwa being old Swahili for kisiwa = "island. on the island of that name.. the Banu Lami. Two Changes of Letters successive e's in Kiam. who came from the Persian Gulf. Exceptions. I. The word Lamu is said to have been derived from the name of tribe.

KIAMU Yambo 35 .

leo . Kiyemba Yeo is for changed to y. Baghaa 1 in Kimv.K1AMU 36 Occasionally Examples. kilemba = a turban = to-day.

are -vyo-.) . = a fisherman = a thief = to give birth ku-vyaa ku-vumbua = to explore. -vi-. Examples.) = ku-kanga (Kiam. vyote..KIAMU 37 All concords agreeing with plural of ki. nguva. ku-vaa. used in to z. mvua. -zo. utenzi Ku-kanza (Kimv. mavi. zake. begin ku-funza = to teach = a fly inzi = a kanzu kanzn = a loop kitanzi kwanza = first mpenzi . Examples of other words changing v Mvuzi Mwizi for Ku-zaa Ku-zrnnbua Apart from all class there are few G -ovii. . -zi-.a loved one Mwandi mwanzi ^bamboo Mwando mwanzo = beginning Nyende Tandu Ku-tunda Utendi Exception. etc. Examples. place of vya. ku-vua. etc. becomes nd. zile. Thus za. Ku-anda Ku-funda for Indi Kandu Kitandi Rwanda Mpendi ku-anza . between two vowels is sometimes dropped. hivi. hizi. zenu. vyenu. nguvu. Exceptions. vile. = a cricket nyenzi = a bough tanzu ku-tunza to take care of = a story in verse. mvuvi mwivi concords connected with the plural of the ki- words which make this change.class change v. Ku-awanya for ku-gawanya Mbeu Nduu mbegu ndugu Tendeo tendego ku-tegua Ku-teua Nz in (or = to divide = seeds = brother = a leg of the kitanda = tagua) to choose. mwavuli. and many others. . vyake. Kimv. ndevu. zote.or vyto z-.

Examples^ Kwisa Mwiso Ku-pisa Ku-soto Sh for = to finish mwisho = the end ku-pisha = to make way for ku-shoto = left. at the same time.). M has a tendency to become mu Some = oyster chaza of the examples below (as in elide a y Kimr. wanja The word mbinja does not occur in Kiam. changes now.. Shaza Ku-shumua Shungwa for . ku-ehenma . see sneeze chungwa = orange. kwisha occasionally takes place of ch Kimv. arrive at occasionally occurs in place of sh in Kimv. Examples.) must know mjue mjukuu = grandchild mjumbe = a sultan's crier. Ku-sonda S to reach to." P (pi. at the .. Examples. ku-piga uzi " nyuzi) being used for to whistle. (as is also the case in Kimr. page Examplest Mui (xmiyi) Muinga (muyinga) Muwee Muyue Muyukuu Muynmbe 1 for = a town. *).KIAMU 38 Nj if it has not already become nd in Kimv. Very possibly northern words and forms were brought down to the Mrima time Jumbes from Pate were put in some of the towns on that coast. Examples^ Ku-sikilia for ku-fikilia = Simbo fimbo =a Ku-sita ku-fita stick -to hide ku-fyonda = to suck. on the left side. Ku-kunda Ku-onda for Wanda ku-kunja = to fold ku-onja = to taste = antimony. village mji mjinga = a simpleton mwele = a sick person = you (pi. occasionally changes to s at the beginning of a word.

. Kimr. changes to like ^ (tamarufa) and is pronounced Tw.) = silent kimya ku-zimisha = to extinguish. band . = captain. letters Kiamu Akhira (or. Disimali Kasidi for dusumali = = kusudi viz dissent).KIAMU U -39 occasionally occurs in place of the other vowels a. ahira) Ku-bokea Kimvita for ahera ku-bopea Chenjele kengele Ende mende Ku-fana Ku-fana ku-fanana Foromani foromali Garide gwaridi ku-fanikia English = the next world . Examples. = a bundle of clothes for bahasha = box of leather or miaa) Kiam. every ku-karibia = to draw nigh . Examples^ KiTa for kichwa = head KuTa kuchwa = the MTa mchwa = whole day termites (in wingless stage). a snuff (Bahasha. as (cp. kama of Kiung.. = like. e. Ku-dudumia for ku-didhnia = to sink down Bulmsha Kula Ku-kurubia Nahutha Ku-shumua Ku-shundua = kila all. i and feel soft (of fruit) = a bell = a cockroach = to be alike = to prosper = a ship's yard = drill. Below are given about fifty words which suffer slight changes of but which do not come under the rules above. skipper nahotha ku-chemua = to sneeze ku-shindua = to set ajar (a door) = we all sote = to shake the head (in ku-tikisa Sute Ku-tukusa There are exceptions which change reversely. N occurs rarely in place of m. : a scarf intention. Kana for Kinya Ku-zinya Chw something . purpose. Examples.

= a hammer = who? = a hyaena pelt . hide. a ball = a line = a servant - a fable = skin.) = to swallow = an insect = rubber. bathe = potash to mix with snuff = a place = scents = a weed with crow's foot thorns .a giraffe = a chief = a smith c. crab = a sore = cashew-nut = to wash. Guduwia for guduria hot rags Kijibao = waistcoat = small insect.KlAMtJ 40 Kimvita Kiamu English = a clay decanter Guu (ma) (mguu not used) for mguu (mi) = a leg = to hunt Ku-inda for ku-winda = violence Jauri jeuri = ku-kanza Ku-kanga (moto) (moto) to apply fomentations.

KIAMU Kiamu 41 Kimvita Uwingu Uwongo for English ubingu udongo = uthia Uzia Ku-va Ku-viva the heavens : clay = trouble. Past. J got (long ago) or. husks after pound- Ku-ziwia ku-zuia to resist. < ye Wali- they Uli- it etc. * v^etc. The first or ordinary past applies only to the immediate or present past. (dust in house ripen. In Kiam. Distant Past. used to get. Naliki-^ I Uliki- you Aliki- he Tuliki- we Muliki. there are two past tenses and two negative past tenses. Changes of Grammar There are a certain number of tenses. etc. ku-vua (samaki) = to annoyance fish ku-iva to Vumbivumbi kivumbi (in cooking) dust (out of doors) Ku-waka Wisha ku-aka ushwa to build (stone buildings) bran. Nali- a } Uli- you he Ali- Tuli Muli-* ata= we got (to-day or yesterday). . freely used in Kiamu.pata Waliki- ye they Uliki- it etc. The second Near applies to the past or distant past. which either do not occur or are not in frequent use in Kimvita. be well done = jaa) ing II.

as uli uki-.tense (page 44). (The usual form. it is probable that he means nali (n)ki " " penda = I was loving and not this tense. of the Near Past Negative. etc. its use see below in a sentence under the Krapf gives naliki.KIAMU 42 The distant past tense chiefly occurs in historical narrations more used in the third person than otherwise. As in the other persons he gives the alternatives past. and stories so is For an example of -nga. . ali aki.) S1KU- HukuHakue did not get (to-day or yesterday).as an alternative for the first person sing.

43 .KIAMU Negative -ki- tense.

etc. stated. to be in the act of doing something. The tenses which remain I hope to explain by a few examples only. as she was sitting). It it out. -zii tense. is Examples." though occasionally occurs with a few others. Niangawa na ndaa sili . The tense particle is -lime- = " had already. -i. Alikuwa na mali nangawa masikini sasa = he was rich although now poor. particles are na " nga." Example. hazi-.KIAMU 44 The only exception is the pi. Ulipotoka alimekuya = he had already come when you went The "although" The tense tense.= although. Nangafa u hai kwa-ni ameata kij ana = although he is dead (yet) is he alive for he has The left a son (who bears his name). Nalimdirika utukuzii mzigo = I met him in the act of carrying a load Uketizii = he (she) was in the act of sitting (or. .class which. Past Perfect." Examples. There a past perfect tense which to a certain extent takes the is place of the rather cumbersome alikuwa amekwisha ku ." generally used with the verb ku-wa="to be. havi-. of the ki. Formed by the addition If the otherwise of -zii to the verb. as before etc. in place of vi-. verb ends in -a following a vowel the -a it may change The meaning is " to is elided. takes concords zi-.although I am hungry I do not eat. These the reader can transpose to suit any case or concord by following the usual rules. Mtende hunu zamani walikitenda sana na-u-nga-wa sasa hautendi tena = this date now it no longer tree formerly bore well although bears.

nikali ndiani = and he recognized as yet in the way Akanitambua Akali mtoto amu yake me while akashika ufaume = as he was I was still a child his uncle governed. This tense is formed by changing the vowels of the and adding the pronominal syllables of the verb to e ene for ona. etc. ibid. for Moyo." "yet." "while yet. Verbs having their two prefix. It is however in everyday use at the present in Kiamu. viz." It generally requires another verb following before the sense rendered complete.KIAMU The " while yet This tense is 45 " tense. kee for kaa. Also see the first line of verse on page 116. mentioned by Taylor. last to be preferred for present last two day syllables bearing the vowel a seem use. supposed by the poet to be Kimv. The tense particle is -kali generally used only with a copula but occasionally with a verb. happened." "still. It appears to have the meaning of a completed action still in continuation." The Yana usiku nilele Kasikia makalele 1 Mojo nampenda Chele 1 Mojo is Last night as I slept I heard a noise My heart loves Chele. " he has mounted a perfect amepanda farasi would mean horse (but at the time of speaking he may have dismounted again)." Examples. For examples containing no contingent condition and with a verb see appendix to Taylor's African ApJiorisms. The meaning is "while as yet. he has still mounted and is mounted). "as yet." or. Taylor mentions this also as being an old poetic preterite. The usual construction is "while yet so and so something is. . Another tense is the perfect in -e-e. Examples. Upende farasi = he is riding a horse (viz.

becomes -i-. is is befallen him. The demonstratives in differ slightly from Kimv.of place well. has grown Akamtoma Limpeteo = that which has There -to. Fungato (or fungeto) = bind tightly = Weketo The reflexive -ji. as it occasionally is in incorrect Kimvita. occurs only much the same as if sana had been placed after In a few expressions Kiam. Kimv. an intensive form of the verb A final This up but has not yet been harvested) ulele = and he stabbed him while aaleep -a made by the addition of sometimes changed to -e. Sultani wa Manda ulele = the Sultan of Manda sleeps Mtama usimeme = the mtama is standing (i. for akajilalia kujisifu The imperative second person plural is always pendani and the Zanzibar group pendeni is never heard. Mtu huyu Mtu hoyo Mtu u!6 Watu hawa Watu hao Watu wale Mti huu (or for . Examples.and not na.must be used with this tense and for third person sing.and not a-.e. Examples. u. in common use at the present day in in poetry. ni. Pronouns. but otherwise Its meaning is it is it the verb. so some are given full.KIAMU 46 For first person sing. Akailalia Kuisifu Kuiketilia = and he laid himself down = to boast (praise oneself ) kujiketilia = to sit oneself down. hunu) mtu huyu mtu huyo mtu yule watu hawa watu hawo watu wale mti huu = this person = that person = that (far) person = these persons = those persons = those (far) persons = this tree . mentioned by Steere in his handbook as occurring in is poetry..

of the objective pronoun of the second person in Kimv. as a pronominal prefix for third person sing. The clipping of the pronominal prefix occurs in the future and the -ka. period that time. hiyo. viz. hizi of the demonstratives same except = huko been omitted as they are the same. zile.and the -ki. period.KIAMU Miti hii (or for him) 47 = these trees miti hii = this house hizi . The arrangement plural is the same as Example. period. etc.this eye Mato haya Uso huu (or hunu) Nyuso hizi Hoko mato haya = these eyes uso huu = this face = there. B. Examples. etc. and in several . in the first and third persons sing. these faces have etc. used in Kimv. There is also a demonstrative for a very distant object made by adding -e to the farther demonstrative.. : Wakati hunu = at Wakati hono = at N. as they are the hii huwo. Hono is this time. have been omitted also which comes on the last syllable. The farther demonstratives ule. The remainder nyuso . only. for the accent. the -zii tense other instances. Nawapenda = I love you (pi). ule. plain u. wa!6e.these houses Nyumba hii (or him) Nyumba hizi nyumba nyumba Chuo hiki Zuo hizi chuo hiki vyuo hivi Ito hili jito hili this book = these books . occasionally used in Kipate with other nouns of this class. Examples. il. i! used in Kiam. There is also a form used with wakati = time.tenses. T'akwambia = I Kasikia Kipata Where yua- or yu- is will tell you and he hears (heard) = and when he had got. It is also used in the -e-e tense.

Example. Examples. used in place of -je the interrogative forms a separate word unlike the . fr.) did not get (pi. Examples. Hoyo una hila sana = he Ukaa hali Una Uwene gani ? Utukuzii U- is of guile taking. Example. Ufunguo umoya ufunguo mmoya = one key ufalme mpya .a new kingdom. agreement with nouns in the with the verb but with the also used as the concord for of the sixth class not only sing. lye It is Hamtopata = you (pi. Wataka nni wataka nini = what do you want ? In Kimv. by cutting out the first -i-. Tutapata iye Takwenda Interrogative ? tutapataje ? nt'akwendaje ? = how = how shall we shall I get go ? ? nni ? The Kimv. Example. of the second person plural often mu. there is no difference between the interrogative kwani (der. Uknta mwingine = another Example.) shall not get. Mulikwenda = you but before t Hamulipata = you it is m. The pronominal changes to prefix m wall. nini the for iye P ? is converted into Kiam. is full = he sleeps = what is his state ? = he has = he has seen = he is in the act of Ulele adjective.KIAMU 48 Examples.) went (pi. latter. for Ufaume upia Except when the adjective commences with a vowel. kwa nini P for ?) and the conjunction kwani. P . suffix.

is used as an infix for all classes of nouns. The The relative -o. The latter takes the place of Kimv. Note the use of relative with perfect. Kwani P is suffix -ni ? takes the place of of Kiung. In all When other cases the simple -othe relative occurs as a is used as an suffix. distinction is infix for all made between the different classes. for ? why ? Relatives. form.and the infix -zo.and Example. 8. N. Tumezotaya Amezotenda for tulivyotaja = as we have related alivyotenda .(agreeing with zitu understood) when used in an adverbial sense. -mo. Examples (of locative relative).KIAMU The interrog. Apendalo Mwana apendae = the (matter) he desires = the child he loves = the things he wants Zitu atakazo Chakula atakacho = the food he wants. locative particles alone have their own relative forms -ko-. 4 . an unusual con- struction in Kimvita. Tulipokwenda = when we went Tulikokwenda = where we went Tulimokwenda = in where we went. -po-. Mikate atakao = the loaves he wants. Examples. in which dialect the nini P In Kiam. kwanni Kwani ? : = what = for. Even with these however there he has done (or. is a tendency to suppress the -wo and -yo. Examples. the two words differ Kwa nni ? or 49 viz.B. how he has done) Kama nimezokwambia for kama nalivyokwambia = as I told you.

