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E.A.. TAYLOR. etc. imbridge at the : University Press 1915 . W. STIGAND Author of The Land of Zinj To Abyssinia through an unknown Land. etc. M. Interpreter in Swahili and H.A GRAMMAR OF DIALECTIC CHANGES THE IN KISWAHILI LANGUAGE by CAPTAIN C. with an Introduction and a Recension and Poetical Translation of the Poem INKISHAFI^ a Swahili Speculum Mundi^ by the Rev.


they have the value of bringing to notice many words and forms which have not yet been elucidated and which might otherwise have passed into I am much indebted to Mr Taylor for oblivion. KAJOKAJI. presumed to be familiar with the dialect of Zanzi- and others are compared with bar. The isolation of different Swahili the past dialects. Although the records this. SUDAN. . made communities and sultanates in a situation favourable to the growth of numerous Modem transport facilities and the sinking of old feuds have caused a reversal of these conditions and now the newer dialect of Zanzibar The reader is is rapidly supplanting the older ones.PREFACE LANGUAGE A **- character . 1915 H. S. so little written Swahili as is unstable in and forms rapidly pass as changes occur old words out of use. undertaking some revision Appendix and also for the addition of another version of the same in the Mombasa dialect. are in most cases very imperfect. as well as for of the old poetry in the the translation of the piece. C.



because here he throws himself into a branch of research in which he is not perhaps quite so well known. Traveller is and Hunter of Big Game.). And no doubt the methods.C. but is no less worthy of attention. THE the Africa in already well known from his works on East capacities of Soldier and Administrator. It is therefore important to note that the point of view of the present work is taken as from the more Northern centre (Laniu). departures.P. and in the appearance of for the new generation . in my own African Aphorisms (S. as for instance in the Preface to Steere's Tales. whether in English or in any other language.INTRODUCTION who Author. so far as I am aware. To style this work the most elaborate on the Swahili Dialects which has yet appeared is not to give it more than its due. etc. to whom the Essay will be most precious .P. and I have gladly acceded to his request. and again in a tabulated form in a contribution to the (Mombasa) Swahili Grammar of Mrs Burt (S.K. which involve certain new conclusions. Explorer and Ethnologist.K.C. by reference to which works and to Krapf s Dictionary made here about Mombasa may be adjusted. will be subjected to the critical tests of examination in the field at the hands of those capable of judging in such and use matters. that of the original and enterprising Student of Language. and detail. though notes on these matters may be found in the extant handbooks and dictionaries. for which the statements the Author speaks authoritatively. This "give and take" however is essential to progress. for the Lamu class of Dialects indeed we have no other English guide. of the book. and will even be found to require a certain amount of modification. Indeed it comes as the first Monograph published upon the subject.). has kindly asked me to preface this Treatise with a few remarks of my own. this Manual a delightful task is provided of East African scholars..

thus depicting with a single touch the outstanding geographical Now this name Mvita. It will be interesting to note the reason for the facts I have Mombasa a little philology will be useful in illustra- alleged about Mvita. to be " have valable " throughout the length and breadth of all that is really "Swahili. and wide. in its purity. genius of the Mombasa dialect eschews the blemishes and excrescences which are to be found in Central. meaning a sinking in. The Mombasa is accordingly a dialect which proved in a moderately long. " which stands in contrast to the T above) and means thrust forth." with the root TA " It signifies." has become the subject of a sad play !" "war" as we are told say the natives. The Curtained Headpoint. and corruptions of the careless South. say Barawa. land. How easy then is it to see that while " " on the one hand the advantages of its sunken position would give it a speech which is both insular for purity and continental for and while its geographical situation. would secure a balance between the respective branches of the catholicity. and the needless complications and ironbound archaisms of the too conservative Islanders of the North the the others Mombasa all their speech. experience. lying in the midst between the South and the North sections of the Swahili coasts. and warlike . is itself I doubt not derived from " the root vi (otherwise zi). least as far off as is say while the Ngazija of the Comoro Islands is. from the feature of this "hidden Isle. is Vita "It upon words. you have in a nutshell all the olden history of the turbulent little territory as far back as it can be traced. at least under Arab rule. Languages the sterner stuff of the Mombasians of old. that in the Mvita or Mombasa may speak If I whole. its native name. experto crede." " throw out.INTRODUCTION IX of my own view of the language considered as a would say that the conclusion which much careful consideration has brought me to is." (otherwise CHA). ambiguities. I know that their uncouth jargon is so different a tongue as to be further or at Giryama or Pokomo from the Swahili . displays and cultivates to the full respective excellences. for one. born and . Now Vita is manifestly derived from the root TA ("cerebral" T restless history of the place. then. tion. I." because while the the too patent crudities. I dialect one finds " what may be classed as the truly Central Swahili. either civil or external. expeditions. though running on similar lines yet also a different language." as of a warlike expedition and in war." As for the Gunyas of the extreme North.

and onwards under its once famous Queens. par excellence. Also it must be admitted that good Mrima shares with the Mombasian somewhat in this excellence. the Dialect considered of all others the best fitted for accurate statement and grave discussion the Swahili for Prose. dealing with moot points aye settled them true the learn'd in the Who Ne'er lay appeal from what they pronounced fair " 1 all this. which are so interestingly discussed in it is this Book. as well as a eloquence malifu wa akili. or Milton's " the less maritime kings. are affected by the Swahilis at large as affording a mine and a mould for the forms and expressions of most Swahili Poetry." the Isle Accordingly KO. though no doubt there is good and bad literature or speech in every dialect here examined and some of the Mombasian examples are not of the former yet the above may be relied upon as a candid Native appreciation of their respective merits. and so on to the present day. and Quiloa. And a fact remarked by the Natives themselves that while the Dialect of Lamu and its congeners. from the far-off days of Shehe Mvita. treatises of different kinds. " " prose to signify all sustained speech. whether in MS. "puritanic. in a more or less unbroken succession the centuries.INTRODUCTION X bred as they were amid the clang of arms. the And vestiges of whose in palace Bishop Tucker sketched 1906. the City's along boasted hero and founder of its Mohammedan fame. However. for there are a few scattered representatives extant even now of these pristine ." genius of their Dialect. " not surprising to find that Kisiwani. no doubt. to of lore school of the Islam. And "just Judges who judgment could shew Law all concur in their view. such as one finds in native stories and tales.T it is efrxnv. Mombaza. retains men possessed of usemi na utakaand of profound intellect. and Melind. as well as from the existence to some extent in the Mrima of the same disposing causes." then the Mazru'is. quote the old Lament a memory of great Authorities. must have reacted favourably to produce the virile. or spoken. as well as in One uses the somewhat rare MS. doubtless from the fact that formerly there was frequent intermarriage between the two strains. and while the Zanzibar group to the South has furnished a lingua the Mombasian or Kimvita is franca and a terminology for Trade. such as Mwana Kambaya.

to add my own Recension of the same Poem. and spirit. E. to the study of languages. The Translation and I believe that it presents the first poetical version published in our tongue of anything African ever written south of the Equator is will enable original also offered as an attempt to convey accurately the general sense. differing in so felt that the possession of this more Southern details from the Northern. and mutatis mutandis the form also of a piece of literature which has been certainly held in reverence for centuries past as a great. and bearing.INTRODUCTION XI Worthies. Certainly. T. KYRK. since it was version. Africa and throughout the wide world (its Field). if not the greatest. W. made many years ago. many important scholars better to judge as to what was probably the form of this important Classic. here in E. In conclusion : To the Ancient Poem selected by the Author to serve as a specimen of the Kingozi I have been permitted through the hospitality of the University Press. at the instance of Captain Stigand. but for the Gospel message and attest the truth of the tradition. . of which the ruins laid low by the Portuguese remain to Thankful am I that this Dialect happily once more restored to its ancient glory as a vehicle for the Praises of God. to say nothing of the happier days that were before them. 1915. in the proper place. is the stimulus which its proclamation has given. religious Classic of But with these matters I have dealt more at length the race. when the Christians of St Thomas worshipped in numerous Churches. the present work would never have been written.

Der. = literally. = Kiuug. = Kitikuu. Kimv. Sing. = Kirngao. Kimg. Kip. = English. = Kiarau. PL = singular. Kit. Lit. = Kimvita. Kiunguja. .ABBREVIATIONS (Also see p. = derivation. = Kimrima. Kimr. 80. Eng. = Kipate. Kiam.) = Arabic. derived from. = plural. Ar.

. Zanzibar and the dialects. to be to the court language.-indicates.the much farther than this.A SHORT TREATISE ON DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES OF KISWAHILI THE langiifl.. In addition to this there is a good sprinkling of Portuguese.. r Js iswftbilj. Africa. Hindustani and Somali or Gala words.. Uganda and far info the Congo. Mrima. and as such is whole of the East African sea-board. at the present a language which is neither pure Mombasa nor pure talk day. refcrrpd to purer dialects of the as. of British East East Africa. and Portuguese East Africa. practical uses liowever extend This language is to Africa Europe. understood on the coasts of Somaliland and Arabia and It also penetrates It is holds sway as a trading and nautical language to a certain extent Malay Peninsula. Zanzibar. viz. these dialects have naturally a tendency to merge together. greater proportion of the language is of Bantu origin. Where considerable intercourse exists between members of two owing to modern improvements in communications. German language of the coast on the Swahili really only indigenous to the towns coast.Bantu The among Kiswahilj (or Kisawaheli in the Archipelago) is^j . but ) the more educated the proportion of words derived from S Arabic would perhaps amount to a quarter of the language. . Lamu The | J great bulk of the inhabitants of so to speak. Such is the state of things between Mombasa. now much what French used jt&. practically the It is -is . Nyasaland.mtk ... laces. as far as the This widely spoken language and is divided into numerous dialects sub-dialects.

So it is here that pure dialects can be found and moreover it is here that the birth of the Swahili language is said to have taken It would be more fitting therefore to commence with these place. and so words. Here we have many little islands and towns. It is. J have bracketed together into one group as they possess considerable similarity. In course of time this present language of the vulgar will very possibly become the so-called pure language. that are the better known and it is these which have been chiefly expounded and supplied with a certain amount of literature. however. The great influx of natives from the interior cannot its mark on the language fail to leave of the vulgar. dialects not only remain purer but tend to differentiate still further. once the rules are known. intelligible. very easy to recognise the new word when a change has taken place. that the language of the former city used to be a very pure dialect. as in the Lamu Archipelago. fore it is best to these latter dialects On account of many apparent exceptions to rules it is not so when a certain change will take place. 3. often become at once chief Swahili Dialects spoken on this coast are Kiunguja Kimrima Kimgao These three I } V : Zanzibar group. Thereit is assume that the reader is acquainted with one of and endeavour to lead up to the less known out the chief dialectic differences. For convenience in reference group.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 2 It would appear from old accounts. In places where there is little intercourse held with the outside world or between members of different dialects. however. I shall call this group the Zanzibar . 2. dialects and then proceed to the less pure. the language of Zanzibar and that of the Mrima However. and pointing by simple steps A knowledge of these dialectic differences will permit of many words being easily converted from one dialect into another by simple changes of letters and forms. each very conservative in its dialect and very punctilious in the observation of little dialectic differences. The 1. strange at easy to foretell first sight.

at Rasini. both in grammar and vocabu- : 12. The next two dialects might be grouped together into one group them as the differences are but slight between 8. of Amu. will suffice. Kiunga and other places on the coast N. with a sub-dialect : Kiviunba. list of all the lesser In addition to the true dialects there are several fanciful and useless forms A made up by few words on two changing. related to Swahili are all these dialects : Kingovi. This with a number of local dialects. Kialabi. Kitikuu. The 14. such as those spoken Tundwa. however. might be Farther afield but 13. Kingazija. : Kihadimu and Kitumbatu Kipemba 4. j Sub-dialects of Zanzibar group. 5. dropping or adding syllables. 6. still referred to as the This dialects : dialects of the Banadir coast. group has several - local variations of which two will be Kishela. Bajun group. is by no means. 12 . Kisiu. Kiamu 9. Lastly comes the parent of 15. an exhaustive which occur on this coast. Kipate} The Amu enumerated 10. 7. Very different lary Amugroup : 11. viz. J Distinguished from the Zanzibar group by slight differences in some grammatical formations is : Kimvita. is } : from all the above.PRINCIPAL DIALECTS ENUMERATED 3 There are a number of small sub-dialects and local variations of the above the chief of these are . : Kinyume.

Certain Swahili Letters appears that there are no less than five different t's in use in pure Swahili and clearly distinguishable from each T. This letter has a sound like a strong T followed by a susor sometimes rw. or te safi in Swahili. I have. in a book which has in view a comparison of dialects one has thought it necessary to make distinctions not usually needed. An exact understanding of some of these will facilitate the transposition of certain words into other dialects. The reader will of course get their correct sounds best from a native. the letter T This is nearly always be found that the t and not the other Arabic t is O. O called tay. shown Ku-Tii of the t t. distinguished by the . The Arabic (ii) = Koran a t occurs in an Arabic word which also contains (kh) tamamf. However. tip of made by nearly closing the teeth the tongue against the edges of the teeth. a clear dental t and putting the upper will it above. The different t's in pure Swahili are (i) The Arabic (tamaruf) called in Swahili. It common other to the educated Swahili ear. for dialectic reasons. J : Tamarufa.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 4 Before dealing with the differences existing between these touch on certain letters as it would be as well to dialects pronounced by the Swahili.B. To get the correct pronunciation picion of a w make a swahili-educated Swahili from the coast say these words close to your ear : KhaTari = danger KaraTasi = paper KhaTi = sultan = allegiance = letter KhuTubu = reading KhaTua = KhaTibu = a SulTan Taa' pace step. A multiplication of different letters is not approved of by most authorities on the language who aim at the simplification of writing. = necessary KhaTamu = bridle SharuTi When N. This symbol preacher to obey.

to pass (or come) = to (sail) draw (towards one from a distance occasionally) . . take Tutatunga = we will herd (cattle) = toddle Tatetate = to rub Ku-tua = lamp Taa = pillow. : Ku-tawala = to reign = to want Ku-taka Ku-tukua = to carry. in distinction to the pure t. hence or stranger to invite t'. form) T'aa T'ua Nt'i = country Nt'a = point. to your ear 5 Swahili. .CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS who does not and make him say close To obtain the pronunciation get a pure speak one of the Zanzibar group of dialects. important in the transposition of Kimvita words into Kiunguja. Examples. come towards Ku-fuata = to follow Mto = a river to make a guest one. and Aspirated dental t. = leavings after sifting rice = a certain spotted fish = a small perch-like fish = a mistake. Mto = Mombasa Ku-fita = to hide Mtanga = sand Tarikhi = date Wakati = time. This and the next two are called (iii) by the Swahilis te pindu or the overturned t. Shown here by = a louse T'awa (iv) T'embe T'ewa in = to cut . The Bantu cerebral t. fault T'akwambia=: I will tell you (abb. . Ku-pata Ku-pita Ku-kata Tumeteta Tumbiri Ku-tua Ku-vuta = = to get to pass. end = to snap the Ku-t'etea fingers.we have quarrelled = the red bud of a banana tree = to put down (a load). period Patapata = twins Mvita = to leave Ku-pata = to weave Ku-ata This t It is is shown by Taylor in italics. to lose one's bearings in a house at night on suddenly rising out of bed. let down so.

to tap gently Ku-dongoa = to pound a little (mtama. T'eo There are all kinds of graduations of the t's above when pronounced in different words and with different vowels and these can only be learnt by ear. or pure Arabic 3 (dal) called by the Swahilis the clean. sling. however. (i) The dental dali safi. As i. dal. there is practically no such thing as a pure dental d so in those dialects this d must be pronounced more as a cerebral d. n has a disturbing . Dimia = the world Ku-dirika = to meet Ku-dodosi . D. at a time and and every other word in which a d occurs unless that d immediately preceded by the letter n. T'embe Shown here by =a t'. this is by far the most common d I have shown as it Taylor shows it in italics.e. In pure Swahili there appear to be three d's in use.) thus pound it thoroughly Hadimu =a servant Hadithi =a story. To pronounce this letter the must be placed in the same position as in pronouncing the tongue simple d. etc. is In the Zanzibar group. as in English.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 6 Aspirated cerebral (v) t. The effect of combination with the letter influence on the pure d. or pure. dental t. grain Ku-t'enda = to do = dates T'ende T'umbiri = a monkey Mat'ongo = eye matter = a person Mt'u Kit' and a = a bed = a strap. Examples.

) = beginning = come Ndoo (Kimv. re pronounced exactly half way between d and r.) = to taste Konda (Kiam. > = ndugu.) = a loop.B. Ndani Ndoo Kanda = inside = a bucket = a matting bag . viz.) = to begin = a workman Fundi (Kimv. Examples. the overturned d. The is supposed to represent the Arabic j and thus convey to the mind that in transliteration an r is to be used.)= to Ku-penda (Kimv.) = to kill Ku-anda (Kiam. This is As an Example. The (iii) pindu or re slurred d called by ya pindu.) Kandu (Kiam. path = a kanzu (garment) Ku-kunda (Kiam.) Mwando (Kiam. Ndia (Kimv.) Kitandi (Kiam. As this letter is important for dialectic reasons I have marked (ii) dali it 4 Examples.) = to fold love Ku-tinda (Kimv. The Kim vita words above N. the Kiamu words are all only used in occur also in Kimvita Kiamu but after undergoing dialectic changes.) = hunger Ndaa (Kimv.) = outside Nde (Kimv. This sound is made by raising the tongue a little higher than for the dental d and opening the mouth a little wider.) = a road. Swahilis not d but r. i.e.) = belonging to Nda (Kiam.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 7 In pure Swahili on all occasions that the combination nd d must be pronounced in one of the two following occurs the ways : The semi-dental d called by the Swahilis dali pindu or ya pindu. aid to those studying Swahili in Arabic characters I have shown it as d.

and Kiung. may (a' in) after the a'skari Example. The and R. still pronounced in juxta- Thus nyele (Kiinv. Certain other letters The Arabic . As we are beginning at the newer dialects and working back to the older and purer it will appear as if these letters have been cut out. is pronounceable in Kimv. In reality the thicker and less pure pronunciation of the southern dialects does not permit of certain vowels being position and nyee (Kiam. Ku-fundisha Ku-kanda Hando Gando .) but in the Ingira. between these There is also a tendency. and r are interchangeable in different dialects.) appears nyere (Kimr. These two kinds when it and d have been touched on at length so letters t to distinguish between the different may comes to the transposition of one kind of t or d learn that the reader in a dialectic change. congeal Ku-ganda = to teach.. L c letter shown by an apostrophe be touched on briefly. . more cerebral d takes the place dental of and (i) (ii). soldier. In pure Swahili no other d is used but these three. the pure d is not used and a slurred.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 8 = to massage = a vessel for water = a lobster's claw = Adam's apple also. in less pure dialects. freeze. deep water Kilindi Ku-piga dondo = to iron (clothes) = to curdle.).) and sometimes so an 1 or r inserted to help out the sound. as is However Ingia (Kiam. to insert one of these letters between two consecutive vowels. and Kiung. In some dialects there appears to be no clear distinction made letters and either may be used in the same word. as mentioned above. letters 1 = where pronounced. has been vowel which bears its sound. In the Zanzibar group however. it appears as Ingila and thicker speech of Kimg.

= near = lamp. Examples. cray fish. lantern (ku)-kafini = to cover up = a tribe Kabila = to seize. = paddle Kafi = oar Kasia = large jar Kasiki Ku-kataa = to refuse Kaa = ember Kwake Kwenda = at his (home) = to go = and afterwards. Of (i) The Arabic k's there are three kinds. then. viz.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS Other letters which are another dialect are 9 when passing interchangeable into : ch and t f s n m v and v g J s sh z d g k sh ch ch z th and y 1 t J f z and a few others more seldom. J called in Swahili kafu nyangwe. (ii) All words possessing this letter are of Arabic origin. sail to prawn * foromali ' is a . Hakika Karibu Kandili N.B. hold (ku)-kaba Kahawa = coffee = a caravan Kafila = truth. Examples. k'. The simple k or Arabic J (kaf ). K'aa K'asa =a =a crab turtle K'ajek'aje = ropes for fastening K'amba lobster. This strong guttural k. Examples. and Kisa (iii) The aspirated form of the last. K.

" Kaa is sit on your hunkers that you may quiet your heart." Ch and P. thus impossible to speak correctly unless attention has It is been paid to them. over a consonant have for long been spelt in Swahili with the double consonant. komba. The letters ch and p may be aspirated or not as is the case with 6. Kaa ni kaa kitako utuze wako mtima. Kaa tena nda mnazi lendalo mbele na nyuma. Kaa is just wait you will see what I will do to you. Kaa ni kaa la moto liwakalo na kuzima. komba. For in that this verse k'aa (a crab) does not sound to it him is not mentioned from the fact in the least like kaa. very different sounds. popoo. K'oko K'ek'e In case anyone may think these distinctions in different letters unworthy of attention. " law " 6. They are certainly unintelligible to a native pronounced in the latter way. may bring home to the reader how clear these differences in the pronunciation of a letter appear to the native. Kaa again is (the stalk) of the coconut which sways to and fro. Certain words derived from Arabic words with " teshdid. enumerating the four meanings of the word kaa. is confusing and also leads them often to appropriate sign written. have distinguished the sound of aw as in Eng. to the native ear. I may mention that all the distinctions I have made represent. I by the sign No k (ii) and (iii). etc. Translation.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS 10 = the Indian drill = K'elele a shout K'ering'ende = a partridge = a kernel. Kaa ungoja utaona mimi takapo kupata. is used for this sound in Swahili. . The following little verse. as usually shown by simple o." or the sign of duplication. popoo. it being pass for another word. Other words which even in Arabic are never spelt with teshdid have been introduced with Roman characters into Swahili with a reduplication of some consonant. as kolokolo. To pronounce such words as Kolokolo. Kaa is an ember of the fire which brightens and dies out.

to pronounce a closed syllable. although this consonant is hardly pronounced in Arabic. Such spelling is not according to the pronunciation of these words by Swahili. J%elafAa Thikiri . Th Th Th in italics = Arabic = Dh = Putting aside these last letter > . for facility of reference to Arabic dictionaries if required.3 Example. followed Taylor's mode of spelling. in strange words which do not occur in the dictionary I have... the other differences in letters serve the purpose of distinguishing many words which to the unaccustomed ear sound alike. There Ku-pata is and no confusion in the native mind between : . ilia. Th. used the following signs. This is more in accord with Swahili pronunciation and the inability of Bantu natives.*.CERTAIN SWAHILI LETTERS To quote the commonest. with a single consonant. or most Bantu speaking natives. sitta. letters. tissa. Thalimu Ramadhani. 11 billa.. marra. viz. . I have therefore. in regard to such words. There are a variety of th and dh sounds in Arabic which Where such are pronounced or are seldom pronounced in Swahili. Bassi. which do not count for much in Swahili. are usually spelt with the double consonant. with few exceptions.

