Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY-BANGLADESH (AIUB)

Faculty of Engineering

EEE3216 Electronics Appliances

Experiment No.: 01
Name of the Experiment:

Introduction to Radio Communication


Theory:
Introduction
Radio communication was made by radio waves which are electromagnetic waves like light
waves. These radio waves travel in space with the speed of light which is 31010 cm/s.
The radio waves get attenuated or weakened as they travel out in space, partly due to the
absorption of their energy by reflection and refraction in the ionosphere, partly by the ground
and partly by other objects.
The propagation characteristics of radio waves of different frequencies mainly decide the
use to which these waves can be put to for communication purposes. Radio waves are
accordingly been divided into various categories or classes with regard to their frequencies
and propagation characteristics.

Table 1: Classification of radio waves and their propagation characteristics


Class

Frequency range

Propagation characteristics and typical


uses

Very Low
Frequency (VLF)

10 to 30 kHz

Low Frequency
(LF)
Medium
Frequency (MF)

30 to 300 kHz

High Frequency
(HF)

3 to 30 MHz

Very High
Frequency (VHF)

30 to 300 MHz

Ultra High
Frequency (UHF)
Super High
Frequency (SHF)

300 to 3000 MHz

Low attenuation and propagation characteristics


reliable all day used for long distance
communication
Day time absorption more than VLF used for
marine communication and navigation aids
High attenuation during day and less attenuation
at night suitable for broadcasting and marine
communication
Propagation characteristics vary with time of day,
season and frequency used for long distance
communication
Line of sight propagation, not affected by
ionosphere used for television, FM transmission,
radar etc.
Line of sight propagation used for television and
short distance communication
The same as UHF

300 to 3000 kHz

3000 to 30000 MHz

Modulation
Radio waves are only silent carriers and convey no messages unless some of their
characteristics are changed in accordance with the information to be transmitted. The
method by which some feature of the radio wave, also known as the carrier wave, is varied
in accordance with the information to be transmitted is called Modulation. Two important
methods of modulation are- Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM)

Amplitude Modulation (AM)


In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the radiated carrier wave is varied in accordance
with the variations of amplitude of the modulating AF wave as shown in Fig 1.1.

t
(a) RF carrier wave

(b) AF modulating signal


(c) RF amplitude modulated carrier wave

Fig (1.1) Amplitude modulation


Amplitude modulation is used in radio broadcasting and radio telephony, where the carrier
wave amplitude is modified according to the strength of audio signal produced by sound
pressure variations on the microphone.
m(t)

mp

(a)

-mp

Ac + m(t) < 0, for sometime

Ac + m(t) > 0, for all t

Ac

Ac

(c)

(b)
Envelop Ac + m(t)

Envelop | Ac + m(t) |

(e)

(d)
Fig (1.2) AM signal and its envelope

Mathematical analysis of Amplitude Modulation


Let the m(t) and c(t) be the modulating signal and carrier signal respectively. Let the carrier
signal be given by the expression,
c(t) = AC cos Ct

------------------------------- 1.1

Then the amplitude modulated signal SAM(t) is given bySAM(t) = [AC + m(t)] cos Ct

= AC cos Ct + m(t) cos Ct

---------------------------1.2

Two cases are considered in the Fig 1.2. In the first case, AC is large enough so that AC +
m(t) 0 (is non-negative) for all values of t. In the second case, AC is not large enough to
satisfy this condition. In the first case, the envelope has the same shape as m(t) (although
riding on a dc of magnitude AC). In the second case, the envelope shape is not m(t) because
some parts get rectified. This means we can detect the desire signal m(t) by detecting the
envelope in the first case. Such detection is not possible in the second case. We know that
the envelope detection is an extremely simple and inexpensive operation, which does not
require generation of a local carrier for the demodulation. But as seen above the envelope of
AM has the information about m(t) only if the AM signal [AC + m(t)] cos Ct satisfy the
condition AC + m(t) 0 (is non-negative) for all values of t.
Let mp the peak amplitude (positive or negative) of m(t). Hence the condition is equivalent to
AC mp