Watakopata Tutakokupa When for the relative tense particle watakao pata = they who tutakao kupa = which we is used with the negative shall get shall give you. Examples. Examples.KIAMU 50 When the relative used with the past tense is (-11-) the -i- of the tense particle is elided.are in Kiam. a flame miako miamba = a rock miambao = a coast miandiko = a manuscript miango = an echo mioto . Asopata for Asopenda asio pata = he who did not get asio penda = he who did not love. treated as if belonging to the sixth mw- class. Nalopata = he who brought = which I got naliopata Walonipa walionipa = which they gave me. Examples. If Examples. or anything pertaining to trees or plants. = a fire = a heart mioyo = a year miaka = heat. Aloeta When for alioleta the relative is used with the future (-taka-) the final -a- is they shall get Alipo Nisipo taka The with = if I do not want (or. Moto Moyo Mwaka Mwako Mwamba Mwambao Mwandiko Mwango pi. of the tense particle Examples. as in the cases elision takes place. no is used. however they are the names of trees or plants. when I do not want). nyoto for nyoyo nyaka nyako nyamba nyambao nyandiko nyango . they remain as of the second class. plurals of certain nouns of the second class commencing or mo. When the full form of the relative mentioned above. (-si-) the -i- of the is elided. kwenda = when he went Watakazo pata . Exceptions.

mbwao) Nyumba hini nda fulani Ndangu (ndako. If the adjective begins with a for pi.. ndao) 1 = whose is this thing ? = it belongs to so and so = it is mine (thine. his) = it is ours (yours. are used as genitives and sometimes take the place of the mwenyi and mwenyewe. wewe = is pi. Nyaka miwili Nyoto mikuu Examples. anything to do with a tree or plant. quite correctly. of = a wooden spoon = a thorn. dialects. but There are two particles but not in the They words less pure mbwa and nda which occur in Kiam. 1 Mweleko nyeleko Mwendo nyendo Mwezi nyezi A tree. Also nyawanyo. commences with a vowel it takes a concord as for pi.KIAMU Mwanya nyanya pi. Nyezi nyingine = other months Nyeleko nyeupe = white slings. takes plural as of the second class although beginning with mw- or mo-. his) = it is ours (yours. = two years = big fires. in Kiam. of sixth class. consonant it takes a concord as class. theirs). as of the first class "kites. miezi = a gap in the teeth = a sling = a going = a month. Kitu hiki Mbwa mbwa nyani P fulani Mbwangu (mbwako. ndake) Ndetu (ndenu." The agreement of adjectives with the as of the sixth class is If it second nouns above with plurals as follows. Mwembe miavuli = an umbrella miembe = a mango tree Mwiko miko Mwiwa miwa Mwavuli Mwewe with pi. mbwake) Mbwetu (mbwenu. treated. moon. Examples. Examples. or for 51 mianya mieleko miendo . 42 . theirs) = this house is so and so's = it is mine (thine..

to aim) = a pigeon = shoulder to = change residence early a ku-kataa the fire dawn growth coconut inside = to refuse = neighbourhood a . take out. if ku-toa = for you want to say to give out. N. Chembe Ku-dauka Ku-dirika Dudu Ku-egema ." is frequently heard in viz. sea slug Ku-cha ku-ogopa mshale ku-yeyuka ku-kuta ndui Abawa Ku-amkua for . mkubwa ku-karibia Pahali Ku-fuma (nyama) ku-winda Pungwa ndiwa Puzi bega Ku-gura ku-hama Hirijiiri alfajiri sana Ifu Ku-iza Janibu = to fear = an arrow = to melt to meet. Example.KIAMU 52 Changes of Vocabulary III. There is considerable difference in vocabulary between Kiam. and Kimv.. Kimvita English Ku-andika (chakula) ku-ita ku-teleka = elder brother = to call. " to give out (rupees) " ku-tunda (rupia) and not ku-toa (rupia). Where the Kimv." "put out. Ku-tunda in i. akamtoa muini = and he put him out Kiamu you say of the town. jongoo -jigger. in a meaning not given.e. invite = to put (food) on Ku-angalia Bibi ku-tazama nana = to look = grandmother Bombwe funza.B. Ku-toa is never heard in this sense but it its other sense of "to turn out. jirani come across = smallpox = to come near to = a cock = to hunt (lit. About one hundred words are appended as examples. Kiam. word has several distinct meanings it does not follow that the word is not also used in Kiam.

KIAMU Kiamu 53 Kimvita Ku-jepa Jura Kata for Katiti kwiba }> mjinga 3> pishi )5 kidogo Kidundu Kifuvu mayonde kitoma kobe Kiharahara paka wa mwitu Kiliwia mjeledi Kipitu Ku-kiri msetu ku-kubali Kisha paruru] Kisindi guguta J Kitangu Kitikuu kiunga kigunya Kiunga nyumba ya \ kutilia nazi I = shambani Kiwe ) .

ring.the ground. devil kiu ndege ku-tota -ovu -baya Ku-pambauka ku-cha Ku-pea ku-fagia Fepe umeme (Jahazi inaenda p'epe = the = a claw. = to get ku-pata ku-taka shauri = to consult = to uproot ku-ng'oa = to cry. take out drop = scraped coconut after ex- traction of tui Ufuto Ulingo u P aa urambe dungu utosi = white flesh of a dafu coconut = a look-out platform = crown of head (roof of house) .KIAMU 54 Kiamu Muyungu Kimvita for bugu la mtoma Mvnle mume Mwendao Mzuka Nana Ndwe msafiri Nina mama Nsi samaki kucha zimwi bibi ugonjwa Nyaa = mistress = sickness = mother =fish Nyai mwayo Nyangwa jangwa manyasi Nyika Nyota Nyuni Ku-ova English = the pumpkin plant = a man. nail = a yawn = mangrove swamp = grass = thirst = bird = to be drenched = bad = to dawn = to sweep = lightning vessel is drifting by itself. arthi wa shamba ) shamba ( -dogo - Tototo matope =mud Ku-tunda ku-toa Twene jeneza tone = to give = a bier toto taki little. sound out ku-lia = luck. without anyone on board Ku-poa for Ku-shawiri Ku-sumuka Ku-takata Taufiki Tiati Tineni . goer = a demon. on the ground nyumba za watun _ (labourers' huts on a tini. or.. male = a traveller. -a small out. fortune bahati .

The use of mbwa and nda have already been touched on." but if anybody else's boy was about to take it one would say Tumbako ndangu (or tumbako nda mimi mwenyewe) = " the tobacco is mine (not yours or his). are con- differences in idiom siderable. For instance one might say to one's boy. A man rushed in after it saying.' The worshippers were streaming up to the mosque and joined in the ' out. word.' ' Ni mbwako.. ' and another seized it saying. Sometimes the word given Kimv. urefu ndia Utunda . Taylor mentions the use of a negative perfect in the case of simekwenda ? . angalia = to see after. mwenyi ku-pata. that the breaking up of the town of Kitao was due to a fowl entering the congregational mosque on a Friday.chain = length = road. Ni mbwake. useja Uwo ala Ku-vurundua Yau yau ku-tibua vivi hivi Yonda nyani Yowe Ku-zengea .' till strife calling at last all the male in- habitants were engaged and a civil war ensued. English = silver neck. Ule mbwa kupoa rupia mbili = he is due two rupees (or. The Changes of is hut). Kuku mbwangu. and Kiam. A few instances only will be given here. in of the used be to seem ordinary possessive when place They emphasis is required. Mbwa kupoa is an expression meaning. scabbard = to stir up mud mkufu -just like that = baboon = a shout kalele ku-tafuta. IV. look out for Zijaya vigae Ku-zimba ku-ezeka = potsherds = to roof (a N." probably untruthfully. will get two rupees). Eta tumbako yangu = " bring my tobacco.KIAMU Kiamu 55 Kimvita Upeto Ure for Usita . ' Siyo mbwangu... path = a string of beads = sheath. used in addition to the Idiom between Kimv.' It is related.B.

Simekuya P = You Why did you not come ? say that I did not come (but I did come). however -pya is pronounced as two syllables.KIAMU 56 This. Hatasa from hata sasa Chakula tayari hatasa Hatakafa P = till now (or. his intention (was) . one o. and has not) purposely . as he says. if that word is one of these far demonstratives. Talking of anything distant. etc. . ulee. viz. not wane) Abb. means one can detect a native from the Amu group if one hears him say but one word. walee. Kimv.) one of them Moyali = that matter Yambole for yambo lile mwanawe Mwane =his child (the waane but is pi. ? when not used by itself loses Ndo wewe = come you. ule. either in point of place or time. Example. on purpose." In Kiam.) (= come). all this while Kitu hiki hufa iye P = how is this thing sold ? (how much?) Ndio za nini P = what do you say yes for ? (when someone Kasidi yake = Ndoo says. = is food not ready after = until he died. wa!6. mkate mpya = a new loaf.. an e is added to the far demon. yes he has done something. The word -pya Kimv. taking the accent on the first. ziatu zipia = "new sandals. ilee. (Takes the place of makusudi. wale. You say I did ?" not Example." The following abbreviations are used : = his aunt Shangalize for shangazi yake = = moja wapo (Kimv. Mbona hukufika P = Answer. viz. in place of Stress is laid on this accentuation because by its ytile. and as an first " not 1 " or. is only used in the interrogative reply. It has the meanimg " of. not yet). Have I person sing. with hata. viz. which has already been mentioned. ? There is a difference in pronunciation of the far demonstratives. is one syllable and takes the accent on " the syllable before. and must thus be spelt -pia to bring the accent right. etc. The accent remains as shown. viz.

all three. haniisi = he does not know. haisi. s& = the town has been utterly and com- Mui umeharibika k&bi pletely ruined. is = things in plenty (and therefore cheap) = people in crowds. are making Hapana katu = there is none whatever (in any shape or form). Why not ? Of course Can you do can (or. coming and going (and thus want of privacy. from a verb ku-isa which is seldom heard. of animate Wowawili = both. " huisi. To such " is I "Were you able to read my letter?" me ? " Kwanni ? " used as an affirmative reply meaning." Kwa lina mtu = alikuwako (or alikuwapo) mtu. viz. human Mwida is being.57 KIAMIT Wametuteza shere = they have played a trick on fun of us us. he does not know (recognize) me. is kwa kuama = kulala Pulifuli has been confounded with fudifudi by several writers. ghasia). Kwanni ? = Why not ? Of course I will. Mwana adamu is used in place of the usual bin adamu = " son of Adam.. look out for . questions as: this work 1 " " Will you come with will). Its meaning quite different." occasionally used in place of muda for a space of time. Unaweza kuzengea mashairi ninunue P = Will you some poetry for me to buy 1 Answer. beings. fudifudi = to lie face downwards. Katu means much the same as kabisa but is more forcible." etc. in Kiam. Kwa lina is used for the usual palikuwa = " once upon a time. you do not know." Example. all two (persons) Wowatatu = all three (persons). in anything but the negative present. When great emphasis is laid on kabisa the accent is placed the last syllable which is jerked out by on itself. Si-isi =" I do not know " ." Ku-yua Kulala used ordinarily for all other tenses. Zitu fulifuli Watu fulifuli There is an abbreviation meaning "both.

generally used as a reply to some taunt. used is best. or (it) hivyo. is inside the your business. I leave mwenyewe.e." Examples.KIAMU 58 Ni mtu mzima sana = he is a very old man. took fifty dollars Kwanni kupenda ukowa usipende na_ kilichomo ukowani P = why do you like the lamp chimney and do not like chimney too? (The light inside is the reason for having a lamp and the chimney is only an adjunct) Hitieri yako is used in Kiam. This is health is big. where shauri lako. for the Kimv. and does not mean Amepata kijana = he has got a son (and heir). hivyo. Nipa chai eta na mkate = give me some tea and bring bread Akatukua nguo akatunda na reale khamsini = and he clothes and took out also also. . generally used of a male child much as in Kimv. Kupa tambuu = to to the Eng. person. for Palikuwa mtu jina lake man called so aliitwa fulani = once upon a time there was a and Na so. as you please. akaitwa (jina lake). I don't first consideration). Mtu hiyau = a man like that (of that sort) Sitaki kazi hiyau = I do not want this soft of behaviour Mtu mvivu hiyau Sasa hiyau Kijana "a youth" is so for a man as lazy as he is sasa hivi = just now. or upendavyo " it is as you wish. Example. bora azima = never mind. well built. it is it is for you to say. i." (Hitieri -hitiari. (Proverb) what it to you. Yau yau is used in place of vivi hivi or vivyo Ufanye yau yau = do Hiyau for hivi. just like that. would be used in Kimv. to tip (equivalent to give the price of a drink "). now at once. and this dialect in the sense of "also (or) too. " give (a piece of) tambuu.) Mtu mrepana = a Bora ana care (lit. Hamkuliwa and hitwa are used in place of the Kimv. Kwa lina mtu hamkuliwa fulani. is largely used in both Kimv.