Showing what simple transpositions. as natives love to do." "to remain. sun . In other cases there may be several words bearing the same of which are understood in several dialects. he would probably use all three. Yet if one heard a man use ku-limatia several times during a conversation one would probably be correct in assuming that he came from the Lamu Archipelago. dialect prefers one of these and some other dialect another. omissions or additions of letters will serve to turn a word from one dialect into another. but it is distinctly dialect. all down the meaning coast. A few examples of different words used in two different dialects conveying the same sense. II. In Mombasa it is used almost to the exclusion of ku-kaa in the sense of "to live. Again a word may be used sense in one dialect Thus when it is in a different sense or in some special not used in others." are understood. III." In Zanzibar ku-kaa is used almost to the exclusion of ku-keti. So not if mean one says that certain words are typical of a dialect it does necessarily that they will not be heard or known in another means that they are the favourite and most used of the words of their meanings. Changes of Grammar. Showing forms used in the dialect referred to differing from those of the preceding. or the two most foreign to him. " to delay. ku-kawia and ku-limatia. ku-chelewa. it a Mombasa and Amu group word." viz. Thus one hears the word ku-keti in Zanzibar. more or less. If he was showing off. although not in use in in the sense of "to delay" is in general use Mombasa and Amu meaning "to have delayed until overtaken by something. all all Thus the three words. Many words are foui>d absolutely distinct in two separate dialects. Changes of Letters. ku-kawia to the exclusion of the other two he was of Mombasa and if he used ku-chelewa Similarly if he used one might guess that he was of the Zanzibar group and possibly an Mgao. but one meaning. Changes of Vocabulary. ku-chelewa. of the words above.DIALECTIC CHANGES 12 Headings for Dialectic Changes I.

" in which sense it is For two reasons especially great care must be exercised in determining whether a word does or does not belong to a certain dialect. Ku-kaa kitako but not ku-keti kitako. I fear that all these headings will be treated all too In fact and roughly. Again a word in some dialect may have a wider meaning. He not attempt to explain their meanings but will revel in comrades and showing what a travelled fellow he is. He thinks that that a foreigner should understand. native returning A from a safari in his travels using any words he may have picked up and may pronounce them wrongly or assign to them will delight in wrong meanings. dialects big tract of country they cover. in spite of the more resemblance to each other than any other group of dialects. it is " "foreign and therefore Neither this nor the last heading can IV. possess almost . sailor-man Chinese or Cingalese." " " " to " live or remain in the although not used for " having oyerslept. hoping to make himself more intelligible. Another difficulty is that if a native talks to a white man who imperfectly knows his language he will put in as many foreign words as he can.ZANZIBAR GROUP and thus or tide. briefly may give Zanzibar Group." In Kimv. I have often heard two of our Nyasaland askari. Ku-tota (Kiamu)= to be sunk. talking to using their each other in very broken Swahili in preference to own language.g. will mystifying his nor will his comrades attempt to ask him their meanings. but it is hoped that at any rate they the reader a few ideas as to what to look out for.g. It is with exactly the same motive in view as that of the British " who says " Savey? to any native. both of the same tribe. " the tide or Ku-kaa is used for 13 " " being caught by stranded by the tide. The grouped together under this name. for the picking up of idioms is a matter which requires long residence in a country." left latter places is always used with kitako. " E. Indian or African. Changes of Idiom. in addition to the above meanings (which are seldom used) "to be saturated commonly used. drowned. lost at sea. the same word means. E. be dealt with in anything but a meagre way. The first is the native's love of display. be he.

This construction does not occur in the group. in certain tenses. is final -a of a change of the is : root in the second person plural of the Imperative into Pendeni = Example. objective person plural being. its place being taken : Mombasa Example. This I will tell you (sing. Nitakwambia = or t'akwambia (vii) The Example. The corresponding construction in Kimvita. does one meet with (v) One trained ear Thus is in of the most striking differences that the dental t and these dialects between such words as it in this group to the are almost absent. interrogative suffix -ni occurs in all this group.). Example. etc. This in the purer dialects would be pendani. Amu (pi. Exceptions however occur in poetry and in a few proverbs. (iii) of the (iv) The distinguished by the use farther one goes from Zanzibar in this group the more ch in place of k especially before certain vowels.). The whole of this group is also ch which changes to t in Kimvita. love ye. Amefanyani P = what has he done ? not heard in Kimv. where the form is Amefanya nini P and sometimes Amefanyaje? which latter also means " how has is he done?" . would mto and d must be pronounced d be difficult to distinguish into.ZANZIBAR GROUP 14 The whole of this group The formation (i) distinguished by is of the pronoun in the second -m. Namfuatani = The the root sometimes changes to final -a of follow I Nimemwambieni = Example.(or -mw-) -ni. In the Zanzibar group there is no clipping of the (vi) personal pronouns prefixed to the verb but they are always used in their full form. have told you I In this group there (pi.). (ii) or the by -wa-. you -e. Nawafuata and nimewambia. the -e. in this group as a cerebral. and not ntakwambia as in purer Swahili.

alone and so have avoided the influence of the Zanzibar tongue. Swahilis from such caravans settled Mrima and Mgao the down in various places in the original stock of Swahilis there and bringing with them the dialect of Zanzibar. to the labours of the Universities' known and other missions moreover provided with a considerable amount of way this of all the dialects. for t's. vocabularies. literature. is the language of Zanzibar and more especially of the town of Zanzibar Owing is the best It is in the itself. stories. The only English -Swahili and Swahili-English dictionaries avail- able (Madan's) are in that dialect. Kiunguja 1.KIUNGUJA There is wonderfully little 15 difference in the vocabulary of the three dialects of this group. This is to be attributed probably to the slave and ivory caravans which started from Zanzibar and pushed into these districts. not Kiswahili or districts. of grammars. comparatively speaking. Zanzibar therefore practically confines itself to three t's and d's. . It is thus easy to see why both these dialects should have been stamped with the impress of the Zanzibar tongue. replenishing Kimgao but Kiunguja. for Zanzibar was the hub of their universe. especially the latter. etc. accessible to the student. viz. The Swahilis of Lake Nyasa call their language. d's two The d used more approaches our English d than do any of the touched on above. The dental t it then. It is unnecessary to make any comment on words on the pronunciation of certain letters. During the last century there has been a tremendous amount of trade passing between Zanzibar and every part of the Mgao Mrima and coasts. except a few and d are slurred over and do not occur as pure dentals. dali safi. It has therefore been taken as the standard for comparison with other dialects. dali pindu and re pindu. so The habitats of the other dialects have been left. These are tamarufa and the cerebral t aspirated and unaspirated. and a kind of dali pindu and the re pindu for d's.

is in use. Kiunguja has two sub-dialects.KIMRIMA 16 The Arabic c however is marked strongly in all its changes of pronunciation with different vowels. inlocal variations. kwisha = to be finished ! . there should be order. with from Vanga nearly to Kilwa. = a plan. one of the interior of the island and one of Pemba. for the first is spelt taa="lamp. Examples. make to flourish. or circumcision ceremony = gratis. strengthen." The Arabic tamaruf with both J and ()*) is generally well marked following two words should be pronounced differently and $. cluding a Swahili paper edited at Tanga. = a frog = silk. for nothing s. Ku-saliTi Ku-saliti (fr. Kimrima. JaJLw) Ar. Thus ku-amrisha = to ku-a'mrisha = to and Nor no confusion between in Kiung. 2. R frequently changes to Examples (in certain sub-dialects). " " should there be confusion between Taa' = allegiance prosper. for barua =a Kalama karama = a Halusi harusi Bule Chula bure chura Halili hariri often changes to letter feast = a wedding. to be hard. unyielding to urge. Balua Sh 1. and so the and not be confused. conquer Kwisa . or the dialect of the Mrima coast. Changes of Letters I. which will be mentioned later. counsel Sauri for shauri Ku-siba ku-shiba = to become replete (with food) Ku-sinda ku-shinda = to overcome. The dialect has been copiously dealt with by the Germans and possesses a considerable amount of German-Swahili literature. (fr. = = cJlo) Ar. egg on.

however. the greater appears to be the dislike This is probably due to the two successive vowels. of a native with thicker lips to pronounce such vowels .KIMRIMA Ku-sika Sindo for = to seize = a noise ku-shitaki = to accuse = eyebrows. more marked in the next dialect. Examples. knock down to make. u after a nasal m muje for mje = "you such (pi. to break to fall. for Amuri samli = ghee amri = an order. Examples.) must come. Ku-cheti This too more marked is for ku-keti = to stay. or e. There by i is occasionally a tendency to change k. Kiza ku-sogea = to come near ku-koroga = to stir = what sort of? gani ? = darkness giza Koka koga Ku-sokea Ku-koroka for KaniP There as a tendency to is mutu for mtu = "a = a insert person. nyushi Ku-sitaki Nyusi G ku-shika shindo 17 sometimes changes to k. when followed sit. Ku-vunza Ku-anguza Ku-fanyisha The less inability ku-vunjisha= to cause ku-angusha = to cause ku-fanyiza = to cause pure a dialect to pronounce clearly. Example. in the next dialect. Causative verbs sometimes have a different causative termination from the one used in Kiung. is not a nasal immediately precedes a conin to prevent a closed syllable. for is. When an m which sonant a u may be put Sanmli Examples." This is." or to bathe. into ch.

) Nampendani = I love you (pi.KIMRIMA 18 The usual method of an is to slur over the vowels by the introduction or r sound. Choroko Kitambara More seldom one of the vowels Tabu Example. for may taabu = rag. In reflexive verbs Example. etc. Chakwe.) will tell you (pi. kwakwe. be cut out. he saiba is like) Similarly N. vyakwe. pakwe.) Atamwambieni.B. his fellow is the mchirika rat. yakwe mchirika = the Buku rat.e. or nimekwambieni = I have told you Past Future Alimpendani = he loved you (pi. Kitowero = foot. . i is often used for Kuiketilia ji. chooni . closet (locative) chooko =peas kitambaa = handkerchief. Puku (i.) Nimemwambieni. leg = hunger ku-pakua = to dish up kitoweo = something Jara jaa Mguru for guu njaa Njara Ku-pakuru (food) to flavour or eat with rice. trouble. IL Changes of Grammar The objective pronoun of the second person plural same construction as in Kiung. the possessive pronoun -ake changes to -akwe. or atakwambieni = he (pi. out in all : Bondei (of Pangani). in dialect of the Example.).. follows the : Infinitive Present Perfect Kumpendeni = to love you (pi. an old Swahili form which seems to have died but a few corners. In some of the local variations of Kimr. Choroni = dust = bathroom. 1 Examples. oneself down. for kujiketilia This = to is sit like Kiamu. viz. This is etc.

fulani and so s name J = an axe Soka ya kuni Jicho ja babiye = for firewood his father's eye. where) will you ? find him ? 22 . mama. Singo yangu = my neck = his kitchen Gongo yako = your staff Tango yetu = our pumpkin Jiko yake Neno ingine (or nyingine) = another word.KIMRIMA Possessive pronouns with sing. Watokeapi Nitapitapi where do you come from ? P Utampatapi ? = where shall I pass ? = how (lit. Jma ja . Jina ya fulani) . In certain dialects of Kimr." is also heard.class analogy being carried The still farther. however. Ndugu. so \ . however. Ile = that is the brother ng'ombe = those are the cattle. and not concords. though not in the verbal concord. Also yake for lake and similarly for other concords in the sing..class and their possessive pronouns take concords as for the n. Examples. are of the class. the n. The demonstratives and verbal animate Ndugu yangu Example. ng'ombe. On the coast immediately opposite Zanzibar. Ile the chief. of this class.B.class analogy is maintained in the demonstrative. interrog.. ile ndugu but yule ndugu amefika imefika. certain animate beings are in the form of the n. ndugu Zile mfaume = " that is mfaume is of the first class.class. nouns of the ya ma- 19 or ja are used in place of la to agree class. Examples. concords as in Kiung. Examples. pronoun wapi P is often shortened to a suffix -pi ? Examples. In Kiung. appear to hold good. . N. though In the next dialect we get cases of the n. baba.

conditional tense.tense the pronominal prefixes a. Wemekwenda = they In place of -vyo-. Aina Babiye is are some- = he has come Emekuja Examples. = while I was as yet in the way Ningali njiani = he was as yet only a youngster Angali mtoto Angaliko mujini = while he was yet in the village. In the -me.. A common expression in Kimr. -vofor Alivopata Nimevokwambia III. Changes of Idiom IV. Examples." occasionally used for humo meaning Kati and kati ya are used instead of katika in such phrases as Mnamo is : Kati ya nchi ile for katika nchi ile = in that country. These are very used in phrases such as follow : = how he got = nimevyokwambia as I have told you. alivyopata a few instances are given under. I have gone. for namna = sort.KIMKIMA 20 For the -kali (as yet) tense -ngali may be used. . =a panali . . babake = his father kind Ku-gwia ku-fikicha = to crumble ku-kamata = to seize Kinyumenyume nyuma (in certain senses) Kiribiti kibiriti = a match Kitumba Machufuko kanda = a fisherman's basket = disorders = his mother = a chief Ku-fikinya fitina mamake Mamiye Mfaume mfalme Pahara) > Pahala j . Changes of Vocabulary slight. = behind place. Nitafanya namna gani P for is : nifanyeji ? = what shall I do ? " there inside. .and times represented by e.and we-. which must not be confounded with the -ngali. wa- have not had any opportunity to collect any of these except the three following.

) = hunger Tajili tajiri Kadili kadiri Ku-ludi ku-rudi Ku-luka ku-ruka Leale Haluzi harusi Kwa heli kwa reale = a rich man = value. or with a letter which is way between the two. and a word may equally well be pronounced with either. and aa have. Kimgao is the language of the 21 Mgao coast from Kilwa (or Kirwa) southwards. oo. received r or 1 in Kimrima before reaching this dialect. in Kimrima there is a great aversion to pronounce two As vowels successively and the sound is carried over by means of 1 or r. Many of the sounds in eo.KIMGAO 3. As will be shown later sounds in ee. Thus we have exactly half : for Njala njara (Kimr. such as the Kiamu nyee and mbee. it would appear that the natives do not properly distinguish between the two letters. Changes of Letters I. The following remarks will refer more especially to this latter dialect. as has been shown already. however. . There is also a settlement of Mgao Swahilis on Lake Nyasa. In this dialect. The language of these latter has borrowed a certain amount of words from the languages of the surrounding tribes. heri There does not appear to be a tendency to substitute s for sh. As in Kirnrima r and 1 are interchanged but to a still greater extent. have already been provided with an 1 before reaching Zanzibar or the Mrima. The vowels that are especially objected to in juxtaposition are : ee eo oo aa ia ea. amount = to return = to fly = a dollar Bira bila Ku-pereka ku-peleka Asari asali = a wedding = goodbye = without = to send = honey Mari mail = property.

Examples. general use instead of m.KIMGAO 22 The remaining two sounds on the list. Fanya hivo Example. In fact in the u is U by Muungu word for Mungu = " God. kingine = another (thing) kikaanguka = and (the thing) = this (thing) hiki kichwa =head ku-kimbia = to run away.) must beat him = I will give him. aendaye and aliraye but this is more a grammatical than phonological change. fell . however. as in goes. but here they usually take the 1 ia and ea. There appears. is if followed certain consonants.) want mwampige = you (pi. and as the objective infix of the third person is in sing. as the pronominal prefix of second person plural. Mu Auwali for awali = before Ku-amuka ku-amka = to awake Muti mti =a tree." a second added.) = to = to ku-lia = to ku-mea ku-ingia the Zanzibar group the -ae of Mombasa aendae = he who aliae he who or enter seize cry grow. often changes to eh. Ku-ingira (or ingila) for Ku-gwira Ku-lira Ku-mera In all = to ku-gwia (Kimr. viz. are pronounced or r. K before = and you (pi. Chingine for Chikaanguka Hichi Chichwa Ku-chimbia . especially after nasal ms. Examples. avoided by the use of y. cries. Mukataka for Miunupige Nitamupa Hivo is used instead of hivyo. to be no aversion to the use of two u's is in juxtaposition. Examples.. Examples. nitampa mkataka i for fanya hivyo = do like that. in Kimr. frequently added.

. = he loved. There appears to be a tendency to use the same pronominal third person plural of prefix for both the third person sing. = you do Haupendi Haukupenda = you not love did not love Haujapenda = you have not yet loved.) Namwambiani = Tumemwambiani We have told you (pi. they have loved they loved they did not love they have not yet loved.) Tumemupendani = We have loved you (pi. Grammar Changes of The construction of the objective pronoun of the second person plural resembles that of Kiung.). Alipenda = Hakupenda he did not Hajapenda = he has not love. and also. Examples. mu takes m However.instead of hu- tenses sing. and the the animate class.) Perfect = I tell you (pi.) he must tell you (pi. except that the place of before a consonant. and Kimr.) = final -a of the and loved you verb of course changes to -e in the sub- in the -ka. Amwambieni Akakwambieni = and The pronominal prefix of second person is hau.) Past Tulimwambiani = We Future _ Nitamupendam| Nitakupendam j Present -Ear tense The junctive. Kukupendani Infinitive or kumupendani = to love you (pi. = he must tell you (pi. This is Examples. the last -a of the verb does not appear ever to change to -e as in the last dialect. in the negative . Amependa = he has loved. (pi. Examples. no doubt from contact with the surrounding inland languages many of which make no distinction. Examples. yet loved.23 KIMGAO II.tense after a subjunctive.

prefixed to it. Examples. with an objective prefix the ku- is dropped. If there is an objective prefix." . the n. = I hunted elands = Zimepata they (the elands) have been Ng'bmbe zinakwenda = the cattle go Ndugu yangu anapita = my brother is passing.K1MGAO 24 The result of this When a verb is considerable ambiguity." Examples. draws a number of local words from the surrounding languages. " " " are with They chiefly used such words as house or village. The first part ends with the relative while the next part consists of the verb root with a ku. Mnyumba mwake = in = at Pa muji pake Ku (or kwa) muji kwake = to The form -akwe his house his village his village." and ku-saka for kuwinda = " to hunt. borrowed from the surrounding languages. kwenda = where he (or they) went = he who wants Anao kutaka Tuliwo kuwapa = we who gave them Unapo kufika = when you come. In this dialect the agreement of concords of animate beings in is occasionally carried as far as the verb. are used in place of the locative in -ni. Alike Occasionally locative forms.and the verb. Examples. it comes between the ku. Such are pindi for uta = " a bow. of the possessive pronoun appears not to be in use.class This however is not done with human beings.or kw. however. Nalizisaka mbunju risasi but III. Very often. used with a relative the word is is broken up into two parts. However the sub-dialect (Nyasaland) we are chiefly talking about. hit Changes of Vocabulary The vocabulary of this dialect is very like that of Kimr.

Mahali for Kabila Ku-ima = a place pahali kabla or kabula = before = to ku-simama . . Kihadimu and Kitumbatu are the names by which the dialect of the isle of Zanzibar.or -ki. 25 Examples of other words. understood. 4.B. The Wahadimu is known. the old Swahili word in use before is ku-simama \ Its causative ku-imiza also used." . It is place of used on every conceivable occasion and often takes the what in other dialects would be the -ka. agreeing with mambo. outside the town. This is a dialect much corrupted by intercourse with inland tribes. This latter word. older words or forms being retained in a newer dialect. Example. be descendants of the original inhabitants of Zanzibar before the coming of the Arabs. is Changes of Idiom IV. no way be taken as applying to a pure dialect. Examples. The Active form of the verb is preferred in this dialect and is often used instead of the Passive at the expense of perspicuity.KIHADIMU KIMGAO. they hit me) went to beat him and he himself was \ beaten (lit. There seems to be a general aversion to the use of the Passive. = Amenipiga was hit (lit. stand. Si maziiri = it is not good (proper or The above remarks can N. ku-ima. I Amekwenda kumpiga ) _~ akampiga mwenyewej The f he Infinitive of the verb is used more frequently than in other dialects. Example. are said to 1 A similar state of things. in well). Alikwenda kule. viz. kufika akaona Mazuri is j _ fHe went there and when he arrived ~~ fulanij he saw so and \ so.tenses. and he beat him himself). used in place of vizuri. can be noticed in some so-called "Americanisms.

