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Qualitative Research

Objective /


To gain an
understanding of
underlying reasons
and motivations
To provide insights
into the setting of a
problem, generating
ideas and/or
hypotheses for later
quantitative research
To uncover prevalent
trends in thought and

Quantitative Research

To quantify data and generalize

results from a sample to the
population of interest
To measure the incidence of
various views and opinions in a
chosen sample
Sometimes followed by qualitative
research which is used to explore
some findings further


Usually a small number of

non-representative cases.
Respondents selected to
fulfil a given quota.

Usually a large number of cases

representing the population of interest.
Randomly selected respondents.


Unstructured or semistructured techniques e.g.

individual depth interviews
or group discussions.

Structured techniques such as online

questionnaires, on-street or telephone



Statistical data is usually in the form of

tabulations (tabs). Findings are
conclusive and usually descriptive in

Exploratory and/or
investigative. Findings are
not conclusive and cannot
be used to make
generalizations about the
population of interest.
Develop an initial
understanding and sound
base for further decision

Used to recommend a final course of




Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of

underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to
develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research. Qualitative Research is also
used to uncover trends in thought and opinions, and dive deeper into the problem. Qualitative

data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. Some common
methods include focus groups (group discussions), individual interviews, and
participation/observations. The sample size is typically small, and respondents are selected to
fulfill a given quota.
Quantitative Research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or
data that can be transformed into useable statistics. It is used to quantify attitudes, opinions,
behaviors, and other defined variables and generalize results from a larger sample population.
Quantitative Research uses measurable data to formulate facts and uncover patterns in
research. Quantitative data collection methods are much more structured than Qualitative data
collection methods. Quantitative data collection methods include various forms of surveys
online surveys, paper surveys, mobile surveys and kiosk surveys, face-to-face
interviews, telephone interviews, longitudinal studies, website interceptors, online polls, and
systematic observations.
Ethics in Research
The following is a rough and general summary of some ethical principals that various codes address*:
Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods
and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do
not deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public.
Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review,
personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where
objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose
personal or financial interests that may affect research.
Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and
Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the
work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection,
research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.
Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.
Respect for Intellectual Property
Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished
data, methods, or results without permission. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for all
contributions to research. Never plagiarize.

Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication,

personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.
Responsible Publication
Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career.
Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
Responsible Mentoring
Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to
make their own decisions.
Respect for colleagues
Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly.
Social Responsibility
Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public
education, and advocacy.
Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or
other factors not related to scientific competence and integrity.
Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong
education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole.
Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.
Animal Care
Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Do not conduct
unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments.
Human Subjects Protection
When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize
benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with
vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly.

Importance of Research
It is a reflection of respect for those who take part in research
It ensures no unreasonable, unsafe or thoughtless demands are made by
It ensures sufficient knowledge is shared by all concerned
It imposes a common standard in all the above respects
It has become the norm as an expectation for research activity

. a professional requirement for practitioners in some disciplines e.g.

a requirement for access to participants in others e.g. health
and a requirement to comply with external REFs to obtain funding e.g.