Examples.e. whether of Bantu or Arab origin. how hand its Kimv. Some words are pronounced sometimes with g and sometimes with j. with a few further changes and a few exceptions. (i. audience Mathu mazu = bananas Thibafti zibafti = games Kipate Baratha for . strike return . There (ii) is no use then G in Kiam. guessing articles are held in the = youths zijana ziondowe = riddles = war. with regard to changes of letters. (i) as th in "this The " and letter j does is letters in this dialect. Also. Practically all that has been said of Kiam. Kiamu baraza = verandah. suffix or particle..B. not occur. The following words. Examples. always changes to th. 9.. town of Pate in the darkness) beat. of kibafti many Thijana Thiondowe Thita Thitete Thiwe Uthia . There are only two important changes of Z in Kiam. This th is pronounced written in Swahili characters with the letter >. strife zita = mongooses zitete = grindstones ziwe = annoyance. Jithani (from jitha for giza) = a quarter (lit. and whether the z is prefix.KIPATE 5 the dialect of the town of Pate in the island and by the Arabs Bata. uzia This last word by pure coincidence returns to (N.) The rule is the same for every word. however. grammar. Kipate is called by us Patta Changes of Letters I. vocabulary and idiom stands good for Kipate. Ku-pija Ku-rejea Shemeji for in the ku-piga ku-regea -to -to shemegi -brother-in-law. is occasionally softened to hard and fast rule like the last and appears j but this is not a to differ with individuals. pijana. form. of in multiplying examples. rejeza. infix. appear to be always pronounced with j.

cylinder. There appears to be a slight difference in the neg. Ku-tawala (N. mai) yai = above Iu yuu = dead of night makungi Makungu = horn of mgambo mbiu Mbia mfaume = sultan. a chief Mfalurae = to toddle (of a child) tatetate Tatatata ku-tawali = to reign. Negative Future. form. etc. Site- HuteHateHatute- HamteHawate- ri you he pata = we - ye they Haute- it etc.B. chimney. and very frequently When is w occurs in place of -to-. shall not egg I (pi. although the latter is understood in Pate. future which takes the particle -te. Examples. Aingiye for aingie = he must enter ukoa = Ukowa II. a tendency to place y or This is occasionally also done in Kiam. these (trees) hini Hinu . This last word returns to Ufito for ufuto -witi -biti Ku-wiva ku-viva its Kiung. Changes of Grammar The grammar is practically the same as in Kiam.KIPATE 60 letters occur in the Other changes of words below : Binamu for binami = cousin = this (house).) = white flesh of a dafu = unripe. two vowels occur together of which the first is i or o there between them. . green = to ripen.

bustle = empty coconut shell = a bier = a mash = inside wall screening choo = war. .. Most KISHELA 61 Changes of Vocabulary Kiamu hold good of the words under this heading in in Kipate. to 10. drying Fathaa Kifuvu for haraka kifuu tusi Kilili Kimboe kipitu Kistahali kisitiri Kondo zita Mahua Mwiko wa kifuvu marehemu Ndia imethiwanai imethiwa J\ . A few local words are also used in Pate such as : Kiamu Kipate kata = haste. Kishela kitanda bazaar. IV. . south of Amu. is blocked at low tide Ku-usha ku-aua (nathiri) = (nathiri) to bring a vow conclusion.KIPATE. . Amu. . " . Two = soko Changes of Idiom idiomatic expressions follow : Kitovu cha mui = the hub (centre) of the town Kutanga konda = to be about to marry (lit. Taka and Kitao. the breaking up of the various old towns on Manda island. is stir up strife). to a con- or summation = usutu Ushitu (of strips miaa) for sewing mats. many of the people took refuge in On viz. strife = departed. III. the dialect of the town of Shela. lamented = ladle (of half coconut) ndia imezibwa = the way Ngumi nyangumi Pwayi into = a whale = a creek. roping for Utuku . Manda. .

and I III. so that they might all live together instead of being scattered. . as they were in the large town of Amu. Manda. after all the variations in this met with. Kishela may follow either. Changes of Letters and Vocabulary The vocabulary is practically the same as that The th of Pate is often used in place of z. This is exactly as one might have expected from the old viz. The Manda people would have cherished little dialectic differences of this sort as distinguishing them from the Amu people and stamping them as being more aristocratic. however follow Kipate. is just half way between that of Amu and that of Pate. This was the origin of the town of Shela. Iu and mfalume are used in place of yuu and mfaume. made use of this form. The word mahali is used for "place. Probably the Amu people either did not use this form or had already dropped it. although remaining many years in Ainu.KISHELA 62 After a while they were allowed to found a town of their own. Kimgao. differ of Kiam. There are a few words however which differ slightly from both. chiefly Examples. is easily accounted for as it would appear that this was the old form of the possessive for the third person sing. the town of geographical position of most of its original stock. Another interesting feature -akwe is This is that the possessive termination used. must have kept very much to themselves for. of The Manda people. . When They Pate words from Amu. the oldest in the neighbourhood. The j of Pate in place of g is not used." word we have we have now come back to the same word as that used in the southernmost and farthest dialect touched on. The dialect. with a few small exceptions. directly they received permission. It is curious that. This has died out in most places presumably the town Manda. they moved out in a body to Shela.

last three it will be observed return to the Kimv. Examples. hold good. That is to say that . differing Amu. Kisiu is the dialect of the town of Siu. 11. from its unlikely that Shela possesses daily many dialect. ch is used. Amu except the zi.) like.class. though = (Kiam. In addition to these the Bajun cerebral t's are changed to ch. form. = his stick Simbo lakwe Nyumba ndakwe = the house is his Pa mahali pakwe = in his (or its) place. IV. Any is changes in ki. It bears a strong resemblance to the Bajun group but to the Amu group. These are similar to It and Pate. for kwamba kana for Sote These : used for Changes of Grammar There appears to be no marked changes of grammar. Of other little distinctions Chamba is Kama Huyu Nyi = if. Both town and dialect stand half way between Pate and Faza. used as an abbreviation for nyinyi in address as is Ndo nyi wawili = come you II. from the latter it Those given Changes of Idiom There are no doubt a few intercourse with : two. j observed above.for the concord of the plural of the thi-. no use in giving more examples of these changes of as what has been said for Pate can be referred to. as snte (Kiam. is local idioms in use but. hold good save only when which of course becomes they clash with what all Amu thus has the Pate th and There letters Changes of Letters is said for Pate. Kiam. its idioms and grammar belong more I.) = this (person).) = we all hoyo (Kiam.63 KISIU KISHELA.

Nouns of the ma.. in such words as kitambaa.class follow the usual rules and not those for Kitikuu to be described hereafter.) kistahali Marahanm Mwendio mahua mwen^o Ku-oa Pakuwathini . . Ku-ehambua Ku-chukana Ku-chuma Chutakwenda for Mchu Mchumbwi Wachu ku-tambua ku-tukana ku-tuma tutakwenda mtu mtumbwi watu = to recognize = to abuse = to send = we will go = a man. Examples. for Ar. The tenses to be described in Kitikuu are not used. Changes of Vocabulary There appear to be a considerable amount of I have only been able to collect two or three. local words of which Examples. as in Kitikuu. Words like nyumba follow Kipate and not Kitikuu. R is not Grammar The grammar is the same as in Kipate. For this change however see the next dialect. athana thayidi ya = more than Gubu nyika Kisitiri (like Kiam.B. III. person = a canoe = people. Kisiu Kipate Athani Foko (fr. brought in. in which it is only the dental which turn to eh. which the called for mats. etc. Changes of II..KISIU 64 N. Jy) . t's Do not confuse with Kiung. = muezzin ku-oza = grass = interior wall of choo = late lamented = a distance = to rot =minara from muezzin Ku-pija tumata ku-toma Toma nt'a Usichu ushitu ku-oa Ku-wowa is = to stab = a point = strips of miaa = to marry.

they only slip past one another. Two sharp points cannot stab one another. Kitikuu 12. The cerebral t. As mentioned before there are several local The remarks below apply more especially to or the variations. town of Faza or Paza.. Examples. Kisiu. = three ku-tafuna = to chew ku-tambua = to recognize ku-tandika = to spread out tatu . Ndovu wawili wakisongana ziumiazo ni nyika. not only with the adjective but also with the its exactly. Kiam. Ndovu mbili thikipambana liumiao ni gubu. that ndovu that of is pronominal prefix of the verb. is that when two great The meaning men quarrel. (You English. viz. 65 Changes of Idiom IV. cannot prick the point of one needle with that of another.) This is said of two strong each other. the dialect of Rasini. Kiam. as in Kishela.KISIU. Toma kwa toma hathitomani. When two elephants jostle against one another that English. Kisiu. Changes of Letters whether aspirated or not. it is wont to man or dependent who suffers. for . I. The meaning is men or strong tribes who fall out with that neither will get the better. of is the language of Rasini and the mainland north Amu. for the possessive. changes to ch. Chachu Ku-chafuna Ku-chambua Ku-chandika s. The KITIKUU following are two Siu proverbs with their Kiamu equi- valents. in place of -ake.class Kimgao in concords. Nt'a kwa nt'a hazitomani. -akwe is used in Kisiu. which is hurt is the grass. Notice the agreement of the concords with be some small ndovu which follows treated as the n.

KITIKUU 66 Changa .

tense of Kiam. instead of ma- which changes to no prefix. Kitowakupacha The kitopata = for possessive termination -akwe is if I do not get. machumbo) = stomach Idau (pi. nail = shoulder = milk. - 'Ndokufa I have died Undokufa = thou hast died = he has died Andokufa Chundokufa = we have died Mundokufa = you have died Wandokufa . machako) Ichiunbo (pi.KITIKUU II. Examples.class change n. like in the plural. ehutapaeha The for tutapata = we possessive termination twende zechu shall get. Example. 52 . mashikio) = foot. the latter not being used. used as in Siu in place of -ake. The -ndo- Changes of 67 Grammar This takes the place of the perfect in -me- tense. madau) Ishikio Idowe Ifuthi Ithiva Examples. (pi. (pi. In place of the -kito. leg Iguu (pi.they have died. Chu- takes the place of tu. Iti for nti = country Isi nsi-fish. the pronominal prefix for person plural viz. (pi. the prefix i- viz. of the n. -kitowaku- is used. = a dhow = a rudder (pi. Some nouns first : i-. madowe) mafuthi) mathiva) = claw. -echu takes the place of -etu twende zetu = let for ma- The singular of the other dialects. magim) = rump Ichako (pi. class : us (two) be going.

.but may be prefixed. Examples. Imbwa Ipaa Usimbo for .KITIKUU 68 Or i- if or u- the noun does not commence with n. mbwa = a dog paa =a roof is of the n.class .

mbavu) Uvueha na chembe .B. The changes of idiom are very great. rather the lowest day of the neap tide) to eat (grain) out of a fold in the clothes. pole = a spoon = an eyebrow = strips of for kijiko Usichu Usuni = to fish = a stick.69 KITIKUU Thipepeo for = miaafestoons on bow- zipepo mtepe sprit of Ku-toma Uchi ku-va mti (isi) Mchi (N.) only means a growing tree. few old expres- sions survive in Kitikuu which are almost Kingovi. Examples. (pi. ushi nyusi) usutu (pi. On the day for the fishermen to go out and cast their nets so no use cure their fish. .) Ukombe Usi (nsi) matting ready to sew = sand fly usubi suni) Uvavu (pi. but want of time has compelled one to abandon this dialect before having fairly started. The people were unable to explain the derivation or parts of these two words. Mkmditha j^^ > Kwekuyu kaokuya = ya kimbuya . A heavens).neap tides (or. 1 Moke ndeza means of lowest tide they stop at it is of home and the cooking over the fire of the n^eza fish. Examples of the -ndo.tense are : = the (thing) has gone bad 'ndovaka fulani = I have married so and so Yuva lindokutwa = the sun has set Yuva lindotoka = the sun has risen Yuva lindopaa = the sun is climbing up (the Kindovowa Hiyao and yau yau of Amu are not used.. (Kit. Ku-vaka = rib ubavu uta na chembe = bow and Ku-vowa Yuva arrow = to marry = to rot = the sun. ku-oa ku-oza yua Changes of Idiom IV. The expressions are quite different from those in any of the dialects given before.



All boats coming from Rasini,



are elsewhere


itself however it is only those with the camel-necked
are called mtepe, while the others are called idau.
Parts of these boats not already referred to are

In Rasini


Mchwana = the block just

in front of the

mast to which the lower

part of the latter is lashed.
= cross beam passing between the


mast and resting on the bulwarks either

and the

the Banadir Coast.
These bear a rebut apparently possess a very different
Words in Kitikuu which are entirely different from

The Dialects


semblance to Kitikuu

those of Kiam. are likely to occur also in similar forms in these



Some words however


= kishembere (Banadir) -a


pass almost unchanged through a series of


Example, Magadi

= potash




(Kiung.) = magathi
mixing with snuff.

(Kiam.) =


the language of the Comoros.
It is alleged
Bajun Kiswahili and is generally

to bear a great resemblance to
included in the Swahili group.

Kingovi (or Kingozi as it is called in Kiung. and Kimv.) is
the ancient language of this coast.
Natives talk of words in old Swahili as "Kikae" or "the old


Such words are







Kingovi is a language much older than Kikae.
Words, phrases and constructions occur in old poetry, but the
language itself is practically lost.


It contains


an almost entirely different vocabulary and different

grammatical forms.
There are said to be a few people who are still able to talk this
language, it having been carefully handed down, however I have
been unable to find anyone.



told that so different

the language to ordinary Swahili,
is unable to under-


that a well-educated and well-read Swahili



Appended is a piece of poetry (p. 73), of which the MS. from
which the writer's own copy was made was he thinks dated about one
hundred years ago I underline the words I believe to be Kingovi.
This is quite easy and simple as compared with poetry of several

hundred years old.
Lastly, a word on the

Kinyume is
and prefixing

fanciful languages.
attained by cutting off the last syllable of every word


Example, Nataka kiti niketi would be


Kinyume kanata

tiki tinike.

a purely fanciful or code language.
Occasionally single words of Kinyume are thrown into a piece of
poetry to fulfil the exigences of metre or rhyme, or to make it less
It is

easy of comprehension.
This latter, it would appear,


the chief feature of Swahili


For there are such multitudes of rhyming words that there
would be nothing in the poet's art if he were not able to mystify his

So any old or


word he can discover he

careful to


string in.



an example of a Kinyume word,





being thrown into a verse.


kiti nikelete

kusimama kalikwenda.


farasi kupijuati si kuwelekwa na punda.
Tandiko la mjakazi si la ungwana kanda.

Na mkate wa kimanda


kitumbua cha Mafia."


"Give me a chair

to sit on, standing










from a horse

by a donkey.


not (so good as) being carried



The soft couch of a
mat of a freeman.


And manda

not (so good as) Mafia chupaties."




not (so good as) the rough

There are a number of code languages made by
some particular sound to each syllable.


Each of these possesses a name of


The explanation of one will suffice
Kialabi is made by suffixing -kiri

to explain




to each syllable.

Kikiri takiri bukiri ehakiri ngukiri kikiri mekiri kwikiri

which means


Kitabu changu kimekwisha.





Praise be to Allah.








believed to be of Kingovi are underlined.

N.B. A. translation, or a synonym, is given in the footnotes of every
word which is not to be found in the usual Swahili Dictionaries.

are usually divided

ina nikite Inkishafi

by a semicolon.

nikapange lulu kula tarafi
kiza cha thunubi kinipukiye

Tatunga kifungo kwa kukisafi


The strophes





nuru na mianga itathalali 7
Nambao kwamba ataamali iwe toba yak we aitubiye.
Kim a ake 9 kwisa dibaji yangu penda kuonya na moyo wangu
Kitamsi 5 kiza cha ujuhali 6





Utwetwe na hawa ya ulimwengu

Moyo wangu



Hunelezi nami kalibaini

Moyo wangu nini



Raj ami




likughuriyelo ni yambo gani
liwapo na sura nisikataye.



Huyui dunia ina ghururi


hila za







twambe, u mwelevu wakukhitari

ndia za tatasi 16 huzandamaye





Hunu ulimwengu bahari tesi 17 una matumbawe na mangi masi, 18

mwasi 20

Aurakibuo 19 jua


Ni kama kisima



kwa kula hasara

ombe 21




mta 22 paa 23 mwana wa




Endao kwegema humta 22 pembe ;
Au wenga 25 vumbi la mwangaza

Thunubi =thambi.







Tatasi = matata.


Tesi = -kali.






M wasi = adui.