Kipemba is the dialect of the akin to the former dialect and like the old inhabitants of the it of Pemba. meet the true dental letters t and d which have not occurred in any of the dialects yet enumerated. Kimvita is the dialect of Mombasa. it must be remembered that we are probably going backwards. The origin of the name Mvita " war. Kihadimu the dialect of the east and south of the island." because. said to be the same dialect called by another name is and Kitumbatu is at the north of the island. There is more difference between this dialect and Kiunguja than between any of the dialects yet touched on.26 KIMVITA KIPEMBA. It might be said to extend from Malindi (north of Mombasa) to Gasi (south). Mombasa drew its Swahili largely from It is in Kimv. That is to say that words probably came from Pate or Mombasa to the newer civilisation of Zanzibar. Ch Changes of Letters Kiung. Ku-fita ku-ficha Matezo machezo mchanga Mtanga = unripe = to hide = games =sand . 5. would involve the changing of t into t and the addition of m. then only savages. It is very contains words drawn from isle isles. I. is said to be is said by the people of Mombas derived from mfita="one who when the Pate people swept down the coast. changes to t Kimv. that we first It is also probable that Amu and northwards. the Mombasa people. This latter derivation would appear more likely. words into Kimv. This dialect is more Bantu and less Arabic than the dialect of the town of Zanzibar. hid in the bush." to be derived from vita = By others it hides. 6. being often altered in transit. In converting Kiung. Many of Steere's Swahili Stories are much in the style of this dialect. -biti for -bichi . for it is a The former explanation simple transition to change f into v.

as the Swahilis say. There are however several exceptions such as wot'e. and others. changu. for =a ncha point T'awa T'ewa = a country chawa = a louse chewa = a certain fish T'ini chini nchi Nt'i = below. changes eh to t are stands in place of ki. carry. chako. These pronouns should really be kia. etc. : viz. Words which are spelt in Kiung. turned over a little and becomes t'. or that the eh in Kiung.class beginning with eh. kiangu. kietu. or some other Examples. but have undergone a euphonistic change to eh. (a) Particles (6) Words reason as (a). marked t nearly all occur in : Words derived from Arabic words spelt with O. is aspirated. : and pronouns agreeing with ki. etc. Mtawi for mchunga Mtuzi Patapata Ku-tagua Ku-teka Tokaa Tui Ku-tukua it In other cases where a disturbing influence has acted on the t has been. kiako.27 KIM VITA mchawi = wizard Mtele mchele =rice Mtunga = a herdsman = gravy mchuzi pachapacha = a pair. with eh. for the same . There are all grades of sound ranging between the pure dental t and the aspirated cerebral t'. The exceptions (i) to the rule that In words in which the eh Kiung. alike ku-chagua = to choose = to laugh ku-cheka = lime chokaa = a leopard chui ku-chukua = to take. I have not tried to distinguish these sounds as they Those (i) (ii) (iii) differ letters almost with every vowel used. Such influences may be the letter n. Words which do not occur in Kiung. mto. of the ki. Nt'a causes.class such as cha. chetu.

chuni (=a kind of water bird).. chambo. chura. In Kimv. chombo.KIM VITA 28 Examples. choo. njaa = hunger nje = outside njia = road.class and is always called tupa. change. A few other words might be remarked on containing ch. Possibly however the word is borrowed in its entirety from Zanzibar as this word is never heard in the purer dialects. Ku-cha (to dawn) does not change in Kimv. Ku-choka. Chai. Foreign words and beginning with ch-. A (iii) few other exceptions which do not appear to follow rule. chandarua. the d being the semi- dental explained above. chapa. and Kip. heard as both tupa and chupa in Kimv. -changa.. chuma. ehenza. Taking are first those occurring at the beginning of a word. cheo. ku-chota. chumvi. (ii) many of the words of the ma- class Examples. choyo. Chakula. chaki. All of these are the same in Kimv.or in the ma. chungwa. mchikichi.class in Kimv.) they appear as kuTa and but kiTa pronounced with tamaruf (1). .) is follows the rules above. changes to nd in Kimv. chumba. chooko.. ku-pambauka and other Kuchwa in the purer dialects (Kiam.class so it Chupa but it is (Kiung. Ndaa Nde Ndia Ndiwa Ndoo for . chaza (ma. -chache. this d is not quite the pure dental owing to the disturbing effect of the letter n. and kichwa change to kutwa and kitwa (Kimv.). uchafu. In Kiamu it belongs only to the n. path njiwa = a dove njoo = come (imperative). chokora. Kiung. ku-chafuka. expressions being used in Nj in its place. chungu.). used indiscriminately in the n. chuo. mchekeche. ku-cha ( to fear). there : Examples. ku-chelewa. any = Examples.

. njuga. this dialect begin the clipped forms of pronominal prefix.) Past Tuliwapenda = we Future Watawapenda = they =that Niwapende Infinitive Present Subjunctive In each case this is loved you will love I may identical with the (pi.) Amewambia = he has told you (pi. ku-onja and ku-kunja which remain the same in Kimv. However there are many exceptions such as mbinja. njugu and njema.) you (pi. II. Chuo chakwe This however With is = his house book. Kiam. These are only heard with the future -ki.tenses. Of those occurring not at the beginning of a word we have first : Examples. Ku-vunda for ku-vunja = to break ku-chrnja = to Ku-tinda kill. are probably not of pure Swahili origin while the last is sometimes pronounced ngema.) Nawapenda = I love you (pi. but change according to rule in n-. The construction Changes of Grammar of the objective pronoun in the second person plural with the verb differs in Kimv. from that employed : Perfect Kuwapenda = to love you (pi. -akwe is in coming some sub-dialects used in place of -ake. however. = he = he Yuateka = he Examples. The construction is as follows etc. The possessive Yuaja is Yualia is crying is laughing. construction for the objective pronoun of the third person plural.) love you (pi. The most usual is the ordinary colloquial Mombasa changing ni. three of used in place of a. The Njama. not often heard.and -ka.. Yua. in the Zanzibar group.29 KIMVITA Exceptions. Nyumba yakwe = his Examples.).as the pronominal prefix for the third person plural of the present.

. Examples. Example. -zo- and -vyo-. from -ye. -mo-. alipofika and occasionally -cho-. Hapita Relatives of all classes for nikapita = and I passed. Examples. of the narrative tense. -lo. Aliokwenda Mti ulioanguka Nyumba Exceptions are the locatives. ha- is in the first person sing. Upendacho = (the thing) you wish you are going Wendako = where Mti utakao = the but However there is tree you want. In the purer Mombasa and in the Lamu Archipelago this becomes t'akwambia. the old form of the relative irrespective of classes.which was. and -ko-. always used. n In this case the proximity of the has the disturbing effect of aspirating the t of the tense the verbal infix. = he who went = the tree which fell ilioanguka = the house which fell. an abbreviation of the relative of the third person sing. alikokwenda = where he went = when he came. Kaa t'akulipa Kamwambia There (for = just wait I'll pay you out = akamwambia) and he said to him. However in adverbial phrases as : atakavyotenda = as he the full form -vyo- When is will do (behave). Examples. is distinctly to simplify even these to the simple -o. tend to become simple -o. nt'akwambia nitakwambia = I for will tell you. the relative occurs as a suffix the occasionally the simple -o- Examples. an abbreviation of nika. is full form is used except used for -wo.KIMVITA 30 Thus.and -yo-. The tendency. it is said. Examples. however. neno ulilonambia = the word which you vitu nilivyonunua = the things which I said to me bought.

relative in Examples. and Kimv. and in all the dialects enumerated above causes the verb and its particles to be broken into two parts. The Atakapo kwe*nda = when he shall go = where we arrived.KIMVITA 31 This serves to distinguish other dialects from the Zanzibar group. recognize them as two words. The Swahilis themselves. being in more common use in that dialect. = woman's robe. Kimv. = he who wants Atakae Examples. Many Changes of Vocabulary of the words given below will be understood and occasion- both Kiung. Mtu aendae = the man who The goes. They are none the less characteristic of the dialect they are assigned to.) of . each bearing an accent on the penultimate. remain = a hare = to climb = to mount (a horse. however. used ally in Other of the words will practically never be heard in the opposite dialect. toe = to sneeze = a book = suddenly = pitcher (Arab decanter) = cob of maize (stripped grains) Hasa haswa Ku-keti ku-kaa Kitunguli sungura ku-panda ku-panda kanga Ku-kwea ku-panda Leso (but = exactly = to sit. III. For the convenience of the reader in pronouncing these I have often written them as two separate words. etc. although this is not the usual custom in English Swahili writings. Kimvita English = hippo = sjambok) = finger. Tuliko ffka denotes the accent.

lone (buffalo. health is best. less confined to this dialect Utampata wapi P (for utampataje P) = how will you find him 1 Utaka nini ? (for utakani ?) = what do you want ? Ana matata = he is difficult to deal with Hebu or. foremost) Heri apendalo Mungu = what God wishes is best (often Mwenda pweke = one an excuse for doing some shady trick to get out of a difficulty) . gather = mushroom = strips for sewing mats = to bear (children. let me (pass) Kula njama . hebu = come let us. buck) Bora azima = never mind (lit. fruit). take counsel Ku-kumbwa na sheitani = to be possessed. hebu mi = leave me alone. = custard apple = to pluck.32 KIMVITA Kimvita Kiunguja Maboga English = vegetables miboga mafya for Mafiga = three stones = breasts maziwa tembo Matiti Ndovu Ku-nena = elephant = to say = to drink = peas = grated coconut ku-sema ku-nywa chooko Ku-nwa Pojo Taki chicha . Changes of Idiom Below are a few idiomatic expressions. for cooking-pot after extrac- tion of tui Ku-teta = pumpkin = syphilis = to descend ku-gombana = to quarrel Tomoko stafele Tango Tego Ku-teremka boga sekeneko ku-shuka ) topetopej Ku-tunda ku-chuma Uoga (and woga) kiyoga Usitu ukili Ku-vyaa ku-zaa IV. the majority are more or but a few may be met with in others. one who has not performed the necessary ablutions (ku-tamba) Usingizi unaniuma = I feel sleepy (lit. the devil ! ! (a frequent occurrence) Mwenyi paliti = an unclean person. don't worry me also. sleep is hurting me) that goes alone. or smitten by.

A. now it will give no more trouble (when the brunt of a piece of work has been successfully performed) Ku-kata roho = to die Gazeti! (exclamation) = lie falsehood. i. s. Nilete kijiti kibiriti P = am I to ya kumba kumba = a big Mkono kwa mkono = from hand Safari bring a toothpick or a match ? safari to hand Akili ni mali = (your) wits are (your) fortune (sarcastically) Haina maana wala haina tamu = it has no rhyme or reason Ku-kata nguo = (i) to buy clothes. Kidigo. The process of time however has so altered many of these that they are scarcely to be recognized. There are also other sub-dialects on the coast between and Vanga consisting of Kirnvita with a greater or less Mombasa admixture of Kinyika. viz. more than one other and yourself) Sijui anaketije = I don't know what is the matter with him (or. 3 . Ao is often omitted between two alternatives. from the E. This might be considered as a sub-dialect of Kimvita. 7. Kivumba is the dialect of Vanga and Wasini island.e.KIMVITA Kujilalia = to lie 33 oneself down. (ii) to take (a leso) into wear Ku-patisha moto = to heat up Ku-nyosha mkono = to make a long arm Twende zetuni (also twendeni) = let us go (only if more than two go. what he is thinking of) Nini hii = this what's -its-name Nani hii = that what's-his-name. you lie (der. the fist a load) Ku-oga kabisa = to wash all over Mamako ndiye mungu wa pili = your mother is (your) second God (therefore obey her) = Have you not treated me badly ? P neno Hukunifanya Sasa haina neno = Now there is no more fear. Gazette ? Example. rest oneself Mangaribi inatangamana = twilight is falling Konde mzigo = a very stalwart person (lit. with apologies) Amekucheza = he has made evil medicine against you. It must be remembered that Kimvita has drawn largely on Kinyika and Kigiryama for its Bantu words.

" an Arab As this dialect is not well known hope to go into I it more fully than any of the preceding. K'ayek'aye Kiyakazi Kiyamanda for k'ajek'aje kijakazi . or Lamu. or the island of Ndeo. have when passing had an 1 placed between them Kimv. Exceptions. into Examples. on the island of that name. I. is mzee (not mzele) tele = old person = much.cords = slave fastening sail to yard girl . The old name for Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo. Examples.KIAMU 34 Kiamu 8. The word Lamu is said to have been derived from the name of tribe. kiwa being old Swahili for kisiwa = "island. Two Changes of Letters successive e's in Kiam. the Banu Lami. Kiamu Kimvita Makee English makalele = shouts mawele = millet for Mawee Mbee mbele = before Mtee mtele =rice Muwee mwele =a Nyee Ku-tea (teea) =hair nyele ku-peleka = to send ku-telea = to add to Upee upele Ku-peka (peeka) =a sick person pimple. the dialect of the town of is Amu.. who came from the Persian Gulf. Mzee for Tele (not tee) J Kimv. softened into y. .

KIAMU Yambo 35 .

K1AMU 36 Occasionally Examples. kilemba = a turban = to-day. leo . Baghaa 1 in Kimv. Kiyemba Yeo is for changed to y.

ku-vua. between two vowels is sometimes dropped. Examples of other words changing v Mvuzi Mwizi for Ku-zaa Ku-zrnnbua Apart from all class there are few G -ovii.. vile.or vyto z-. mvuvi mwivi concords connected with the plural of the ki- words which make this change. Examples. ndevu.) = ku-kanga (Kiam.KIAMU 37 All concords agreeing with plural of ki.a loved one Mwandi mwanzi ^bamboo Mwando mwanzo = beginning Nyende Tandu Ku-tunda Utendi Exception. -zi-. . -vi-. -zo. Ku-anda Ku-funda for Indi Kandu Kitandi Rwanda Mpendi ku-anza . place of vya. mavi. zile. mvua. = a cricket nyenzi = a bough tanzu ku-tunza to take care of = a story in verse. are begin ku-funza = to teach = a fly inzi = a kanzu kanzn = a loop kitanzi kwanza = first mpenzi . becomes nd. nguva.class change v. . used in to z.) . vyenu. hizi. hivi.. -kavu. and many others. etc. mwavuli. nguvu. Exceptions. zake. etc. Thus za. = a fisherman = a thief = to give birth ku-vyaa ku-vumbua = to explore. ku-vaa. Ku-awanya for ku-gawanya Mbeu Nduu mbegu ndugu Tendeo tendego ku-tegua Ku-teua Nz in (or = to divide = seeds = brother = a leg of the kitanda = tagua) to choose. Kimv. zote. utenzi Ku-kanza (Kimv. vyote. Examples. zenu. vyake.

page Examplest Mui (xmiyi) Muinga (muyinga) Muwee Muyue Muyukuu Muynmbe 1 for = a town. kwisha occasionally takes place of ch Kimv. Examples^ Kwisa Mwiso Ku-pisa Ku-soto Sh for = to finish mwisho = the end ku-pisha = to make way for ku-shoto = left. Shaza Ku-shumua Shungwa for . Very possibly northern words and forms were brought down to the Mrima time Jumbes from Pate were put in some of the towns on that coast. arrive at occasionally occurs in place of sh in Kimv. wanja The word mbinja does not occur in Kiam. Examples. ku-piga uzi " nyuzi) being used for to whistle. Examples. at the . (as is also the case in Kimr. ku-ehenma . on the left side. Ku-sonda S to reach sneeze chungwa = orange. village mji mjinga = a simpleton mwele = a sick person = you (pi. see 35.KIAMU 38 Nj if it has not already become nd in Kimv. changes now. Ku-kunda Ku-onda for Wanda ku-kunja = to fold ku-onja = to taste = antimony." P (pi..) must know mjue mjukuu = grandchild mjumbe = a sultan's crier. M has a tendency to become mu Some = oyster chaza of the examples below (as in elide a y Kimr. occasionally changes to s at the beginning of a word..). at the same time. *). Examples^ Ku-sikilia for ku-fikilia = Simbo fimbo =a Ku-sita ku-fita stick -to hide ku-fyonda = to suck.

kama of Kiung. ahira) Ku-bokea Kimvita for ahera ku-bopea Chenjele kengele Ende mende Ku-fana Ku-fana ku-fanana Foromani foromali Garide gwaridi ku-fanikia English = the next world . feel soft (of fruit) = a bell = a cockroach = to be alike = to prosper = a ship's yard = drill. Below are given about fifty words which suffer slight changes of but which do not come under the rules above. as (cp. purpose. = a bundle of clothes for bahasha = box of leather or miaa) Kiam. band . every ku-karibia = to draw nigh . letters Kiamu Akhira (or.. i and o. = captain. e.) = silent kimya ku-zimisha = to extinguish. Ku-dudumia for ku-didhnia = to sink down Bulmsha Kula Ku-kurubia Nahutha Ku-shumua Ku-shundua = kila all. Examples. Examples^ KiTa for kichwa = head KuTa kuchwa = the MTa mchwa = whole day termites (in wingless stage). Kana for Kinya Ku-zinya Chw something . N occurs rarely in place of m. skipper nahotha ku-chemua = to sneeze ku-shindua = to set ajar (a door) = we all sote = to shake the head (in ku-tikisa Sute Ku-tukusa There are exceptions which change reversely. Examples.KIAMU U -39 occasionally occurs in place of the other vowels a. : a scarf intention. a snuff (Bahasha.. Disimali Kasidi for dusumali = = kusudi viz dissent). changes to like ^ (tamarufa) and is pronounced Tw. = like.

a giraffe = a chief = a smith c. = a hammer = who? = a hyaena pelt . bathe = potash to mix with snuff = a place = scents = a weed with crow's foot thorns . hide. a ball = a line = a servant - a fable = skin. crab = a sore = cashew-nut = to wash.) = to swallow = an insect = rubber.KlAMtJ 40 Kimvita Kiamu English = a clay decanter Guu (ma) (mguu not used) for mguu (mi) = a leg = to hunt Ku-inda for ku-winda = violence Jauri jeuri = ku-kanza Ku-kanga (moto) (moto) to apply fomentations. Guduwia for guduria hot rags Kijibao = waistcoat = small insect.

be well done = jaa) ing II. used to get. ku-vua (samaki) = to annoyance fish ku-iva to Vumbivumbi kivumbi (in cooking) dust (out of doors) Ku-waka Wisha ku-aka ushwa to build (stone buildings) bran. In Kiam.pata Waliki- ye they Uliki- it etc. Distant Past. there are two past tenses and two negative past tenses. J got (long ago) or. freely used in Kiamu. Nali- a } Uli- you he Ali- Tuli Muli-* ata= we got (to-day or yesterday). (dust in house ripen. etc. * v^etc. < ye Wali- they Uli- it etc. Past.KIAMU Kiamu 41 Kimvita Uwingu Uwongo for English ubingu udongo = uthia Uzia Ku-va Ku-viva the heavens : clay = trouble. Changes of Grammar There are a certain number of tenses. The second Near applies to the past or distant past. Naliki-^ I Uliki- you Aliki- he Tuliki- we Muliki. husks after pound- Ku-ziwia ku-zuia to resist. which either do not occur or are not in frequent use in Kimvita. The first or ordinary past applies only to the immediate or present past. .

.) S1KU- HukuHakue did not get (to-day or yesterday). etc. ali an alternative for the first person sing. (The usual form. its use see below in a sentence under the Krapf gives naliki.KIAMU 42 The distant past tense chiefly occurs in historical narrations more used in the third person than otherwise.tense (page 44). it is probable that he means nali (n)ki " " penda = I was loving and not this tense. and stories so is For an example of -nga. of the Near Past Negative. as uli uki-. As in the other persons he gives the alternatives past.

43 .KIAMU Negative -ki- tense.

stated. Alikuwa na mali nangawa masikini sasa = he was rich although now poor. as she was sitting). There a past perfect tense which to a certain extent takes the is place of the rather cumbersome alikuwa amekwisha ku .= although. The tense particle is -lime- = " had already. havi-. Ulipotoka alimekuya = he had already come when you went The "although" The tense tense. etc.class which. particles are na " nga. These the reader can transpose to suit any case or concord by following the usual rules." generally used with the verb ku-wa="to be. Past Perfect. as before etc. -i. Formed by the addition If the otherwise of -zii to the verb. verb ends in -a following a vowel the -a it may change The meaning is " to is elided. is Examples. It it out. of the ki. Nalimdirika utukuzii mzigo = I met him in the act of carrying a load Uketizii = he (she) was in the act of sitting (or. in place of vi-." Example. Nangafa u hai kwa-ni ameata kij ana = although he is dead (yet) is he alive for he has The left a son (who bears his name).KIAMU 44 The only exception is the pi. Niangawa na ndaa sili . to be in the act of doing something. The tenses which remain I hope to explain by a few examples only. takes concords zi-. Mtende hunu zamani walikitenda sana na-u-nga-wa sasa hautendi tena = this date now it no longer tree formerly bore well although bears.although I am hungry I do not eat. hazi-. -zii tense. ." Examples." though occasionally occurs with a few others.

"as yet." It generally requires another verb following before the sense rendered complete. mentioned by Taylor. for Moyo. Another tense is the perfect in -e-e. Upende farasi = he is riding a horse (viz. This tense is formed by changing the vowels of the and adding the pronominal syllables of the verb to e ene for ona. It appears to have the meaning of a completed action still in continuation. kee for kaa. The tense particle is -kali generally used only with a copula but occasionally with a verb. ." The Yana usiku nilele Kasikia makalele 1 Mojo nampenda Chele 1 Mojo is Last night as I slept I heard a noise My heart loves Chele. he has still mounted and is mounted). viz. Taylor mentions this also as being an old poetic preterite. Verbs having their two prefix. It is however in everyday use at the present in Kiamu." "while yet. happened." "still. supposed by the poet to be Kimv. For examples containing no contingent condition and with a verb see appendix to Taylor's African ApJiorisms.KIAMU The " while yet This tense is 45 " tense. " he has mounted a perfect amepanda farasi would mean horse (but at the time of speaking he may have dismounted again). last to be preferred for present last two day syllables bearing the vowel a seem use. ibid. Examples. nikali ndiani = and he recognized as yet in the way Akanitambua Akali mtoto amu yake me while akashika ufaume = as he was I was still a child his uncle governed. The usual construction is "while yet so and so something is." Examples. The meaning is "while as yet. etc. Also see the first line of verse on page 116." or." "yet.