-------------------------------------------------1.3

Thus the minimum amplitude required for the viability of envelope detection is mp. This is
quite clear from Fig 1.2.
We define the modulation index or modulation factor or depth of modulation as
= mp /AC

-------------------------------------------- 1.4

where AC is the carrier amplitude. Note that mp is a constant for the signal m(t). As
AC mp, we found that
01
-----------------------------------------1.5
as the required condition for the viability of demodulation of AM by an envelope detector.
When AC < mp, equation 1.4 shows that > 1 (overmodulation). In this case, the option of
envelope detection is no longer viable. We then need to use synchronous demodulation.
Note that synchronous demodulation can be used for any value of . The envelope detector,
which is considerably simpler and less expensive than the synchronous detector, can be
used only for 1.
Tone Modulation
If the modulating signal contains only a single frequency, then the modulation will be known
as Tone Modulation.
In this case, let the modulating signal m(t) is expressed as
m(t) = Am cos mt

------------------------------------------------ 1.6

In the Fig 1.3 the tone modulated AM is shown.

m(t)=Amcosmt

c(t)=ACcos Ct

Am

AC

(a)

(b)

Vmax

AC/2=Am
AC

Vmin

t
=0.5]

AC+Am

(c)

AC=Am
AC
t

=1]
(d)
Fig (1.3) Tone modulated AM (c) = 0.5 (d) =1
In this case, mp = Am and the modulation index according to equation 1.4 is
= Am /AC
-------------------------------------- 1.7
From figure 1.3 (c), Vmax = AC + Am ----------------------------------- 1.8
And, Vmin = AC - Am -------------------------------------- 1.9
So, AC = (Vmax + Vmin)/2 -------------------------------------------------- 1.10
And, Am = (Vmax Vmin)/2 ------------------------------------------------- 1.11
So, from equation 1.7, we find =
Now from equation 1.7, Am = AC

Vmax Vmin
--------------------- 1.12
Vmax Vmin

-----------------------------------------------1.13

Then from equation 1.2, we found


SAM(t) = [AC + m(t)] cos Ct

= [AC + Am cos mt] cos Ct

=[AC + AC cos mt] cos Ct = AC [ 1 + cos mt] cos Ct


Sidebands produced in Tone Modulated AM
Equation 1.14 can be expanded in the following form,
SAM(t) = AC cos Ct + AC cos mt cos Ct

------------ 1.14

= AC cos Ct +

= AC cos Ct +

AC
2

AC
2

(2 cos mt cos Ct)

cos (C + m)t +

AC
2

cos (C - m)t

---------1.15

Equation 1.15 reveals that sinusoidal carrier signal on being amplitude modulated by a
single sinusoidal modulating signal consists of the following frequency terms:
1) Original carrier signal AC cos Ct of angular frequency C.

AC

2) Upper sideband term

cos (C + m)t of angular frequency (C + m).

2
AC
3) Lower sideband term
cos (C - m)t of angular frequency (C - m).
2

The lower sideband term and the upper sideband term are located in frequency spectrum on
either of the carrier at a frequency interval of m as shown in Fig 1.4, the magnitude of both
the upper and lower sidebands is

AC
2

Amplitude

Carrier

Lower sideband

AC

Upper sideband

( AC )/2
0

(AC)/2

( C - m)

C ( C+ m)

Fig (1.4) Plot of frequency spectrum of AM signal

Amplitude

Amplitude modulation thus shifts the intelligence (modulating or message signal) from audio
frequency level to the level of frequency C. Also the intelligence appear in the form of two
sidebands symmetrically placed relative to the carrier frequency C. Each of these
sidebands carries the complete intelligence originally contained in the signal before
modulation. The intelligence occurs twice in an amplitude modulated carrier.