Ombe = wall round mouth



UjuhaU = uwinga,







Kimaake = kisa.


Rajami = the devil Iblis.


Ku-zunqlukani = to awake.
Nini ? = una nni ?











Mwenda kulegema akilisoza; asione kitu ukishishiye 26
Tarafi = nta.
u Kwi'tabiri=ku-taamali.
= revealed, dis- is Ghururi = deceit?
Inkishafi =


kunwa maiye.
wa yua likitumbuza

asipate katu

to shine, brighten up.





= he


of a well.

Kushisha = causative of shika.

24 Ar. au mwenyi kwenda Metu = a mirage. . Ku-etuka= to shine. X&*' 15 1 Ikalifu. . Ndeo = swollen headedness. 7 Makataye = evil happenings. Dunia 19. fr. mtu nambwa 13 mbovu mno kuta kiwavu 15 kilabu 9 . ku-atama=to gape. fr. find in.H VERSION N. Mvi 26 wa manaya 27 ukiwafuma na kutubwikiya 28 katika nyama Pasiwe mwatami 29 mwenyi kwatama au muya nena yalikuwaye. 8 asirithiye. Mutendele = old Swahili fr. . 22. . was 22 8il=uii. for mume- tenda. ila 16 hupa watu ngea ikithiriye. 17 Wangapi dunia waipeteo. 18 Yasimsiye = yasimwishUie. . sweet. Ku-suta = ku-fukuza. the mouth P Ku salimu=ku koma 29 ' fr. Asifidi 18. Hadimu = a breaker. 19 Khasaisi. ^ . Ar. ^- Ar. Au 2 1 enga metu limetukapo . Ar. ungi welevu ulikithiriye . 17 Ku-fidi=ku-pata. haupendi si ewe labibu ina ila ilio 10 11 kuwania . Chenda akaona mwako wa yua mai alotaka akayatoa 4 3 yambo ila shakawa. fr> k^-euka. . Nambwa=na mbwa. wakatalathathi kwa shani lao Ikawa sumbuko kwa mazingao [wajkaanguka zanda waziumiye. . misfortune. hudiye. Ngea=chele = epuka. Ikalifu 21. 28 Kutubwikia=to sink into. ^JL^ = a dog. * Mvi-chembe. ni jifa Ihali gani Kima 20. ikawa mayuto yasimsiye Khasaisi 5 zote na matakwao . ikaribu. Kiwavu =mbavu. spoiler. 10 Kilabu. . Takaburi. to Hayani = pi. Pasi mkohozi akohowao 1 2 3 4 6 . . Ku-wania=ku-telea. . Tandi = tanzi. vastator. 12 11 23 Jifa=jumbi. Wakazisalimu 30 'umri zao hadimu 31 lathati 82 akenda nao . 32 Lathati =raha=laza. 13 Ku-kithiri=to be much. Mwa-tami = fr. 24. twaye. de- . fr. wakati wa yua lilinganapo kayakimbilia akayaMwenyi nyota kamba ni mai yapo 16. 12 hutukiza[i]ye. . 23. Tandi 18 la mauti likiwakuta. wakauma zanda wakiiyuta Na dunia yao ikawasuta 19 ichamba safari muniukiye 20 Ichamba hayani 21 ndio safari yakomele tena ya kuu'siri 22 28 na takaburi 24 mutendele 25 kwangu nishuBithaa' ya ndeo . 25. ^^J = intelligent. of haya Ku-'usiri=to delay by the way. 25 si fr. shida na shakawa likupeteo Ni dunia ii 6 uipendao yenyi thila na makataye 7 17. glfted ' 11 20 21 6 9 Ku-talathatM = to take pleasure characteristic of. 8 14 . 30 kali. 27 Manaya = mauti. . Labibu. ! kiburi = pride.

Zana=akiba. 32. 19 ance. wamuluku = those who possessed. ku -lala (-e-e tense). 19 20 ikiwa mgine wamtendaye. 12 11 sijida . Ku-futu = ku-kosa. 2 4 Hukengeukii = hukunigeukii. Uwene 24 wangapi watu wakwasi walowakiwaa kama shamsi 25 Wamuluku 26 zana 27 za adhurusi 28 thahabu na fetha wahi. 23 Luhudi =ufuko = the narrow trench dug to receive the body after the 24 Uwene = -e-e :> G 7 8 9 10 11 Ku-viva=ku-iva. Kuliwa bangu =ku-hadaa. fr. . 29 ziniye 35. 33. Kamaye = kama yeye. saa 29. 31. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika 1 hukunabihi 1 Utaata 27. Praver Hela = haya 20 prostration in 27 haya 29 28 - 12 (enda) not so (shame).pta0^=jua. K u-oka = ku-sitawi. Hakuwa mtume Suleimani maliki wa isi 17 na ajinani 18 ? . 34. Ku-roromeka=ku-waka. . Uwaweneo = umezoona. milele. fr. . Huza akhirayo kwa ulimwengu 28. 8 ulio weuni katika tuka 9 enga moto kuroromeka 9 Pakashuka wingu katika shaka . fr. si lile. nusuha 5 yangu. . Au 30. 17 isi=viumbe. 21 Nusuha = entreaties. = foolishness. Sasa nyumba zati 22 ziwatwetweo . . = ku-amsha and 4^. . Ruhu=roho. Ewe moyo enda 6 ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. 76 VERSION N. 1 2 ? 30 Malimwengu yote yawatii'le Wachenenda zita thao thilele 32 Ku-nabihi amka. luhudi 23 katika iwafun- diye. ku-ona. Ulimfutuye ukamukhini Watoto wangapi uwaweneo 21 ikawa yakini kupona kwao . ikawa kuzima usiviviye 10 . Ku-hizini = to store up. Ar. 16 Hudumu. moya hwona izimishiye. Yawatii'le = yawatii'ye. lini ewe Hiki safihi yao 2 ? nambia ukomo 4 kievu 3 moyo changu hukengeukii . Nisikia sana nikwambiapo Haiziwiliki izimikapo. Safihi. is Ajinani =majini (jins).26. niusikiye. Yemale = yambo lema Dawamu = dayima. . Adhurusi = pembe za ndovu Shamsi. . Tuka =mashaka(yamti)= branches. j 3 Kievu =kidevu. 22 Zati = za tiati. Sijida = prayer. . . Ku-khini=ku-hini=ku-iza. . . fr. Hauna dawamu 15 hudumu 16 nao umilikishwapo wautendaye. yake hela tafathali unabihike Sheitani rajimi asikuteke kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye 13 Hunu ulimwengu utakao yemale 14 nilipe upendeyao . na dunia yao iwaokele 31 mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye. 32 f r . tense is finished. ku- ignor- . . ruhu 7 enga taa katika pepo. is 4 15 rest of the grave 25 foliage.

Fusi=kivumbi. a'sikari 6 zikinawiri ill mbake 5 . 8 9 10 fr. Tafahuri = f r. Hudama = watumwa. 5 Mbake = mpia. Ukwasi ungapo na tafaburi 33 Washukiye nyumba za makaburi mtanga na fusi ziwafu43. Wakaapo pote zao Nyumba 37. understood). 15 Msana = ic Ku-vtuna (with voices. crowd. !1 ranks. ^ \^ . 32 & fr lU-paka. wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye. tense) (?). . Ar 26 Misutu = visutu vikuu 27 Ku-kukiwa = ku-inikiwa. . Wapambiye sini ya kuteua na kula kikombe kinakishiwa Kati watizii 10 kuzi za kowa katika mapambo yanawiriye 8 . VERSION zao shingo. 1 2 Ku-mia=to wave=ku-punga. fr. 4 7 Masiku 8 ya kele kama nahari 9 haiba na jaha iwazingiye. 19 Waja = watu. 17 Situru= cloister. = green. 24 Majodori =magodoro. Miyongo (pi. - ^9 Ku-nakila=ku-gura = ku-hama. Misutu 26 mipindi wakipindiwa yuu la farasha kufunikiwa 27 28 29 Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa . . 28 (-zii 9 w 'Itiri Ar. 76 Wakimia 1 mbinu na 36. 11 Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi mkwasi 13 12 zi za msaji na abunusi Zali 38. = rows. 22 zishitadiye . . 31 32 wakanakiliwa ili safari 44. siye. Nyemi = furaha kuu. (pi. of usiku. 20 21 22 Ku-shitadi=ku-zidi. . kwa taa za kowa na za 2 miyongo 3 zitengo . a group. 'itiri na kaa waipashiye *. 25 Akliadhari Masiku. Nahari = mtana. . Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi walina wakande nawa pepezi . 41. = incense. mwongo). 39. . pi. . 18 Kele = kelele. . G Ku-nawiri=ku-ng'ara. 1 to 10 persons. Kaa=sandaU. ku-tia 23 . sufuri na nyurna na mbele ill jamu wawatandiye. | 12 14 Zali~= zango zile. 4 Jamil =wengi. fr. Kwa msana za kele 18 15 naapa kwa Mungu Mola 14 zisitawiye. . Na wake wapambe 23 24 kukhitari mema maao Kwa yuu la zitanda na majodori ya 25 kwa kazi za pote wanakiNa mito kuwili ya akhadhari waturnbuizi 42. Abunusi = mpingo = ebony. 7 Sufuri = shaba. Kumbi 40. Kitengo = baraza of people other than the sultan. 16 ill za waja 19 na za masituru 17 zikiterema kuvuma na za hudama 20 furaha na nyemi 21 . Sufufu of safu) indoors. Ku-taanusi= to be comfortable. of 3 of fr. Mao = malalo. . . tele sufufu .N. shiye.

nawanawa ndiwahumia shingo 27 28 29 mbawa ziku na zitati Wakipija matungo tungo waliwashiye kati zao huvuma mende kumbi za msana zalia Nyumba 51. . . Tame = -gofu. 41 = to turn. . 28 Kitati = a very small bird. Kula'= chakula. ku-angama. ila ni mwango 39 22 ku-kaa. fr. Ku-siri=ku-wa. Ku-funda = to shut in (as in ma- build. See note 16 above. Ku-mia=to nod. Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni Buum 23 hukoroma kati nyumbani zisiji 24 na koti 25 waikaliye. Matukutu = tuka kuu. 26 Wanawazipungu wapendezango. 31 Yande = yande. . bird green which eats dates. 49. . Hisi = sauti. or. See note 10 above. Wasakha = pus. shingo Ukita h[w]itikwi fr. . 50. . Mta=mchwa. Shubiri = the span of the fingers (the measurement of the ufuko). Ukeme = matayo and mawizilio. > . 27 Kiku = adove. Pili wingu yamefungana). . 38 Ku-zinda=to 39 Mwango = echo. 16 17 makinda 18 ya popo iu Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame . Bumu=owl. dung. 10 12 11 na kuwatafuna zao jisadi 18 Wasiriye kuwa kula kwa dudi Na mta 14 na tungu huwafisidi majoka na pili 15 wawatatiye. ya waja 40 41 itindishiye . Sasa walikee 1 45. Bombwe = maggot. 34 Mazibala =yaa= dust. 30 Ng'ende = nyenzi. . wasakha 7 na damu huwaitika 8 Pua na makanwa bomb we 9 hutoka haiba na sura zigeushiye. 32 Dudi=mayongoo. ::8 54. 36 37 Mbuwongo = mbwa uongo. 47. . Ziwele = zimekuwa.webs. Ku-tulika=ku-tiririka. be cut short. wengeme 19 Husikii hisi 20 wala ukeme 21 zitanda matandu 22 walitandiye. sauti . makumbi yande 31 kuwa mazibala 32 yalisiriye 33 Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele 34 mwitu. . Kisiji =a Koti = a small bird. Makinda =zij ana. matter. 23 24 25 Dhiki = u tungu. 29 fr. maziwio. . . Ku-taathari = ku-oza. 33 Jisadi=ziwiliwili. . 2(5 Zion<Ja=zidon<Ja. moya shubiri Ikawa miwili kutaathari 3 huwatulika 6 46. ku-waka= to Ku-itika=ku-yeyuka. 52. Zitefute zao . enga matuka na matukutu 35 36 Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye 37 Kwamba usadiki kamba mbuwongo enda nyumba zao uzinde Yalingie vumbi 53.VERSION N. Matandu = cob. pasipo zulia wala jodori dhiki 4 za zionda 5 ziwakusiye. . 40 Waja^watu. 35 = piri = puff-adder. 77 2 . 30 ng'ende .

10 Ziuli = maua. 5 . 19 fr. muanga na muangaza kisararnbi 59. 7 8 9 mbonya 17 18 3 6 ? na paa 27 za watu kupapatuka. Ngowa =matakwa. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka 67. ku-atama. Hbonya=nionya. Mimi nakvvambia Zisizo 60. . 16 liamu. 65. . Ku-tagamia = ku-egema. . 'ali 11 daula na zenyi mianga? 'ezi iwaushiye. 17 19 20 18 16 zituzo za mato masiza ngowa ? Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa Kwa lina . fr.^fr. nambia walipo kawamkiye.). wangiziye nyumba za jizajiza ndio mashukiyo 7 walishukiye. . Sao-hao. fr. . 83 kalamu ya Mngu iwapeteo. wenda na makundi ya 'askari pingu za mauti ziwafundiye. Hata masikizi 56. 63. 14 fr. VERSION . ukimtoiliepi=utakimbia wapi? Malijaa = matagamiwa. . U wapi Ali bin Nasiri na muamu wake Abu Bakari 6 Mwenyi 'Idarusi na Mohodhari wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye. . ku-amua. . Mashukio = place of 21 22 descent. . Jahimu. Ukimbiliepi 1 2 28 pa kukushika = awakened. Aimi=mimi. Ku-wa'igiika=ku-zingatia=ku-faMasikizi =masiMo. Waushi = people who have flown away (uka=ruka). " 'Ali=bigh 12 (Ar. mtanga. . 8 Wapi wakiungu waviza kumbi "Walaliye 61. 2 ? 4 3 naona kwa haya yafuatiye. Moyo nakwambia ya watu sao 24 kuwa ao una yako uyashishiye ? kamao Nawe wayakini ata taadabu sipeketeke ya jauri haki ushike. Kituzo = arresting. Ku-uza=ku-uliza. 28 fr. 55. 20 29 malijaa . nipulikiza ziunda 9 za miti ziwaaliye. 4 Ku-pulika=ku-sikia. ya kupulika 5 Sasa moyo pako tauza nawe nelezato sana nami nelewe Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe. 22 sasa ni waushi waliushiye. okoka. Wasiriye wote kuwa 64. . Mahuwa =: marehemu. Kamao = kama wao. Moyo huyatasa kimabihika 58. ^ Wesiwe = wameamkuliwa 13 27 fr. makadhi wamua 14 haki. Kiunda Aboard with which body 23 is 2* covered in grave. 20 30 30 nitagamiye . Ar. usikutwae. 26 . mahuwa 21 . wenyi nyuso . mema ya ? 10 za vumbi vumbi za Pate Yungwa Wangiziye nyumba 62.78 N. Moyo Wendo wachokoka 25 nawe [hjwokoki moto wa jahimu 26 . wahakiki zuo wakihakiki 15 Waongoza watu njema tarikhi wesiwe kwa wote waitishiye. . 1 zituko zingapo huya'ithika . ku-isa (i8ha).Jlrif^ P aa = utosi. 68. zidiwa = kama ndiwa. 57. za tanga tanga 12 mabwana na mawaziri Watamiwe 13 na-ti za makaburi lina . nyamba Wa wapi ziuli Kwa na mashekhi . . Ku-viza=ku-ongeza.