Examples.and not na. but otherwise Its meaning is it is it the verb.of place well. Sultani wa Manda ulele = the Sultan of Manda sleeps Mtama usimeme = the mtama is standing (i. hunu) mtu huyu mtu huyo mtu yule watu hawa watu hawo watu wale mti huu = this person = that person = that (far) person = these persons = those persons = those (far) persons = this tree . has grown Akamtoma Limpeteo = that which has There -to. The demonstratives in differ slightly from Kimv. becomes -i-.KIAMU 46 For first person sing.e. for akajilalia kujisifu The imperative second person plural is always pendani and the Zanzibar group pendeni is never heard. Fungato (or fungeto) = bind tightly = Weketo The reflexive -ji. in common use at the present day in in poetry. is is befallen him. u. Examples. mentioned by Steere in his handbook as occurring in is poetry. Akailalia Kuisifu Kuiketilia = and he laid himself down = to boast (praise oneself ) kujiketilia = to sit oneself down. ni. an intensive form of the verb A final This up but has not yet been harvested) ulele = and he stabbed him while aaleep -a made by the addition of sometimes changed to -e. as it occasionally is in incorrect Kimvita. Kimv. Mtu huyu Mtu hoyo Mtu u!6 Watu hawa Watu hao Watu wale Mti huu (or for . so some are given full. occurs only much the same as if sana had been placed after In a few expressions Kiam. Pronouns.and not a-.must be used with this tense and for third person sing..

Hono is this time. plain u. zile. The arrangement plural is the same as Example. of the objective pronoun of the second person in Kimv.and the -ki. and in several . only. occasionally used in Kipate with other nouns of this class.these houses Nyumba hii (or him) Nyumba hizi nyumba nyumba Chuo hiki Zuo hizi chuo hiki vyuo hivi Ito hili jito hili this book = these books . Nawapenda = I love you (pi). hizi of the demonstratives same except = huko been omitted as they are the same. The clipping of the pronominal prefix occurs in the future and the -ka. period. hiyo.tenses. the -zii tense other instances.this eye Mato haya Uso huu (or hunu) Nyuso hizi Hoko mato haya = these eyes uso huu = this face = there. i!6e. these faces have etc. Examples. have been omitted also which comes on the last syllable. in the first and third persons sing. T'akwambia = I Kasikia Kipata Where yua- or yu- is will tell you and he hears (heard) = and when he had got. as a pronominal prefix for third person sing. : Wakati hunu = at Wakati hono = at N. B. ule. Examples. It is also used in the -e-e tense. as they are the hii huwo. il. wa! used in Kiam. The remainder nyuso . The farther demonstratives ule. period that time. etc. There is also a demonstrative for a very distant object made by adding -e to the farther demonstrative. for the accent.. etc.KIAMU Miti hii (or for him) 47 = these trees miti hii = this house hizi . used in Kimv. There is also a form used with wakati = time. viz. period.

The pronominal changes to prefix m wall. latter. Mulikwenda = you but before t Hamulipata = you it is m. is full = he sleeps = what is his state ? = he has = he has seen = he is in the act of Ulele adjective. P . Example.a new kingdom. Example. lye It is Hamtopata = you (pi. agreement with nouns in the with the verb but with the also used as the concord for of the sixth class not only sing. for Ufaume upia Except when the adjective commences with a vowel.) did not get (pi.KIAMU 48 Examples. kwa nini P for ?) and the conjunction kwani. Examples. Wataka nni wataka nini = what do you want ? In Kimv. Examples. by cutting out the first -i-. there is no difference between the interrogative kwani (der. Uknta mwingine = another Example. nini the for iye P ? is converted into Kiam.) went (pi.) shall not get. suffix. of the second person plural often mu. Example. fr. Hoyo una hila sana = he Ukaa hali Una Uwene gani ? Utukuzii U- is of guile taking. Tutapata iye Takwenda Interrogative ? tutapataje ? nt'akwendaje ? = how = how shall we shall I get go ? ? nni ? The Kimv. Ufunguo umoya ufunguo mmoya = one key ufalme mpya . used in place of -je the interrogative forms a separate word unlike the .

The latter takes the place of -vyo. Even with these however there -y. the two words differ Kwa nni ? or 49 viz.and Example. Tulipokwenda = when we went Tulikokwenda = where we went Tulimokwenda = in where we went.B.KIAMU The interrog. distinction is infix for all made between the different classes. kwanni Kwani ? : = what = -wo and -yo. Examples (of locative relative). Kwani P is suffix -ni ? takes the place of of Kiung. how he has done) Kama nimezokwambia for kama nalivyokwambia = as I told you. is a tendency to suppress the Kimv. The The relative -o. Note the use of relative with perfect. 4 .(agreeing with zitu understood) when used in an adverbial sense. N. Mikate atakao = the loaves he he has done (or. Apendalo Mwana apendae = the (matter) he desires = the child he loves = the things he wants Zitu atakazo Chakula atakacho = the food he wants. used as an infix for all classes of nouns. in which dialect the nini P In Kiam. Tumezotaya Amezotenda for tulivyotaja = as we have related alivyotenda . locative particles alone have their own relative forms -ko-.and the infix -zo. form. 8. In all When other cases the simple -othe relative occurs as a is used as an suffix. -po-. an unusual con- struction in Kimvita. Examples. for ? why ? Relatives. Examples.

Exceptions. as in the cases elision takes place. plurals of certain nouns of the second class commencing or mo. when I do not want). If Examples.KIAMU 50 When the relative used with the past tense is (-11-) the -i- of the tense particle is they shall get Alipo Nisipo taka The with = if I do not want (or. Examples. kwenda = when he went Watakazo pata . Asopata for Asopenda asio pata = he who did not get asio penda = he who did not love. (-si-) the -i- of the is elided. or anything pertaining to trees or plants. When the full form of the relative mentioned above. Nalopata = he who brought = which I got naliopata Walonipa walionipa = which they gave me. Examples. Aloeta When for alioleta the relative is used with the future (-taka-) the final -a- is elided. however they are the names of trees or plants.. Moto Moyo Mwaka Mwako Mwamba Mwambao Mwandiko Mwango pi. = a fire = a heart mioyo = a year miaka = heat. Examples. nyoto for nyoyo nyaka nyako nyamba nyambao nyandiko nyango . treated as if belonging to the sixth mw- class. a flame miako miamba = a rock miambao = a coast miandiko = a manuscript miango = an echo mioto . Watakopata Tutakokupa When for the relative tense particle watakao pata = they who tutakao kupa = which we is used with the negative shall get shall give you. no is used.are in Kiam. of the tense particle Examples. they remain as of the second class.

Also nyawanyo. dialects..KIAMU Mwanya nyanya pi. Nyezi nyingine = other months Nyeleko nyeupe = white slings.. or for 51 mianya mieleko miendo . Examples. are used as genitives and sometimes take the place of the mwenyi and mwenyewe. commences with a vowel it takes a concord as for pi. in Kiam. wewe = is pi. Nyaka miwili Nyoto mikuu Examples. of = a wooden spoon = a thorn. treated. Kitu hiki Mbwa mbwa nyani P fulani Mbwangu (mbwako. theirs). his) = it is ours (yours. = two years = big fires. quite correctly. of sixth class. ndake) Ndetu (ndenu. If the adjective begins with a for pi. theirs) = this house is so and so's = it is mine (thine. moon. consonant it takes a concord as class. ndao) 1 = whose is this thing ? = it belongs to so and so = it is mine (thine. takes plural as of the second class although beginning with mw- or mo-. as of the first class "kites. miezi = a gap in the teeth = a sling = a going = a month. anything to do with a tree or plant. Examples. his) = it is ours (yours." The agreement of adjectives with the as of the sixth class is If it second nouns above with plurals as follows. mbwao) Nyumba hini nda fulani Ndangu (ndako. 42 . Mwembe miavuli = an umbrella miembe = a mango tree Mwiko miko Mwiwa miwa Mwavuli Mwewe with pi. mbwake) Mbwetu (mbwenu. but There are two particles but not in the They words less pure mbwa and nda which occur in Kiam. 1 Mweleko nyeleko Mwendo nyendo Mwezi nyezi A tree.

N. and Kimv. Chembe Ku-dauka Ku-dirika Dudu Ku-egema . word has several distinct meanings it does not follow that the word is not also used in Kiam. invite = to put (food) on Ku-angalia Bibi ku-tazama nana = to look = grandmother Bombwe funza. sea slug Ku-cha ku-ogopa mshale ku-yeyuka ku-kuta ndui Abawa Ku-amkua for . Where the Kimv. jirani come across = smallpox = to come near to = a cock = to hunt (lit. Ku-tunda in i. There is considerable difference in vocabulary between Kiam. Kimvita English Ku-andika (chakula) ku-ita ku-teleka = elder brother = to call. About one hundred words are appended as examples. Kiam. to aim) = a pigeon = shoulder to = change residence early a ku-kataa the fire dawn growth coconut inside = to refuse = neighbourhood a . akamtoa muini = and he put him out Kiamu you say of the town. take out.B." is frequently heard in viz..KIAMU 52 Changes of Vocabulary III. jongoo -jigger." "put out.e. Ku-toa is never heard in this sense but it its other sense of "to turn out. in a meaning not given. " to give out (rupees) " ku-tunda (rupia) and not ku-toa (rupia). Example. if ku-toa = for you want to say to give out. mkubwa ku-karibia Pahali Ku-fuma (nyama) ku-winda Pungwa ndiwa Puzi bega Ku-gura ku-hama Hirijiiri alfajiri sana Ifu Ku-iza Janibu = to fear = an arrow = to melt to meet.

KIAMU Kiamu 53 Kimvita Ku-jepa Jura Kata for Katiti kwiba }> mjinga 3> pishi )5 kidogo Kidundu Kifuvu mayonde kitoma kobe Kiharahara paka wa mwitu Kiliwia mjeledi Kipitu Ku-kiri msetu ku-kubali Kisha paruru] Kisindi guguta J Kitangu Kitikuu kiunga kigunya Kiunga nyumba ya \ kutilia nazi I = shambani Kiwe ) .

= to get ku-pata ku-taka shauri = to consult = to uproot ku-ng'oa = to cry. nail = a yawn = mangrove swamp = grass = thirst = bird = to be drenched = bad = to dawn = to sweep = lightning vessel is drifting by itself.KIAMU 54 Kiamu Muyungu Kimvita for bugu la mtoma Mvnle mume Mwendao Mzuka Nana Ndwe msafiri Nina mama Nsi samaki kucha zimwi bibi ugonjwa Nyaa = mistress = sickness = mother =fish Nyai mwayo Nyangwa jangwa manyasi Nyika Nyota Nyuni Ku-ova English = the pumpkin plant = a man. goer = a demon. ring.. fortune bahati . male = a traveller. take out drop = scraped coconut after ex- traction of tui Ufuto Ulingo u P aa urambe dungu utosi = white flesh of a dafu coconut = a look-out platform = crown of head (roof of house) . -a small out. without anyone on board Ku-poa for Ku-shawiri Ku-sumuka Ku-takata Taufiki Tiati Tineni . on the ground nyumba za watun _ (labourers' huts on a tini.the ground. sound out ku-lia = luck. or. devil kiu ndege ku-tota -ovu -baya Ku-pambauka ku-cha Ku-pea ku-fagia Fepe umeme (Jahazi inaenda p'epe = the = a claw. arthi wa shamba ) shamba ( -dogo - Tototo matope =mud Ku-tunda ku-toa Twene jeneza tone = to give = a bier toto taki little.

scabbard = to stir up mud mkufu -just like that = baboon = a shout kalele ku-tafuta. urefu ndia Utunda .' The worshippers were streaming up to the mosque and joined in the ' out. Ni mbwake. Ule mbwa kupoa rupia mbili = he is due two rupees (or.chain = length = road.. are con- differences in idiom siderable." but if anybody else's boy was about to take it one would say Tumbako ndangu (or tumbako nda mimi mwenyewe) = " the tobacco is mine (not yours or his). in of the used be to seem ordinary possessive when place They emphasis is required.B. that the breaking up of the town of Kitao was due to a fowl entering the congregational mosque on a Friday.' ' Ni mbwako. path = a string of beads = sheath. Kuku mbwangu. ' Siyo mbwangu. used in addition to the Idiom between Kimv. useja Uwo ala Ku-vurundua Yau yau ku-tibua vivi hivi Yonda nyani Yowe Ku-zengea . Taylor mentions the use of a negative perfect in the case of simekwenda ? . English = silver neck. ' and another seized it saying. and Kiam. mwenyi ku-pata.. angalia = to see after. A man rushed in after it saying.KIAMU Kiamu 55 Kimvita Upeto Ure for Usita . For instance one might say to one's boy. will get two rupees). The Changes of is hut). A few instances only will be given here. word. IV.' till strife calling at last all the male in- habitants were engaged and a civil war ensued. The use of mbwa and nda have already been touched on. Sometimes the word given Kimv.' It is related. Eta tumbako yangu = " bring my tobacco.. look out for Zijaya vigae Ku-zimba ku-ezeka = potsherds = to roof (a N. Mbwa kupoa is an expression meaning." probably untruthfully.

It has the meanimg " of. his intention (was) . and must thus be spelt -pia to bring the accent right. viz. The accent remains as shown. all this while Kitu hiki hufa iye P = how is this thing sold ? (how much?) Ndio za nini P = what do you say yes for ? (when someone Kasidi yake = Ndoo says. You say I did ?" not Example. Talking of anything distant. (Takes the place of makusudi. wa!6." In Kiam. viz. ? There is a difference in pronunciation of the far demonstratives. one o.. Kimv. wale. is only used in the interrogative reply. ilee. etc. The word -pya Kimv. yes he has done something. however -pya is pronounced as two syllables. ? when not used by itself loses Ndo wewe = come you. with hata. ziatu zipia = "new sandals. Example. if that word is one of these far demonstratives. . mkate mpya = a new loaf. = is food not ready after = until he died. not yet). walee. ule. Hatasa from hata sasa Chakula tayari hatasa Hatakafa P = till now (or. in place of Stress is laid on this accentuation because by its ytile. is one syllable and takes the accent on " the syllable before. means one can detect a native from the Amu group if one hears him say but one word. Simekuya P = You Why did you not come ? say that I did not come (but I did come). viz. either in point of place or time. as he says. viz. which has already been mentioned. Mbona hukufika P = Answer. ulee. on purpose. and as an first " not 1 " or. and has not) purposely . an e is added to the far demon.) one of them Moyali = that matter Yambole for yambo lile mwanawe Mwane =his child (the waane but is pi.) (= come). taking the accent on the first. etc. not wane) Abb." The following abbreviations are used : = his aunt Shangalize for shangazi yake = = moja wapo (Kimv. Have I person sing.KIAMU 56 This.

ghasia). Why not ? Of course Can you do can (or. is = things in plenty (and therefore cheap) = people in crowds." Ku-yua Kulala used ordinarily for all other tenses. s& = the town has been utterly and com- Mui umeharibika k&bi pletely ruined. Si-isi =" I do not know " . is kwa kuama = kulala Pulifuli has been confounded with fudifudi by several writers. To such " is I "Were you able to read my letter?" me ? " Kwanni ? " used as an affirmative reply meaning.57 KIAMIT Wametuteza shere = they have played a trick on fun of us us. fudifudi = to lie face downwards. coming and going (and thus want of privacy. look out for . Mwana adamu is used in place of the usual bin adamu = " son of Adam. When great emphasis is laid on kabisa the accent is placed the last syllable which is jerked out by on itself. all two (persons) Wowatatu = all three (persons). Kwanni ? = Why not ? Of course I will. haniisi = he does not know. Unaweza kuzengea mashairi ninunue P = Will you some poetry for me to buy 1 Answer. in anything but the negative present. haisi. viz." Example. all three. are making Hapana katu = there is none whatever (in any shape or form). " huisi." etc. Kwa lina is used for the usual palikuwa = " once upon a time. he does not know (recognize) me. Its meaning quite different. of animate Wowawili = both." occasionally used in place of muda for a space of time. in Kiam. Katu means much the same as kabisa but is more forcible." Kwa lina mtu = alikuwako (or alikuwapo) mtu. human Mwida is being. beings. questions as: this work 1 " " Will you come with will). Zitu fulifuli Watu fulifuli There is an abbreviation meaning "both. from a verb ku-isa which is seldom heard. you do not know..

e. is inside the your business. just like that. as you please.) Mtu mrepana = a Bora ana care (lit." (Hitieri -hitiari. and this dialect in the sense of "also (or) too. for Palikuwa mtu jina lake man called so aliitwa fulani = once upon a time there was a and Na so. akaitwa (jina lake). where shauri lako. now at once. for the Kimv." Examples. to tip (equivalent to give the price of a drink "). (Proverb) what it to you. Kupa tambuu = to to the Eng.KIAMU 58 Ni mtu mzima sana = he is a very old man. i. and does not mean Amepata kijana = he has got a son (and heir). " give (a piece of) tambuu. Nipa chai eta na mkate = give me some tea and bring bread Akatukua nguo akatunda na reale khamsini = and he clothes and took out also also. would be used in Kimv. I leave mwenyewe. or (it) hivyo. or upendavyo " it is as you wish. it is it is for you to say. well built. person. . is largely used in both Kimv. Hamkuliwa and hitwa are used in place of the Kimv. Kwa lina mtu hamkuliwa fulani. This is health is big. generally used as a reply to some taunt. Yau yau is used in place of vivi hivi or vivyo Ufanye yau yau = do Hiyau for hivi. Example. used is best. took fifty dollars Kwanni kupenda ukowa usipende na_ kilichomo ukowani P = why do you like the lamp chimney and do not like chimney too? (The light inside is the reason for having a lamp and the chimney is only an adjunct) Hitieri yako is used in Kiam. bora azima = never mind. hivyo. I don't first consideration). Mtu hiyau = a man like that (of that sort) Sitaki kazi hiyau = I do not want this soft of behaviour Mtu mvivu hiyau Sasa hiyau Kijana "a youth" is so for a man as lazy as he is sasa hivi = just now. generally used of a male child much as in Kimv.

Some words are pronounced sometimes with g and sometimes with j. There (ii) is no use then G in Kiam. guessing articles are held in the = youths zijana ziondowe = riddles = war. The following words. strife zita = mongooses zitete = grindstones ziwe = annoyance. is occasionally softened to hard and fast rule like the last and appears j but this is not a to differ with individuals.e. uzia This last word by pure coincidence returns to (N. rejeza. (i. Examples.KIPATE 5 the dialect of the town of Pate in the island and by the Arabs Bata. however. 9. appear to be always pronounced with j.) The rule is the same for every word. Ku-pija Ku-rejea Shemeji for in the ku-piga ku-regea -to -to shemegi -brother-in-law. Kipate is called by us Patta Changes of Letters I. pijana. with regard to changes of letters. Kiamu baraza = verandah..B. of in multiplying examples. with a few further changes and a few exceptions. grammar. town of Pate in the darkness) beat. vocabulary and idiom stands good for Kipate. infix. form. There are only two important changes of Z in Kiam. of kibafti many Thijana Thiondowe Thita Thitete Thiwe Uthia . strike return . Practically all that has been said of Kiam. (i) as th in "this The " and letter j does is letters in this dialect. suffix or particle. audience Mathu mazu = bananas Thibafti zibafti = games Kipate Baratha for . Jithani (from jitha for giza) = a quarter (lit. Also. and whether the z is prefix. whether of Bantu or Arab origin. Examples. how hand its Kimv. This th is pronounced written in Swahili characters with the letter >. always changes to th.. not occur.

Site- HuteHateHatute- HamteHawate- ri you he pata = we - ye they Haute- it etc. cylinder. etc. There appears to be a slight difference in the place of -to-. green = to ripen. a chief Mfalurae = to toddle (of a child) tatetate Tatatata ku-tawali = to reign.) = white flesh of a dafu = egg I (pi. mai) yai = above Iu yuu = dead of night makungi Makungu = horn of mgambo mbiu Mbia mfaume = sultan. This last word returns to Ufito for ufuto -witi -biti Ku-wiva ku-viva its Kiung. Negative Future. Changes of Grammar The grammar is practically the same as in Kiam. . a tendency to place y or This is occasionally also done in Kiam. these (trees) hini Hinu . future which takes the particle -te.B. and very frequently When is w occurs in poetry. form. Ku-tawala (N. Aingiye for aingie = he must enter ukoa = Ukowa II. chimney. shall not get. two vowels occur together of which the first is i or o there between them.KIPATE 60 letters occur in the Other changes of words below : Binamu for binami = cousin = this (house). Examples. although the latter is understood in Pate.

roping for Utuku . south of Amu. many of the people took refuge in On viz. strife = departed. " . . Two = soko Changes of Idiom idiomatic expressions follow : Kitovu cha mui = the hub (centre) of the town Kutanga konda = to be about to marry (lit. . to a con- or summation = usutu Ushitu (of strips miaa) for sewing mats. drying Fathaa Kifuvu for haraka kifuu tusi Kilili Kimboe kipitu Kistahali kisitiri Kondo zita Mahua Mwiko wa kifuvu marehemu Ndia imethiwanai imethiwa J\ . Manda. IV. bustle = empty coconut shell = a bier = a mash = inside wall screening choo = war. . . to 10. Kishela kitanda bazaar. A few local words are also used in Pate such as : Kiamu Kipate kata = haste. is blocked at low tide Ku-usha ku-aua (nathiri) = (nathiri) to bring a vow conclusion. Taka and Kitao. . lamented = ladle (of half coconut) ndia imezibwa = the way Ngumi nyangumi Pwayi into = a whale = a creek. Most KISHELA 61 Changes of Vocabulary Kiamu hold good of the words under this heading in in Kipate. Amu. the breaking up of the various old towns on Manda island. III. is stir up strife).. the dialect of the town of Shela.KIPATE.