Carrier
Modulating
signal M()

Lower sideband A
c

(C 2)

Upper sideband

(C 1) (C + 1) (C + 2)

Fig (1.5) Frequency spectrum of complex modulating and modulated signal

Normally the modulating signal consists of a band of frequencies of different amplitudes and
phases as shown in Fig 1.5. Each frequency term in this modulating signal produces, on
modulation, a pair of sideband terms. The entire modulating signal then produces two
sidebands symmetrically disposed about the carrier as shown in Fig 1.5. Here 1 and 2 are
the lowest and highest frequencies in the modulating signal.
Power Relations
Carrier power, PC is given by2

PC

2
Vcarrier
R

AC

A2
2

C ---------------------------- 1.16
R
2R

Similarly, the upper sideband power, PUSB and lower sideband power, PLSB are

AC
V
2 1

R
2 R

2 2
2
AC AC 2

------------------------- 1.17
8R
2R 4
2

PUSB PLSB

2
LSB

Total Power, PT is given by, PT = PC + PUSB + PLSB

AC2 AC2 2 AC2 2 AC2


2

2R 2R 4 2R 4 2R
2

2
PT PC 1
------------------------------------------- 1.18
2

PT

Efficiency, is given by the useful (sideband) power divided by the total power. So,

PUSB PLSB
PT

AC2 2 AC2 2

2
R
4
2
R
4

2
2
AC

1

2R
2

2
2

2
--------------------------- 1.19
2 2

Amplitude Modulated (AM) Transmitters


Amplitude Modulated (AM) transmitters are mostly used for the broadcast of speech or
music. These transmitters either operate on the broadcast band (535 1605 kHz) or
medium wave band and provide steady service over a limited range. When used for long
distance transmissions such as overseas broadcasts, these transmitters operate on higher
frequencies between 3 and 30 MHz and known as HF transmitters or short-wave (SW)
transmitters. Figure 1.7 is a block diagram of an AM transmitter.
An AM transmitter can be divided into two main parts or chains.
Radio Frequency (RF) Chain: The RF chain consists of circuits connected with the
production of RF carrier power of the desired wavelength, i.e. 1 kW, 10 kW, 100 kW and so
on. The required frequency is generated at a low power level by a stable oscillator, ordinarily
a crystal oscillator. This is followed by a chain of class C amplifiers that raises the RF power
to a level sufficient to drive the final output power amplifier which is also a class C amplifier.
A buffer amplifier is generally inserted between the oscillator stage and the first class C
intermediate amplifier to isolate the oscillator from the following stages, thereby avoiding any
changes in the oscillator frequency due variations in the loading and coupling circuits of the
power amplifier stage.
When the frequency to be radiated is higher than that can be obtained directly from a
crystal oscillator, harmonic generators or frequency multipliers are used in the class C chain.
An arrangement for producing steady and stable oscillator frequencies is called the master
oscillator. The master oscillator is capable of producing frequencies that can cover the
various frequency bands and conform to the internationally accepted standards of frequency
deviation. Thus the RF chain in an AM transmitter normally consists of master oscillator,
buffer amplifier, multipliers and class C amplifiers for producing RF voltages of sufficient
amplitude to drive the final class C amplifier.
Modulation Chain: In this chain, audio frequency (AF) signals produced by the
microphone in broadcasting studios are amplified in different stages of amplification and
made sufficiently powerful to be able to modulate the class C power amplifier to the required
degree of modulation.
The modulation voltage can either be injected into the final power amplifier directly or
into any of the earlier class C stages. When the final RF power amplifier is modulated by the
audio signal, the system of modulation is called high level modulation. Modulation in any
other earlier stage is known as low level modulation. Figure 1.6 is a block diagram of a high
level broadcast transmitter.
TRANSMITTING
ANTENNA

CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR

RF BUFFER
AMPLIFIER

RF
INTERMEDIATE
AMPLIFIER

AF
AMPLIFIER

MODULATOR

RF OUTPUT
POWER
AMPLIFIER

MICROPHONE

SOUND
SOURCE

Fig (1.6) Block Diagram of a high level transmitter

Frequency Modulation
Frequency modulation consists in varying the frequency of the carrier signal in accordance
with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.
Thus the amplitude of the carrier does not change due to frequency modulation. This is an
advantage since any incidental disturbance such as atmospheric disturbance appears in the
form of variations of amplitude of the carrier and may be eliminated in the frequency
modulation receiver which is made insensitive to amplitude variations.
If the modulating signal is m(t) and the carrier is ACcosCt, then the frequency modulated
signal SFM (t) can be expressed as,
t

SFM (t ) AC cos C t kf m( )d --------------------------------- 1.20

where kf is a proportionality constant. [The mathematical derivation of equation 1.20 is not


important for this course]

c(t)
t

(a)
m(t)
t

(b)
SFM(t)
t

(c)
Fig (1.7) (a) Carrier signal (b) Modulating signal (c) Modulated siganal

Comparison between Amplitude and Frequency Modulation


The frequency modulation has the following advantages:
1. In FM, all transmitted power is useful whereas in AM, most of the power is carrier
which does not contain any information.
2. In FM, there is a large decrease in noise and hence increases in signal-to-noise ratio.
This result from the following two reasons: (a) there is less noise at carrier
frequencies at which FM is used (typically VHF and UHF) and (b) FM receivers can
use amplitude limiters to remove all amplitude variations caused by noise.
3. In FM, noise may be further reduced by increasing deviation. AM does not posses
this feature.
4. International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) allows for a guard band between
commercial FM stations. Thus there is less adjacent channel interference than in AM.
5. Since FM broadcast takes place in the VHF and UHF ranges, the propagation used
is space wave propagation. The radius of operation is limited to slightly more than the
line of sight (LOS). This permits use of several independent FM transmitters on the
same frequency with negligible interference. This is not possible in AM.
The following are the disadvantages of FM:
1. A much width channel, typically 200 kHz, is needed in FM as against only 10 kHz in
AM broadcast. This forms serious limitations of FM.
2. FM transmitting and receiving equipments for modulation and demodulation tend to
be more complex and hence costly.
3. FM mobile communication is difficult over a wide area due to its carrier frequencies
are in VHF and UHF ranges.

Need for Modulation


For efficient radiation and reception, the transmitting antennas should have heights
comparable to quarter wavelength of the frequency used. The modulating signal in AM radio
broadcast extends over frequency range 0 to 5 kHz. As the speed of the electromagnetic
wave is 3 108 m/s. So, for 5 kHz, the wavelength is (3108)/(5000) = 15,000 meters. A
vertical antenna of such a height is unthinkable. But if the frequency is increased, after
modulation, to say about 1 MHz, the required antenna height will be 75 meters. The height of
antenna in this case is more realistic.
Again, we know that the frequency range of audio signal is normally from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. If
there are several stations operating over this same frequency range, the programs of
different stations will get mixed up. Using modulation technique, this problem can be solved.

American International University- Bangladesh (AIUB)


Faculty of Engineering
EEE 3216: Electronic Shop Sessional

Experiment No.: 02
Name of the Experiment: Study of Radio Receivers
Functions of a Radio Receiver
A radio receiver is required to perform three main functions. These are:
1. Selection of the desired frequency from a large number of modulated carrier frequencies
that strike the receiving antenna at one and the same time.
2. Separation of the audio frequency from the modulated carrier frequency by a process of
detection or demodulation.
3. Conversion of AF currents into sound waves that can be easily heard by the human ear.
In addition to the fundamental requirements mentioned above, a radio receiver also contains
circuits for RF amplification, frequency conversion and AF amplification. Based on these
considerations, the main functions of a radio receiver can be indicated by means of a block
diagram of the type shown in Fig. 2.1. The block diagram also indicates the waveform of the
radio waves as they pass through different stages of radio receivers.