24 Maghusubu = oppressor. . Kitana = sumbuko. ndimi yonda Mjani akupe 21 20 pulika sana. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu Akatwekwa thambi thamaghusubu 11 akambiwaHaya mtukuliye.)). See on these hells. . 19 Kiyali = spark.N. Sai'ri = one of the hells just men(i) tioned. of ulimi. 27 nao pulika ukitiwa mara huwa kuwaka [77. 3 Mathulumu = tyrants. . . fr. 14 15 of the seven 26 Silisiya = chains. shiye. . 13 12 73. 18 a Ku-aridhiwa = ku-arifu. : 30 hutama 31 . (iii) Hawia. (iv) Sai'ri.] Na moto wa latha 28 Huona manofu yakikwambuka waona ziungo ziungushiye 29 . Rikabu = a riding animal. 1 Kwima = ku-simama. 21 22 Hasanati = thawabu. 69. Fedba hawatwai na wangapoa.] Moto wa sai'ri Ni mngi 25 wa moshi na mitokoto 26 majoka na pili waikaliye. 2(3 PL of moto. 70. [74] to [78] the note at the end of the Translation. ila hasanati 8 ni malipwaye. (ii) Jahimu. 7 . 9 10 72.]* Uye 17 18 sura za na ziyali 19 zimtatiye. Mgi=mwingi. 31 Hutama = one of the hells. nae. Moyo tafakari ya jahanamu wenyi silisiya na azimaniu 15 14 akiukimu unene labeka niitishiye. 20 Hawia=one 4 Ku-ta = ku-piga on<3lo magote = viz. cut joints apart. Pindi ya Daiyani 16 ukivuma na kuta ukita sauti kama ya punda panda [74. yaku'aridhiwa 2 kula kitendo 3 4 achamba Ya Rabi namuwa 5 Pindi mathulumu atapo ondo . ku-shitaki. Jabari = bila kifano. 27 Latha = one of the 28 Manofu = joints of meat. 23 ufahameto ni moto mkali katika nyoto 24 [76. ni moto mkali hau makina [75. (Kiam. ku-tokota. . Ku-ungua = to disjoint.] Kuna na hawia 22 'Asi angiapo hula kitana huona pumuzi zimsiziye. Daiyani = a name for God. Makina =makini. (vii) Hutama. VERSION 79 Tafakari siku ya kwima 1 kondo. Namuwa = hukumu. 6 . . (vi) Hamimu. (v) Latha. Ny umu = -kali. Jahanamu. Eu-kimu=ku-amkua. motowe muashi na kuguruma Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama. N^imi = pl. 23 Kitaya = bit (bridle). Mitokoto. Namuwa na huyu. 29 hells. . 71. Azimamu=ugwe. . .)=mtumbwa 30 Siyo = hiyo. Na malipwa yao wathilimua si thahabu timbi si 3^akufua. bongo na wasakha limshu- [78. menithilimu kwa hukumu yako ilio ny umu Mngu jabari akahukumu amtendeleo amlipiye. .] Fahamia tena siyo . 17 Mjani = a wrong doer (distinguish from mjane (Kimv.

V. alt. Kimvita. wd. who This revision spread over . or cfr. = South. Mombasa language or = usual. TAYLOR ABBREVIATIONS = another reading. The original transcription was made by the help of the learned in such matters among my friends. alt. perh. A. -ly. = with. Mv. =word Ngoz. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE MOMBASA RECENSION Mombasa Text is the outcome of a careful and deliberate many years of the original Arabic-character copy obtained for me in 1885 by the celebrated Mwalimu Sikujua II. VL. Southern. prob. 1. obtained in the AL. =from. usually. Archipelago. = Captain Stigand's. mod. alternative reading. sc. = Mombasa. V. ad loc.) pf.) or Authorities. = compare. = perhaps. usu. = various authority or reading. S.. w. E. or would. Ar. = Authority = Arabic." meaning Descendant of the ancient royal family spoken of under the name of "the Kings of Mombaza" by the poet Milton (see Introduction). fr. = alternative. N. or Auth. W. = modern. cf.) = North. native scholars and authorities like the Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmad. = meaning. = version obtained at Mombasa.MOMBASA RECENSION OF THE INKISHAFI BY REV. (S. (N. = at the place referred to. lit. "li-Mambasii. =Ki-ngozi (Ki-ngovi. = literal. = perfect. = probably. Northern.

with Mwalimu Sikujua. of T'akaungu. RECENSION 81 were dispossessed by the Portuguese after their conquest of the coast at the end of the fifteenth century.and others too numerous to mention. as media for Prose. the poet. but its outer part has of course suffered at the British more than the rest of the long roll. of which the outer layers became the first to perish. by Bwana Sa'id bin Khamis. Bwana Husein bin Khamis el Mandhiri. Poem totals The loss of the introductory stanzas is explicable seventy stanzas. The first-mentioned. country. Mombasa. el-Amawi (Omeyad of The procured a text for Other Kureish). general were authorities the latter's able Kadhi of Zanzibar before him. All the names given are those of acknowledged authorities in their own father. now I think of The Mrima. . (See also for a superfluous stanza in S. It will be noted that the N. and Ayubu bin Salim el Mazru'i.S. Then his almost equally able son Bwana Hemedi. though original. the note on 12. a defect which seems at first sight to be atoned for by the presence of on the Mirage. and the Kadhi (then Sheikh) Buruhani bin 'Abd-il-'Aziz ibn 'Abd-il-Ghani. since the complete number of stanzas in the perfect Poem would hardly " " is a number that would appeal 70 be an odd number. and Trade jargon respectively. is the authority Introduction between the three leading Dialects of the different zones of Swahili and Zanzibar. and to the oriental and the native mind alike. Poetry. Eliminating these last. the the five eight [16]-[18].) . looked drawn for the distinction in the up to by all. The I have ventured to include and revise on I am still doubtful if stanzas on the Mirage my own they formed part of the authority. by the fact that the ancient poetry of this stamp was written on rolls. Text lacks the first seven stanzas of the complete Poem preserved in this Mombasa Recension. which I secured in 1884. of any age is found in such good condition as is that of the Utenzi of Liongo. now Museum. [74]-[78] and of the three stanzas in all. also Bwana Majidi bin 'Ali el Mandhiri besides Bwana Rashid bin Su'ud. It is seldom that a MS. who me Another special revision was made. . Lamu. MS. if I remember rightly. and the Mwalimu now Kadhi al-Ghazzali.

'Athman. It in prayer in the effort not Billahi. the Arabic dhad and tha. at Zanzibar etc. the dh is a composite sound. Persians and Hindis neglect this in their own speech. like s. etc.g. Bismillahi. thus sala (prayer*) is sala. words in which they figure are pronounced in the South. N. etc. namely on the d and t. partly that.. produced with the upper blade upon the palate. as at Mombasa. both dh and s modify the a following to become in sound nearly as o. which have a difference is similar effect on the vowels they introduce . d and t. for the Kim vita but with The Swahili Spelling appropriate " Mombasa. fore palate with the upper edge of the blade of the tongue letters in all . tongue on the teeth these are pronounced exactly the same to the North. e. cerebrals. partly that dh. " " in the same pose as for the gutturals kh and gh.g.. because of the i in the preceding syllable. like "awe. said my teacher. tip of the : these is easily heard in the modifying of their following vowel sounds. and is with the side laid along the upper jaw teeth on the left. at Lamu. in 1 precedes is Allah. 1. involves a guttural effort." If the dh and th has a broadening influence upon the vowel it is. these Dialect as used at "r" less of the or trill ." in them than at Lamu.. exactly the same as at Mombasa. etc. The gh. dh and th. especially of the a's which succeed them. do not broaden their succeeding vowel sounds thus dhati.. the q or k (J>) and the r and s have a similar broadening effect. a broad a The also.B. related consonants exhibit the (jo and u) same peculiarity. dh (3) when it and is all the remaining consonants. nearly and dhamini is nearly dhamini so the palatal Arabic sounds th and t (J and Jb) make . thahiri between (distinct) dh and th and tahiri (circumcise). The effect of pronounced with the dentals. But Billahi. while th a palatal sound consonant pure and simple. including the used at all as in proper names l ain (c) like 'All.PRELIMINARY NOTES TO THE MOMBASA TEXT Phonetics and Prosody. e. the chords of the glottis being made vibrant to yield a chest resonance at the moment of voice production. . : and the former make 1 The only word all long a's which a. . when the words in which Their they occur are pronounced as is usual in the Arabic style. as if the tongue made a prostration to pronounce a Name so holy. not dhati *.

The vowels are rather 6. being breath consonants. then (= the th in English there is no modification of the pure vowel system a. d and t not marked as dental (d and t) pronounced as above explained. not as sing-ing. far as I . Here note The Accent. ng. respectively.S. e. the emission of up in an even "pressure" Ain (e). "blends" made with the corresponding voice consonants by the letter n to form respectively mb. be contrasted carefully with the blend apostrophe above mentioned.. I. lengthened at the accented syllable than stressed. t'. and' (*) are the Arab sounds least throughout. s.). differ from the smooth or non-explosive type of the same letters in the increased force is supplied from out of the mouth cavity. etc. pure native origin are the true Arabic sounds. t'. not they always represent a suppressed n before the a matter of grammatical importance in the case of of the breath. nj. i. i. k'. by Captain Stigand while they draw attention to the exaggerated "trill" which in those Dialects accompanies them both. letter aspirated initials and they correspond . which from the chest . and when it occurs in Lamu. are not necessary when the Mombasa system above noted is for Dialects. etc. is merely pronounced in the exaggerated Lamu way.. and and kh and gh. Apart from the Arabic words in which at Mombasa the dental d and cultured those which exhibit j and ch respectively at From the above considerations the " Centrality " claimed Mombasa Dialect in the Introduction may be further occur include Zanzibar. for the 62 . but as si-nging Nghad .] ng' is the sound in the words Gottm^en. when the latter word (still pronounced in the ordinary way) is divided. This d and t is the Bantu consonant proper the dental d and t of Mombasa while found in the roots of is admittedly cerebral. u to . h (*. ch'. this is to Also and note: The marks d and introduced t t for ng without the "cerebral" the d the Lamu. but especially the d.. a dissyllable and in to the : . Therein every used. RECENSION 83 are reduced as often etc. and are always heard in the more modern words derived from the Arabic when spoken by the " loans. . o.. u in the Swahili of Mombasa (or even of the South as am aware). e. voice as contrasted with breath being kept ' usually heard in Swahili. a. nd. etc. Jomvu (Jo-mvu). by the "illiterate" " dh then ") and s and h (or g). and singing. (Welsh). The explosive consonants p'. the other t " in whatever zone. [Note There is also a blend mv as in Mvita. nd.e.

This rhythm with the rhyming Aimi wa wapi || may be thus tabulated : wakazfndfwa. easily explains the confusion so often arising between and in the those sounds in the Southern Dialects. In Swahili prosody every (See the Mombasa Text. It is very important to note that the changes have been naturally very much slower and always inconsiderable in those Dialects where the literary and poetic genius . 3. Wasiriye wot'6 L6o ni waiishl waliiishfye\ ! || || || The last syllable of rhyme though each stanza is invariably of the same strict -ye (which in most cases has to be transliterated as -e written -ye in the Arabic script) throughout the Poem. Permanency of Dialect. falling on the penultimate syllable of each word. etc. generally. established. (') except seldom separated thus I'l. In the Translation the letter -r has been chosen for the last letter of and the unusual metre and accentuation is an endeavour to render the effect of the Poem mutatis mutandis the final syllable . n' in thus . moment you poetry as in ordinary speech make separate it is not necessary to write the m'vi. and so bearing a relation to the Bantu against d and t).] " pronunciation of both the r and 1 at Zanzibar South (with the fore-edge of the tongue slightly raised the fore front palate. as above. S. where the first of the 1's is dwelt on to make the fourth syllable of the six of which the word is composed. where at one seem to hear r anc( at another 1.K. There are no diphthongs vowel is given its separate in the Central 2. 11 is to distinguish from the blends mb. Bisumiriahi. m' and syllables as in . nd. Stanza 1. is necessarily sometimes distinct from the modulation of the rhythm. n'de. The metre and rhyme-system of the appended Translation are intended to convey to the English ear of what is (to the Swahilis !) the cast of the original archaic . [See Grammar Mrs " The of Cerebral also RECENSION Preface my to the Mombasa Swahili Burt.84 S.C. Zituzo za mato. yet in some words it is so separated. some idea somewhat but in the Swahili (what answers to) the tonic accent.) full value.P. wasiza-ngowa kiiwa mahiiwa. (Mombasa) and Southern groups Prosody of the Poem.

and the mass of " Ushuhuda " (Native Authority which in Swahili is or was the standard poetry) has in consequence become thinner and so less a conservative factor. strong. .S. popular. of the with the ever. while with the introduction of modern conditions the merely pedantic element once so assertive in its tendency to all that is Simultaneously. increasing eifect of the Bible Translations. vocabulary and style amidst the ever-changing currents of the fashions of speech. where genius exists. use of Scripture has obtained. in all the important languages of the world where a regular. with the growing influence " of the often too unsympathetic Resident Alien. However. have introduced as a necessary sequel an alteration in this respect. lately and some other Northern Dialects. have had the steadying effect of a sheet anchor for grammar. howsegregation of dialects becomes out of date. which. genius will out and we may now hope for a revival in Swahili of efficient as . and Lamu. RECENSION 85 and the pure taste of the people have had such play as certainly has been the case in the Mombasa (Central). The War of Extermination till " waged against the Arab squirearchy and their leisured entourage by the colonising European Powers. Euphrates" of the native gradual "drying up is element a conservational new becoming operative in the classics.