The dialect. after all the variations in this met with. Kimgao.KISHELA 62 After a while they were allowed to found a town of their own. the town of geographical position of most of its original stock. The word mahali is used for "place. differ of Kiam." word we have we have now come back to the same word as that used in the southernmost and farthest dialect touched on. the oldest in the neighbourhood. directly they received permission. When They Pate words from Amu. The j of Pate in place of g is not used. Kishela may follow either. must have kept very much to themselves for. This was the origin of the town of Shela. and I III. Manda. Changes of Letters and Vocabulary The vocabulary is practically the same as that The th of Pate is often used in place of z. of The Manda people. The Manda people would have cherished little dialectic differences of this sort as distinguishing them from the Amu people and stamping them as being more aristocratic. Probably the Amu people either did not use this form or had already dropped it. is easily accounted for as it would appear that this was the old form of the possessive for the third person sing. chiefly Examples. although remaining many years in Ainu. Another interesting feature -akwe is This is that the possessive termination used. This is exactly as one might have expected from the old viz. This has died out in most places presumably the town Manda. . made use of this form. so that they might all live together instead of being scattered. There are a few words however which differ slightly from both. is just half way between that of Amu and that of Pate. they moved out in a body to Shela. It is curious that. Iu and mfalume are used in place of yuu and mfaume. . as they were in the large town of Amu. however follow Kipate. with a few small exceptions.

form. That is to say that .) = we all hoyo (Kiam. hold good save only when which of course becomes they clash with what all Amu thus has the Pate th and There letters Changes of Letters is said for Pate. though = (Kiam.) = this (person). differing Amu.class. Kiam. as snte (Kiam. Any is changes in ki. from its unlikely that Shela possesses daily many dialect. hold good. no use in giving more examples of these changes of as what has been said for Pate can be referred to. is local idioms in use but. Kisiu is the dialect of the town of Siu. 11. These are similar to It and Pate. from the latter it Those given Changes of Idiom There are no doubt a few intercourse with : two.) like. Both town and dialect stand half way between Pate and Faza.63 KISIU KISHELA. In addition to these the Bajun cerebral t's are changed to ch. It bears a strong resemblance to the Bajun group but to the Amu group. used as an abbreviation for nyinyi in address as is Ndo nyi wawili = come you II. its idioms and grammar belong more I. Amu except the zi. = his stick Simbo lakwe Nyumba ndakwe = the house is his Pa mahali pakwe = in his (or its) place. ch is used. Examples. j observed above. IV. last three it will be observed return to the Kimv. Of other little distinctions Chamba is Kama Huyu Nyi = if.for the concord of the plural of the thi-. for kwamba kana for Sote These : used for Changes of Grammar There appears to be no marked changes of grammar.

Kisiu Kipate Athani Foko (fr. Jy) . etc. The tenses to be described in Kitikuu are not used..) kistahali Marahanm Mwendio mahua mwen^o Ku-oa Pakuwathini . which the called for mats. Changes of II.B. Nouns of the ma. Examples. local words of which Examples. = muezzin ku-oza = grass = interior wall of choo = late lamented = a distance = to rot =minara from muezzin Ku-pija tumata ku-toma Toma nt'a Usichu ushitu ku-oa Ku-wowa is = to stab = a point = strips of miaa = to marry. Ku-ehambua Ku-chukana Ku-chuma Chutakwenda for Mchu Mchumbwi Wachu ku-tambua ku-tukana ku-tuma tutakwenda mtu mtumbwi watu = to recognize = to abuse = to send = we will go = a man. For this change however see the next dialect.KISIU 64 N. . Changes of Vocabulary There appear to be a considerable amount of I have only been able to collect two or three.class follow the usual rules and not those for Kitikuu to be described hereafter. brought in. in such words as kitambaa. person = a canoe = people. Words like nyumba follow Kipate and not Kitikuu. athana thayidi ya = more than Gubu nyika Kisitiri (like Kiam. in which it is only the dental which turn to eh. III. t's Do not confuse with Kiung. for Ar.. R is not Grammar The grammar is the same as in Kipate. as in Kitikuu.

As mentioned before there are several local The remarks below apply more especially to or the variations. Ndovu mbili thikipambana liumiao ni gubu. Two sharp points cannot stab one another. Examples. I.. is that when two great The meaning men quarrel. Changes of Letters whether aspirated or not. for . The cerebral t. 65 Changes of Idiom IV. changes to ch. it is wont to man or dependent who suffers. Chachu Ku-chafuna Ku-chambua Ku-chandika s. that ndovu that of is pronominal prefix of the verb. -akwe is used in Kisiu.KISIU. the dialect of Rasini. viz. as in Kishela. The KITIKUU following are two Siu proverbs with their Kiamu equi- valents. they only slip past one another. Kisiu. Ndovu wawili wakisongana ziumiazo ni nyika.class Kimgao in concords.) This is said of two strong each other. cannot prick the point of one needle with that of another. = three ku-tafuna = to chew ku-tambua = to recognize ku-tandika = to spread out tatu . (You English. Nt'a kwa nt'a hazitomani. town of Faza or Paza. Kitikuu 12. The meaning is men or strong tribes who fall out with that neither will get the better. which is hurt is the grass. Toma kwa toma hathitomani. in place of -ake. not only with the adjective but also with the its exactly. Kisiu. Notice the agreement of the concords with be some small ndovu which follows treated as the n. Kiam. When two elephants jostle against one another that English. of is the language of Rasini and the mainland north Amu. for the possessive. Kiam.

KITIKUU 66 Changa .

magim) = rump Ichako (pi. the latter not being the pronominal prefix for person plural viz. Chu- takes the place of tu. Examples. = a dhow = a rudder (pi. Example. used as in Siu in place of -ake. The -ndo- Changes of 67 Grammar This takes the place of the perfect in -me- tense. ( : us (two) be going. Perfect.class change n. Iti for nti = country Isi nsi-fish. In place of the -kito. class has. like in the plural. ehutapaeha The for tutapata = we possessive termination twende zechu shall get.KITIKUU II. instead of ma- which changes to no prefix. nail = shoulder = milk. of the n. Some nouns first : i-.they have died. (pi. machako) Ichiunbo (pi.tense of Kiam. madau) Ishikio Idowe Ifuthi Ithiva Examples. machumbo) = stomach Idau (pi. leg Iguu (pi. mashikio) = foot. madowe) mafuthi) mathiva) = claw. (pi. 52 . the prefix i- viz. - 'Ndokufa I have died Undokufa = thou hast died = he has died Andokufa Chundokufa = we have died Mundokufa = you have died Wandokufa . -kitowaku- is used. Kitowakupacha The kitopata = for possessive termination -akwe is if I do not get. -echu takes the place of -etu twende zetu = let for ma- The singular of the other dialects.

.KITIKUU 68 Or i- if or u- the noun does not commence with n.class . Imbwa Ipaa Usimbo for . mbwa = a dog paa =a roof is of the n. Examples.but may be prefixed.

ushi nyusi) usutu (pi. pole = a spoon = an eyebrow = strips of for kijiko Usichu Usuni = to fish = a stick.neap tides (or. The changes of idiom are very great.tense are : = the (thing) has gone bad 'ndovaka fulani = I have married so and so Yuva lindokutwa = the sun has set Yuva lindotoka = the sun has risen Yuva lindopaa = the sun is climbing up (the Kindovowa Hiyao and yau yau of Amu are not used. Mkmditha j^^ > Kwekuyu kaokuya = ya kimbuya . On the day for the fishermen to go out and cast their nets so no use cure their fish. A heavens).. 1 Moke ndeza means of lowest tide they stop at it is of home and the cooking over the fire of the n^eza fish.) Ukombe Usi (nsi) matting ready to sew = sand fly usubi suni) Uvavu (pi. Ku-vaka = rib ubavu uta na chembe = bow and Ku-vowa Yuva arrow = to marry = to rot = the sun. ku-oa ku-oza yua Changes of Idiom IV.B. few old expres- sions survive in Kitikuu which are almost Kingovi. rather the lowest day of the neap tide) to eat (grain) out of a fold in the clothes. mbavu) Uvueha na chembe .69 KITIKUU Thipepeo for = miaafestoons on bow- zipepo mtepe sprit of Ku-toma Uchi ku-va mti (isi) Mchi (N. Examples of the -ndo. but want of time has compelled one to abandon this dialect before having fairly started. The expressions are quite different from those in any of the dialects given before. The people were unable to explain the derivation or parts of these two words.) only means a growing tree. (pi. (Kit. Examples. .



All boats coming from Rasini,



are elsewhere


itself however it is only those with the camel-necked
are called mtepe, while the others are called idau.
Parts of these boats not already referred to are

In Rasini


Mchwana = the block just

in front of the

mast to which the lower

part of the latter is lashed.
= cross beam passing between the


mast and resting on the bulwarks either

and the

the Banadir Coast.
These bear a rebut apparently possess a very different
Words in Kitikuu which are entirely different from

The Dialects


semblance to Kitikuu

those of Kiam. are likely to occur also in similar forms in these



Some words however


= kishembere (Banadir) -a


pass almost unchanged through a series of


Example, Magadi

= potash




(Kiung.) = magathi
mixing with snuff.

(Kiam.) =


the language of the Comoros.
It is alleged
Bajun Kiswahili and is generally

to bear a great resemblance to
included in the Swahili group.

Kingovi (or Kingozi as it is called in Kiung. and Kimv.) is
the ancient language of this coast.
Natives talk of words in old Swahili as "Kikae" or "the old


Such words are







Kingovi is a language much older than Kikae.
Words, phrases and constructions occur in old poetry, but the
language itself is practically lost.


It contains


an almost entirely different vocabulary and different

grammatical forms.
There are said to be a few people who are still able to talk this
language, it having been carefully handed down, however I have
been unable to find anyone.



told that so different

the language to ordinary Swahili,
is unable to under-


that a well-educated and well-read Swahili



Appended is a piece of poetry (p. 73), of which the MS. from
which the writer's own copy was made was he thinks dated about one
hundred years ago I underline the words I believe to be Kingovi.
This is quite easy and simple as compared with poetry of several

hundred years old.
Lastly, a word on the

Kinyume is
and prefixing

fanciful languages.
attained by cutting off the last syllable of every word


Example, Nataka kiti niketi would be


Kinyume kanata

tiki tinike.

a purely fanciful or code language.
Occasionally single words of Kinyume are thrown into a piece of
poetry to fulfil the exigences of metre or rhyme, or to make it less
It is

easy of comprehension.
This latter, it would appear,


the chief feature of Swahili


For there are such multitudes of rhyming words that there
would be nothing in the poet's art if he were not able to mystify his

So any old or


word he can discover he

careful to


string in.



an example of a Kinyume word,





being thrown into a verse.


kiti nikelete

kusimama kalikwenda.


farasi kupijuati si kuwelekwa na punda.
Tandiko la mjakazi si la ungwana kanda.

Na mkate wa kimanda


kitumbua cha Mafia."


"Give me a chair

to sit on, standing










from a horse

by a donkey.


not (so good as) being carried



The soft couch of a
mat of a freeman.


And manda

not (so good as) Mafia chupaties."




not (so good as) the rough

There are a number of code languages made by
some particular sound to each syllable.


Each of these possesses a name of


The explanation of one will suffice
Kialabi is made by suffixing -kiri

to explain




to each syllable.

Kikiri takiri bukiri ehakiri ngukiri kikiri mekiri kwikiri

which means


Kitabu changu kimekwisha.





Praise be to Allah.








believed to be of Kingovi are underlined.

N.B. A. translation, or a synonym, is given in the footnotes of every
word which is not to be found in the usual Swahili Dictionaries.

are usually divided

ina nikite Inkishafi

by a semicolon.

nikapange lulu kula tarafi
kiza cha thunubi kinipukiye

Tatunga kifungo kwa kukisafi


The strophes





nuru na mianga itathalali 7
Nambao kwamba ataamali iwe toba yak we aitubiye.
Kim a ake 9 kwisa dibaji yangu penda kuonya na moyo wangu
Kitamsi 5 kiza cha ujuhali 6





Utwetwe na hawa ya ulimwengu

Moyo wangu



Hunelezi nami kalibaini

Moyo wangu nini



Raj ami




likughuriyelo ni yambo gani
liwapo na sura nisikataye.



Huyui dunia ina ghururi


hila za







twambe, u mwelevu wakukhitari

ndia za tatasi 16 huzandamaye





Hunu ulimwengu bahari tesi 17 una matumbawe na mangi masi, 18

mwasi 20

Aurakibuo 19 jua


Ni kama kisima



kwa kula hasara

ombe 21




mta 22 paa 23 mwana wa




Endao kwegema humta 22 pembe ;
Au wenga 25 vumbi la mwangaza

Thunubi =thambi.







Tatasi = matata.


Tesi = -kali.






M wasi = adui.


Ombe = wall round mouth



UjuhaU = uwinga,







Kimaake = kisa.


Rajami = the devil Iblis.


Ku-zunqlukani = to awake.
Nini ? = una nni ?











Mwenda kulegema akilisoza; asione kitu ukishishiye 26
Tarafi = nta.
u Kwi'tabiri=ku-taamali.
= revealed, dis- is Ghururi = deceit?
Inkishafi =


kunwa maiye.
wa yua likitumbuza

asipate katu

to shine, brighten up.





= he


of a well.

Kushisha = causative of shika.

fr> k^-euka. 12 11 23 Jifa=jumbi. vastator. fr. spoiler. Tandi 18 la mauti likiwakuta. ku-atama=to gape. . the mouth P Ku salimu=ku koma 29 ' fr. Pasi mkohozi akohowao 1 2 3 4 6 . hudiye. 22. . Mwa-tami = fr. 8 14 . ^- Ar. Tandi = tanzi. 18 Yasimsiye = yasimwishUie. Ku-suta = ku-fukuza. * Mvi-chembe. mtu nambwa 13 mbovu mno kuta kiwavu 15 kilabu 9 . Kiwavu =mbavu. Ar. 24. Ar. Au 2 1 enga metu limetukapo . de- . . 10 Kilabu. fr. sweet. 30 kali. ! kiburi = pride. ikawa mayuto yasimsiye Khasaisi 5 zote na matakwao . Asifidi 18. wakauma zanda wakiiyuta Na dunia yao ikawasuta 19 ichamba safari muniukiye 20 Ichamba hayani 21 ndio safari yakomele tena ya kuu'siri 22 28 na takaburi 24 mutendele 25 kwangu nishuBithaa' ya ndeo . 23. 24 Ar. Ikalifu 21. . ^JL^ = a dog. Nambwa=na mbwa. . au mwenyi kwenda Metu = a mirage. of haya Ku-'usiri=to delay by the way. ni jifa Ihali gani Kima 20. wakati wa yua lilinganapo kayakimbilia akayaMwenyi nyota kamba ni mai yapo 16. . 12 hutukiza[i]ye. 19 Khasaisi. 7 Makataye = evil happenings. Hadimu = a breaker. was 22 8il=uii. . 32 Lathati =raha=laza. find in. ikaribu. for mume- tenda. ^ . 17 Wangapi dunia waipeteo. . 13 Ku-kithiri=to be much. Labibu. Wakazisalimu 30 'umri zao hadimu 31 lathati 82 akenda nao . twaye. 25. to Hayani = pi. misfortune. . fr. ^^J = intelligent. 27 Manaya = mauti. Ku-wania=ku-telea.H VERSION N. Ndeo = swollen headedness. Mutendele = old Swahili fr. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua mai alotaka akayatoa 4 3 yambo ila shakawa. . X&*' 15 1 Ikalifu. wakatalathathi kwa shani lao Ikawa sumbuko kwa mazingao [wajkaanguka zanda waziumiye. 25 si fr. 17 Ku-fidi=ku-pata. . 8 asirithiye. Ku-etuka= to shine. Mvi 26 wa manaya 27 ukiwafuma na kutubwikiya 28 katika nyama Pasiwe mwatami 29 mwenyi kwatama au muya nena yalikuwaye. Takaburi. Ngea=chele = epuka. . 28 Kutubwikia=to sink into. glfted ' 11 20 21 6 9 Ku-talathatM = to take pleasure characteristic of. Dunia 19. ungi welevu ulikithiriye . shida na shakawa likupeteo Ni dunia ii 6 uipendao yenyi thila na makataye 7 17. haupendi si ewe labibu ina ila ilio 10 11 kuwania . ila 16 hupa watu ngea ikithiriye.

. lini ewe Hiki safihi yao 2 ? nambia ukomo 4 kievu 3 moyo changu hukengeukii . Kamaye = kama yeye. 23 Luhudi =ufuko = the narrow trench dug to receive the body after the 24 Uwene = -e-e :> G 7 8 9 10 11 Ku-viva=ku-iva. is 4 15 rest of the grave 25 foliage. Tuka =mashaka(yamti)= branches. . . Ku-khini=ku-hini=ku-iza. nusuha 5 yangu. 1 2 ? 30 Malimwengu yote yawatii'le Wachenenda zita thao thilele 32 Ku-nabihi amka. 22 Zati = za tiati. Zana=akiba. . Hakuwa mtume Suleimani maliki wa isi 17 na ajinani 18 ? . 17 isi=viumbe. Ku-hizini = to store up. . 19 20 ikiwa mgine wamtendaye. Uwaweneo = umezoona. 8 ulio weuni katika tuka 9 enga moto kuroromeka 9 Pakashuka wingu katika shaka . Kuliwa bangu =ku-hadaa. Yawatii'le = yawatii'ye. Uwene 24 wangapi watu wakwasi walowakiwaa kama shamsi 25 Wamuluku 26 zana 27 za adhurusi 28 thahabu na fetha wahi. Adhurusi = pembe za ndovu Shamsi. niusikiye. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo Haiziwiliki izimikapo. Ar. = foolishness. Praver Hela = haya 20 prostration in 27 haya 29 28 - 12 (enda) not so (shame). . 12 11 sijida . milele. Safihi. Ewe moyo enda 6 ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. ikawa kuzima usiviviye 10 . fr. j 3 Kievu =kidevu. .26. = ku-amsha and 4^. Huza akhirayo kwa ulimwengu 28. . ku- ignor- . 32 f r . ku-ona. Ku-futu = ku-kosa. . ku -lala (-e-e tense). 16 Hudumu. tense is finished. 29 ziniye 35. moya hwona izimishiye. wamuluku = those who possessed. 33. saa 29. fr. luhudi 23 katika iwafun- diye. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika 1 hukunabihi 1 Utaata 27. 32.pta0^=jua. . is Ajinani =majini (jins). fr. Yemale = yambo lema Dawamu = dayima. 2 4 Hukengeukii = hukunigeukii. . Sijida = prayer. Sasa nyumba zati 22 ziwatwetweo . Ku-roromeka=ku-waka. 76 VERSION N. Hauna dawamu 15 hudumu 16 nao umilikishwapo wautendaye. Ruhu=roho. ruhu 7 enga taa katika pepo. . K u-oka = ku-sitawi. 21 Nusuha = entreaties. 19 ance. 34. na dunia yao iwaokele 31 mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye. yake hela tafathali unabihike Sheitani rajimi asikuteke kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye 13 Hunu ulimwengu utakao yemale 14 nilipe upendeyao . si lile. Ulimfutuye ukamukhini Watoto wangapi uwaweneo 21 ikawa yakini kupona kwao . Au 30. fr. 31. .

4 7 Masiku 8 ya kele kama nahari 9 haiba na jaha iwazingiye. pi. Kwa msana za kele 18 15 naapa kwa Mungu Mola 14 zisitawiye. ^ \^ . Hudama = watumwa. VERSION zao shingo. Nyemi = furaha kuu. . = incense. Kumbi 40. fr. siye. . Fusi=kivumbi. 24 Majodori =magodoro. 4 Jamil =wengi. 8 9 10 fr. Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi walina wakande nawa pepezi . Nahari = mtana. - ^9 Ku-nakila=ku-gura = ku-hama. 25 Akliadhari Masiku. Kaa=sandaU. 20 21 22 Ku-shitadi=ku-zidi. 16 ill za waja 19 na za masituru 17 zikiterema kuvuma na za hudama 20 furaha na nyemi 21 . tense) (?). 32 & fr lU-paka. Sufufu of safu) indoors. 1 2 Ku-mia=to wave=ku-punga. Ar 26 Misutu = visutu vikuu 27 Ku-kukiwa = ku-inikiwa. | 12 14 Zali~= zango zile. . . 76 Wakimia 1 mbinu na 36. ku-tia 23 . sufuri na nyurna na mbele ill jamu wawatandiye. Tafahuri = f r. 15 Msana = ic Ku-vtuna (with voices. kwa taa za kowa na za 2 miyongo 3 zitengo . Mao = malalo. a group. shiye. . of 3 of fr. Kitengo = baraza of people other than the sultan. (pi. 18 Kele = kelele. Abunusi = mpingo = ebony. 11 Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi mkwasi 13 12 zi za msaji na abunusi Zali 38. . understood). tele sufufu . G Ku-nawiri=ku-ng'ara. 7 Sufuri = shaba. 39. Miyongo (pi. crowd. . 'itiri na kaa waipashiye *. = rows. 17 Situru= cloister. . 28 (-zii 9 w 'Itiri Ar. 19 Waja = watu. . !1 ranks. 5 Mbake = mpia. 1 to 10 persons. a'sikari 6 zikinawiri ill mbake 5 . wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye. Wapambiye sini ya kuteua na kula kikombe kinakishiwa Kati watizii 10 kuzi za kowa katika mapambo yanawiriye 8 . fr. Misutu 26 mipindi wakipindiwa yuu la farasha kufunikiwa 27 28 29 Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa . Ukwasi ungapo na tafaburi 33 Washukiye nyumba za makaburi mtanga na fusi ziwafu43. of usiku. Ku-taanusi= to be comfortable. Wakaapo pote zao Nyumba 37. = green. . mwongo). 31 32 wakanakiliwa ili safari 44. 41. Na wake wapambe 23 24 kukhitari mema maao Kwa yuu la zitanda na majodori ya 25 kwa kazi za pote wanakiNa mito kuwili ya akhadhari waturnbuizi 42. .N. 22 zishitadiye . .

. Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni Buum 23 hukoroma kati nyumbani zisiji 24 na koti 25 waikaliye. 16 17 makinda 18 ya popo iu Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame . Ku-taathari = ku-oza. . ya waja 40 41 itindishiye . 52. 30 Ng'ende = nyenzi. Ku-siri=ku-wa. Ku-funda = to shut in (as in ma- build. 36 37 Mbuwongo = mbwa uongo. enga matuka na matukutu 35 36 Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye 37 Kwamba usadiki kamba mbuwongo enda nyumba zao uzinde Yalingie vumbi 53. or. 41 = to turn. dung. 2(5 Zion<Ja=zidon<Ja. 35 = piri = puff-adder. Ku-tulika=ku-tiririka. maziwio. 27 Kiku = adove. See note 10 above. Wasakha = pus. ku-angama. Ziwele = zimekuwa. shingo Ukita h[w]itikwi fr. Bombwe = maggot. . 49. nawanawa ndiwahumia shingo 27 28 29 mbawa ziku na zitati Wakipija matungo tungo waliwashiye kati zao huvuma mende kumbi za msana zalia Nyumba 51. Kisiji =a Koti = a small bird. wengeme 19 Husikii hisi 20 wala ukeme 21 zitanda matandu 22 walitandiye. fr. Matukutu = tuka kuu. . Hisi = sauti. Zitefute zao . 38 Ku-zinda=to 39 Mwango = echo. 33 Jisadi=ziwiliwili. ::8 54. Mta=mchwa. be cut short.webs. 31 Yande = yande. 47. . 26 Wanawazipungu wapendezango. . 28 Kitati = a very small bird.VERSION N. makumbi yande 31 kuwa mazibala 32 yalisiriye 33 Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele 34 mwitu. 30 ng'ende . Sasa walikee 1 45. pasipo zulia wala jodori dhiki 4 za zionda 5 ziwakusiye. See note 16 above. . Matandu = cob. Bumu=owl. . Tame = -gofu. Makinda =zij ana. 50. sauti . . 77 2 . 40 Waja^watu. . wasakha 7 na damu huwaitika 8 Pua na makanwa bomb we 9 hutoka haiba na sura zigeushiye. . Ku-mia=to nod. 23 24 25 Dhiki = u tungu. Shubiri = the span of the fingers (the measurement of the ufuko). . > . . . 29 fr. 34 Mazibala =yaa= dust. matter. moya shubiri Ikawa miwili kutaathari 3 huwatulika 6 46. ila ni mwango 39 22 ku-kaa. Pili wingu yamefungana). Ukeme = matayo and mawizilio. Kula'= chakula. ku-waka= to Ku-itika=ku-yeyuka. . bird green which eats dates. 32 Dudi=mayongoo. 10 12 11 na kuwatafuna zao jisadi 18 Wasiriye kuwa kula kwa dudi Na mta 14 na tungu huwafisidi majoka na pili 15 wawatatiye.

'ali 11 daula na zenyi mianga? 'ezi iwaushiye. Sao-hao. . Kituzo = arresting. Moyo huyatasa kimabihika 58. Waushi = people who have flown away (uka=ruka). 16 liamu. " 'Ali=bigh 12 (Ar.). za tanga tanga 12 mabwana na mawaziri Watamiwe 13 na-ti za makaburi lina . ku-amua. 2 ? 4 3 naona kwa haya yafuatiye. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka 67. wenyi nyuso . mahuwa 21 . . 55. 14 fr. okoka.^fr. . ku-atama. . fr. 28 fr. Hbonya=nionya. nyamba Wa wapi ziuli Kwa na mashekhi . 63. VERSION . 20 29 malijaa . muanga na muangaza kisararnbi 59. 19 fr. Ngowa =matakwa. wahakiki zuo wakihakiki 15 Waongoza watu njema tarikhi wesiwe kwa wote waitishiye.Jlrif^ P aa = utosi. makadhi wamua 14 haki. 5 . . ya kupulika 5 Sasa moyo pako tauza nawe nelezato sana nami nelewe Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe. 8 Wapi wakiungu waviza kumbi "Walaliye 61. usikutwae. U wapi Ali bin Nasiri na muamu wake Abu Bakari 6 Mwenyi 'Idarusi na Mohodhari wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye. Ukimbiliepi 1 2 28 pa kukushika = awakened. Mimi nakvvambia Zisizo 60. ku-isa (i8ha). Moyo Wendo wachokoka 25 nawe [hjwokoki moto wa jahimu 26 . 26 . Ku-tagamia = ku-egema. 65. Ku-uza=ku-uliza. 68. 10 Ziuli = maua.78 N. . . Ku-wa'igiika=ku-zingatia=ku-faMasikizi =masiMo. . . 7 8 9 mbonya 17 18 3 6 ? na paa 27 za watu kupapatuka. Hata masikizi 56. Ar. 17 19 20 18 16 zituzo za mato masiza ngowa ? Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa Kwa lina . . mema ya ? 10 za vumbi vumbi za Pate Yungwa Wangiziye nyumba 62. Jahimu. Mahuwa =: marehemu. . zidiwa = kama ndiwa. ukimtoiliepi=utakimbia wapi? Malijaa = matagamiwa. Ku-viza=ku-ongeza. nambia walipo kawamkiye. wenda na makundi ya 'askari pingu za mauti ziwafundiye. Kiunda Aboard with which body 23 is 2* covered in grave. Aimi=mimi. 1 zituko zingapo huya'ithika . Mashukio = place of 21 22 descent. 83 kalamu ya Mngu iwapeteo. 4 Ku-pulika=ku-sikia. nipulikiza ziunda 9 za miti ziwaaliye. Wasiriye wote kuwa 64. . ^ Wesiwe = wameamkuliwa 13 27 fr. wangiziye nyumba za jizajiza ndio mashukiyo 7 walishukiye. 20 30 30 nitagamiye . fr. 57. . Kamao = kama wao. 22 sasa ni waushi waliushiye. mtanga. Moyo nakwambia ya watu sao 24 kuwa ao una yako uyashishiye ? kamao Nawe wayakini ata taadabu sipeketeke ya jauri haki ushike.

23 Kitaya = bit (bridle). . . Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu Akatwekwa thambi thamaghusubu 11 akambiwaHaya mtukuliye. 6 . shiye. motowe muashi na kuguruma Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama. (iv) Sai'ri. 14 15 of the seven 26 Silisiya = chains.]* Uye 17 18 sura za na ziyali 19 zimtatiye. Ny umu = -kali. Sai'ri = one of the hells just men(i) tioned. 7 .)). .] Moto wa sai'ri Ni mngi 25 wa moshi na mitokoto 26 majoka na pili waikaliye. . (vii) Hutama. Ku-ungua = to disjoint. (iii) Hawia. 9 10 72. Na malipwa yao wathilimua si thahabu timbi si 3^akufua. 31 Hutama = one of the hells.] Na moto wa latha 28 Huona manofu yakikwambuka waona ziungo ziungushiye 29 . 3 Mathulumu = tyrants. 19 Kiyali = spark. 13 12 73.] Fahamia tena siyo . . Kitana = sumbuko. 24 Maghusubu = oppressor. Azimamu=ugwe. Rikabu = a riding animal. Namuwa na huyu. Fedba hawatwai na wangapoa. Jabari = bila kifano. menithilimu kwa hukumu yako ilio ny umu Mngu jabari akahukumu amtendeleo amlipiye. N^imi = pl. nae. (v) Latha. fr. ku-shitaki. yaku'aridhiwa 2 kula kitendo 3 4 achamba Ya Rabi namuwa 5 Pindi mathulumu atapo ondo . of ulimi. [74] to [78] the note at the end of the Translation. VERSION 79 Tafakari siku ya kwima 1 kondo. 2(3 PL of moto. 29 hells. Mgi=mwingi.] Kuna na hawia 22 'Asi angiapo hula kitana huona pumuzi zimsiziye.N. bongo na wasakha limshu- [78. . . 21 22 Hasanati = thawabu. . Eu-kimu=ku-amkua. Namuwa = hukumu. . : 30 hutama 31 . 1 Kwima = ku-simama. Moyo tafakari ya jahanamu wenyi silisiya na azimaniu 15 14 akiukimu unene labeka niitishiye. 70. Jahanamu. Mitokoto. ni moto mkali hau makina [75. . See on these hells. Daiyani = a name for God. ku-tokota. 23 ufahameto ni moto mkali katika nyoto 24 [76. 69. ila hasanati 8 ni malipwaye. 27 nao pulika ukitiwa mara huwa kuwaka [77. (ii) Jahimu. . 27 Latha = one of the 28 Manofu = joints of meat.)=mtumbwa 30 Siyo = hiyo. 20 Hawia=one 4 Ku-ta = ku-piga on<3lo magote = viz. ndimi yonda Mjani akupe 21 20 pulika sana. (Kiam. 71. 17 Mjani = a wrong doer (distinguish from mjane (Kimv. (vi) Hamimu. 18 a Ku-aridhiwa = ku-arifu. Makina =makini. cut joints apart. Pindi ya Daiyani 16 ukivuma na kuta ukita sauti kama ya punda panda [74.

TAYLOR ABBREVIATIONS = another reading.V. or would. Northern. w. usually. Mombasa language or = usual. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE MOMBASA RECENSION Mombasa Text is the outcome of a careful and deliberate many years of the original Arabic-character copy obtained for me in 1885 by the celebrated Mwalimu Sikujua II. = Authority = Arabic. =from. E. = with. = at the place referred to. V. 1.MOMBASA RECENSION OF THE INKISHAFI BY REV. = perfect. = version obtained at Mombasa. = modern. native scholars and authorities like the Sheikh Mohammed bin Ahmad. S. usu. Southern. (S." meaning Descendant of the ancient royal family spoken of under the name of "the Kings of Mombaza" by the poet Milton (see Introduction). prob. = literal. = probably. =word Ngoz. The original transcription was made by the help of the learned in such matters among my friends.) pf. or Auth. who This revision spread over . cf. or cfr. alt. = Captain Stigand's. W. Kimvita. fr. ad loc. perh. Ar. N. =Ki-ngozi (Ki-ngovi. -ly. = South. lit. A. VL. Archipelago. = various authority or reading. "li-Mambasii. = meaning. (N. = Mombasa. = compare. alternative reading. alt. = alternative. obtained in the AL. sc. = perhaps.) = North.. Mv.) or Authorities. mod. wd.

country. as media for Prose. of T'akaungu. now Museum. MS. and the Kadhi (then Sheikh) Buruhani bin 'Abd-il-'Aziz ibn 'Abd-il-Ghani. by Bwana Sa'id bin Khamis. general were authorities the latter's able Kadhi of Zanzibar before him. It is seldom that a MS. and Ayubu bin Salim el Mazru'i. now I think of The Mrima. who me Another special revision was made. . RECENSION 81 were dispossessed by the Portuguese after their conquest of the coast at the end of the fifteenth century. Then his almost equally able son Bwana Hemedi. looked drawn for the distinction in the up to by all. also Bwana Majidi bin 'Ali el Mandhiri besides Bwana Rashid bin Su'ud. The I have ventured to include and revise on I am still doubtful if stanzas on the Mirage my own they formed part of the authority.and others too numerous to mention. Text lacks the first seven stanzas of the complete Poem preserved in this Mombasa Recension. since the complete number of stanzas in the perfect Poem would hardly " " is a number that would appeal 70 be an odd number.S. the poet. [74]-[78] and of the three stanzas in all. Poem totals The loss of the introductory stanzas is explicable seventy stanzas. and Trade jargon respectively. if I remember rightly. the the five eight [16]-[18]. Poetry. the note on 12. by the fact that the ancient poetry of this stamp was written on rolls. and the Mwalimu now Kadhi al-Ghazzali. a defect which seems at first sight to be atoned for by the presence of on the Mirage. which I secured in 1884.) . Lamu. of any age is found in such good condition as is that of the Utenzi of Liongo. with Mwalimu Sikujua. Eliminating these last. but its outer part has of course suffered at the British more than the rest of the long roll. It will be noted that the N. of which the outer layers became the first to perish. The first-mentioned. and to the oriental and the native mind alike. . (See also for a superfluous stanza in S. Mombasa. Bwana Husein bin Khamis el Mandhiri. el-Amawi (Omeyad of The procured a text for Other Kureish). though original. is the authority Introduction between the three leading Dialects of the different zones of Swahili and Zanzibar. All the names given are those of acknowledged authorities in their own father.

both dh and s modify the a following to become in sound nearly as o. The effect of pronounced with the dentals. etc. dh (3) when it and is all the remaining consonants. the Arabic dhad and tha. etc. like s. which have a difference is similar effect on the vowels they introduce . dh and th. The gh. like "awe." If the dh and th has a broadening influence upon the vowel it is. not dhati *. as at Mombasa. cerebrals. namely on the d and t. e. a broad a The also. when the words in which Their they occur are pronounced as is usual in the Arabic style. the chords of the glottis being made vibrant to yield a chest resonance at the moment of voice production. Bismillahi. . at Zanzibar etc. including the used at all as in proper names l ain (c) like 'All.. It in prayer in the effort not Billahi.. 1. etc. thahiri between (distinct) dh and th and tahiri (circumcise). Persians and Hindis neglect this in their own speech. fore palate with the upper edge of the blade of the tongue letters in all . N. produced with the upper blade upon the palate.g. these Dialect as used at "r" less of the or trill . : and the former make 1 The only word all long a's which a. do not broaden their succeeding vowel sounds thus dhati. " " in the same pose as for the gutturals kh and gh." in them than at Lamu. 'Athman. partly that dh. especially of the a's which succeed them. e. for the Kim vita but with The Swahili Spelling appropriate " Mombasa. tongue on the teeth these are pronounced exactly the same to the North..B. partly that. at Lamu. involves a guttural effort. the dh is a composite sound.PRELIMINARY NOTES TO THE MOMBASA TEXT Phonetics and Prosody. exactly the same as at Mombasa. while th a palatal sound consonant pure and simple. d and t. .. But Billahi. and is with the side laid along the upper jaw teeth on the left. words in which they figure are pronounced in the South. said my teacher. thus sala (prayer*) is sala. the q or k (J>) and the r and s have a similar broadening effect. tip of the : these is easily heard in the modifying of their following vowel sounds. in 1 precedes is Allah.g. because of the i in the preceding syllable. nearly and dhamini is nearly dhamini so the palatal Arabic sounds th and t (J and Jb) make . related consonants exhibit the (jo and u) same peculiarity. as if the tongue made a prostration to pronounce a Name so holy.

ch'. being breath consonants. This d and t is the Bantu consonant proper the dental d and t of Mombasa while found in the roots of is admittedly cerebral. pure native origin are the true Arabic sounds. The vowels are rather 6. I. nd. u to . but as si-nging Nghad . d and t not marked as dental (d and t) pronounced as above explained.. and when it occurs in Lamu. not they always represent a suppressed n before the a matter of grammatical importance in the case of of the breath. RECENSION 83 are reduced as often etc. u in the Swahili of Mombasa (or even of the South as am aware). Jomvu (Jo-mvu). lengthened at the accented syllable than stressed. o. (Welsh). and singing. are not necessary when the Mombasa system above noted is for Dialects. and are always heard in the more modern words derived from the Arabic when spoken by the " loans. differ from the smooth or non-explosive type of the same letters in the increased force is supplied from out of the mouth cavity. etc. Here note The Accent. t'. e. a. Apart from the Arabic words in which at Mombasa the dental d and cultured those which exhibit j and ch respectively at From the above considerations the " Centrality " claimed Mombasa Dialect in the Introduction may be further occur include Zanzibar. e. a dissyllable and in to the : . "blends" made with the corresponding voice consonants by the letter n to form respectively mb. h (*. nj. far as I . ng. by the "illiterate" " dh then ") and s and h (or g).] ng' is the sound in the words Gottm^en. . then (= the th in English there is no modification of the pure vowel system a. etc. [Note There is also a blend mv as in Mvita.. is merely pronounced in the exaggerated Lamu way. voice as contrasted with breath being kept ' usually heard in Swahili.e. be contrasted carefully with the blend apostrophe above mentioned. when the latter word (still pronounced in the ordinary way) is divided. for the 62 . letter aspirated initials and they correspond . t'.). Therein every used. which from the chest . respectively. s. i.S.. The explosive consonants p'. and' (*) are the Arab sounds least throughout. the emission of up in an even "pressure" Ain (e). the other t " in whatever zone. i. and and kh and gh. but especially the d. this is to Also and note: The marks d and introduced t t for ng without the "cerebral" the d the Lamu. k'. by Captain Stigand while they draw attention to the exaggerated "trill" which in those Dialects accompanies them both. nd. not as sing-ing.. etc.

84 S. wasiza-ngowa kiiwa mahiiwa. In Swahili prosody every (See the Mombasa Text. falling on the penultimate syllable of each word. easily explains the confusion so often arising between and in the those sounds in the Southern Dialects. where the first of the 1's is dwelt on to make the fourth syllable of the six of which the word is composed. and so bearing a relation to the Bantu against d and t). (') except seldom separated thus I'l. There are no diphthongs vowel is given its separate in the Central 2. Stanza 1. m' and syllables as in . n' in thus . In the Translation the letter -r has been chosen for the last letter of and the unusual metre and accentuation is an endeavour to render the effect of the Poem mutatis mutandis the final syllable . nd. as above. etc. yet in some words it is so separated. It is very important to note that the changes have been naturally very much slower and always inconsiderable in those Dialects where the literary and poetic genius .] " pronunciation of both the r and 1 at Zanzibar South (with the fore-edge of the tongue slightly raised the fore front palate.) full value. some idea somewhat but in the Swahili (what answers to) the tonic accent. Wasiriye wot'6 L6o ni waiishl waliiishfye\ ! || || || The last syllable of rhyme though each stanza is invariably of the same strict -ye (which in most cases has to be transliterated as -e written -ye in the Arabic script) throughout the Poem. 11 is to distinguish from the blends mb. S.K. The metre and rhyme-system of the appended Translation are intended to convey to the English ear of what is (to the Swahilis !) the cast of the original archaic . n'de. (Mombasa) and Southern groups Prosody of the Poem. established. [See Grammar Mrs " The of Cerebral also RECENSION Preface my to the Mombasa Swahili Burt. moment you poetry as in ordinary speech make separate it is not necessary to write the m'vi. This rhythm with the rhyming Aimi wa wapi || may be thus tabulated : wakazfndfwa. Permanency of Dialect. 3.P.C. where at one seem to hear r anc( at another 1. generally. Zituzo za mato. is necessarily sometimes distinct from the modulation of the rhythm. Bisumiriahi.

vocabulary and style amidst the ever-changing currents of the fashions of speech. while with the introduction of modern conditions the merely pedantic element once so assertive in its tendency to all that is Simultaneously. which. howsegregation of dialects becomes out of date. and Lamu. popular. where genius exists. The War of Extermination till " waged against the Arab squirearchy and their leisured entourage by the colonising European Powers.S. RECENSION 85 and the pure taste of the people have had such play as certainly has been the case in the Mombasa (Central). with the growing influence " of the often too unsympathetic Resident Alien. have had the steadying effect of a sheet anchor for grammar. have introduced as a necessary sequel an alteration in this respect. strong. Euphrates" of the native gradual "drying up is element a conservational new becoming operative in the classics. genius will out and we may now hope for a revival in Swahili of efficient as . However. in all the important languages of the world where a regular. of the with the ever. use of Scripture has obtained. . increasing eifect of the Bible Translations. and the mass of " Ushuhuda " (Native Authority which in Swahili is or was the standard poetry) has in consequence become thinner and so less a conservative factor. lately and some other Northern Dialects.