ANTENNA

SELECTION

RF
AMPLIFICATION

DETECTION

AF
AMPLIFICATION

SOUND
SPEAKER

Fig (2.1) Block diagram of a simple receiver

AM and FM Receivers
Two methods of modulation used in radio broadcasts are amplitude modulation (AM) and
frequency modulation (FM). A receiver meant to receive amplitude modulated waves is known
as an AM receiver and a receiver designed for the reception of frequency modulated waves is
known as an FM receiver. The circuits used in these two types of receivers are not similar. In
Bangladesh and India, the radio stations use mainly amplitude modulation for their radio
broadcasts. As such, all domestic broadcast receivers in use are of the AM type.
Both AM and FM are used by TV stations. The picture signals from a TV transmitter are
amplitude modulated and the sound signals are frequency modulated. So, both the AM and FM
receivers are the parts of TV receivers.

Characteristics of a Receiver
There are three main characteristics by which the quality of a receiver can be judged. These are
selectivity, sensitivity and fidelity. These are also known as the performance characteristics or
the specifications of a receiver.

Selectivity

MILIVOLTS

Selectivity of a receiver is its ability to select a desired signal frequency without any
objectionable interference from other neighboring stations. A good selective receiver will select
the desired station and reject all other unwanted stations. The selectivity is generally expressed
in the form of a curve shown in Fig. 2.2. In this curve, the strength of the input signal at the
resonant frequency required to produce a given output is taken as the reference and the
strength of the modulated carrier at neighboring frequencies required to produce the same
output is plotted on the vertical axis. The sharper the selectivity curve, the more selective a
receiver is.

-20

-10

0 +10 +20

kHz OFF RESONANCE

Fig (2.2) Selectivity curve


The selectivity of a receiver increases with the number of tuned RF stages in the circuit. A very
selective receiver allows only a limited band of frequencies to pass through. As such, many of
the sidebands do not appear in the output and the quality of reproduction of the receiver suffers.

Sensitivity
Sensitivity of a receiver is its ability to respond to weak signals. This is expressed as the
minimum voltage or power that must be applied to the input of the receiver for getting a
standard output of 0.5W in the loudspeaker.

SENSITIVITY IN
MICROVOLTS

20

10

400

1000

1600

FREQUENCY IN kHz

Fig (2.3) Sensitivity curve for a standard broadcast receiver

The sensitivity of a receiver is expressed in microvolts. The smaller the input in microvolts the
greater is the sensitivity of a receiver. A high grade broadcast receiver will have a sensitivity of
less than 10 V. The sensitivity curve for a standard broadcast receiver is shown in Fig. 2.3.

Fidelity

10000

5000

2000

1000

500

100

50

RELATIVE OUTPUTS

Fidelity is the ability of a receiver to reproduce faithfully all the audio frequencies with which the
carrier is modulated. This is generally expressed as a frequency response curve shown in Fig.
2.4.

MODULATION FREQUENCY IN Hz

Fig (2.4) Fidelity curve


The fidelity of a broadcast receiver mainly depends on the response of the audio stage but the
tuned RF stages also limit the response of the receiver by not allowing the higher sidebands to
be reproduced properly. Selectivity and fidelity in a receiver are opposed to each other. Modern
broadcast receivers are capable of reproducing properly all modulation frequencies from 30 Hz
to about 8 kHz. However, the international regulations do not allow a bandwidth more than 5 or
6 kHz for broadcast purposes.
The noise level of a receiver is another important characteristic particularly at shortwave bands.
Noise produced in the receiver by its own circuits should be sufficiently low so that even the
weakest signals received can suppress this noise.

Types of AM Receivers
Two most important types of radio receivers are TRF Receiver and Superheterodyne Receiver.