Kwimakwe || asiondoe. Hence. arahamani above with the article. etc. but the consonants are all pronounced single in Swahili with short vowels. as presenting an older and not a more modern form of speech. where the letters are not carefully pronounced. Ngozi. 5 This and the following word are so spelt in the MS. wazoevu wa mambo ya ushairi wa kale. because ni with following e may elide its i. Nitunge kitungo kwa kukisafi nikipange lulu kulla tarifi na ina nikite IN'KISHAFI kiza cha dhunubi kineukie || || . with stress on every syllable. . namba wazi^siflti. || yangu makali ambayo moyoni nikusudie. 4 =niweneze. 8 kineukie. from ku-euka . . Important as indicating that an 1 is primitive in Bantu roots. while nandike leaves no room for it in the metre. arahamani niirasimu Noe na him'di nitangulize alo mdasisi asiongeze akamba Bisumil'lahi || || || 2. This from MS. toba = /ieTa/*Ae<r0at . n. neravoLo. Mohamadi. || 5. 1. ite laili = cast out the night. by elision . if correct be from ku-uka. || him'di niitushize 3. kania ilivyopokewa Mvita huku katika manukuu ya kale na huku kwa ya wenyeji wat'u wa maana.. AL. tfcalali= mists. MS. niyathihirishe || || || || 8. I have used no diacritical points in the text for Arabic loan words. ambao kwamba hutaamali The || || nuru na mianga ite thalali . || 9. kiniukiye therefore as in N. 9 =kuzingatia. and its presence bespeaks the Dialect. not from ku-euka. without the h. = exactly. Kwimakwe kuisa kuzikamili him'di na sala hiziratili kuisa kutabalaji na salamu 4. but the first word is exceptionally accented. Cp. etc. in which such 1's are found. Gr. ku-awaza.) 2 In 8. manukuu. || niidiriji || i| || || || . of 1 from Ar. majuto (mayuto = [17]) Title. Text wd. from =ziwaenee. the reading is nandike (=niandike) but here also from similar considerations I have restored noe na the conjunction na is evidently required. and verbal information.B.INKISHAFI. (N. 1 Here the original Kingozi reading demanded by the metre must have been noe arahimu which accordingly I have restored for nandike (^j^Jpl) rafcimu. Makusudi yangu nda kudhamiri ya kutunga koja kulidawiri mivazi miwili ya kukhitari makinda ya lulu nyuma nitie. nakala xnankulun.) (kuoa= write. Kitamishwe kiza cha ujuhuli. || na iwe toba yakwe aitubie. himdi. |j 7. 'ila katangaza ikatoza anga kama siraji sala t'umwa Mohamadi nim'salie Nalize thamma banu Kinana na sahaba wane wenyi ma'ana sala na mbawazi ziwaalie nisaliye wot'e ajuma'ina Allahumma Rabba mkidhi-haja nisaliye t'umwa aliyekuja|| nitawabidi Maula wa waja ukitusomesha tafusirie. but may never become ni. AL. midomo Na niikadimu hali ya kupenda kuinathimu noe arahimu nyuma ikae. || || 6.

makatae = word is supplied for the hiatus in the rhythm here. though ukhasirie in these in 13 (for yukhasirie"?). || || haipendi mt'u kuwania na mbwa ila kilabu. p'enda kuonyana na || za malimwengu . || || || || kunwa 15.] mwenyi [17. "with its [unfolding] leaves" (vicissitudes): These three stanzas or (-kat'a) lit. kuwania situkuzie. asifidi yambo ilia shakawa shida na shakawa likupeteo. "I have not tolerated = do not . Dunia ni jifa. Unga ja kisima kisicho ombe. 14 I have left mtambaa according to the S. and on 16 18 matakwao. 19 explains namba ati! ("I say!"). u. || kwa kulla khasara ukhasirie. and A." = bargains. || ni-ni Moyo wangu kukhitari. bahari ! || || ndia || wa za t'atasi una matumbawe na mangi masi. stanza 31 occurs twice. shrewd turns. zitukuzie i || hali gani. hakioni k'itu akishishie || .10. "cuts. ? 11 =lina ndia.of course is the original form of the prefix in all Swah.'s. aurakibuo huyo mwana 14. etc. Through corruption this may be the philology of the word mtamba. be matakwayo however as This indicated the"se three stanzas may not be of the original poem. || moyo hila za rajimi ziughurie. 11. makata-yakwe. Kwimakwe wangu : || kiiisa yangu diibaji utwetwe hawa ni 87 RECENSION S. ni dunia sii uipendao yenyi nyingi dhila na makatae || || || [18. Note. and Auth. but prefer " mta-paa from ku-ta paa~(Intensive form of upaa) as if thrusting out the shaggy " mane (tossing it).] nyota 'kamba || wakati wa yua likitumbuza. : dialects. or. : endure. or is it 2nd person by a sudden change to the personal appeal. MS. 12 and in its In a S. akishishiye. halibaini. and may mean. || mwelevu u || huzandamae? Suu ulimwengu. to contend for (it). Khasaisi zot'e za matakwao. both here after 12 13 begin with the Note that and place there in precisely the same form. Hujui dunia ina khatari ? || t'esi.] || || . the S. kuwania S. An linga maie. 13. ~ 15.. See Prelim. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua. namba situkuzie S. [16]-[18] have* been amended conjecturally from the N. MS. MS. Hunambii kwani. form correctly wd. Suu ulimwengu. siikaribu ewelaibu. though yu. soS. which Auth. 12. || || wakati mai ni wa yua yapo || lilinganapo || kiyakimbilia akayanwae ? mai alotaka akayatoa. 16 in the Translation.." . || 19. vumbi la muangaza akilisoza mwenyi kulegema Au linga metu limetukapo [16. likukuliyeo hela n nini liwapo na sura nisikatae? ni-ni? huzundukani? Moyo wangu ? hu'itabiri ? twambe. has here. second paragraph. same words. to embrace. MS.has often to do duty in both 3rd and second persons singular. ikawa mayuto yasimsie. chenyi mtambaa kati asipate endao kwegema humta p'embe wa ng'ombe ni mwasi. V. Note In Lamu.

20. hupa mat'ongea. . MS. kuzima taratibu moto. mkohozi akohoao. pasiwe mwatami mwenyi kwatama. by slip. pasi zao. or there may be conjectured for hupa wat'u ghaitha. and so to deal a " knock-out " blow. || ! || || || au mwamba Nini ! ! Wakazisalimu 'umri Hadimu-ladhati akenda nao. MS. || huiona izimishie. omits by error. walotaladhudhi from Ar. Auth. 25 OtJJJ! ^i>li = "Smasher of Delights. S. wala: but mwambiwa is never read wakenda. riishahadie !" na kutopekea katika nyama " Mvi wa Manaya ukawafuma. ni k'avu mno. AL. MS. sihadaike hela tafadhali unabihike . || || || || mtenzile kwangu. S. Auth. || || 22. Caught. this identical stanza here and also after 12. " and not die down merely slowly. Auth. Wangapi dunia waipeteo ikawasumbika kama zioo wakafa na zanda waziumie Tanzi la mauti likawakota na kuuma zanda na kuik'ata. kievu changu hukengeukii nusuha yangu huza akherayo kwa malimwengu ? Ya kulewa bongo ! ! 1| || || ukhitarie ? 28. ikamba " Safari." In MS. S 31 .88 S. 21 N. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika bikunabihi ? wamba || || || 26. hi S. 29 uwakao sana kwa mshindo. Version. but the text is as S. The last eleven syllables read in S. except as a trisyllable." Swa. 28 S. k' = ni k.kupiga kikumbo." Ar. 24 =kuzama kabisa. but is inserted from good S. haina muanga tena. aula mwambiwa asiridhie. synonym of Death. tena S. nave treacheries bestowed for their reward. RECENSION . form \ jjtf . wingu katika kwaka. : izimikapo.V. and by S. Ma 'a una 'ila iliyo mbovu : ulikithiriye ungi || welevu II .. Ewe moyo wangu. wala mwambiwa asiridfcie. haiziwiliki. MS. 25. || || || 20 kuta kiwavu ." now rather as in a trap or snare. zalikuwae || ! || 23.e. Auth. 22 "Strangled. Shetani rajimi asikuteke aoriapo kesho k'uwa kamae Suu ulimwengu uupendao emale ni lipi ulitakao? hauna hela upwewepo wautendae? dawamu. of S. See on other emendations [18]. MSS. as the 13. 21. " and Authorities. The text here is corresponding line in put conjecturally by the help of the N. i. . muiukie Ikamba " Hayani ndiyo safari Ikomile tena yenu 'usiri. 23 This wd. ! || [| ! || 31. || hata 27. ewe moyo. etc. Hiki lini ya usafihi ? || || nambia ukomo niusikie. which reads Shetani Bills! [Ibilisi] akughurie. || ! ! Bidha'a ya ndeo na takaburi 24. hudumu nao! || || || 30. ghaitha. Au Roho inga || || sa'a taa katika p'epo. MS. " na dunia yao ikawasuta. pakausha inga moto kuroromoka ikawa kuzima usififie". k'uta kiwavu hupa wat'u ghaitha ikithiriye * walotadhaludhi kwa shani lao. Ya kulewa bongo ukhitarie? 27 Here substituted for S. S. AL. to smite under the ribs. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo haimulikani 29. MS. ulio weuni katika shaka.




Hakuwa mtumwi

na ajinani,
awapo mngine




wangapi uwaweneo




ikawa yakini kumbona kwao,
sasa nyuinba za-t'i ziwatweteo
katika lihadi
34. Uwene wangapi wat'u wakwasi
walowakiwaa kama shamsi,











dhahabu na fedha wahuzinie.
na dunia yao ili akali
Ulimwengu wao uli taili
vitwa vya ufidhuli
mato mafumbi walifumbie.
na nyuma na mbele* ili
Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo,
wamiliki zana

za adhirasi




















zao nibak'e




taa za k'oa na za sifuri;


masiku yakele kama nahari
haiba na jaha iwazingie.
38. Zango za mapambo na faanusi
naapa kwa Mngu Mola
zali za msaji na abunusi
zetee sufufu zisitawie.








za kuteua

kati watizie kuzi za k'oa

na kula kikombe kinakishiwa"




k'elele za

masituri, zikiterema

na za
furaha na nyemi

misana zilikivuma

40. K'uinbi za








32 Ordinary pronunciation to-day Selemani.
S. MS. miliki.
ns as a
= walimpotea,
blend w. only slight trace of the n Hebrew enosh = frail man.
S. Auth.
uli- corrected from S. MS. being an evident error.
The subject is
ulimwengu, "the world," not insi na ajinani.
child = prince, and the original
mtoto, cp. Old Engl. sigmf. of
or " child," i.e.,
signification of the now so common Swah. wd. mtoto,
from ku-ta (Ngoz.) cp. Engl.
lihadi, either the
lateral niche made in the graves of Moslems, or the bier-frame laid therein.
note on Trans, ad loc.
34 AL. S. zina ( = hazina, S. Auth.), another, 2ani in same sense.
AL. S.




AL. Malimwengu yot'e yawati'ile Na dunia yao iwaokele, where
oka=kusitawi, "All's well with" them."" Prob. an ingenious reading of good
Swah. sense into the Arabic of the original script But so it would not so well fit in
with the next line. The S. Auth. comment on line 1 is, mambo makubwa, umri
mchache = ars longa, vita brevis.
zitwa zao zilele. Both these readings are
" Wewe
recognised by S. Auths. One S. Auth. explains the alt.l. by saying
wenda na kitwa kimelala kwa sakara, jamali na afia " = they march along in
a stupor of self-satisfaction.
See Trans, note ad loc.
"1 " retained in S. instead of N. mbee.
AL. S. wawatatie,
S. MS. p'weke (sic) or pweke
text as two S. Auths. and also N. MS.
= well-built, mbak'e = fr. kuwaka.
zetee, S. Auth. = zimekuta (stem -TA="put forth") safu-safu.
with prosthetic I- or E- see
69 etapo ondo = aitapo ondo
here zetee then




prob. for zietee (or -tele) old pf.
I find a variant, apparently thus Wapambe ni siti za kuteua, of
which the authority is doubtful.
ki-= participle-adjective, supplying ni from

previous clause.




and N. MS. here nana= "ladyes," Eng.




41. P'indi walalapo




wall na wakandi na wabembezi


na wake wapambe watumbuizi wakitumbuiza wasinyamae.
maao mema ya kukhitari juu la vit'auda na magodori
na mito kuwili ya akhidhari kwa kazi ya p'ote wanakishie.
43. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa
juu ya firasha kufunikiwa
'itiri nakawa
mai ya marashi wakikokewa
wakanakiliwa ill safari,
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari,
fusi na fusizi liwafusie
washukie nyumba za makaburi
45. Sasa walalie mji
pasipo zulia wala guduri













mi will



usaha na damu zatuuzika,
haiba na sura zigeushie.
Wasirie wot'e kula kwa dudi na mtwa na t'ungu huwafisidi
na nyoka na ng'ge wawana kuwatafuna zao jasidi

46. Zitukuta

zao hutuulika,



na makanvva bombwe



dhiki ya kaburi iwakusie.








launi ya dubi au kiradi;
mifupa na nyama ikukutie.
makinda ya nyuni juu
49. Nyumba zao mbek'e ziwele t'ame,
zitende matandu
husikii hasi wala ukeme,


Nyuso memetufu

ziambatishie zao










k'umbi za msana hulia
Nyumba-kati zao huvuma nyende ;
kuwa mazibaa
yangilie vumi makurnbi ya-nde




Madaka ya nyumba na





bumu hukoroma


sasa, walalia

kati nyumbani,



wana wa
na k'uyu


41 c N. Auth. wapepezi, people fanning with fans.
MS. has wakik'okewa = wakimwaiwa, or
So S. Auth.;
"precious," N. Auth. has na kaa with an explanation of


as "sandal wood."

Fusi and fusizi verbals from fuka, the latter form from ku-fusiza.
" a
heap of made-earth," as the
expression fusizi is used to signify,
mound of a castle-keep. AL. N. mtanga na fusi ziliwafusie.



N. MS. walikee mui.
N. MS.
N. Auth. huwatulika two Sw. Auth. and MS.
S. Auth. mbwe-mbwe
S. MS.
expfain^zabomoka, zamonyoka.
mbombe the usu. wd. is bombwe as here.
N. MS. Jisadi. S. MS. order of lines in this is a, c, b, d.
mbek'e or mbeke (from weka) S. MS. also, mbak'e (from waka or
aka); or p'eke, S. MS. and S. Auth. (from paka). Respectively, "pukkah"
whited. It is hard to decide the original reading.
nyende = mod. ch'enene, cricket.
mazibaa, another case of the 1
the Ar. mazbalah=Swah. jaa. See note on
dropped from the primitive form
So S. MS.; last line recited by S. A. as leo yamazie yalisirie, S. Auth.
=yamekwislia; yamekuwa. N. MS. eo mazibaa yalisirie.
za, N. A.

as here and










Wana wa



na wana wa ndiwa humia
zipungu wabembe zango
ziki na zitwitwi
mbawa na t'ongo-t'ongo

shingo nakupiga





Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, ungi wa matuka na k'utuk'utu
kwa kicho
milango ya nyumba hutisha wat'u
na kiza kilifunzie.
enda nyumba zao
Kwamba husadiki, wauiba mbuwongo









ukita k'witikwi








za wat'u zitindishie.