This from MS. (N. || 9. Mohamadi. niyathihirishe || || || || 8.INKISHAFI. majuto (mayuto = [17]) Title. nakala xnankulun. Cp. ambao kwamba hutaamali The || || nuru na mianga ite thalali . Gr. MS. 1 Here the original Kingozi reading demanded by the metre must have been noe arahimu which accordingly I have restored for nandike (^j^Jpl) rafcimu. but may never become ni. ku-awaza. but the consonants are all pronounced single in Swahili with short vowels. Text wd. . from =ziwaenee. Ngozi. 5 This and the following word are so spelt in the MS. arahamani above with the article. of 1 from Ar. AL. tfcalali= mists. if correct be from ku-uka. wazoevu wa mambo ya ushairi wa kale. 'ila katangaza ikatoza anga kama siraji sala t'umwa Mohamadi nim'salie Nalize thamma banu Kinana na sahaba wane wenyi ma'ana sala na mbawazi ziwaalie nisaliye wot'e ajuma'ina Allahumma Rabba mkidhi-haja nisaliye t'umwa aliyekuja|| nitawabidi Maula wa waja ukitusomesha tafusirie. |j 7. with stress on every syllable. Kwimakwe || asiondoe. Kwimakwe kuisa kuzikamili him'di na sala hiziratili kuisa kutabalaji na salamu 4. Makusudi yangu nda kudhamiri ya kutunga koja kulidawiri mivazi miwili ya kukhitari makinda ya lulu nyuma nitie. and its presence bespeaks the Dialect. kiniukiye therefore as in N. neravoLo. as presenting an older and not a more modern form of speech. || na iwe toba yakwe aitubie.) (kuoa= write. not from ku-euka. arahamani niirasimu Noe na him'di nitangulize alo mdasisi asiongeze akamba Bisumil'lahi || || || 2. Nitunge kitungo kwa kukisafi nikipange lulu kulla tarifi na ina nikite IN'KISHAFI kiza cha dhunubi kineukie || || . but the first word is exceptionally accented. Hence. Important as indicating that an 1 is primitive in Bantu roots. || him'di niitushize 3. ite laili = cast out the night. toba = /ieTa/*Ae<r0at . = exactly.B. || 5.. 8 kineukie. 9 =kuzingatia. etc. manukuu. etc. n. and verbal information. AL. in which such 1's are found. because ni with following e may elide its i. midomo Na niikadimu hali ya kupenda kuinathimu noe arahimu nyuma ikae. . by elision . himdi. while nandike leaves no room for it in the metre. 4 =niweneze. || yangu makali ambayo moyoni nikusudie. where the letters are not carefully pronounced. 1. I have used no diacritical points in the text for Arabic loan words. namba wazi^siflti. from ku-euka . || || 6. Kitamishwe kiza cha ujuhuli.) 2 In 8. without the h. the reading is nandike (=niandike) but here also from similar considerations I have restored noe na the conjunction na is evidently required. || niidiriji || i| || || || . kania ilivyopokewa Mvita huku katika manukuu ya kale na huku kwa ya wenyeji wat'u wa maana.

14 I have left mtambaa according to the S. Suu ulimwengu. though yu. the S. "with its [unfolding] leaves" (vicissitudes): These three stanzas or (-kat'a) lit. Dunia ni jifa. Hujui dunia ina khatari ? || t'esi. ? 11 =lina ndia. MS. soS. and Auth. halibaini. || moyo hila za rajimi ziughurie. Kwimakwe wangu : || kiiisa yangu diibaji utwetwe hawa ni 87 RECENSION S. kuwania S. MS. See Prelim. same words. 11. vumbi la muangaza akilisoza mwenyi kulegema Au linga metu limetukapo [16. siikaribu ewelaibu. kuwania situkuzie.] nyota 'kamba || wakati wa yua likitumbuza. which Auth. || kwa kulla khasara ukhasirie. ~ 15. || mwelevu u || huzandamae? Suu ulimwengu. || 19. to embrace. Through corruption this may be the philology of the word mtamba. aurakibuo huyo mwana 14. 13.] || || .] mwenyi [17. || || wakati mai ni wa yua yapo || lilinganapo || kiyakimbilia akayanwae ? mai alotaka akayatoa. MS. chenyi mtambaa kati asipate endao kwegema humta p'embe wa ng'ombe ni mwasi. u. : dialects. makata-yakwe. asifidi yambo ilia shakawa shida na shakawa likupeteo. both here after 12 13 begin with the Note that and place there in precisely the same form. || || || || kunwa 15. akishishiye. namba situkuzie S. form correctly wd.10. be matakwayo however as This indicated the"se three stanzas may not be of the original poem. bahari ! || || ndia || wa za t'atasi una matumbawe na mangi masi. 19 explains namba ati! ("I say!"). MS. [16]-[18] have* been amended conjecturally from the N.of course is the original form of the prefix in all Swah. : endure. Chenda akaona mwako wa yua. though ukhasirie in these in 13 (for yukhasirie"?). || || haipendi mt'u kuwania na mbwa ila kilabu. 12 and in its In a S.'s. 12. zitukuzie i || hali gani. but prefer " mta-paa from ku-ta paa~(Intensive form of upaa) as if thrusting out the shaggy " mane (tossing it). makatae = word is supplied for the hiatus in the rhythm here. An linga maie. stanza 31 occurs twice. p'enda kuonyana na || za malimwengu . Hunambii kwani. ni dunia sii uipendao yenyi nyingi dhila na makatae || || || [18. "cuts... etc. 16 in the Translation. or is it 2nd person by a sudden change to the personal appeal." . hakioni k'itu akishishie || . second paragraph. likukuliyeo hela n nini liwapo na sura nisikatae? ni-ni? huzundukani? Moyo wangu ? hu'itabiri ? twambe. has here. || ni-ni Moyo wangu kukhitari. Note.has often to do duty in both 3rd and second persons singular. to contend for (it). and on 16 18 matakwao. V. Note In Lamu. or." = bargains. and may mean. Khasaisi zot'e za matakwao. Unga ja kisima kisicho ombe. ikawa mayuto yasimsie. "I have not tolerated = do not . and A. shrewd turns.

but is inserted from good S. this identical stanza here and also after 12. hupa mat'ongea. Auth. MS." Ar. S 31 .88 S. i. . of S. aula mwambiwa asiridhie. hi S. ! || [| ! || 31. 20. ewe moyo. MS. ikamba " Safari. MS. " and Authorities. Au Roho inga || || sa'a taa katika p'epo. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo haimulikani 29. sihadaike hela tafadhali unabihike . 29 uwakao sana kwa mshindo. || huiona izimishie. synonym of Death.e.. tena S. ghaitha. || || || || mtenzile kwangu. MS. nave treacheries bestowed for their reward. form \ jjtf . Auth. S. S. as the 13. 25 OtJJJ! ^i>li = "Smasher of Delights. walotaladhudhi from Ar. muiukie Ikamba " Hayani ndiyo safari Ikomile tena yenu 'usiri. The text here is corresponding line in put conjecturally by the help of the N. haiziwiliki. See on other emendations [18]. and so to deal a " knock-out " blow. wingu katika kwaka. MS. pakausha inga moto kuroromoka ikawa kuzima usififie". mkohozi akohoao. Hiki lini ya usafihi ? || || nambia ukomo niusikie. 25. RECENSION . AL. 21 N. k'uta kiwavu hupa wat'u ghaitha ikithiriye * walotadhaludhi kwa shani lao. MSS. wala: but mwambiwa is never read wakenda. || hata 27. Version. . riishahadie !" na kutopekea katika nyama " Mvi wa Manaya ukawafuma. haina muanga tena. except as a trisyllable. Ma 'a una 'ila iliyo mbovu : ulikithiriye ungi || welevu II . which reads Shetani Bills! [Ibilisi] akughurie. 23 This wd. Shetani rajimi asikuteke aoriapo kesho k'uwa kamae Suu ulimwengu uupendao emale ni lipi ulitakao? hauna hela upwewepo wautendae? dawamu. || ! ! Bidha'a ya ndeo na takaburi 24. 24 =kuzama kabisa. kuzima taratibu moto. 22 "Strangled. or there may be conjectured for hupa wat'u ghaitha. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi ukanabihika bikunabihi ? wamba || || || 26. hudumu nao! || || || 30. to smite under the ribs. AL. 28 S.V. Ya kulewa bongo ukhitarie? 27 Here substituted for S. Auth. wala mwambiwa asiridfcie. || ! || || || au mwamba Nini ! ! Wakazisalimu 'umri Hadimu-ladhati akenda nao." now rather as in a trap or snare. The last eleven syllables read in S. pasi zao. Ewe moyo wangu. S. omits by error. Wangapi dunia waipeteo ikawasumbika kama zioo wakafa na zanda waziumie Tanzi la mauti likawakota na kuuma zanda na kuik'ata. ni k'avu mno. MS. kievu changu hukengeukii nusuha yangu huza akherayo kwa malimwengu ? Ya kulewa bongo ! ! 1| || || ukhitarie ? 28. etc. : izimikapo." In MS. " na dunia yao ikawasuta. zalikuwae || ! || 23. || || || 20 kuta kiwavu . ulio weuni katika shaka. 21. but the text is as S. pasiwe mwatami mwenyi kwatama. Auth. and by S." Swa.kupiga kikumbo. k' = ni k. " and not die down merely slowly. Caught. by slip. || || 22.




Hakuwa mtumwi

na ajinani,
awapo mngine




wangapi uwaweneo




ikawa yakini kumbona kwao,
sasa nyuinba za-t'i ziwatweteo
katika lihadi
34. Uwene wangapi wat'u wakwasi
walowakiwaa kama shamsi,











dhahabu na fedha wahuzinie.
na dunia yao ili akali
Ulimwengu wao uli taili
vitwa vya ufidhuli
mato mafumbi walifumbie.
na nyuma na mbele* ili
Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo,
wamiliki zana

za adhirasi




















zao nibak'e




taa za k'oa na za sifuri;


masiku yakele kama nahari
haiba na jaha iwazingie.
38. Zango za mapambo na faanusi
naapa kwa Mngu Mola
zali za msaji na abunusi
zetee sufufu zisitawie.








za kuteua

kati watizie kuzi za k'oa

na kula kikombe kinakishiwa"




k'elele za

masituri, zikiterema

na za
furaha na nyemi

misana zilikivuma

40. K'uinbi za








32 Ordinary pronunciation to-day Selemani.
S. MS. miliki.
ns as a
= walimpotea,
blend w. only slight trace of the n Hebrew enosh = frail man.
S. Auth.
uli- corrected from S. MS. being an evident error.
The subject is
ulimwengu, "the world," not insi na ajinani.
child = prince, and the original
mtoto, cp. Old Engl. sigmf. of
or " child," i.e.,
signification of the now so common Swah. wd. mtoto,
from ku-ta (Ngoz.) cp. Engl.
lihadi, either the
lateral niche made in the graves of Moslems, or the bier-frame laid therein.
note on Trans, ad loc.
34 AL. S. zina ( = hazina, S. Auth.), another, 2ani in same sense.
AL. S.




AL. Malimwengu yot'e yawati'ile Na dunia yao iwaokele, where
oka=kusitawi, "All's well with" them."" Prob. an ingenious reading of good
Swah. sense into the Arabic of the original script But so it would not so well fit in
with the next line. The S. Auth. comment on line 1 is, mambo makubwa, umri
mchache = ars longa, vita brevis.
zitwa zao zilele. Both these readings are
" Wewe
recognised by S. Auths. One S. Auth. explains the alt.l. by saying
wenda na kitwa kimelala kwa sakara, jamali na afia " = they march along in
a stupor of self-satisfaction.
See Trans, note ad loc.
"1 " retained in S. instead of N. mbee.
AL. S. wawatatie,
S. MS. p'weke (sic) or pweke
text as two S. Auths. and also N. MS.
= well-built, mbak'e = fr. kuwaka.
zetee, S. Auth. = zimekuta (stem -TA="put forth") safu-safu.
with prosthetic I- or E- see
69 etapo ondo = aitapo ondo
here zetee then




prob. for zietee (or -tele) old pf.
I find a variant, apparently thus Wapambe ni siti za kuteua, of
which the authority is doubtful.
ki-= participle-adjective, supplying ni from

previous clause.




and N. MS. here nana= "ladyes," Eng.




41. P'indi walalapo




wall na wakandi na wabembezi


na wake wapambe watumbuizi wakitumbuiza wasinyamae.
maao mema ya kukhitari juu la vit'auda na magodori
na mito kuwili ya akhidhari kwa kazi ya p'ote wanakishie.
43. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa
juu ya firasha kufunikiwa
'itiri nakawa
mai ya marashi wakikokewa
wakanakiliwa ill safari,
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari,
fusi na fusizi liwafusie
washukie nyumba za makaburi
45. Sasa walalie mji
pasipo zulia wala guduri













mi will



usaha na damu zatuuzika,
haiba na sura zigeushie.
Wasirie wot'e kula kwa dudi na mtwa na t'ungu huwafisidi
na nyoka na ng'ge wawana kuwatafuna zao jasidi

46. Zitukuta

zao hutuulika,



na makanvva bombwe



dhiki ya kaburi iwakusie.








launi ya dubi au kiradi;
mifupa na nyama ikukutie.
makinda ya nyuni juu
49. Nyumba zao mbek'e ziwele t'ame,
zitende matandu
husikii hasi wala ukeme,


Nyuso memetufu

ziambatishie zao










k'umbi za msana hulia
Nyumba-kati zao huvuma nyende ;
kuwa mazibaa
yangilie vumi makurnbi ya-nde




Madaka ya nyumba na





bumu hukoroma


sasa, walalia

kati nyumbani,



wana wa
na k'uyu


41 c N. Auth. wapepezi, people fanning with fans.
MS. has wakik'okewa = wakimwaiwa, or
So S. Auth.;
"precious," N. Auth. has na kaa with an explanation of


as "sandal wood."

Fusi and fusizi verbals from fuka, the latter form from ku-fusiza.
" a
heap of made-earth," as the
expression fusizi is used to signify,
mound of a castle-keep. AL. N. mtanga na fusi ziliwafusie.



N. MS. walikee mui.
N. MS.
N. Auth. huwatulika two Sw. Auth. and MS.
S. Auth. mbwe-mbwe
S. MS.
expfain^zabomoka, zamonyoka.
mbombe the usu. wd. is bombwe as here.
N. MS. Jisadi. S. MS. order of lines in this is a, c, b, d.
mbek'e or mbeke (from weka) S. MS. also, mbak'e (from waka or
aka); or p'eke, S. MS. and S. Auth. (from paka). Respectively, "pukkah"
whited. It is hard to decide the original reading.
nyende = mod. ch'enene, cricket.
mazibaa, another case of the 1
the Ar. mazbalah=Swah. jaa. See note on
dropped from the primitive form
So S. MS.; last line recited by S. A. as leo yamazie yalisirie, S. Auth.
=yamekwislia; yamekuwa. N. MS. eo mazibaa yalisirie.
za, N. A.

as here and










Wana wa



na wana wa ndiwa humia
zipungu wabembe zango
ziki na zitwitwi
mbawa na t'ongo-t'ongo

shingo nakupiga





Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, ungi wa matuka na k'utuk'utu
kwa kicho
milango ya nyumba hutisha wat'u
na kiza kilifunzie.
enda nyumba zao
Kwamba husadiki, wauiba mbuwongo









ukita k'witikwi








za wat'u zitindishie.

Moyowa hutasa kunabihika?



zituko zingapo huya'athika




la'ala yakutulie





Sasa moyo p'ako, nauza, nawe neleza-t'o sana nami niyue
Wa wapi wazazi wakuzazie ? nambia waliko hawam'kue...





Mimi t'akwambia,






binu Nasiri?






za kiza-kiza




ndiyo mashukio walishukie

muamu wakwe

na Muhudhari







wanzilepi kue?




Wa wapi ziuli za Pate-Yunga



mianga na miangaza



wenyi nyuso k'ali kama zipanga 1
daula na 'enzi iwaushie

za t'anga-t'anga,





na mashaha mema ya
wapi wenzangu ? wawende, kumbe
kisarambe ? wangizie nyumba za fumbe-fumbe, viunza vya




miti viwaalie.

Kwali na mabwaiia na mawaziri, wenda na makundi ya 'asikari,
watamie nyumba za makaburi, p'ingu za mauti ziwafunzie






said Mwalimu Sikujua (the usual form
S. MS. zitwetwe.
of dim. kichigi) " is a bird's name ; and the k'uyu, in Kim vita called kipure, is in
appearance like a dove or wood -pigeon ; bumu, the babe-watoto or screechowl. Ziki is the name of a bird still; kifrwitwi, a shore-bird."


[t'undu]," S. Auth.

The first growth of bush on an abandoned field matuka being
said of old and young growth equally.
clumps or copses of young trees
ni uwongo.
uka-i-te = ukete ku-ta, to thrust forth, der. of vita,
Not "nrwango," as N. Auth.
war; not of Mvita, Mombasa.
= hutasa fuata.
=tega masikio, S. Auth.
miangaza - t'undu-t'undu in modern
language =" windows," and "lancets" respectively.




" The
of Pate (S. Auth.)
way there."
yu-nga = she-is-like
(words fail to
(Cairo), etc., for an
adjective which becomes linked with its proper name so as sometimes to become
its substitute.
The metre of the Inkishafu ; = " ubora," "most excellent." So S. Auth.


'Ali bin Nasir,


a great





The Author was one Seiyidi Ahamadi a suehe-ngome. By mashaha I understand
S. Auth.
poets of a high order.
poetical sheikhs or bards



"cangue". Ar. Again note that the real total number of stanzas seems to be seventy. mtukulie na tafakari p'indi Moyo juhanama yenyi silisili na azimama Mola Rabi akiuk'ema. mean =sifanye upuzi. kukwaka. be dried up. wasiwe kwa wot'e waliushie. wherein gloom when it approaches the revolting does not bore in addition The poverty and coarseness of the ! language employed. Auth. "Here am I. . 68 69 =aitapo ondo = apigapo got'i. are moreover sufficient in themselves to proclaim the clumsy fraud. fedha hawatwai na wangapowa ilia hasanati ni malipoe. manhttb = the one despoiled. lisizime. wapi makadhi wamua haki. uyashishie? ata ya jeuri haki ushike. ! || || || 63 65 Mod. Auth. = to VL. both students and MSS. S. Tafakari siku ya kwima k'ondo na ku'aridhiwa kulla kitendo anibapo. 63. || leo ni waushi. || || ! || 70. || . together with the involved and strained constructions. S. S. where in fact the S. Authorities. kuk'akatika=(S. ! . 72 S. Amba || || || || || siku ya-t'i kupinduliwa ukatelelezwa mwezi na jua 67. || wokokapo nawe wokoke. Labeka niitishiye || || : 73. derivative wakazunduliwa wd. while the spirit of these stanzas in especial is sensibly foreign to that animating the rest of the Poem. taadabu. Auth. Muungu 71. unnecessarily long-drawn out agony of the " hells " is also an offence against the native taste which on the whole distinguishes poetry dutiful ! of the classical age . " here am I The tedious. . I dutifully respond." Mod. wajua yakini kuwa kamao? Moyo ! || kuwa mahuwa || || . || || || || 69. kongo. Siku ya maini ndani kokeka na p'ingu sabaa kugeuliwa na harara zisikwishie. Ya Rabi niamua nae p'indi mathulumu etapo ondo . || || || 72. . RECENSION Wa wasomao zuo wakihakiki. S.92 62. S. Chinese.=mandak'ozi=kongwa. waliushie. Lebeka. 65. wasirie wot'e 64. wakionya wat'u njema tariki Aimi wa wapi wakazindiwa zituzo-za-mato. 66. 2nd sing. Auth." At this point. wasiza-ngoa || . ukamba. VL. but 73 " probably = stocks" or "pillory.) kuudMka. || || hari || na p'aa za wat'u kuk'watanika yuu la viumbe lisififie Siku ya mabongo kupukutika na mboni za mato kuwakodoka. kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu atahukumu amtozelee amlipie Niamua nae huyu thalimu Jabari ! || || ! || Na malipo yakwe rnthilimiwa si dhahabu t'imbi si ya kufua . || kalamu ya Mola iwapeteo ? an una yako. all conclude and that at its seventieth stanza (see Preliminary Note) the Poem itself would come to a natural and artistic con elusion of the whole matter in the Moslem Ritual word Labeka (pronounced commonly Lebeka) the humble expression by a "Slave" of his submission ( = Islam) to the Almighty 'Allah " Lo. Moyowa warnbae ya wat'u sao. 67S. sipeketeke . || kwa umu wa jua kuk'ukutika 68. wakimbia kupi pa kukushika? mbonya mahalipe nitegeinee. Aso hasanati wala thawabu hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu katukuzwa dhambi za manuhubu akambiwa. || " be found out" Auth." The modern survival is only as "yoke. wenzo moto wa jahimu usikutwae. Haya.

and the result of that (for which I am entirely responsible) is here set before the and in spirit so far reader as being a presentment. and substance of the original. but with nothing to recommend it and make it popular for the European unless indeed he be Christian enough to feel and not Christian " merely say what the Roman said. as is the Equator from the Temperate Zone. the Northern Form. had they not been such missionaries. religion. two forms at the least that now published in and exists this work by Captain Stigand. the other as a poet. of such competence as my the late Bishop Tucker. one suggestion made to me was that I should submit the Translation to a drastic revision. while strange no doubt to the works of our poets." However. and in form suited to the taste and use of the Bantu Moslem of old. of Mid-China . I need hardly as an artist. is still that into which the cadences of the original seemed to my ear most easily to fall. which in : in . of the religious classic of a people removed from our own language. would have been equally well known in other spheres. considering the material submitted to them small natural talent I had dared to attempt the impossible to make acceptable English poetry of a fairly literal translation of : Poem. the one Their opinion. so far as I have been able to effect it. this that is to say. or even of English poetry . that the form. what have was been expected from the candour of say. The Poem as I have said is one of the old time Zingian Classics. indifferently called the Inkishafu) appears with been submitted for examination to two critics It has dear East African friend and Bishop. nihil humani k me alienum puto. form. of the spirit. might with such men. and the Venerable Archdeacon Moule men who.OBSERVATIONS ON THE TEXTS AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE INKISHAFI This attempt to reproduce in English what to the Swahilis of by must indeed have been the solemn stanzas of the centuries gone Inkishafi (also and much diffidence. with this proviso. without offence against the canons of European taste. Homo sum.

while in also been all The Mrima. as is evidenced Jpy the differences While it would between the two Texts published in this volume. founded upon the the great native authorities I have been privileged and consult on these matters. . . obtained in the year 1884. in the the succession two zones in which Swahili has altered use. That the be idle to to know a date. The Recension printed above has been made from a truly excellent text procured by my Arabic copyist Mwalimu Sikujua. Africa in 1493. and English Rather Swahili has itself let alone Swahili has not been exempt. form nor the first-named appears however to be really the original that form must remain for the present a matter of surmise. least. from the exemplars kept in the mosques and read therein on nights when special extra prayers are recited 1 I had the honour to convey to the British Museum.OBSERVATIONS ON 94 many respects was new to me. that its age may be anterior testimony of all The original to the Portuguese discovery of E. and friend Canon made has a translation from a recension my Eawnsley poetical I had made of this with Bishop Steere's valuable original Edition in his Swahili Tales. the more I not per se in my view a very rapidly changing language was not till there set in the present great Epoch of Flux in which all things in heaven and earth are being shaken. and the grammatical forms of which are herein everywhere in use. the son. at its worst it is better preserved and what perhaps has been the greatest bulwark the changes incidental to the lapse of time is the continuous against of the olden literature in the mouths of the people. may well have been entirely in the Kingozi a dialect of the Augustan age of Swahili literature which has ever since supplied the vocabulary of poetry as from a mine. a valuable and perfect MS. and second poet of that name. and from the material I supplied to him for the purpose. is at least of the it Noun Classes. from the very alterations and corruptions to appears which have crept into it. for instance. and the Mombasa Text from Neither this Southern which the present Recension is made. Poems like those of the Utenzi of Liongo Fumo \ and this Inkishafi. have been constantly in in the Zanzibar zone. and popularity than is Zulu till recently of a line of bards whose vigorous strains are comparable to those of the old Greek minor poets. yet fix it has been my opinion. the corruptions have the less in the language from the fact that even there this literature has been conservatively operative. Swahili. original poem is indeed of some considerable age be manifest. of the Poem. And truly. handed on many exceedingly ancient Bantu features in the matter see of it. in which it may be seen.