TRF Receiver
The invention of vacuum tubes or radio valves made it possible to amplify the detected audio
frequencies to drive a loudspeaker. With the development of RF amplification techniques, it was
possible to add one or two stages of RF amplification before detection so that a sufficiently
strong RF signal could be delivered for detection by the diode. Thus, with RF amplification
before detection and AF amplification after detection, a new type of receiver known as the TRF
(Tuned Radio Frequency) receiver came into existence. A TRF was the first practical type of
receiver to be designed and constructed. A block diagram of a TRF receiver together with the
waveform of the signals at different stages in the receiver is given in Fig. 2.5.
A TRF receiver tends to be selective and its fidelity is not so good. Also, the sensitivity of a TRF
receiver varies with the received frequency. In spite of this, a TRF receiver still finds good use in
many practical applications in the field of radio communication.

ANTENNA

SOUND
RF
AMPLIFIER
1

RF
AMPLIFIER
2

DETECTOR

AF
AMPLIFIER
1

AF
AMPLIFIER
2

SPEAKER

Fig (2.5) Block diagram of a TRF receiver


However, the TRF receiver has been largely replaced by the modern superheterodyne receiver
which posses many advantages over all other types of radio receivers.

Superheterodyne Receiver
A superheterodyne receiver is the most popular type of radio receiver. The block diagram of a
superheterodyne receiver is given in Fig. 2.6. A brief description of the functions of each block is
given below-

ANTENNA

SOUND
RF
AMPLIFIER

FREQUENCY
MIXER

IF
AMPLIFIER

DETECTOR

AF
VOLTAGE
& POWER
AMPLIFIER

SPEAKER

LOCAL
OSCILLATOR

Fig (2.6) Block diagram of a Superheterodyne receiver


The antenna picks up the modulated carrier signals of all stations which are within the receiving
range of the radio receiver. A tuned circuit in the RF stage selects only the desired modulated
carrier signal and rejects all other signals.
The selected signal is amplified by the RF amplifier stage before it is applied to the mixer stage.
Most broadcast receivers, however, do not have this RF amplifier stage.
In the mixer stage, the incoming signal frequency is converted into a new fixed frequency by the
mixing or beating of this frequency with an unmodulated frequency produced by a local
oscillator. This new fixed frequency, which is the difference of the frequency produced by the
local oscillator and the incoming modulated signal frequency, is called the intermediate
frequency or IF. Its value is fixed at 455 kHz for almost all broadcast receivers. Thus the
frequency generated by the local oscillator is always 455 kHz above the frequency of the station
selected by the RF stage. In fact, the main advantage of a superheterodyne receiver lies in

having a fixed IF. It is much easier to design RF amplifiers for a fixed IF than to design RF
amplifiers for amplification of a whole band of frequencies as in the case of a TRF receiver.
The IF of 455 kHz which contains all the modulation of the carrier, is suitably amplified by a
fixed-tuned amplifier called the IF amplifier. It is then fed on to the detector stage.
The detector stage separates the audio component from the modulated IF which is bypassed to
ground. The audio frequencies so recovered are applied to the audio stage for amplification.
This detector is also known as second detector the first detector being the mixer stage.
The audio amplifier stage generally consists of two audio amplifiers. The first amplifier is a
voltage amplifier and the second stage is a power amplifier, which develops sufficient power to
drive a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker converts the electrical audio frequencies into sound
waves of corresponding frequencies.

Types of Detector or Demodulator


Two types1. Asynchronous or Envelope or Diode Detector
2. Synchronous Detector

1. Asynchronous Detector
The block diagram of an asynchronous detector, with the waveform of the signals at different
stages, is given in Fig. 2.7. The negative portion of the amplified RF signals is first rectified by
the diode detector. Then the high frequency is eliminated from the signal after passing through a
low pass filter (LPF). The resultant signal is then passed through the AF amplifier stage. This
detector is asynchronous because there is no need of generating the carrier signal at the
receiver end. Here only the envelope of the modulated signal is detected. So, this is also called
envelope detector.