Moyowa hutasa kunabihika?



zituko zingapo huya'athika




la'ala yakutulie





Sasa moyo p'ako, nauza, nawe neleza-t'o sana nami niyue
Wa wapi wazazi wakuzazie ? nambia waliko hawam'kue...





Mimi t'akwambia,






binu Nasiri?






za kiza-kiza




ndiyo mashukio walishukie

muamu wakwe

na Muhudhari







wanzilepi kue?




Wa wapi ziuli za Pate-Yunga



mianga na miangaza



wenyi nyuso k'ali kama zipanga 1
daula na 'enzi iwaushie

za t'anga-t'anga,





na mashaha mema ya
wapi wenzangu ? wawende, kumbe
kisarambe ? wangizie nyumba za fumbe-fumbe, viunza vya




miti viwaalie.

Kwali na mabwaiia na mawaziri, wenda na makundi ya 'asikari,
watamie nyumba za makaburi, p'ingu za mauti ziwafunzie






said Mwalimu Sikujua (the usual form
S. MS. zitwetwe.
of dim. kichigi) " is a bird's name ; and the k'uyu, in Kim vita called kipure, is in
appearance like a dove or wood -pigeon ; bumu, the babe-watoto or screechowl. Ziki is the name of a bird still; kifrwitwi, a shore-bird."


[t'undu]," S. Auth.

The first growth of bush on an abandoned field matuka being
said of old and young growth equally.
clumps or copses of young trees
ni uwongo.
uka-i-te = ukete ku-ta, to thrust forth, der. of vita,
Not "nrwango," as N. Auth.
war; not of Mvita, Mombasa.
= hutasa fuata.
=tega masikio, S. Auth.
miangaza - t'undu-t'undu in modern
language =" windows," and "lancets" respectively.




" The
of Pate (S. Auth.)
way there."
yu-nga = she-is-like
(words fail to
(Cairo), etc., for an
adjective which becomes linked with its proper name so as sometimes to become
its substitute.
The metre of the Inkishafu ; = " ubora," "most excellent." So S. Auth.


'Ali bin Nasir,


a great





The Author was one Seiyidi Ahamadi a suehe-ngome. By mashaha I understand
S. Auth.
poets of a high order.
poetical sheikhs or bards



63." At this point. where in fact the S. . " here am I The tedious. || kalamu ya Mola iwapeteo ? an una yako. . Moyowa warnbae ya wat'u sao. || wokokapo nawe wokoke. ! . sipeketeke . || || || 72. Auth. kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu atahukumu amtozelee amlipie Niamua nae huyu thalimu Jabari ! || || ! || Na malipo yakwe rnthilimiwa si dhahabu t'imbi si ya kufua . Ar. wherein gloom when it approaches the revolting does not bore in addition The poverty and coarseness of the ! language employed. Auth. wajua yakini kuwa kamao? Moyo ! || kuwa mahuwa || || . "cangue". both students and MSS. taadabu. S. Amba || || || || || siku ya-t'i kupinduliwa ukatelelezwa mwezi na jua 67. Tafakari siku ya kwima k'ondo na ku'aridhiwa kulla kitendo anibapo. . derivative wakazunduliwa wd. 72 S. wasirie wot'e 64. Again note that the real total number of stanzas seems to be seventy.) kuudMka. I dutifully respond. || || ! || 70. wasiwe kwa wot'e waliushie. wakimbia kupi pa kukushika? mbonya mahalipe nitegeinee. S. ! || || || 63 65 Mod. unnecessarily long-drawn out agony of the " hells " is also an offence against the native taste which on the whole distinguishes poetry dutiful ! of the classical age . || . 67S. Ya Rabi niamua nae p'indi mathulumu etapo ondo ." The modern survival is only as "yoke. Chinese. ukamba. RECENSION Wa wasomao zuo wakihakiki. 66. S. uyashishie? ata ya jeuri haki ushike. manhttb = the one despoiled. 65. wenzo moto wa jahimu usikutwae. 68 69 =aitapo ondo = apigapo got'i. waliushie. Siku ya maini ndani kokeka na p'ingu sabaa kugeuliwa na harara zisikwishie. S. be dried up. while the spirit of these stanzas in especial is sensibly foreign to that animating the rest of the Poem. Authorities. wasiza-ngoa || . fedha hawatwai na wangapowa ilia hasanati ni malipoe. wakionya wat'u njema tariki Aimi wa wapi wakazindiwa zituzo-za-mato. mean =sifanye upuzi." Mod. kongo. kukwaka. Haya. 2nd sing. || || hari || na p'aa za wat'u kuk'watanika yuu la viumbe lisififie Siku ya mabongo kupukutika na mboni za mato kuwakodoka. all conclude and that at its seventieth stanza (see Preliminary Note) the Poem itself would come to a natural and artistic con elusion of the whole matter in the Moslem Ritual word Labeka (pronounced commonly Lebeka) the humble expression by a "Slave" of his submission ( = Islam) to the Almighty 'Allah " Lo. S. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu katukuzwa dhambi za manuhubu akambiwa. "Here am I. || leo ni waushi.92 62. Labeka niitishiye || || : 73. = to VL. mtukulie na tafakari p'indi Moyo juhanama yenyi silisili na azimama Mola Rabi akiuk'ema. but 73 " probably = stocks" or "pillory. kuk'akatika=(S. Lebeka. Auth. together with the involved and strained constructions. lisizime. || " be found out" Auth. are moreover sufficient in themselves to proclaim the clumsy fraud. Muungu 71. || || || || 69. || kwa umu wa jua kuk'ukutika 68.=mandak'ozi=kongwa. VL. wapi makadhi wamua haki. Auth.

of such competence as my the late Bishop Tucker. nihil humani k me alienum puto. while strange no doubt to the works of our poets. what have was been expected from the candour of say. the one Their opinion. so far as I have been able to effect it. that the form. might with such men. without offence against the canons of European taste. and the result of that (for which I am entirely responsible) is here set before the and in spirit so far reader as being a presentment. but with nothing to recommend it and make it popular for the European unless indeed he be Christian enough to feel and not Christian " merely say what the Roman said. two forms at the least that now published in and exists this work by Captain Stigand. as is the Equator from the Temperate Zone. I need hardly as an artist. this that is to say. of Mid-China . one suggestion made to me was that I should submit the Translation to a drastic revision." However. and the Venerable Archdeacon Moule men who. the other as a poet. with this proviso.OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEXTS AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE INKISHAFI This attempt to reproduce in English what to the Swahilis of by must indeed have been the solemn stanzas of the centuries gone Inkishafi (also and much diffidence. which in : in . would have been equally well known in other spheres. and substance of the original. or even of English poetry . is still that into which the cadences of the original seemed to my ear most easily to fall. had they not been such missionaries. considering the material submitted to them small natural talent I had dared to attempt the impossible to make acceptable English poetry of a fairly literal translation of : Poem. religion. The Poem as I have said is one of the old time Zingian Classics. the Northern Form. indifferently called the Inkishafu) appears with been submitted for examination to two critics It has dear East African friend and Bishop. of the religious classic of a people removed from our own language. of the spirit. form. Homo sum. and in form suited to the taste and use of the Bantu Moslem of old.

founded upon the the great native authorities I have been privileged and consult on these matters. and friend Canon made has a translation from a recension my Eawnsley poetical I had made of this with Bishop Steere's valuable original Edition in his Swahili Tales. from the very alterations and corruptions to appears which have crept into it. And truly. That the be idle to to know a date. . and from the material I supplied to him for the purpose. Africa in 1493. and the Mombasa Text from Neither this Southern which the present Recension is made. Poems like those of the Utenzi of Liongo Fumo \ and this Inkishafi. and second poet of that name. form nor the first-named appears however to be really the original that form must remain for the present a matter of surmise. the corruptions have the less in the language from the fact that even there this literature has been conservatively operative. The Recension printed above has been made from a truly excellent text procured by my Arabic copyist Mwalimu Sikujua. . for instance. and the grammatical forms of which are herein everywhere in use. is at least of the it Noun Classes. handed on many exceedingly ancient Bantu features in the matter see of it. least. yet fix it has been my opinion. that its age may be anterior testimony of all The original to the Portuguese discovery of E. and popularity than is Zulu till recently of a line of bards whose vigorous strains are comparable to those of the old Greek minor poets. may well have been entirely in the Kingozi a dialect of the Augustan age of Swahili literature which has ever since supplied the vocabulary of poetry as from a mine. Swahili. original poem is indeed of some considerable age be manifest. and English Rather Swahili has itself let alone Swahili has not been exempt. as is evidenced Jpy the differences While it would between the two Texts published in this volume. in which it may be seen. a valuable and perfect MS. the more I not per se in my view a very rapidly changing language was not till there set in the present great Epoch of Flux in which all things in heaven and earth are being shaken. have been constantly in in the Zanzibar zone.OBSERVATIONS ON 94 many respects was new to me. at its worst it is better preserved and what perhaps has been the greatest bulwark the changes incidental to the lapse of time is the continuous against of the olden literature in the mouths of the people. the son. in the the succession two zones in which Swahili has altered use. while in also been all The Mrima. from the exemplars kept in the mosques and read therein on nights when special extra prayers are recited 1 I had the honour to convey to the British Museum. of the Poem. obtained in the year 1884.

I have several volumes of excellent for poetry in this useful script. where indeed the older forms of speech seem to have lingered longest without corruption. It was from this circumstance that these latter have the name of Ki-ngozi. Ramadban. about) Liongo is very much harder than the simple gnomic poetry which is attributed to the hero himself. . One remark in conclusion I may make as to the idea of the difficulty of Swahili poetry being any true indication of its age. The Utenzi of (i. Also. Ngozi or Ngovi is the name properly speaking of the dialect which obtained on the strip of territory known by that name.. ia^^jj). these prayers constituting a function called kuterewehe (probably = Ar. while not interfering with the purity of the native use of the Arabic character. That copy was made in a script as in which. yet enables one to read into that character by dint of a simple system of additional marks all those sounds which it is so unfitted.e.THE TEXTS. 95 ETC.

however. the interpretation of the above doctrine. since on this " Fathers " of qualification all the great Mohammedan Authorities. (Copyright by the fame} In Allah's name. four unique Companions. .THE INKISHAFP Or Swahili SPECULUM MUNDI Translated by 1. see next note. is not in the Swahili text. note. link Arrahim. as . here ! fie. And shining like some silver lamp it sheds its limpid ray. The Merciful. Sc. Lest come some carping And 3. 'All). the Islam are agreed. But ere my Poem upriseth.") (namely. . Despot Mighty. 'twere a real fault) go publish flout and fleer. set duly at the fore. 32. To pray to Thee concerning the Apostle of Thy behests. 'Othman. ancestor the Quraish . fie. 'Omar. like as the dawn of day.) aye adore. tbe Caliph privileges of Apostolic Succession " Successor " of Mohammed. Title see and 8 = Apocalypse. Taylor. Great Allah we 2. Praising The Compassionate. Benedictions holy. And then write I for . the Ascription. Caliphs by right divine . < ' . 5 Mohammed. Khallfah. at fault-finding evermore. supplications their hallowed names combine Recognizing heartily each Islamite Ameer my shall ." of signifies the possessor of the or Moslem Pope." the title of a true Caliph. critic. This word. ! (Mind ye. But the theme is more like that of Ecclesiastes. Bismillak. Bakr. stands the Preface of my lay (Omitting that. The Act of Tauhld ( = attesting the unity of Moslem. W. Then Allah. no Moslem true his rhyming would essay With Arrahman. pristine Cinana right offspring of thy line. 3 4 See note on 11. The four Unique Caliphs "Qinana. E. The Sultan of Turkey is therefore not such. laud. And The So dear. 5. to slur that o'er I chant aloud my orisons in ritual array. Amir ul mu'minln= " Commander-of-the-Faithful. those forms to Islam 4. So Thou cause us read Thee the Interpretation clear. God. And boldly name the Unity each pious Slave attests. No Alhamdu crying. Thou Grant er of Requests. Abu Mohammed. were all of the same tribe the Quraish the only tribe indeed from which a lawful Caliph can be chosen.

a tossing billowy waste. What. Thus finishing the Foreword. All my heart's fond purpose to men shall I make clear. 7 . though thick the shadows lay So each wretch who to conscience' upbraidings is a prey 10. lit. So broidering my Poem until daintily it trips All threaded as with pearly grains up to the very The INKISHAF I name it. gloom convicted shall appear. of seed-pearls secure it. for thee. my *heart. as I school my heart within. Labyrinth-like mazes it is a troubled Sea. sin's tips. Mammon. ! Woe worth the day man trusts to monition. The world Chock-full of rocks and weedy rack that churn it into yeast. lies : is clear. hath he to fear. Islam. From this Poem penitence may reap in godly fear. for though he trade his best Loss of all his venture. what ails thee right counsel to refuse? to speak thou knowest and art of age to choose. Nay then. I fear 11. Discovering my Theme as here it is indited. me. and thus became the official name of the system of Mohammedanism. . See the closing note. personified as such in the Gospels. Till fastened in a carcanet of workmanship outsought Twin ropes 8. 10. that pagan gloom must pale and pass Where Light has shone away In yielding to its radiance. seest thou not this vain world 'tis perilous e'en to Or tell Speak out use \ of tempting them beware. no less. 11 S. front and rear. 7. behold the Theme begin With stern self. 'Twixt or Mammon! these the choice else Islam. 13. what mean'st thou ? couldst thou but For. The World. etc. To Benisons and solemn Lauds the Faithful have invited. And now that I my 97 Preface have in order meet recited. by which Apocalypse. theoretically and literally means surrender to God. heart. That purpose fond to follow will I weave and weave the thought. And twine it as in chaplets magnifically wrought. by its false glamour with Mammon it doth sin Fooled by the Fiend's fraud.THE INKISHAFI 6. dazed ! once be wise ! Or Islam dost thou reckon too huge a sacrifice? for plain enough it thou nothing answerest What. my heart. ! 12. Shamefastly 9.