95 ETC. That copy was made in a script as in which. these prayers constituting a function called kuterewehe (probably = Ar. One remark in conclusion I may make as to the idea of the difficulty of Swahili poetry being any true indication of its age.e. I have several volumes of excellent for poetry in this useful script. where indeed the older forms of speech seem to have lingered longest without corruption. ia^^jj). yet enables one to read into that character by dint of a simple system of additional marks all those sounds which it is so unfitted. Ramadban. while not interfering with the purity of the native use of the Arabic character. Also. about) Liongo is very much harder than the simple gnomic poetry which is attributed to the hero himself.THE TEXTS. Ngozi or Ngovi is the name properly speaking of the dialect which obtained on the strip of territory known by that name.. The Utenzi of (i. It was from this circumstance that these latter have the name of Ki-ngozi. .

were all of the same tribe the Quraish the only tribe indeed from which a lawful Caliph can be chosen. however. < ' . since on this " Fathers " of qualification all the great Mohammedan Authorities. . Then Allah. Caliphs by right divine . those forms to Islam 4. the Ascription. To pray to Thee concerning the Apostle of Thy behests. set duly at the fore. here ! fie. critic. Title see and 8 = Apocalypse. The four Unique Caliphs "Qinana. at fault-finding evermore. The Sultan of Turkey is therefore not such. as . And then write I for . four unique Companions. This word. God. fie. the interpretation of the above doctrine. But the theme is more like that of Ecclesiastes. like as the dawn of day. 'Othman. see next note. Despot Mighty. laud. Taylor. ancestor the Quraish .THE INKISHAFP Or Swahili SPECULUM MUNDI Translated by 1. Amir ul mu'minln= " Commander-of-the-Faithful. link Arrahim. to slur that o'er I chant aloud my orisons in ritual array. And shining like some silver lamp it sheds its limpid ray. E." the title of a true Caliph. And boldly name the Unity each pious Slave attests. 5. Thou Grant er of Requests. . 3 4 See note on 11. Praising The Compassionate. The Act of Tauhld ( = attesting the unity of Moslem. Bakr. no Moslem true his rhyming would essay With Arrahman. supplications their hallowed names combine Recognizing heartily each Islamite Ameer my shall . Abu Mohammed. No Alhamdu crying. Sc. 'twere a real fault) go publish flout and fleer. Bismillak. W.) aye adore. And The So dear. note. is not in the Swahili text. 'Omar." of signifies the possessor of the or Moslem Pope. The Merciful. stands the Preface of my lay (Omitting that. the Islam are agreed. pristine Cinana right offspring of thy line. So Thou cause us read Thee the Interpretation clear. 'All). Great Allah we 2.") (namely. (Copyright by the fame} In Allah's name. ! (Mind ye. tbe Caliph privileges of Apostolic Succession " Successor " of Mohammed. Lest come some carping And 3. 5 Mohammed. But ere my Poem upriseth. 32. Khallfah. Benedictions holy.

To Benisons and solemn Lauds the Faithful have invited. . 'Twixt or Mammon! these the choice else Islam. The World. 7. etc. Shamefastly 9. for thee. Thus finishing the Foreword. Islam. All my heart's fond purpose to men shall I make clear. The world Chock-full of rocks and weedy rack that churn it into yeast. behold the Theme begin With stern self. gloom convicted shall appear. And twine it as in chaplets magnifically wrought. my *heart. dazed ! once be wise ! Or Islam dost thou reckon too huge a sacrifice? for plain enough it thou nothing answerest What. 7 . Till fastened in a carcanet of workmanship outsought Twin ropes 8. by which Apocalypse. front and rear. seest thou not this vain world 'tis perilous e'en to Or tell Speak out use \ of tempting them beware. 10. 11 S. I fear 11. for though he trade his best Loss of all his venture. Nay then. Labyrinth-like mazes it is a troubled Sea. what mean'st thou ? couldst thou but For. Discovering my Theme as here it is indited. though thick the shadows lay So each wretch who to conscience' upbraidings is a prey 10. What. and thus became the official name of the system of Mohammedanism. me. hath he to fear. See the closing note. So broidering my Poem until daintily it trips All threaded as with pearly grains up to the very The INKISHAF I name it. by its false glamour with Mammon it doth sin Fooled by the Fiend's fraud. my heart.THE INKISHAFI 6. Mammon. theoretically and literally means surrender to God. heart. And now that I my 97 Preface have in order meet recited. ! Woe worth the day man trusts to it. as I school my heart within. what ails thee right counsel to refuse? to speak thou knowest and art of age to choose. lit. monition. ! 12. That purpose fond to follow will I weave and weave the thought. From this Poem penitence may reap in godly fear. of seed-pearls secure it. personified as such in the Gospels. that pagan gloom must pale and pass Where Light has shone away In yielding to its radiance. no less. lies : is clear. a tossing billowy waste. sin's tips.

him Or like unto the Mote thou seest a-dancing in the beam. but that on other grounds their genuineness is doubtful. But. and have with curs thy share 20. its development. . Or 'tis as one who passeth near a Well Where some mane-tossing bull goeth of broken rim. This shameless world and thankless will turn on him and Though hiss. The reason for this I think might readily appear in the absence of the mirage as a in the Mombasa where the physical conditions do not favour phenomenon zone. but thou must taste thy bit. This and the two following 16 are not in the Southern Text. mortal. curious trifler.THE INKISHAFI 98 14. what find they? ah. 'tice its nought but air ! us as they shimmer neath the sun makes blazing rays thirsty men to run. suit. Causing mortals misery without or end or peer. and wherein thou hast a part.] Thy fancies and thy follies. feet! All they shall draw thence. As through the narrow casement the sun begins to gleam To reach thy hand and grasp it a light thing would seem it ? Open now thy fingers [16. So did he haply 'scape the first the other would gore Never man the water from thence to sip shall fare.] E'en thus Mirages That pouring down see. Faugh. in by the circles brim. faugh this world is Carrion Mammon's from it store ! then keep thee far ! ! A man may Will nought never fancy. the anguish of despair. Consider. though food for dogs most fit. Heart-breaks and vanity of such is 19. a sorrow and a cheat Then is their drink vexation poor reward for weary . 'Tis these sum up the vain world on which thou setst thy heart.] thinking there is water where water there is none Hasten thither trusting to slake a thirst so sore. Who [17. there's . for one fault indeed it hath and it is this ! : . Vie in vain concupiscence. nought but raging The water they had fancied it. rushing on. with the failure and the smart That hence befall thee. 15. deal one ne'er so prudently in all his business. [18.

no space for penitence all's little ! Nor leave behind your stock-in-trade. though Crying. and I cannot myself remember to have seen the gesture made in Central Africa earnest at any time. span of life. vain to gnaw their fingers and their dear flesh to hack For now the World they canvassed hath played on them its ! trick. 28. Vain. ! 26. Hold thy my by beard peace. Then listen and 111 tell thee. . if so thou be inclined it is Man's life is ! ! but a Candle that In vain wouldst thou relight Puffed out in a moment. vain. I man swear the end . I swear ! 24. We should express it as "gnashing the teeth. swift mouth can open ere man's " ! falls full or ask it upon the breast. not so much as of a coughing one to cough No protest Never mortal summoned thus thereat may make demur. Kievu (mod. ! the foul Fiend bewrayeth thee here Nay. Come. 22. swearing by the beard. but rekindled ne'er . it. deep into the What this is vitals sinks. take your journey hence.THE INKISHAFI 21. ! heart with such experiences wilt thou be not yet wise. kidevu) changu . depart ye 23. I school thee often. your ! no longer linger here. 27. my schooling still despise. it. and forthwith leads them off. with the nails of the bent fingers brought down upon the teeth of the lower jaw. though brightly it had shined ah. 'Tis past. yea. me that thou weariest of such impertinences. tell Yea. And. protest. what business brings him here Then forthwith must my masters ? their sorry persons doff! For enter Kill-joy on the scene. Full a fool many flattereth to it In sucking sweet successes of the Then like remorseless Fish-hooks 99 have attained its meed End he took no heed it hath snared him for his greed Fools they die in gnawing their fingers in despair. a sacred oath 27 is ! with Moslems." The wrist is held to the chin. and without or tongue may make arrest. come. : flickers in the wind. finished. the noose of Death once fast about their neck ! Vain. Thus suddenly the dart of Death And Or " 25. Saying. quotha. protest I am purposed thou shalt in no wise quash What barterest thou that world for this world's paltry trash My . Up. and accordingly a thing very rarely witnessed under the British regime in E. But. I fain would hear ! heart of mine so rash. ! 21 To gnaw the fingers is a way of expressing a man's utter despair. your pride and insolence All ye occupied in whilst here with me.

32 Selemanl is the native pronunciation of Ar. to heed well what I say Then heed me.THE INKISHAFI 100 29. Full many are the gay sparks this world hath seen around. (In Ar. Sulaiman. N. Nor give place to " The Pelted One " to mock at thee for aye. How the Book of Ecclesiastes and the Jewish many interesting parallelisms with Wisdom Literature ! 33 35 See note in S. Heaps of gold and silver had piled them up with care. of old. vita brevis. accordingly the Moslem pilgrims stone a certain This custom has pillar outside Mecca. withhold Yet he by 33. And each in his curt course would moil amidst his cares In busying his brains with Onward moving. . All sparkling and glistering like the noonday in its sheen. 32. For each in his wide world had sought out his affairs. The Pelted. 30 BO called because the good angels are thought to be hurling the 'meteors seen at night upon Satan and his angels as they come playing the eavesdropper at the gates of paradise . for to dare." Explained by the proverbial expression. mighty men of wealth full many hath it seen . . Who storing hoards of ivory and treasuring unseen 35. quenched. And I myself have seen them where now may they be found ? Go. prithee oh. umrl mchache . which the devil is thought to haunt. The limitations presented by the immensity of Literally. eyes Mammon's closed. our Ars longa. Or truly like the fierce Flare the cottar's brushwood makes When midst the forest clearing he has fired the bushy brakes Now plumy clouds up-piling it showers the sooty flakes 'tis Suddenly 30. Shaitani rajimi in Swahili. was. this world's witchery was cozened and befooled Came there then another.B. Reapedst thou its choicest. Yea. heart. Ash shaitanur rajlm). . what couldst from out it bear ? Or readest not how Solomon the Prophet. When he sees that thou too wilt be as Tie is there And then in thy dear world what shouldst thou find of gain ? And what advantage suck thence that thou art for it fain ? No single thing of lasting 'twould bring thee in its train ! 31. Each upon the shelf of his sepulchre so drear 34. " Their world was [too] long and their earth [too] slight. Both mighty King and Magus. mambo makubwa. whose word none might . it would toss him high in air. Recension ad loc. and the pillar shares with the Evil One in this epithet. I ! . the stocks Doom and shares. become part of the ritual of pilgrimage. go no more astray Seek diligently wisdom. its place left black and drear. seek their habitations down deep beneath the ground.

Encircling crystal goblets which they daintily upbear. How To toss they their chins all front of 101 contemptuously on high them and back of them their clients ! company.. home -born. 43. Brilliance 38. All goodly are their couches. Sweet waters and perfumes distil fragrant dew. good soldiers their errands for to bear. in every part complete. And what time. in and out harem doth whisper. Auth. 40. their guards in ranks thereby Line up. 43 This passage is taken by one Mombasa authority (Mwalimu Sikujua) to refer to the beginning of the last long sleep of death in the case of a rich man the corpses even of the poor are "medicated" with at least camphor. The lampstands too are massy. With garnishing that choice is. and beauty are wreathed about them there. 42. : there servitor's prompt shout Gleesomeness and gladness aye gayer and gayer 41. 39. The folds of high curtains do screen them from With canopies airy to o'ershadow them too view.. 37. and the candelabra fine 'Tis true. . And their's the high halls with their arabesques so white. and the narrow confined crib of circumstances are expressed in Ulimwengu wao uli taili (for tawili) na dunia yao ill akali (S. both teak and ebenine. Those halls of arabesques The long-galleried Here voices of the then reecho with the rout. And soft and silky pillows for the head and the feet Broidered are and braided with richness most rare. And everywhere they sit them. attars in addition. The vases that they range And all the sconces there are China's choicest ware filigree. whose bounty is divine With pedestals of rare woods. Sparkling in splendour midst all that bright gear. beyond compare. . Unguents and attars sweet do drip adown their hair". Gleaming in long rows. the universe. soft slumbers they would woo. in art . see under " word pamba in Krapf the rich might have costly unguents and ottoes" or .) Or the line might be freely emended by altering sini to siti as follows : 39 The serving maids be damozels both young and passing fair. their lights trimmed with care. a-weary.THE INKISHAFI 36. Stand forth well-trained handmaidens to fan and to shampoo With odalisques that singing skill to croon and to coo ! Softly lulling lullabies o'er and o'er. Where silvery lamps of crystal or of metal all Make night as bright as day in that refulgent y'dight light . I swear by Allah. their beds are exquisite. the wide world. 73 .

or of filthy coarse baboon . down to the Tomb. green-dove. crib 46. were still extant in the last century. not a voice. 49. Thus far. Now black is each face which had beamed like the Or buff. here gathereth most or Red-dove. Here snoreth the brown owl. selamlik or salamlic is the Turkish or Egyptian reception room for the male guests. Flesh from bone withered like rotten wood is sere. for the Summons forth hath passed Down. it yield a luscious food. "Where corpses be invaded by putrefaction wan Their's the Tomb's straitness. 51 Elaborate pieces of such architecture. In each inner courtyard the beetle it doth boom cricket's chirp rings round the well-corniced room .THE INKISHAFI 102 44. The City that has lodged them. 47 The termite or white ant in Africa plays actually the r61e which the earthworm is supposed to fill in popular imagination at home. To crawling uncleanness they Carousing on their corpses 48. the sense of which is however sufficiently faithfully given. Down. 45. The niches in their rows still with porcelain incrust Do furnish each feathered fowl with a roost : . The Home they had dwelt in. Upshrivelled their skin and their beauty all gone." So. as of bear. 47. The Full strange shrills the sound neath the salamlic's dome Laid in dust the glory midst desolation drear. ! . making ravages rude. These stanzas have had to be considerably toned down from the 46. sun. Wireworms and centipedes coiling have a share. . Their cheeks are breaking down meagre and drear in a cankering ! dew While ghastly corruption doth penetrate through Their mouths and their nostrils make thoroughfares new Each once bright countenance becomes a thing of fear . 47 sombre gruesomeness of the original. But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away. " 50 makumbi ya-nde= the outer chambers. Undisturbed cobweb festooneth 50. to mate and to pair. Finds shelter for fledglings of doves that make moan But of those who had built it. inlaid with lovely old Persian and tiling crockery. . not a tone ! it o'er. that bourne long and last. no higher than a span ! There nevermore on rug nor on carpet lieth man. now empty and lone. . midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier. . the natural history here is correct. findeth them right good With termite and emmet. 51.

it is quite 'Ali bin Nasir. pi. My heart. And undergrowth rank ruder increase will make The darkling doors yawning do cause men to quake. 57. moaning soft in the hall Or preening their feathers the down make to fall Jays and tomtits to their nests make repair. And loud upon them call only echo makes reply . how much more two 'Ali bin Nasirs : not contemporaries 59 kipanga (n. zip-) of the Text may be the specialised form of upangu = sword. mark me well and give heed Haply shall the issue be made unto thee clear. 56. of instruction e'en now thou hast a need. come. tell it forth plain. Each one with a face like a falcon so keen ? All. 59. . ./aicora strangely either is admissible in the translation. Shadowing dimly shapes frightful with fear. Then tell where is Aly the son of old Nasir. . two contemporary Winston Churchills. strain both neck and ! eye. lattice men to cheerSuch be the lodgings they are fain to use there. Ah. Thou know'st not? I'll tell thee. Voice of fellow mortals thou shalt hear nevermore. ! . Nay. Where princely Idarus. And where his great kinsman the Sheikh Abu-Bakr. . lend me thine ear: Each mother's son is gone to that bourne dark and drear. there is the place. and the knight Muhuthar? Whither so far went they? else shew me. Say where are the forbears of whom thou wast born ? Gladly would I greet them and ask how they fare. though no doubt the latter was meant. .THE INKTSHAFI 52. 54. I ween. Then bend low thine ear. But urgent I warn thee and safely I would lead. all. if near? And famed Pate-Yunga's grim warriors. Where never opes window nor 58. wilt not believe me ? dost think it is a lie ? See. to those homes neath the sod have gone in Power and pomp they display nevermore. speak out in thy turn. O'ergrown are the forecourts with bush and with brake. a name still remembered in Pate tradition 58 If possible that there have been two distinguished persons of the same name. 55. 53. man go. 103 Young kestrels go poise on the pegs in the wall The turtles bill and coo. falchion or the bird. for the truth would I learn . Or else have thou thy say.

1 ? . Brother. Potentates and mighty Viziers. Lo. 66. 67. heart's balm to the mercies of the Man can but Ah me. on the day of the Onset thou shalt see Each several wrong action looming forth horribly While each so injured mortal to the Judge bends the knee Crying out for Vengeance on his tyrant who art there ! . and delight Lord you commit are not ye are missed. Thou seest how the Lord hath lit on them with His Pen But know now thyself art as they were found then Or in man's lot hast thou only not a share Oh. crusht down upon the brain a potsherd beneath that Sun's bane. Who dealing with moot points aye settled them true Ne'er lay appeal from what ye pronounced fair ! 63.THE INKISHAFI 104 60. ! . you ! my old comrades. ye 64. Made progress forth faring with guards of soldiers. just Judges. shew 69. Oh. and that sore. plunging upon it Sun and Moon thou shalt see. And And skulls be battered in. Depart from the evil. And each eyeball bulge from its socket right away To what port or roadstead wouldst thou steer then. nor think still to scorn . be thou schooled. up Ne'er o'er their heads to assuage its fell glare. salve for sore eyes. Scorching with a heat to be tempered nevermore. could I but find you ! now all out of sight ! 65. be thyself saved. Yea. What sayest thou. heart. went ye too thither ye Poets of mark and prowess sunk to the same cells of straitness and Ye Bards and Gone ! ? yes. who once. skulls like the dead leaves shall spin in that day. Bethink thee. who judgment would shew All hence be removed to the . ! stress. ! 62. heart? tell thy thoughts of these men. hastens the Day when sub versed Earth shall be. And the learn'd in the Law all concur in your view. ! . What. to the right ways return If saved be thy friends. me whither I I pray? too there would steer. dried like 68. And And the seven Heavens o'erturned in chaos horribly . nor burn Evermore fuel for Jehannam's fierce fire. ! Tomb on your biers Bands of dread death do encompass you there And ye too. Ye too. On that day men's midriffs shall burn them in pain. "Whealed your poor backs by the boards of the bier 61.

Labeka Here am I " is the " " or " submissive one can make of the best sign that a Moslem a "yielded Submission he professes to the claims of God on his conscience. nor given free. The man who nor merit nor deserts can make to pass. were it nugget or artfully inwrought Of silver they will none. One of the 99 Moslem names of God on the Rosary or tasbih. nor bought . In judgment that harder than any iron is !" Then straightway to avenge them th' O'erpowering One* will rise.THE INKISHAFI 70. Text is accordingly a bathos. in the S. my heart. Not of gold. . oh beware that hell of pain Is saddled with their sins Bidden. See the note ad loc. Wreaking on thee vengeance and judgment austere And Recompense also for each victim shall be sought. Piecension. 105 "Grant vengeance at length. make Submission with: Lebeka I am here! Promptly sith that . 70 73 ' ' ! ! TAMATI. He now but to threaten them doth deign. In the word Labeka (now pronounced commonly Lebeka) the Poem comes to the conclusion of the whole matter. ! 71. Merit's stamp alone findeth currency there. Up and carry what they had else to bear Then lastly. ) hells which follows in the present N. Lord. 72. 73. it is just here that Moslem doctrine stops (There is no possible assurance of forgiveness The elaboration of the various Mohammedan of sin consistent with Justice. All bitted he and bridled like a horse or an ass whom his did harass. on all his tyrannies. Wherein are stored the stocks and the And fetters ! and the chain . so that here we see that which it is the aim of the whole Poem to induce but alas.


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