RF (IF)
AMPLIFIER

DIODE
RECTIFIER

LOW PASS
FILTER
(LPF)

AF
AMPLIFIER

DETECTION STAGE

Fig (2.7) Asynchronous detector

2. Synchronous Detector
If the modulating signal contains negative value, then asynchronous detection can only be
possible, when a fixed dc value is added to the modulating signal. This results in an extra carrier
signal to be transmitted. To avoid this problem, synchronous detection is used. But it requires
generating the exact carrier in the receiving end which may be costly and complex. Its principle
of operation can be realized by the following mathematical analysis.

Modulated Signal, SAM(t) = m(t) cos Ct --------------------------------- 2.1


If we multiply cos Ct with SAM(t), we find
SAM(t) = m(t) cos2 Ct
= [ m(t) { 1 + cos 2Ct}]
= m(t) + m(t) cos 2Ct ---------------------------------------2.2
So, if we can cut out the second high frequency term from the equation 2.2, we can extract the
original modulating signal.
The block diagram of an asynchronous detector is given in Fig. 2.8.
1
2

1
2

m(t) +

m(t)cos2Ct

m(t)cosCt

1
2

m(t)

multiplier
LOW PASS
FILTER
(LPF)

RF (IF)
AMPLIFIER

AF
AMPLIFIER

cosCt
LOCAL
OSCILLATOR

Fig (2.8) Synchronous detector

FM Receivers
Two most important FM receivers are Envelope Detected FM Receivers and PLL Detected FM
Receivers.

Envelope Detected FM Receivers


We can express the frequency modulated signal SFM(t) ast

SFM (t ) AC cos C t kf m( )d -----------------------------------2.3

As the envelope of SFM(t) does not contain any information about the modulating signal,
envelope detection is not possible. But if we differentiate equation 2.3 we find,
t

AC cos C t kf m( )d

AC C kf m(t ) sin C t kf m( )d -------------------- 2.4

d
S FM (t )
dt
'

The envelope of the equation 2.4 is AC

C kf m(t ) , which contains the modulating signal

m(t). So, in this case the envelope detection is possible.

The amplitude of the frequency modulated signal may vary accordance with the
disturbances. So, AC may not be constant. It may be a function of t, i.e. A C(t). This
amplitude variation can be eliminated by using a hard limiter and a bandpass filter. So,
the combined block diagram of Envelope Detected FM Receiver along with the signals
in each stage is given in Fig. 2.9.

ANTENNA

RF
AMPLI
FIER

HARD
LIMITER

BAND
PASS
FILTER
(BPF)

d
dt

DIODE
RECTIFI
ER

LOW
PASS
FILTER
(LPF)

AF
VOLTAGE
AND
POWER
AMPLIFIER

SOUND

SPEAKER

Fig (2.9) Block diagram of a envelope detected FM receiver

PLL (Phase-Locked Loop) detected FM Receivers


Because of their low cost and superior performance, especially when the SNR is low,
FM demodulation using PLL is the most widely used method today.
A PLL has three basic components:
1. A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)
2. A multiplier, serving as a phase detector (PD) or a phase comparator.
3. A loop filter.
The operation of the PLL is similar to that of a feedback system (Fig. 1.10). In a typical
feedback system, the signal fed back tends to follow the input signal. If the signal fed
back is not equal to the input signal, the difference (known as error) will change the
signal fed back until it is close to the input signal. A PLL operates on a similar principle,
except that the quantity fed back and compared is not the amplitude, but the phase. The
VCO adjusts its own frequency until it is equal to that of the input signal. At this point,
the frequency and the phase of the two signals are in synchronism. The output error
signal will be proportional to the modulating signal. The block diagram of Envelope
Detected FM Receiver along with the signals in each stage is given in Fig. 2.11.

multiplier
LOOP
FILTER

A sin[Ct + i(t)]

B cos[Ct + o(t)]

eo(t) m(t)

VOLTAGE
CONTROLLED
OSCILLATOR
(VCO)

Fig (2.10) Phase Locked Loop (PLL) system or PLL detector

ANTENNA

SOUND
RF
AMPLIFIER

PLL
DETECTOR

AF
AMPLIFIER

SPEAKER

Fig (2.11) PLL detected FM receiver