though food for dogs most fit. Heart-breaks and vanity of such is 19. the anguish of despair. him Or like unto the Mote thou seest a-dancing in the beam. suit.] E'en thus Mirages That pouring down see. rushing on. for one fault indeed it hath and it is this ! : . and have with curs thy share 20. . with the failure and the smart That hence befall thee. Causing mortals misery without or end or peer. Or 'tis as one who passeth near a Well Where some mane-tossing bull goeth of broken rim. But. faugh this world is Carrion Mammon's from it store ! then keep thee far ! ! A man may Will nought never fancy. This shameless world and thankless will turn on him and Though hiss. Who [17. but thou must taste thy bit. This and the two following 16 are not in the Southern Text. and wherein thou hast a part. in by the circles brim. Vie in vain concupiscence. curious trifler. what find they? ah. but that on other grounds their genuineness is doubtful.] Thy fancies and thy follies. 15. Faugh. Consider. So did he haply 'scape the first the other would gore Never man the water from thence to sip shall fare. deal one ne'er so prudently in all his business.] thinking there is water where water there is none Hasten thither trusting to slake a thirst so sore. The reason for this I think might readily appear in the absence of the mirage as a in the Mombasa where the physical conditions do not favour phenomenon zone. 'Tis these sum up the vain world on which thou setst thy heart.THE INKISHAFI 98 14. there's . 'tice its nought but air ! us as they shimmer neath the sun makes blazing rays thirsty men to run. As through the narrow casement the sun begins to gleam To reach thy hand and grasp it a light thing would seem it ? Open now thy fingers [16. feet! All they shall draw thence. nought but raging The water they had fancied it. its development. a sorrow and a cheat Then is their drink vexation poor reward for weary . mortal. [18.

with the nails of the bent fingers brought down upon the teeth of the lower jaw. and forthwith leads them off. 28. 27. it. ! 21 To gnaw the fingers is a way of expressing a man's utter despair." The wrist is held to the chin. if so thou be inclined it is Man's life is ! ! but a Candle that In vain wouldst thou relight Puffed out in a moment. protest I am purposed thou shalt in no wise quash What barterest thou that world for this world's paltry trash My . span of life. Come. and without or tongue may make arrest. protest. 22. ! 26. your pride and insolence All ye occupied in whilst here with me. vain. Saying. your ! no longer linger here. but rekindled ne'er . But. and I cannot myself remember to have seen the gesture made in Central Africa earnest at any time. Up. We should express it as "gnashing the teeth. come. I man swear the end . . Kievu (mod. I swear ! 24. I school thee often. ! the foul Fiend bewrayeth thee here Nay. Thus suddenly the dart of Death And Or " 25.THE INKISHAFI 21. swearing by the beard. quotha. no space for penitence all's little ! Nor leave behind your stock-in-trade. Full a fool many flattereth to it In sucking sweet successes of the Then like remorseless Fish-hooks 99 have attained its meed End he took no heed it hath snared him for his greed Fools they die in gnawing their fingers in despair. depart ye 23. it. yea. Hold thy my by beard peace. : flickers in the wind. not so much as of a coughing one to cough No protest Never mortal summoned thus thereat may make demur. deep into the What this is vitals sinks. Then listen and 111 tell thee. though brightly it had shined ah. finished. and accordingly a thing very rarely witnessed under the British regime in E. swift mouth can open ere man's " ! falls full or ask it upon the breast. 'Tis past. kidevu) changu . the noose of Death once fast about their neck ! Vain. And. though Crying. Vain. I fain would hear ! heart of mine so rash. tell Yea. take your journey hence. my schooling still despise. a sacred oath 27 is ! with Moslems. ! heart with such experiences wilt thou be not yet wise. me that thou weariest of such impertinences. what business brings him here Then forthwith must my masters ? their sorry persons doff! For enter Kill-joy on the scene. vain to gnaw their fingers and their dear flesh to hack For now the World they canvassed hath played on them its ! trick.

and the pillar shares with the Evil One in this epithet. for to dare. The Pelted. The limitations presented by the immensity of Literally. this world's witchery was cozened and befooled Came there then another. Each upon the shelf of his sepulchre so drear 34. And each in his curt course would moil amidst his cares In busying his brains with Onward moving.THE INKISHAFI 100 29." Explained by the proverbial expression. heart. to heed well what I say Then heed me. was. mambo makubwa. which the devil is thought to haunt. whose word none might . . And I myself have seen them where now may they be found ? Go. How the Book of Ecclesiastes and the Jewish many interesting parallelisms with Wisdom Literature ! 33 35 See note in S. N. its place left black and drear. Recension ad loc. Or truly like the fierce Flare the cottar's brushwood makes When midst the forest clearing he has fired the bushy brakes Now plumy clouds up-piling it showers the sooty flakes 'tis Suddenly 30. umrl mchache . withhold Yet he by 33. seek their habitations down deep beneath the ground. mighty men of wealth full many hath it seen . become part of the ritual of pilgrimage. accordingly the Moslem pilgrims stone a certain This custom has pillar outside Mecca. quenched. Full many are the gay sparks this world hath seen around. " Their world was [too] long and their earth [too] slight. 32. the stocks Doom and shares. Reapedst thou its choicest. 30 BO called because the good angels are thought to be hurling the 'meteors seen at night upon Satan and his angels as they come playing the eavesdropper at the gates of paradise . vita brevis. our Ars longa. For each in his wide world had sought out his affairs. prithee oh.B. Both mighty King and Magus. of old. Shaitani rajimi in Swahili. Heaps of gold and silver had piled them up with care. eyes Mammon's closed. All sparkling and glistering like the noonday in its sheen. Nor give place to " The Pelted One " to mock at thee for aye. . 32 Selemanl is the native pronunciation of Ar. Yea. When he sees that thou too wilt be as Tie is there And then in thy dear world what shouldst thou find of gain ? And what advantage suck thence that thou art for it fain ? No single thing of lasting 'twould bring thee in its train ! 31. what couldst from out it bear ? Or readest not how Solomon the Prophet. I ! . (In Ar. Sulaiman. it would toss him high in air. Who storing hoards of ivory and treasuring unseen 35. . go no more astray Seek diligently wisdom. Ash shaitanur rajlm).

and the candelabra fine 'Tis true. and the narrow confined crib of circumstances are expressed in Ulimwengu wao uli taili (for tawili) na dunia yao ill akali (S. in art . I swear by Allah. 43 This passage is taken by one Mombasa authority (Mwalimu Sikujua) to refer to the beginning of the last long sleep of death in the case of a rich man the corpses even of the poor are "medicated" with at least camphor. 42. beyond compare. the universe. And everywhere they sit them. Gleaming in long rows. Stand forth well-trained handmaidens to fan and to shampoo With odalisques that singing skill to croon and to coo ! Softly lulling lullabies o'er and o'er.. And soft and silky pillows for the head and the feet Broidered are and braided with richness most rare. Brilliance 38. soft slumbers they would woo. in and out harem doth whisper. . The lampstands too are massy. their lights trimmed with care.THE INKISHAFI 36. The folds of high curtains do screen them from With canopies airy to o'ershadow them too view. attars in addition. How To toss they their chins all front of 101 contemptuously on high them and back of them their clients ! company. Encircling crystal goblets which they daintily upbear. All goodly are their couches. Where silvery lamps of crystal or of metal all Make night as bright as day in that refulgent y'dight light . 40.) Or the line might be freely emended by altering sini to siti as follows : 39 The serving maids be damozels both young and passing fair. whose bounty is divine With pedestals of rare woods. the wide world. Sweet waters and perfumes distil fragrant dew. in every part complete. 73 . Auth. 43. see under " word pamba in Krapf the rich might have costly unguents and ottoes" or . With garnishing that choice is. . And what time. their beds are exquisite. 39. their guards in ranks thereby Line up. and beauty are wreathed about them there. home -born. The vases that they range And all the sconces there are China's choicest ware filigree.. both teak and ebenine. good soldiers their errands for to bear. 37. : there servitor's prompt shout Gleesomeness and gladness aye gayer and gayer 41. Those halls of arabesques The long-galleried Here voices of the then reecho with the rout. a-weary. Sparkling in splendour midst all that bright gear. Unguents and attars sweet do drip adown their hair". And their's the high halls with their arabesques so white.

now empty and lone. Down. 45. . " 50 makumbi ya-nde= the outer chambers. Wireworms and centipedes coiling have a share. . inlaid with lovely old Persian and tiling crockery. Upshrivelled their skin and their beauty all gone. "Where corpses be invaded by putrefaction wan Their's the Tomb's straitness. Their cheeks are breaking down meagre and drear in a cankering ! dew While ghastly corruption doth penetrate through Their mouths and their nostrils make thoroughfares new Each once bright countenance becomes a thing of fear . here gathereth most or Red-dove. findeth them right good With termite and emmet. Undisturbed cobweb festooneth 50. it yield a luscious food. the sense of which is however sufficiently faithfully given. But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away. Here snoreth the brown owl. not a voice. . . In each inner courtyard the beetle it doth boom cricket's chirp rings round the well-corniced room . The Full strange shrills the sound neath the salamlic's dome Laid in dust the glory midst desolation drear. not a tone ! it o'er. 47 The termite or white ant in Africa plays actually the r61e which the earthworm is supposed to fill in popular imagination at home. for the Summons forth hath passed Down. making ravages rude. midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier. 47." So. down to the Tomb. no higher than a span ! There nevermore on rug nor on carpet lieth man. that bourne long and last. The City that has lodged them. Thus far. crib 46. to mate and to pair. 47 sombre gruesomeness of the original. green-dove. The niches in their rows still with porcelain incrust Do furnish each feathered fowl with a roost : . To crawling uncleanness they Carousing on their corpses 48. These stanzas have had to be considerably toned down from the 46. 51. Flesh from bone withered like rotten wood is sere. 49. 51 Elaborate pieces of such architecture. sun.THE INKISHAFI 102 44. the natural history here is correct. or of filthy coarse baboon . as of bear. ! . The Home they had dwelt in. Now black is each face which had beamed like the Or buff. selamlik or salamlic is the Turkish or Egyptian reception room for the male guests. Finds shelter for fledglings of doves that make moan But of those who had built it. were still extant in the last century.

strain both neck and ! eye. mark me well and give heed Haply shall the issue be made unto thee clear. My heart. falchion or the bird. . a name still remembered in Pate tradition 58 If possible that there have been two distinguished persons of the same name. . to those homes neath the sod have gone in Power and pomp they display nevermore. Ah. it is quite 'Ali bin Nasir. . 53. I ween. there is the place. O'ergrown are the forecourts with bush and with brake. . And where his great kinsman the Sheikh Abu-Bakr. lend me thine ear: Each mother's son is gone to that bourne dark and drear. Shadowing dimly shapes frightful with fear. all. Thou know'st not? I'll tell thee. . 103 Young kestrels go poise on the pegs in the wall The turtles bill and coo. moaning soft in the hall Or preening their feathers the down make to fall Jays and tomtits to their nests make repair. of instruction e'en now thou hast a need. Or else have thou thy say. Voice of fellow mortals thou shalt hear nevermore. two contemporary Winston Churchills. speak out in thy turn. Nay. lattice men to cheerSuch be the lodgings they are fain to use there. Where princely Idarus. come. And undergrowth rank ruder increase will make The darkling doors yawning do cause men to quake. for the truth would I learn . Say where are the forbears of whom thou wast born ? Gladly would I greet them and ask how they fare. pi. tell it forth plain. and the knight Muhuthar? Whither so far went they? else shew me. ! . how much more two 'Ali bin Nasirs : not contemporaries 59 kipanga (n. man go. though no doubt the latter was meant. 57. Where never opes window nor 58. zip-) of the Text may be the specialised form of upangu = sword. Then tell where is Aly the son of old Nasir. 59. 54. 55. And loud upon them call only echo makes reply . But urgent I warn thee and safely I would lead./aicora strangely either is admissible in the translation. if near? And famed Pate-Yunga's grim warriors. wilt not believe me ? dost think it is a lie ? See.THE INKTSHAFI 52. Each one with a face like a falcon so keen ? All. Then bend low thine ear. 56.

heart's balm to the mercies of the Man can but Ah me. who judgment would shew All hence be removed to the . on the day of the Onset thou shalt see Each several wrong action looming forth horribly While each so injured mortal to the Judge bends the knee Crying out for Vengeance on his tyrant who art there ! . you ! my old comrades. Scorching with a heat to be tempered nevermore. And the learn'd in the Law all concur in your view. to the right ways return If saved be thy friends. shew 69. who once. 66. nor think still to scorn . "Whealed your poor backs by the boards of the bier 61. And each eyeball bulge from its socket right away To what port or roadstead wouldst thou steer then. Bethink thee. plunging upon it Sun and Moon thou shalt see. crusht down upon the brain a potsherd beneath that Sun's bane. On that day men's midriffs shall burn them in pain. and delight Lord you commit are not ye are missed. skulls like the dead leaves shall spin in that day. Brother. dried like 68. heart? tell thy thoughts of these men. Oh. ! stress. be thou schooled. ! . salve for sore eyes. Depart from the evil. nor burn Evermore fuel for Jehannam's fierce fire. just Judges. Ye too.THE INKISHAFI 104 60. And And the seven Heavens o'erturned in chaos horribly . ! 62. Lo. 1 ? . Yea. me whither I I pray? too there would steer. 67. What sayest thou. hastens the Day when sub versed Earth shall be. Thou seest how the Lord hath lit on them with His Pen But know now thyself art as they were found then Or in man's lot hast thou only not a share Oh. What. And And skulls be battered in. Potentates and mighty Viziers. Who dealing with moot points aye settled them true Ne'er lay appeal from what ye pronounced fair ! 63. Made progress forth faring with guards of soldiers. went ye too thither ye Poets of mark and prowess sunk to the same cells of straitness and Ye Bards and Gone ! ? yes. and that sore. be thyself saved. could I but find you ! now all out of sight ! 65. ! . up Ne'er o'er their heads to assuage its fell glare. ! Tomb on your biers Bands of dread death do encompass you there And ye too. heart. ye 64.

The man who nor merit nor deserts can make to pass. Text is accordingly a bathos. . my heart. All bitted he and bridled like a horse or an ass whom his did harass. Wherein are stored the stocks and the And fetters ! and the chain .THE INKISHAFI 70. oh beware that hell of pain Is saddled with their sins Bidden. nor bought . In the word Labeka (now pronounced commonly Lebeka) the Poem comes to the conclusion of the whole matter. One of the 99 Moslem names of God on the Rosary or tasbih. nor given free. See the note ad loc. it is just here that Moslem doctrine stops (There is no possible assurance of forgiveness The elaboration of the various Mohammedan of sin consistent with Justice. on all his tyrannies. In judgment that harder than any iron is !" Then straightway to avenge them th' O'erpowering One* will rise. in the S. 70 73 ' ' ! ! TAMATI. Piecension. Lord. He now but to threaten them doth deign. Not of gold. so that here we see that which it is the aim of the whole Poem to induce but alas. Labeka Here am I " is the " " or " submissive one can make of the best sign that a Moslem a "yielded Submission he professes to the claims of God on his conscience. make Submission with: Lebeka I am here! Promptly sith that . 73. Merit's stamp alone findeth currency there. 72. ! 71. were it nugget or artfully inwrought Of silver they will none. ) hells which follows in the present N. Up and carry what they had else to bear Then lastly. Wreaking on thee vengeance and judgment austere And Recompense also for each victim shall be sought. 105 "Grant vengeance at length.


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